Science.gov

Sample records for carmine organic dyes

  1. Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-09-01

    An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials--bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste--have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too.

  3. Rice husk ash as an effective adsorbent: evaluation of adsorptive characteristics for Indigo Carmine dye.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Uma R; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mall, Indra Deo; Lataye, Dilip H

    2009-02-01

    Present study explored the adsorptive characteristics of Indigo Carmine (IC) dye from aqueous solution onto rice husk ash (RHA). Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of parameters like initial pH (pH(0)), contact time (t), adsorbent dose (m) and initial concentration (C(0)) on the removal of IC. The optimum conditions were found to be: pH(0)=5.4, t=8h and m=10.0 g/l. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model represented the adsorption kinetics of IC on to RHA. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson models using a non-linear regression technique. Adsorption of IC on RHA was favorably influenced by an increase in the temperature of the operation. The positive values of the change in entropy (DeltaS(0)) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH(0)); and the negative value of change in Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(0)) indicate feasible and spontaneous adsorption of IC on to RHA.

  4. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine dye in Moroccan natural phosphate-TiO2 aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naciri, Nouâma; Farahi, Abdelfettah; Rafqah, Salah; Nasrellah, Hamid; El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim; Lançar, IbnToumaret; Bakasse, Mina

    2016-02-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a significant green technology for application in water purification. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of NP-TiO2 based on Moroccan natural phosphate (NP) doped by titanium dioxide TiO2 was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine (IC) dye in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under UV light. The NP-TiO2 catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR and surface area. The effect of the calcination temperature of NP-TiO2, catalyst concentration, initial concentration of the IC, initial pH, initial hydrogen peroxide H2O2 concentration and coexisting ions on the photocatalytic decolorization of IC was investigated. The NP-TiO2 showed a significantly higher rate of degradation of IC, when compared to TiO2. After 125 min of irradiation using a low intensity of UV-lamp (15 W ∗ 3 lamps = 45 W), 99% of IC solution (20 mg L-1) was decolorized with 0.5 g L-1 of the NP-TiO2 calcined at 600 °C at pH = 11. Therefore, this process can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using sunlight.

  5. An efficient adsorption of indigo carmine dye from aqueous solution on mesoporous Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide nanoparticles prepared by controlled sol-gel route.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M A; Brick, A A; Mohamed, A A

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for removal of indigo carmine blue (IC) dye which is extensively used in jeans manufacture was successfully performed on novel mesoporous [LDH] nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel route using CTAB as shape and pore directing agent. The physicochemical features were monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infra-red (FTIR), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, Field emission electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The influence of reaction parameters affecting dye adsorption including contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Textural analysis and HRTEM images indicate the existence of mesoporous spherical nanoparticles of size = 26 nm connected to each other's and embedded large numbers of mesopores of average pore radius = 43.5 Å. A successful adsorption of IC on LDH nanoparticles of surface area = 85.6 m(2)/g at various pH with maximum adsorption capacity = 62.8 mg/g at pH = 9.5. Langmuir model is more favorable to describe the adsorption of IC rather than Freundlich model which reflecting the preferential formation of monolayer on the surface of LDH. Both film diffusion and the intraparticle diffusion affect the dye adsorption. The values of enthalpy change (ΔH) for and (ΔS) are + 28.18 and + 0.118 kJ/mol, respectively indicating that the removal process is endothermic. The results indicated that LDH nanoparticles conserved a good activity even after five consecutive cycles of reuse. Our results suggest that mesoporous LDH nanoparticles are considered a potential novel adsorbent for remediation of wastewater containing IC.

  6. Arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao; Chen, Jun

    2013-04-21

    Arylamine organic dyes with donor (D), π-bridge (π) and acceptor (A) moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received great attention in the last decade because of their high molar absorption coefficient, low cost and structural variety. In the early stages, the efficiency of DSCs with arylamine organic dyes with D-π-A character was far behind that of DSCs with ruthenium(II) complexes partly due to the lack of information about the relationship between the chemical structures and the photovoltaic performance. However, exciting progress has been recently made, and power conversion efficiencies over 10% were obtained for DSCs with arylamine organic dyes. It is thus that the recent research and development in the field of arylamine organic dyes employing an iodide/triiodide redox couple or polypyridyl cobalt redox shuttles as the electrolytes for either DSCs or solid-state DSCs has been summarized. The cell performance of the arylamine organic dyes are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of arylamine organic dyes, demonstrating the advantages/disadvantages of each class, and pointing out the field that needs to reinforce the research direction in the further application of DSCs.

  7. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  8. Indigo Carmine for the Selective Endoscopic Intervertebral Nuclectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inn-Se; Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Jeung-Il

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to prove that the selectively infiltrated parts of nucleus pulposus with indigo carmine was degenerated parts of nucleus pulposus. This study was done, between August and October 2002, in 5 patients, who received endoscopic discectomy, due to intervertebral disc herniation. Discogram was done with mixture of indigo carmine and radioactive dye. Blue discolored part was removed through endoscope, and small undiscolored part was removed together for the control. The two parts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and compared under the microscope. Undiscolored part was normal nucleus pulposus, composed of chondrocytes with a matrix of type II collagen and proteoglycan, mainly aggrecan. However, in discolored part, slits with destruction of collagen fiber array and ingrowth of vessel and nerve were observed. Using indigo carmine in endoscopic discectomy gives us selective removal of degenerated disc. PMID:16100472

  9. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  10. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to the requirements of § 701.3 of...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2087 - Carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2087 Carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. The color...)(2). (b) Use and restrictions. Carmine may be safely used in cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... provisions of § 70.25 of this chapter. (2) Cosmetics containing carmine that are not subject to...

  15. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far.

  16. Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

    2012-03-01

    Data on various types of organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives, including polymethine, styryl, triphenylmethane, spiran, merocyanine, porphyrin and polymeric dyes, as well as azo dyes and donor-acceptor polyenes, are described systematically. The key methods for their synthesis are considered. The properties of the dyes are analyzed and summarized. The principles of development of modern functional materials based on these dyes are outlined. The use of these materials in advanced fields of science and technology such as photovoltaics, electroluminescence, nonlinear optics, holography, sensing photodynamic therapy are considered. The bibliography includes 476 references.

  17. Influence of alternating current on the adsorption of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Kesraoui, Aida; Selmi, Taher; Seffen, Monig; Brouers, François

    2016-08-23

    The main purpose of this work is to study the effect of a new process of accelerating which consist to couple the electrochemical process with the adsorption to remove an anionic dye, the indigo carmine. That is why, we investigated the effects of the new process of accelerating the adsorption process by using alternating current (AC) on the retention of an anionic dye, the indigo carmine. The adsorption capacity of dye (mg/g) was raised with the raise of current voltage in solution, temperature, and initial indigo carmine concentration and decreased with the increase of initial solution pH, current density, and mass of carbon. The results demonstrate that the removal efficiency of 97.0 % with the current voltage of 15 V is achieved at a current density of 0.014 A/cm(2), of pH 2 using zinc as electrodes and contact time of 210 min for adsorption in the presence of AC. Concerning the adsorption without AC, the results obtained showed that for an initial concentration equal to 20 mg/L, more than 95 % amount of adsorbed dye was retained after 405 min of contact in batch system. The comparison between adsorption in the presence and absence of an alternating current shows the importance of the alternating current in the acceleration of the adsorption method and improve the performances of FILTRASORB 200. For both cases, the adsorption mechanism follows the fractal kinetics BSf(n,α) model and the Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm model provides a good fit of the experimental data for both adsorption with and without alternating current.

  18. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  19. Intense electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Marowsky, G.; Tittel, F.K.; Wilson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies of electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors of p-phenylene-bis-(5-phenyl-2-oxazole) POPOP and p-quaterphenyl have demonstrated short-duration high-gain and super-radiant laser behavior accompanied by severe fluorescence quenching due to dye fragmentation. This has been analyzed quantitatively by evaluation of the nitrogen fluorescence, originating from the complete breakdown of the POPOP structure.

  20. Triphenylamine based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cells: A theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra for newly designed triphenylamine based organic dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-parr(B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31G(d,p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum was simulated by TD-DFT in gas phase. The calculation shows that all of the dyes can potentially be good sensitizers for DSSC. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO2 and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I-/I3-) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO2 and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes match with solar spectrum. Frontier molecular orbital results show that among all the three dyes, the "dye 3" can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  1. Study of natural organic dyes as active material for fabrication of organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Juárez, A.; Castillo, D.; Guaman, A.; Espinosa, S.; Obregón, D.

    2016-09-01

    The scientific community and some sectors of industry have been working with organic dyes for successful applications in OLED's, OSC's, however, most of the used dyes and pigments are synthetic. In this work is investigated the use of natural dyes for its application in organic light emitting diodes, some of the studied species are chili, blackberry, guayacan flower, cochinilla, tree tomato, capuli, etc. In this study the dyes are deposited by direct deposition and SOL-GEL process doped with the natural organic dye, both methods show good performance and lower fabrication costs for dye extraction, this represents a new alternative for the fabrication of OLED devices with low requirements in technology. Most representative results are presented for Dactylopius Coccus Costa (cochinilla) and raphanus sativus' skin.

  2. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-04

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the π-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06 %; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82 %. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes.

  3. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Screening π-conjugated bridges of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic visible light harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Chunmeng; Shao, Changjin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-07-01

    Developing highly efficient organic dyes with panchromatic visible light harvesting for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is still one of the most important scientific challenges. Here, we design a series of phenothiazine derivative organic dyes with donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) structure using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) based on experimentally synthesized typical SH-6 organic dyes. Results indicate that the newly designed BUCT13 - BUCT30 dyes show smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, higher molar extinction coefficients and obvious redshifts compared to the SH-6 dye, and the maximum absorption peaks of eight dyes are greater than 650 nm among the newly designed dyes. In particular, BUCT27 exhibits a 234 nm redshift and the maximum molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 80% compared to the SH-6 dye. BUCT19 exhibits not only a 269 nm redshift and higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 50% compared to the SH-6 dye, but the extremely broad absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range up to the near-IR region of 1200 nm. It is expected that this work can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation of these dye-sensitized devices.

  5. Antibacterial nanocomposites based on chitosan/Co-MCM as a selective and efficient adsorbent for organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid Ali; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Kamal, Tahseen; Yasir, Muhammad; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-10-01

    Chitosan/cobalt-silica (Co-MCM) nanocomposites were synthesized for the purification of effluent by adding 5, 15 and 25mL of Co-MCM solution to the aqueous chitosan solution for the formation of chitosan/Co-MCM-5, chitosan/Co-MCM-15 and chitosan/Co-MCM-25, respectively. These different nanocomposites were characterized by FESEM, EDS, X-ray crystallography and IR spectrophotometer and employed for the adsorption of various dyes (methyl orange, acridine orange, indigo carmine and congo red). The respective nanocomposites showed good adsorption toward methyl orange, indigo carmine and congo red while all nanocomposites were inactive for acridine orange dye. Among the nanocomposites, chitosan/Co-MCM-15 showed the highest adsorption performance which might be due to ideal dispersion of Co-MCM inside the chitosan polymer host. Chitosan/Co-MCM-15 exhibited high adsorption for methyl orange as compared to indigo carmine. We have further checked the biological potential of chitosan/Co-MCM nanocomposites against gram positive and negative bacteria as well as multi drug resistant bacteria. The results favor the strongest bioactivities of chitosan/Co-MCM-15 against various gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as multi drug resistant bacteria, which further suggest the ideal dispersion of Co-MCM in chitosan polymer host and is responsible for the improvement of both adsorption as well as biological performance.

  6. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    PubMed

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics.

  7. Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

    2014-10-01

    Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

  8. Structure of excited states and properties of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klessinger, M.

    1992-03-01

    Optimized geometries and charge distributions for the ground state and the first allowed π,π* excited singlet state are reported for some polyenes, polyene aldehydes, merocyanines and cyanines, which may be considered as representatives of conjugated chain chromophores of organic dyes. The dependence of excited state properties on molecular structure is discussed in relation to spectroscopic properties of these systems.

  9. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1 part per million. Carminic acid...), not more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1 part per million. Carminic...

  10. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  11. Cosensitization with Vat-Based Organic Dyes for Enhanced Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, Mozhgan

    2017-04-01

    Cosensitization using two organic dyes with supplementary absorption spectra on a photoelectrode is an effective method for improving the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Two organic dyes based on indigo and thioindigo have been synthesized, purified, and used to sensitize solar cells with spectral response extending across the entire visible region. To improve their photoelectric properties, different molar ratios were investigated, yielding total efficiency of 6.17% at dye 1:dye 2 = 4:6. The effect of the concentration of Cheno antiaggregation agent on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells was also considered. The results demonstrate that higher conversion efficiency ( η = 6.82%) was achieved with 10 × 10-3 M Cheno. Finally, the performance of cosensitized solar cells was measured at different temperatures between 10°C and 50°C. The results indicated that J sc decreased with increasing temperature, directly affecting the conversion efficiency.

  12. Toward rational design of organic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): an application to the TA-St-CA dye.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Mahon, Peter J; Wang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    A computer aided rational design has been performed on TA-St-CA dye sensitizer in order to improve the desirable properties for new organic dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A number of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) units based on Dewar's rules are substituted into the π-conjugated oligo-phenylenevinylene bridge of the reference TA-St-CA dye. The effects of these alternations on the molecular structures and the electron absorption spectra are calculated using time-dependant density functional theory (TDDFT). It is found that chemical modifications using electron donating (ED) substitutions exhibit advantages over the electron withdrawing (EW) substitutes to reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap as well as the electron distribution of the frontier orbitals of the new dyes. Dewar's rule is a useful guideline for rational design of new dye sensitizers with desired HOMO-LUMO gap. The impact on the optical spectra of new dyes are, however, less significant.

  13. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes.

  14. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    technology and research towards finding new materials to improve the performance are underway. Conductive organic polymers have been proposed as...indigo carmine conjugated carbonyl organic dye can be used for storing reversibly, both lithium and sodium ions for rechargeable battery applications ...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 May 2013 – 14 May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organic materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

  15. Current developments in optical data storage with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Heinz; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Bressau, Volker

    2006-03-20

    The main motivation for the development of digital data storage has been the improvement in play-back quality and the increase in storage capacity. In 1982 Philips and Sony introduced the first technically and economically successful system based on this-the compact disc (CD) and a compatible player. A very broad diversity of optical data recording formats are available today, and a difference is drawn between prerecorded, recordable, and rewritable media. This Review gives an overview of the systems used, the main features of production, and then concentrates on the properties of the organic dyes that are used in recordable systems. Dyestuffs chemistry has gained the reputation of having become a mature field of activity. Is this prejudice or a justified swan song for dyestuffs chemistry? When applications in optical data storage are considered, it is evident that even today progresses such as CD-R and DVD/R would not be feasible without functional dyes.

  16. Nanofiber waveguides and photophysics of an organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. Joseph; Lai, William W.; Groshens, Thomas J.; Baca, Alfred J.; Feng, Simin

    2015-01-01

    We present previously unreported properties of the organic molecular dye compound, 2,3,7,8-tetracyano-5,10-dimethyl-5,10-dihydrodipyrazino[2,3-b:2',3'-e]pyrazine (DMTC-pyrazine) (CAS Reg. No. 150960-11-5), including photophysical properties with particular emphasis on optical waveguiding. We show that DMTC-pyrazine can self-assemble into monoclinic crystals that are thermally stable over 300°C. Through shape-engineering, optimized growth conditions produced high yields of nanofiber (aspect ratio >6) crystals. No photobleaching of this dye was observed in air even after hours of on-resonant illumination. Excitation of photoluminescence within the DMTC-pyrazine nanofibers propagates in tightly confined guided modes (up to 25 μm). The finesse, end-facet reflectance, and group refractive index of nanofiber DMTC-pyrazine Fabry-Pérot cavities are reported.

  17. Influence of iron on degradation of organic dyes in corona.

    PubMed

    Koprivanac, Natalija; Kusić, Hrvoje; Vujević, Dinko; Peternel, Igor; Locke, Bruce R

    2005-01-31

    In this work application of AOPs such as Fenton process, aqueous phase high voltage electrical discharge (corona) and their combination have been studied for colored wastewater treatment. Experiments were conducted on water solutions of four different organic dyes, two azo dyes C.I. Mordant Yellow 10 (MY10) and C.I. Direct Orange 39 (DO39), and two reactive of azo type C.I. Reactive Red 45 (RR45) and C.I. Reactive Blue 137 (RB137). The efficiency of studied AOPs has been estimated on the bases of UV-vis spectrophotometric and TOC measurements. The rate constants in the kinetic model have been determined. Experimental data have been compared with the developed mathematical model.

  18. Triphenylamine-based organic dyes with julolidine as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guohua; Kong, Fantai; Li, Jingzhe; Fang, Xiaqin; Li, Yi; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Xianxi

    2013-12-01

    Two novel donor-donor-π-conjugated-acceptor (D-D-π-A) metal-free organic dyes (JTPA1 and JTPA2) with a julolidine moiety as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are synthesized. Their absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are extensively investigated and compared with TPA2 dye. Transient absorption measurements show that both sensitizers are quickly regenerated and the dye cations are efficiently intercepted by the redox mediator. Both dyes show good performance as DSSC photosensitizers. In particular, a DSSC using JTPA2 with rhodanine-3-acetic acid shows better photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 9.30 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 509 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.68, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.2% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2). Under similar test conditions, ruthenium-based N719 dye gives an efficiency of 6.7%. Compared to TPA2, the dye regeneration rate, the short-circuit photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency of JTPA2 are doubled by introducing a julolidine unit. Our findings show that the julolidine unit may be an excellent electron donor system for organic dyes harvesting solar irradiation.

  19. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry monitoring of indigo carmine degradation by advanced oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Dalmázio, Ilza; de Urzedo, Ana P F M; Alves, Tania M A; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Nascentes, Clésia C; Augusti, Rodinei

    2007-10-01

    The degradation of the dye indigo carmine in aqueous solution induced by two oxidative processes (H(2)O(2)/iodide and O(3)) was investigated. The reactions were monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode, ESI(-)-MS, and the intermediates and oxidation products characterized by ESI(-)-MS/MS. Both oxidative systems showed to be highly efficient in removing the color of the dye aqueous solutions. In the ESI(-)-MS of the indigo carmine solution treated with H(2)O(2) and H(2)O(2)/iodide, the presence of the ions of m/z 210 (indigo carmine in its anionic form, 1), 216, 226, 235, and 244 was noticeable. The anion of m/z 235 was proposed to be the unprecedented hydroperoxide intermediate 2 formed in solution via an electrophilic attack by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals of the exocyclic C=C bond of 1. This intermediate was suggested to be rapidly converted into the anionic forms of 2,3-dioxo-1H-indole-5-sulfonic acid (3, m/z 226), 2-amino-alpha-oxo-5-sulfo-benzeneacetic acid (4, m/z 244), and 2-amino-5-sulfo-benzoic acid (5, m/z 216). In the ESI(-)-MS of the indigo carmine solution treated with O(3), two main anions were detected: m/z 216 (5) and 244 (4). Both products were proposed to be produced via an unstable ozonide intermediate. Other anions in this ESI(-) mass spectrum were attributed to be [4 - H + Na](-) of m/z 266, [4 - H](2-) of m/z 121.5, and [5 - H](2-) of m/z 107.5. ESI-MS/MS data were consistent with the proposed structures for the anionic products 2-5.

  20. Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amaresh; Fischer, Markus K R; Bäuerle, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to the design principles of these dyes and on the effect of various electrolyte systems. Cosensitization, an emerging technique to extend the absorption range, is also discussed as a way to improve the performance of the device. In addition, we report on inverted dyes for photocathodes, which constitutes a relatively new approach for the production of tandem cells. Special consideration has been paid to the correlation between the molecular structure and physical properties to their performance in DSSCs.

  1. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... treatment to render the carmine and cochineal extract free of viable Salmonella microorganisms,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... treatment to render the carmine and cochineal extract free of viable Salmonella microorganisms,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... treatment to render the carmine and cochineal extract free of viable Salmonella microorganisms,...

  4. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... treatment to render the carmine and cochineal extract free of viable Salmonella microorganisms,...

  5. A multilayer organic electroluminescent device using an organic dye salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xueyuan; Gu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jiayu; Cui, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent devices have received considerable attention due to their application in flat-panel displays. To achieve full-color displays, it is necessary to obtain organic layers emitting red, green, and blue light, but it is still a challenge to obtain efficient and stable organic layer emitting red light so far. Recently, we found that an organic salt, trans-4-[p-[N-ethyl-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT), exhibits efficient red-light emission. In this paper, we report a multilayer electrolumicescent device incorporating a hole-transport layer, an ASPT layer, and an electron-transport layer. The dependence of the carrier transport and the luminescence on the device structure is investigated in detail. Compared to the monolayer device, the balance between hole and electron injections is significantly improved for the multilayer device, and thus the electroluminescent efficiency and intensity are enhanced.

  6. [Study of achieving white organic LED by fluorescence dye].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Rong-er; Meng, Ji-wu

    2005-08-01

    Some hybrid organic LEDs are made by using fluorescence dye and InGaN blue-light chip and the possibility of achieving white organic LED is investigated according to light conversion theory. Firstly, the LEDs made by normal method and double-dotting glue method are studied. It is found that the double-dotting glue method is too complex and the LEDs made by this way is low-luminance, so it isn't fit to make LED. Secondly the different weight ratio of 1/1/100, 1/1/200, 2/1.5/100 ax-17/zq-13/AB LEDs are manufactured. The 2/1.5/100 LED's color coordinate is (0.32, 0.30), approaching to white point and the correlative color temperature is 6290K which is close to sunlight. So it is a relatively ideal white lamp-house.

  7. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  8. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-07

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  9. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  10. Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study.

  11. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additives cochineal extract and carmine shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.100(a) (1) and (2) and (b). (2) Color...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additives cochineal extract and carmine shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.100(a) (1) and (2) and (b). (2) Color...

  13. Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-11-01

    Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

  14. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Ping; Yu, Pin-Feng; Wang, Jyhpyng; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Mu; Chen, Szu-yuan

    2016-08-01

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  15. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes.

  16. Benzo[a]carbazole-Based Donor-π-Acceptor Type Organic Dyes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xing; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Chang, Wen-Ying; Song, Jian; Pan, Bin; Lu, Lin; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-05-06

    A novel class of metal-free organic dyes based on benzo[a]carbazole have been designed, synthesized, and used in dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. These types of dyes consisted of a cyanoacrylic acid moiety as the electron acceptor/anchoring group and different electron-rich spacers such as thiophene (JY21), furan (JY22), and oligothiophene (JY23) as the π-linkers. The photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as theoretical calculations of these dyes were investigated. The photovoltaic performances of these dyes were found to be highly relevant to the π-conjugated linkers. In particular, dye JY23 exhibited a broad IPCE response with a photocurrent signal up to about 740 nm covering the most region of the UV-visible light. A DSSC based on JY23 showed the best photovoltaic performance with a Jsc of 14.8 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 744 mV, and a FF of 0.68, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 7.54% under standard AM 1.5 G irradiation.

  17. The function of a TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating "planar" organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Burke, Anthony; Ito, Seigo; Snaith, Henry; Bach, Udo; Kwiatkowski, Joe; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-04-01

    We present a device based study into the operation of liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) using organic dyes. We find that, for these systems, it is entirely necessary to employ a compact TiO2 layer between the transparent fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) anode and the electrolyte in order to reduce charge recombination losses. By incorporation of a compact layer, the device efficiency can be increased by over 160% under simulated full sun illumination and more than doubled at lower light intensities. This is strong evidence that the more widely employed ruthenium based sensitizers act as to "insulate" the anode against recombination losses and that many planar organic dyes employed in DSSC's could greatly benefit from the use of a compact TiO2 blocking layer. This is in strong contrast to DSSC's sensitized with ruthenium based systems, where the introduction of compact TiO2 has only marginal effects on conversion efficiencies.

  18. Preparation of a Ammonia-Treated Lac Dye and Structure Elucidation of Its Main Component.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Lac dye and cochineal extract contain laccaic acids and carminic acid as the main pigments, respectively. Both laccaic acids and carminic acid are anthraquinone derivatives. 4-Aminocarminic acid (acid-stable carmine), an illegal colorant, has been detected in several processed foods. 4-Aminocarminic acid is obtained by heating cochineal extract (carminic acid) in ammonia solution. We attempted to prepare ammonia-treated lac dye and to identify the structures of the main pigment components. Ammonia-treated lac dye showed acid stability similar to that of 4-aminocarminic acid. The structures of the main pigments in ammonia-treated lac dye were analyzed using LC/MS. One of the main pigments was isolated and identified as 4-aminolaccaic acid C using various NMR techniques, including 2D-INADEQUATE. These results indicated that ammonia-treatment of lac dye results in the generation of 4-aminolaccaic acids.

  19. Composite nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Alaa; El-Sayed, Ramy; Osman, T A; Toprak, M S; Muhammed, M; Uheida, A

    2016-02-01

    In this study highly efficient photocatalyst based on composite nanofibers containing polyacrylonitrile (PAN), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and surface functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles was developed. The composite nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique followed by chemical crosslinking. The surface modification and morphology changes of the fabricated composite nanofibers were examined through SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the composite nanofibers for the degradation of model molecules, methylene blue and indigo carmine, under UV irradiation in aqueous solutions was investigated. The results demonstrated that high photodegradation efficiency was obtained in a short time and at low power intensity compared to other reported studies. The effective factors on the degradation of the dyes, such as the amount of catalyst, solution pH and irradiation time were investigated. The experimental kinetic data were fitted using pseudo-first order model. The effect of the composite nanofibers as individual components on the degradation efficiency of MB and IC was evaluated in order to understand the overall photodegradation mechanism. The results obtained showed that all the components possess significant effect on the photodegradation activity of the composite nanofibers. The stability studies demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency can remain constant at the level of 99% after five consecutive cycles.

  20. Organic dyes with intense light absorption especially suitable for application in thin-layer dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dessì, Alessio; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Fabrizi de Biani, Fabrizia; Taddei, Maurizio; Colonna, Daniele; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reginato, Gianna; Zani, Lorenzo

    2014-11-21

    Three new thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-based organic dyes have been designed and synthesized for employment as DSSC sensitizers. Alternation of the electron poor thiazolothiazole unit with two propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) groups ensured very intense light absorption in the visible region (ε up to 9.41 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) in THF solution). The dyes were particularly suitable for application in transparent and opaque thin-layer DSSCs (TiO2 thickness: 5.5-6.5 μm, efficiencies up to 7.71%), thus being good candidates for production of solar cells under simple fabrication conditions.

  1. A push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene linker: Photophysical properties and solvent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, Clàudia; Carreras, Abel; Alemany, Pere; Casanova, David

    2016-10-01

    In the present work we perform a computational study of the properties of a push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene unit as the conjugated linker between the electron donor and acceptor groups. We investigate the photophysical properties of the dye related to its potential use as a molecular sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. We rationalize the solvation effects on the absorption band of the dye in protic and aprotic solvents, identifying the interaction of alcohol solvents with the amine in the donor group as the source for the blue shift of the absorption band with respect to aprotic solvents.

  2. Efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells: molecular engineering of donor-acceptor-acceptor cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Qin; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-12-01

    Three metal-free donor-acceptor-acceptor sensitizers with ionized pyridine and a reference dye were synthesized, and a detailed investigation of the relationship between the dye structure and the photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is described. The ionization of pyridine results in a red shift of the absorption spectrum in comparison to that of the reference dye. This is mainly attributable to the ionization of pyridine increasing the electron-withdrawing ability of the total acceptor part. Incorporation of the strong electron-withdrawing units of pyridinium and cyano acrylic acid gives rise to optimized energy levels, resulting in a large response range of wavelengths. When attached to TiO2 film, the conduction band of TiO2 is negatively shifted to a different extent depending on the dye. This is attributed to the electron recombination rate between the TiO2 film and the electrolyte being efficiently suppressed by the introduction of long alkyl chains and thiophene units. DSSCs assembled using these dyes show efficiencies as high as 8.8 %.

  3. Novel organic dyes for multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Martin; Lichtner, Gregor; Klenz, Haider; Schmoranzer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Precise multicolor single molecule localization-based microscopy (SMLM) requires bright probes with compatible photo-chemical and spectral properties to resolve distinct molecular species at the nanoscale. The accuracy of multicolor SMLM is further challenged by color channel crosstalk and chromatic alignment errors. These constrains limit the applicability of known reversibly switchable organic dyes for optimized multicolor SMLM. Here, we tested 28 commercially available dyes for their suitability to super-resolve a known cellular nanostructure. We identified eight novel dyes in different spectral regimes that enable high quality dSTORM imaging. Among those, the spectrally close dyes CF647 and CF680 comprise an optimal dye pair for spectral demixing-based, registration free multicolor dSTORM with low crosstalk. Combining this dye pair with the separately excited CF568 we performed 3-color dSTORM to image the relative nanoscale distribution of components of the endocytic machinery and the cytoskeleton.

  4. [1]Benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-Based Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Agostina L; Fabiano, Eduardo; De Marco, Luisa; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Gigli, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Carmela; Cardone, Antonio

    2016-04-15

    Three new metal-free organic dyes with the [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) π-bridge, having the structure donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) and labeled as 19, 20 and 21, have been designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Once the design of the π-acceptor block was fixed, containing the BTBT as the π-bridge and the cyanoacrylic group as the electron acceptor and anchoring unit, we selected three donor units with different electron-donor capacity, in order to assemble new chromophores with high molar extinction coefficients (ε), whose absorption features well reflect the good performance of the final DSSC devices. Starting with the 19 dye, which shows a molar extinction coefficient ε of over 14,000 M(-1) cm(-1) and takes into account the absorption maximun at the longer wavelength, the substitution of the BFT donor unit with the BFA yields a great enhancement of absorptivity (molar extinction coefficient ε > 42,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), until reaching the higher value (ε > 69,000 M(-1) cm(-1)) with the BFPhz donor unit. The good general photovoltaic performances obtained with the three dyes highlight the suitable properties of electron-transport of the BTBT as the π-bridge in organic chromophore for DSSC, making this very cheap and easy to synthesize molecule particularly attractive for efficient and low-cost photovoltaic devices.

  5. White light-emitting diode with quasisolar spectrum based on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Shuang-Chao; Li, Ming-Chia; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using organic fluorescent dyes to replace the general phosphor. The blue die with a specific organic fluorescent dye gives the LED a single color appearance. Through a color-mixing cavity, multiple LEDs are used to produce a quasisolar spectrum at a certain band and white light with a color rendering index as high as 97 at around 2800 K.

  6. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

  7. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  8. The electronic structure engineering of organic dye sensitizers for solar cells: The case of JK derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Rong; Ma, Jin-Gang; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2015-11-05

    The design and development of novel dye sensitizers are effective method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because dye sensitizers have significant influence on photo-to-current conversion efficiency. In the procedure of dye sensitizer design, it is very important to understand how to tune their electronic structures and related properties through the substitution of electronic donors, acceptors, and conjugated bridges in dye sensitizers. Here, the electronic structures and excited-state properties of organic JK dye sensitizers are calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT methods. Based upon the calculated results, we investigated the role of different electronic donors, acceptors, and π-conjugated bridges in the modification of electronic structures, absorption properties, as well as the free energy variations for electron injection and dye regeneration. In terms of the analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals, the effective chromophores which are favorable for electron injection in DSSCs are addressed. Meanwhile, considering the absorption spectra and free energy variation, the promising electronic donors, π-conjugated bridges, and acceptors are presented to design dye sensitizers.

  9. Kinetics of sonophotocatalytic degradation of anionic dyes with Nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Madras, Giridhar

    2009-01-15

    The current research work focuses on the combination of photocatalytic and sonocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) degradation of anionic dyes, viz., Orange G, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Alizarin Red S, Methyl Blue, and Indigo Carmine, with solution combustion synthesized TiO2 (CS TiO2) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO2 (DP-25). The rate of sonophotocatalytic degradation of all the dyes and the reduction of total organic carbon was higher compared to the individual photo- and sonocatalytic processes. The effect of dissolved gases and ultrasonic intensity on the sonophotocatalytic degradation of the dyes was evaluated. A dual-pathway network mechanism of sonophotocatalytic degradation was proposed for the first time, and the rate equations were modeled using the network reduction technique. The kinetic rate coefficients of the individual steps were evaluated for all the systems by fitting the model with experimental data.

  10. Tuning the HOMO and LUMO energy levels of organic chromophores for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Daniel P; Marinado, Tannia; Karlsson, Karl Martin; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Qin, Peng; Boschloo, Gerrit; Brinck, Tore; Hagfeldt, Anders; Sun, Licheng

    2007-12-07

    A series of organic chromophores have been synthesized in order to approach optimal energy level composition in the TiO2-dye-iodide/triiodide system in the dye-sensitized solar cells. HOMO and LUMO energy level tuning is achieved by varying the conjugation between the triphenylamine donor and the cyanoacetic acid acceptor. This is supported by spectral and electrochemical experiments and TDDFT calculations. These results show that energetic tuning of the chromophores was successful and fulfilled the thermodynamic criteria for dye-sensitized solar cells, electrical losses depending on the size and orientation of the chromophores were observed.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Dyes Containing Various Donors and Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzi-Yi; Tsao, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Fu-Lin; Su, Shyh-Gang; Chang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Hong-Paul; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Sun, I-Wen

    2010-01-01

    New organic dyes comprising carbazole, iminodibenzyl, or phenothiazine moieties, respectively, as the electron donors, and cyanoacetic acid or acrylic acid moieties as the electron acceptors/anchoring groups were synthesized and characterized. The influence of heteroatoms on carbazole, iminodibenzyl and phenothiazine donors, and cyano-substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral, electrochemical, photovoltaic experiments, and density functional theory calculations. The phenothiazine dyes show solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 3.46–5.53%, whereas carbazole and iminodibenzyl dyes show η of 2.43% and 3.49%, respectively. PMID:20162019

  12. Spectral transmittance of organic dye-doped glass films obtained by the solgel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Shojiro; Hirokawa, Naoyuki

    1996-06-01

    The spectral transmittance of colored glass films synthesized by the solgel method is presented. The film was formed on a glass slide by dipping it into an organic dye-doped solution and, thereafter, by putting it into a furnace for solidification. Three dyes, Methylene Blue, Eosin, and Uranine, were used that exhibit transparent blue, pink, and yellow colors, respectively, when they are dissolved in the starting solution. We clarify how the spectral transmittance of the films varies with the solidification temperature. The films doped with two of the three dyes that exhibit violet, orange, and green colors are also synthesized, and their transmittance is measured. Moreover, the chemical durability of the films and the transmittance change caused by aging and illumination are examined. organic dye, solgel method.

  13. Hierarchical Organization of Organic Dyes and Protein Cages into Photoactive Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mikkilä, Joona; Anaya-Plaza, Eduardo; Liljeström, Ville; Caston, Jose R; Torres, Tomas; Escosura, Andrés de la; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-01-26

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are non-natural organic dyes with wide and deep impact in materials science, based on their intense absorption at the near-infrared (NIR), long-lived fluorescence and high singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields. However, Pcs tend to stack in buffer solutions, losing their ability to generate singlet oxygen, which limits their scope of application. Furthermore, Pcs are challenging to organize in crystalline structures. Protein cages, on the other hand, are very promising biological building blocks that can be used to organize different materials into crystalline nanostructures. Here, we combine both kinds of components into photoactive biohybrid crystals. Toward this end, a hierarchical organization process has been designed in which (a) a supramolecular complex is formed between octacationic zinc Pc (1) and a tetraanionic pyrene (2) derivatives, driven by electrostatic and π-π interactions, and (b) the resulting tetracationic complex acts as a molecular glue that binds to the outer surface anionic patches of the apoferritin (aFt) protein cage, inducing cocrystallization. The obtained ternary face-centered cubic (fcc) packed cocrystals, with diameters up to 100 μm, retain the optical properties of the pristine dye molecules, such as fluorescence at 695 nm and efficient light-induced (1)O2 production. Considering that (1)O2 is utilized in important technologies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), water treatments, diagnostic arrays and as an oxidant in organic synthesis, our results demonstrate a powerful methodology to create functional biohybrid systems with unprecedented long-range order. This approach should greatly aid the development of nanotechnology and biomedicine.

  14. An Efficient Approach Towards the Photodegradation of Indigo Carmine by Introducing ZnO/CuO/Si Ternary Nanocomposite as Photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Arnab; Baral, Apurba; Chabri, Sumit; Sinha, Arijit; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2016-05-01

    The authors report a facile route for the large scale synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system achieved by non-equilibrium synthesis using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) technique. The synthesized material was found highly efficient for the photo-degradation of a hazardous dye Indigo Carmine, a widely used dye in textile industries with major threats to our environment. The structural properties of the prepared material were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, which revealed, that the optimization of milling duration plays a crucial role for the formation of such ternary system. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy yielded broadband absorption of light over the region 1100-350 nm. The photocatalytic activities of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system were systematically explored by monitoring the fall in specific absorption peak intensity of the aqueous Indigo Carmine solution exposed under artificial light source.

  15. An Efficient Approach Towards the Photodegradation of Indigo Carmine by Introducing ZnO/CuO/Si Ternary Nanocomposite as Photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Arnab; Baral, Apurba; Chabri, Sumit; Sinha, Arijit; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2017-04-01

    The authors report a facile route for the large scale synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system achieved by non-equilibrium synthesis using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) technique. The synthesized material was found highly efficient for the photo-degradation of a hazardous dye Indigo Carmine, a widely used dye in textile industries with major threats to our environment. The structural properties of the prepared material were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, which revealed, that the optimization of milling duration plays a crucial role for the formation of such ternary system. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy yielded broadband absorption of light over the region 1100-350 nm. The photocatalytic activities of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system were systematically explored by monitoring the fall in specific absorption peak intensity of the aqueous Indigo Carmine solution exposed under artificial light source.

  16. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesha Bamini, N.; Vidyalakshmy, Y.; Choedak, Tenzin; Kejalakshmy, N.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Ancy, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickner’s microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes.

  17. Effect of the co-sensitization sequence on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with porphyrin and organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua; Lu, Xuefeng; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Gang; Chang, Yuan Jay; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2016-01-14

    To obtain a broad spectral response in the visible region, TiO2 film is co-sensitized with a porphyrin dye (FNE57 or FNE59) and an organic dye (FNE46). It is found that the stepwise co-sensitization in one single dye solution followed by in another single dye solution is better than the co-sensitization in a cocktail solution in terms of photovoltaic performance. The stepwise co-sensitization first with a porphyrin dye and then with an organic dye outperforms that in a reverse order. DSSC devices based on co-sensitizers FNE57 + FNE46 and FNE59 + FNE46 with a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte generate power conversion efficiencies of 7.88% and 8.14%, respectively, which exhibits remarkable efficiency improvements of 61% and 35%, as compared with devices sensitized with the porphyrin dyes FNE57 and FNE59, respectively. Co-sensitization brings about a much improved short-circuit photocurrent due to the complementary absorption of the two sensitizers. The observed enhancement of incident monochromatic photon-to-electron conversion efficiency from individual dye sensitization to co-sensitization is attributed to the improved charge collection efficiency rather than to the light harvesting efficiency. Interestingly, the open-circuit photovoltage for the co-sensitization system comes between the higher voltage for the porphyrin dye (FNE57 or FNE59) and the lower voltage for the organic dye (FNE46), which is well correlated with their electron lifetimes. This finding indicates that not only the spectral complementation but also the electron lifetime should be considered to select dyes for co-sensitization.

  18. Life-threatening reaction to indigo carmine--a sulfa allergy?

    PubMed

    Graziano, Scott; Hoyte, Lennox; Vilich, Fatima; Brubaker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Indigo carmine is commonly used during cystoscopy when evaluating for lower urinary tract safety after gynecologic surgery. We report a case of severe hypotension and bradycardia following intravenous indigo carmine injection in a patient with known sulfa allergy.

  19. Voltage-sensitive dyes reveal a modular organization in monkey striate cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasdel, Gary G.; Salama, Guy

    1986-06-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes allow neuronal activity to be studied by non-invasive optical techniques. They provide an attractive means of investigating striate cortex, where important response properties are organized in two dimensions. In the present study, patterns of ocular dominance and orientation selectivity were obtained repeatedly from the same patch of cortex using the dye merocyanine oxazolone, together with current image-processing techniques. The patterns observed agree with most established features of monkey striate cortex and suggest a new unit of cortical organization; one that is modular in structure and which appears to link the organization of orientation selectivity with that of ocular dominance.

  20. TDDFT screening auxiliary withdrawing group and design the novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on indoline dye for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Yun; Liu, Chunmeng; Lin, Chundan; Shao, Changjin

    2016-10-01

    Based on the experimentally synthesized dye JZ145, we designed a series of novel D-A-π-A dyes SPL201-SPL211 with different π-conjugated bridges and a new auxiliary withdrawing group for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TDDFT). The molecular structures, energy levels, absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force of injection(ΔGinj) and regeneration(ΔGreg), electron dipole moment (μnormal) and lifetime of the first excited state(τ) were all scrutinized in details. Results reveal that the additional withdrawing group A2 and the π-conjugated group di-η-hexyl-substituted cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) are more promising functional groups for the organic dyes with D-A-π-A structure. We further designed SPL212 and SPL213 by employing indoline group as donor, the above screened functional groups as π-conjugated bridge and additional withdrawing group, biscarbodithiolic acid and dicyanovinyl sulfonic acid groups as acceptor group. We found that SPL212 exhibits not only a higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of 30.8%, larger excited state lifetime and an obvious redshift of 201 nm but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range even up to near-IR of 1200 nm compared to JZ145. So, SPL212 can be used as a promising candidate for DSSCs. In addition, the results also prove that biscarbodithiolic acid may be more favorable than dicyanovinylsulfonic acid as acceptor group in DSSCs.

  1. Adsorption of azo dyes from aqueous solution by the hybrid MOFs/GO.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Shi, Zhennan; Zhu, Hongyang; Hong, Wei; Xie, Fengwei; Sun, Keke

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid of chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and its performance in the removal of azo dyes (Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, and Carmine) from water was evaluated. The adsorption for azo dyes on MIL-101/GO was compared with that of MIL-101, and it was found that the addition of GO enhanced the stability of MIL-101 in water and increased the adsorption capacity. The maximum adsorption capacities of MIL-101/GO were 111.01 mg g(-1) for Amaranth, 81.28 mg g(-1) for Sunset Yellow, and 77.61 mg g(-1) for Carmine. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated, showing that the adsorption fits the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The recyclability of MIL-101/GO was shown by the regeneration by acetone. The high adsorption capability and excellent reusability make MIL-101/GO a competent adsorbent for the removal dyes from aqueous solution.

  2. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations.

  3. New efficient organic dyes employing indeno[1,2-b]indole as the donor moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Yan, Rucai; Xu, Chong; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Hou, Linxi

    2016-11-01

    A new series of organic dyes based on indeno[1,2-b]indole have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the first time. These four dyes QX11-14 are constructed to a D-π-A type structure consisting of an indeno[1,2-b]indole donor and a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group. Different π-bridges (thiophene and furan) and different alkyl groups (ethyl and hexyl) are involved to tune the photoelectric properties. Their optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as the density functional theory calculations have been systematically investigated, indicating these four dyes are all capable as photosensitizers. The four dyes all show good DSSC performances and a highest power conversion efficiency up to 7.64% with a Jsc of 15.8 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 763 mV has been achieved by the dye QX12 with a furan π-bridge and a pair of ethyl groups, which reaches 95% of the commercial N719 dye (8.07%) under AM 1.5G illumination. This result reveals indeno[1,2-b]indole is a promising electron donor to construct efficient organic dyes for DSSCs.

  4. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  5. Enhanced fluorescence emitted by microdroplets containing organic dye emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Nastasa, V.; Andrei, I. R.; Staicu, Angela; Pascu, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser beam resonant interaction with pendant microdroplets that are seeded with a laser dye (Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G)) water solution or oily Vitamin A emulsion with Rhodamine 6G solution in water is investigated through fluorescence spectra analysis. The excitation is made with the second harmonic generated beam emitted by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system at 532 nm. The pendant microdroplets containing emulsion exhibit an enhanced fluorescence signal. This effect can be explained as being due to the scattering of light by the sub-micrometric drops of oily Vitamin A in emulsion and by the spherical geometry of the pendant droplet. The droplet acts as an optical resonator amplifying the fluorescence signal with the possibility of producing lasing effect. Here, we also investigate how Rhodamine 6G concentration, pumping laser beam energies and number of pumping laser pulses influence the fluorescence behavior. The results can be useful in optical imaging, since they can lead to the use of smaller quantities of fluorescent dyes to obtain results with the same quality. PMID:25784965

  6. The role of rare earth oxide nanoparticles in suppressing the photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Anubhav; Basu, Anindita

    2013-03-01

    Organic dyes are widely used for both industrial as well as in scientific applications such as the fluorescent tagging of materials. However the process of photobleaching can rapidly degrade dye fluorescence rendering the material non-functional. Thus exploring novel methods for preventing photobleaching can have widespread benefits. In this work we show that the addition of minute quantities of rare earth (RE) oxide nanoparticles can significantly suppress the photobleaching of dyes. The fluorescence of Rhodamine and AlexaFluor dyes was measured as a function of time with and without the addition of CeO2 and La2O3 nanoparticle additives (two RE oxides that contain an oxygen vacancy based defect structure), as well as with FeO nanoparticles (which has an oxygen excess stoichiometry). We find that the rare earth oxides significantly prolonged the lifetimes of the dyes. The results allow us to develop a model based upon the presence of oxygen vacancies defects that allow the RE oxides to act as oxygen scavengers. This enables the RE oxide particles to effectively remove reactive oxygen free radicals generated in the dye solutions during the photoabsorption process. Current affiliation: Harvard University

  7. Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic inorganic microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, H.; Yamashita, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Tomiki, M.

    2008-08-01

    We present a diode-pumped microcavity dye laser composed of a top organic reflector and a bottom inorganic reflector. The top organic reflector consists of alternate thin films of cellulose acetate and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) doped with coumarin 540A to construct a distributed-feedback (DFB) resonator. Pumped directly by an InGaN-based blue laser diode (LD) with a pulse duration of 4 ns, the microcavity dye laser exhibited a single-mode oscillation at 563 nm with a threshold pump LD power of 290 mW/pulse. The emission of the microcavity dye laser was measured through an optical fiber, resulting in a peak power of 2.5 mW for a pump LD power of 320 mW.

  8. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic

  9. Novel Blue Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieving High Efficiency in Cobalt-Based Electrolytes and by Co-Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Saygili, Yasemin; Cong, Jiayan; Eriksson, Anna; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Jinbao; Polanski, Enrico; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2016-12-07

    Blue and green dyes as well as NIR-absorbing dyes have attracted great interest because of their excellent ability of absorbing the incident photons in the red and near-infrared range region. A novel blue D-π-A dye (Dyenamo Blue), based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-core, has been designed and synthesized. Assembled with the cobalt bipyridine-based electrolytes, the device with Dyenamo Blue achieved a satisfying efficiency of 7.3% under one sun (AM1.5 G). The co-sensitization strategy was further applied on this blue organic dye together with a red D-π-A dye (D35). The successful co-sensitization outperformed a panchromatic light absorption and improved the photocurrent density; this in addition to the open-circuit potential result in an efficiency of 8.7%. The extended absorption of the sensitization and the slower recombination reaction between the blue dye and TiO2 surface inhibited by the additional red sensitizer could be the two main reasons for the higher performance. In conclusion, from the results, the highly efficient cobalt-based DSSCs could be achieved with the co-sensitization between red and blue D-π-A organic dyes with a proper design, which showed us the possibility of applying this strategy for future high-performance solar cells.

  10. Simple modification of basic dyes with bulky & symmetric WCAs for improving their solubilities in organic solvents without color change

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Yun; Hwang, Tae Gyu; Woo, Sung Wun; Lee, Jae Moon; Namgoong, Jin Woong; Yuk, Sim Bum; Chung, Sei-won; Kim, Jae Pil

    2017-01-01

    A simple and easy solubility enhancement of basic dyes was performed with bulky and symmetric weakly coordinating anions (WCAs). The WCAs decreased the ionic character of the dyes by broadening the partial charge distribution and causing a screening effect on the ionic bonding. This new modification with WCAs has advantages in that it has no influence on the optical properties of the dyes. The solubilities of unmodified and modified dyes were tested in several organic solvents. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the dyes were measured. Color films were prepared with the dyes and their color loci were analyzed to evaluate the optical properties. By the modification with WCAs, commercial basic dyes showed sufficient solubilities for be applied to various applications while preserving their superior optical properties. PMID:28383019

  11. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

  12. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  13. Photoconductivity of an inorganic/organic composite containing dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, M.; Däubler, T. K.; Harth, E.; Scherf, U.; Gügel, A.; Neher, D.

    1998-02-01

    The photophysical properties of solid films of an inorganic/organic composite composed of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles, a conjugated polymer, and a [60] fullerene derivative have been investigated. Large charge collection efficiencies of up to 10% at a field of only 10 V/μm were observed. The photoaction spectrum of the composite is interpreted in terms of three major contributions: a weak photocurrent due to the absorption of photons by the polymer, photogeneration of charges involving the fullerene, and a broad region below the onset of the polymer absorption which involves photophysical processes in the dye-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles.

  14. Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.

  15. Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.

  16. Effect of electron withdrawing unit for dye-sensitized solar cell based on D-A-π-A organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Chang, Dong Min; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. • By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. • Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. • Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-π-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dye as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye.

  17. Molecular engineering of D-D-π-A type organic dyes incorporating indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Wang, Xiaoying; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Yan, Rucai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-09-01

    Four metal-free organic dyes QX05-08 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine have been successfully designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 consist of an indoloquinoxaline donor, a phenothiazine donor, a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group and a thiophene or furan π-bridge. Other simple D-π-A type dyes QX05 and QX06 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine respectively have also been synthesized for comparison. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 present good balanced structures and show excellent photoelectric properties. Especially, the dye QX07 with a thiophene unit as the π-bridge exhibits the best photovoltaic performances in solar cells. A high power conversion efficiency up to 8.28% with a Jsc of 15.3 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 757 mV have been achieved by the dye QX07 using an iodine electrolyte under standard conditions.

  18. Two-parametric scaling law and figures of merit of excited-state absorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldunov, Modest F.; Koldunov, Leonid M.

    2017-02-01

    Sequential theoretical analysis of the excited-state absorption of organic dyes is carried out. It is established that the transmission dependence on laser radiation intensity of optical elements activated by organic dyes is described by the scaling law. It contains two parameters (the critical intensity and the contrast parameter) which are figures of merit of the excited state absorption of dye. Requirements to experimental conditions needed for correctly determination of figures of merit of the excited-state absorption efficiency of organic dyes are formulated. It is shown that there is a good agreement between experimental data of the sample transmission dependence on laser radiation intensity with the result of its calculation based on the scaling law. Figures of merit for several organic dyes are obtained.

  19. Energy transfer studies in binary laser dye mixtures in organically modified silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Maliki, Firas J.

    2014-08-01

    Energy transfer of binary dye mixture (Rhodamine110, as donor, and Oxizine1and/or Nile blue as acceptors) doped in organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) matrix has been studied. The energy transfer process from donor molecules to acceptor molecules in the final bulk samples has been observed spectrally. Some of energy transfer parameters have been determined as a function of acceptor concentration. Stern-Volmer relation of energy transfer has been proved and the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer of dye mixture doped in such matrices has been determined. The results show that the emission properties of acceptor molecules (Ox1 and Nb) can be enhanced using the dye mixing recipe in sol-gel matrices.

  20. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.

    2016-10-01

    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  1. An investigation of the adsorption of organic dyes onto organo-montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Song, D I; Jeon, Y W

    2001-03-01

    Adsorption of organic dyes, crystal violet (CV), orange II (OR), and phenol red (PR), onto organo-clay was investigated in a batch type reactor at 25 degrees C. The organo-clay was obtained by modifying montmorillonite with a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium (CP), and used as an adsorbent. We conducted experiments to find out the effect of pH and solvent on the adsorption affinity of organic dyes for the modified montmorillonite. From the results, we observed that the adsorption capacity on the organo-montmorillonite decreased in the order CV > OR > PR at all pH values examined (pH 3, pH 7, and pH 11). It mostly resulted from the difference in solubility and the molecular weight of the solutes. In a 30-V/V % methanol/water cosolvent solution, the adsorption capacity of the dyes decreased compared to that in aqueous solution. In addition, the adsorption capacities of OR and PR on CV-montmorillonite were lower than those on CP-montmorillonite. These results might show that partitioning by CP was superior to the adsorption by CV to hold the solute molecules on the surface of montmorillonite. The Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson (RP) models were used to represent the adsorption equilibria of the organic dyes.

  2. Synthesis of Pt3Ni microspheres with high performance for rapid degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis.

  3. Synthesis of Pt3Ni Microspheres with High Performance for Rapid Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Mao, Zhou; Qiu, Tong; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Pt3Ni microspheres consisted of nanoparticles were synthesized without addition of surfactants via the solvothermal route. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Pt3Ni microspheres was evaluated on the degradation of different organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, Congo red, and rhodamine B). The results show that different dyes were rapidly decomposed by Pt3Ni microspheres in different pathways. Among different dyes, the formation and further degradation of the intermediates was observed during the degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange, suggesting the indirect degradation process of these dyes. This study provides not only a promising catalyst for the removal of organic contaminants for environment remediation, but also new insights for Pt3Ni alloy as a high-performance catalyst in organic synthesis.

  4. Metal-free organic dye sensitized solar cell based on perpendicular zinc oxide nanosheet thick films with high conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Eiji; Mitsui, Yosuke; Zhou, Haoshen

    2008-10-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with a high efficiency of 4.27%, which is superior to that of ZnO-based DSCs containing metal complex dyes such as N-719, under 100 mW cm(-2) illumination, are achieved by using metal-free organic dyes and a perpendicular ZnO nanosheet thick film synthesized by a self-templating method.

  5. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC.

  6. Degradation of organic dyes by Si/SiOx core-shell nanowires: Spontaneous generation of superoxides without light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Gu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongkun; Zeng, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Yuesheng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been proven to be highly active in the photocatalysis of dye degradation. However, the unstable hydrogen-terminated surface and the need for constant light irradiation hinder their extensive use. In this work, a stable silica shell was intentionally formed on the surface of SiNWs to produce Si/SiOx core-shell silicon nanowires (S-SiNWs). Light-illuminated or not, S-SiNWs showed almost identical degradation ability for the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) in both conditions, which meant neither hydrogen termination nor light irradiation was a prerequisite for the degradation activity of S-SiNWs. UV/Vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that IC was converted into isatin sulfonic acid in this process. Quenching studies and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that this bleaching ability was highly dependent on superoxides. A possible mechanism was accordingly suggested. In addition, the recently discovered reductase-like activity of SiNWs can be explained by the superoxides generation.

  7. Blue natural organic dyestuffs--from textile dyeing to mural painting. Separation and characterization of coloring matters present in elderberry, logwood and indigo.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Katarzyna; Puchalska, Maria; Miszczak, Agata; Rosłoniec, Elzbieta; Jarosz, Maciej

    2006-05-01

    Natural dyestuffs used for painting or dyeing of textiles are complex mixtures of compounds of various chemical properties. Proper identification of the dye used by a painter and, even better, its origin is possible only when its compositional 'fingerprint' can be evaluated. For this reason gradient program for liquid chromatographic separation of 16 color compounds--components of natural blue dyes: elderberry, logwood and indigo--has been developed. Two detector systems were used simultaneously: UV-Vis spectrophotometry (at 280, 445, 520 and 600 nm) and ESI mass spectrometry (positive and negative SIM mode). It was found that fragmentation observed in ESI-MS is affected not only by ion source parameters, but also by chromatographic conditions, especially in case of the less stable substances: cyanidin glucosides, tannic acid, rutin and hematoxylin. Examination of characteristic dissociation pathways of the compounds under investigation after direct admission into ion source or after chromatographic separation allowed to select proper ions for SIM detection and to develop novel and efficient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC)-UV-Vis/ESI-MS method for the analysis of natural blue dyes. The procedure was successfully applied for identification of indigotin and carminic acid-main colorants extracted from a fiber taken from the blue-red 'Italian' tapestry (the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw, Poland).

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dual-channel anchorable dyes with well-defined core bridge structures.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kang Deuk; You, Ban Seok; Choi, In Taek; Ju, Myung Jong; You, Mi; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In stereo, where available: A new approach towards dye-sensitized solar cells is based on dianchoring structural motifs with two donors, two acceptors, and a core bridge donor as a spacer. Their high molar absorption coefficients result in favorable light-harvesting efficiencies for DSSCs based on these dyes. A high conversion efficiency of 4.90 % is achieved when using dye DC4, containing a core bridge carbazole unit, with a multifunctional coadsorbent.

  9. Electronic structures and optical properties of organic dye sensitizer NKX derivatives for solar cells: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Rong; Liu, Li; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Shen, Yu-Lin; Sun, Yi-Tong; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Li-Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2012-09-01

    The photon to current conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) can be significantly affected by dye sensitizers. The design of novel dye sensitizers with good performance in DSCs depend on the dye's information about electronic structures and optical properties. Here, the geometries, electronic structures, as well as the dipole moments and polarizabilities of organic dye sensitizers C343 and 20 kinds of NKX derivatives were calculated using density functional theory (DFT), and the computations of the time dependent DFT with different functionals were performed to explore the electronic absorption properties. Based upon the calculated results and the reported experimental work, we analyzed the role of different conjugate bridges, chromophores, and electron acceptor groups in tuning the geometries, electronic structures, optical properties of dye sensitizers, and the effects on the parameters of DSCs were also investigated.

  10. Absorption spectrum analysis based on singular value decomposition for photoisomerization and photodegradation in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.

  11. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the π-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory

  12. Insights into the Mechanism of a Covalently-Linked Organic Dye-Cobaloxime Catalyst System for Dye Sensitized Solar Fuel Devices.

    PubMed

    Pati, Palas Baran; Zhang, Lei; Philippe, Bertrand; Fernández-Terán, Ricardo; Ahmadi, Sareh; Tian, Lei; Rensmo, Håkan; Hammarström, Leif; Tian, Haining

    2017-03-24

    A covalently-linked organic dye-cobaloxime catalyst system is developed by facile click reaction for mechanistic studies and application in dye sensitized solar fuel device based on mesoporous NiO. This system has been systematically investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements, density functional theory, time resolved fluorescence, transient absorption spectroscopy as well as photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that irradiation of the dye-catalyst on NiO leads to ultrafast hole injection into NiO from the excited dye, followed by a fast electron transfer process to reduce the catalyst. Moreover, they suggest that the dye adopt different structures with different excited state energies, and excitation energy transfer occurs between neighboring molecules on the semiconductor surface. The photoelectrochemical experiments also show hydrogen production by this system. The axial chloride ligands of the catalyst are released during photocatalysis in order to create the active sites for proton reduction. A working mechanism of the dye-catalyst system on photocathode is eventually proposed on the basis of this study.

  13. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  14. Proficiency of acceptor-donor-acceptor organic dye with spiro-MeOTAD HTM on the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramavenkateswari, K.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the proficiency of acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) organic dye Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAC) as photosensitizer on the photovoltaic parameters of silver (Ag) doped TiO2 photoanode dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with quasi-solid state electrolyte/hole transport material (HTM) spiro-MeOTAD. TNSs (TiO2 nanosticks) photoanodes are prepared through sol-gel method and hydrothermal technique. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET measurement were used to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO2 nanostructures. The Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate organic dye with TNPs-Ag@TNSs composite photoanode structure and spiro-MeOTAD HTM exhibited better power conversion efficiency (PCE).

  15. Plant toxic and non-toxic nature of organic dyes through adsorption mechanism on cellulose surface.

    PubMed

    Buvaneswari, Natesan; Kannan, Chellapandian

    2011-05-15

    Effluents releasing from dyeing industries directly affect the soil, water, plant and human life. Among these dyes, plant poisoning, soil polluting and water polluting nature of organic dyes are not yet identified. The plant poisoning and non-poisoning organic dyes are identified through adsorption mechanism of cationic malachite green (MG) and anionic methyl orange (MO) on brinjal plant root powder (cellulose). The positive ΔH(o) (44 kJ mol(-1)) of MG higher than 40 kJ mol(-1) confirmed the adsorption of MG on cellulose is chemisorption and the negative ΔH(o) (-11 kJ mol(-1)) less than 40 kJ mol(-1) showed that the adsorption of MO on cellulose is physisorption. The ΔG(o) values for the adsorption of MG and MO on BPR are not much increased with increase of temperature which indicated that the adsorption is independent of the temperature. The entropy change for the adsorption of MG and MO has proved that the MG (+ΔS(o)) has less disorder at the adsorption interface and MO (-ΔS(o)) has the high disorder at the adsorption interface. The recovery of both dyes has been studied in water at 80°C on BPR surface and observed that the MO recovery is 95% and MG is 10%. The poor desorption of MG is due to the strong chemisorption on BPR (cellulose) surface proves its plant poisoning nature. The high recovery of MO due to physisorption mechanism proves that MO is not poisoning the plant.

  16. A novel fluorescent label based on organic dye-doped silica nanoparticles for HepG liver cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Jinghua; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong; Lin, Xia; He, Chunmei

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we report a method for the recognition of HepG liver cancer cells with the use of a novel fluorescent label based on organic dye-doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles. The novel organic dye-doped silica nanoparticles are prepared with a water-in-oil microemulsion technique. The silica network is produced by the controlled synchronous hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane and 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The organic dye fluorescein isothiocyanate is doped inside as a luminescent signaling element, through covalent bonding to the amino group of APTES. The organic dye-doped core-shell nanoparticles are highly luminescent and exhibit minimal dye leaching and excellent photostability. A novel fluorescent label method based on biological fluorescent nanoparticles has been developed. The dye-doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles are covalently immobilized with anti-human liver cancer monoclonal antibody HAb18. We have used antibody-labeled fluorescent nanoparticles to recognize HepG liver cancer cells. It has been observed that the bioassay based on the organic dye-doped nanoparticles can identify the target cells selectively and efficiently. The fluorescent nanoparticle label also exhibits high photostability.

  17. Indigo carmine enhances phenylephrine-induced contractions in an isolated rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Suk; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Seung Min; Park, Sang-Seung; Ha, Yu Mi; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung; Shin, Il-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Background The intravenous administration of indigo carmine has been reported to produce transiently increased blood pressure in patients. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of indigo carmine on phenylephrine-induced contractions in an isolated rat aorta and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with particular focus on the endothelium-derived vasodilators. Methods The concentration-response curves for phenylephrine were generated in the presence or absence of indigo carmine. Phenylephrine concentration-response curves were generated for the endothelium-intact rings pretreated independently with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and a low-molecular-weight superoxide anion scavenger, tiron, in the presence or absence of indigo carmine. The fluorescence of oxidized dichlorofluorescein was measured in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in the control, indigo carmine alone and tiron plus indigo carmine. Results Indigo carmine (10-5 M) increased the phenylephrine-induced maximum contraction in the endothelium-intact rings with or without indomethacin, whereas indigo carmine produced a slight leftward shift in the phenylephrine concentration-response curves in the endothelium-denuded rings and L-NAME-pretreated endothelium-intact rings. In the endothelium-intact rings pretreated with tiron (10-2 M), indigo carmine did not alter phenylephrine concentration-response curves significantly. Indigo carmine (10-5 M) increased the fluorescence of oxidized dichlorofluorescein in the vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas tiron abolished the indigo carmine-induced increase in oxidized dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Conclusions Indigo carmine increases the phenylephrine-induced contraction mainly through an endothelium-dependent mechanism involving the inactivation of nitric oxide caused by the increased production of reactive oxygen species. PMID

  18. The potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Graham, N; Chen, X G; Jayaseelan, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to study the potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dye removal. Methylene blue and crystal violet were the two dyes investigated in the present study. Three activated carbons were produced from the exclusive sewage sludge (referred to as DS), the sludge with the additive of coconut husk (DC) and sludge with the additive of peanut shell (DP) respectively. They were characterized by their surface area and porosity and their surface chemistry structure. Adsorption studies were performed by the batch technique to obtain kinetic and equilibrium data. The results show that the three sludge-derived activated carbons had a developed porosity and marked content of surface functional groups. They exhibited a rapid three-stage adsorption process for both methylene blue and crystal violet. Their adsorption capacities for the two dyes were high, the carbon DP performed best in the adsorption whereas the carbon DC performed worst. It is therefore concluded that the activated carbons made from sewage sludge and its mixtures are promising for dye removal from aqueous streams.

  19. 1-Alkyl-1H-imidazole-based dipolar organic compounds for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Marappan; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Lin, Jiann T; Chang, Che-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2010-01-04

    A series of donor-pi-acceptor-type organic dyes based on 1-alkyl-1H-imidazole spacers 1-5 have been developed and characterized. The two electron donors are at positions 4 and 5 of the imidazole, while the electron-accepting cyanoacrylic acid is incorporated at position 2 by a spacer-containing heteroaromatic rings, such as thiophene and thiazole. Detailed investigation on the relationship between the structure, spectral and electrochemical properties, and performance of DSSC is described here. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using dyes as the sensitizers exhibit good efficiencies, ranging from 3.06 to 6.35 %, which reached 42-87 % with respect to that of N719-based device (7.33 %) fabricated and measured under similar conditions. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been performed on the dyes, and the results show that both electron donors can contribute to electron injection upon photo-excitation, either directly or indirectly by internal conversion to the lowest excited state.

  20. Green decomposition of organic dyes using octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sriskandakumar, Thamayanthy; Opembe, Naftali; Chen, Chun-Hu; Morey, Aimee; King'ondu, Cecil; Suib, Steven L

    2009-02-26

    The catalytic degradation of organic dye (methylene blue, MB) has been studied using green oxidation methods (tertiary-butyl hydrogen peroxide, TBHP, as the oxidant with several doped mixed-valent and regular manganese oxide catalysts in water) at room and higher temperatures. These catalysts belong to a class of porous manganese oxides known as octahedral molecular sieves (OMS). The most active catalysts were those of Mo(6+)- and V(5+)-doped OMS. Rates of reaction were found to be first-order with respect to the dye. TBHP has been found to enhance the MB decomposition, whereas H(2)O(2) does not. Reactions were studied at pH 3-11. The optimum pH for these reactions was pH 3. Dye-decomposing activity was proportional to the amount of catalyst used, and a significant increase in catalytic activity was observed with increasing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies showed that no changes in the catalyst structure occurred after the dye-degradation reaction. The products as analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that MB was successively decomposed through different intermediate species.

  1. A robust organic dye for dye sensitized solar cells based on iodine/iodide electrolytes combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-02-07

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm(-2)) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

  2. A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm-2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

  3. A Robust Organic Dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Iodine/Iodide Electrolytes Combining High Efficiency and Outstanding Stability

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N.; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm−2) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. PMID:24504344

  4. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of titanium dioxide decorated graphene nanocomposite for photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, Shunmugiah; Kottaisamy, Muniasamy; Ramakrishnan, Veerabahu

    2015-12-01

    An efficient and facile method was adopted to prepare TiO2-graphene (TG) nanocomposites with TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly distributed on graphene. By adjusting the amount of TiO2 precursor, both high and low dense TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene were effectively attained via electrostatic attraction between graphene oxide sheets and TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by various characterization techniques. The TG nanocomposite showed an excellent activity for the photodegradation of the organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rose bengal (RB) under ultra violet (UV) light irradiation. The TG nanocomposite of TG 2.5 showed better photocatalytic performance than bare TiO2 nanoparticles and other composites. The enhanced activity of the composite material is attributed to the reduction in charge recombination and interaction of organic dyes with graphene. The decrease in charge recombination was evidenced from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The observed results suggest that the synthesized TG composites have a potential application to treat the industrial effluents, which contain organic dyes.

  5. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of titanium dioxide decorated graphene nanocomposite for photodegradation of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Gayathri, Shunmugiah; Kottaisamy, Muniasamy; Ramakrishnan, Veerabahu

    2015-12-15

    An efficient and facile method was adopted to prepare TiO{sub 2}-graphene (TG) nanocomposites with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles uniformly distributed on graphene. By adjusting the amount of TiO{sub 2} precursor, both high and low dense TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene were effectively attained via electrostatic attraction between graphene oxide sheets and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by various characterization techniques. The TG nanocomposite showed an excellent activity for the photodegradation of the organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rose bengal (RB) under ultra violet (UV) light irradiation. The TG nanocomposite of TG 2.5 showed better photocatalytic performance than bare TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and other composites. The enhanced activity of the composite material is attributed to the reduction in charge recombination and interaction of organic dyes with graphene. The decrease in charge recombination was evidenced from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The observed results suggest that the synthesized TG composites have a potential application to treat the industrial effluents, which contain organic dyes.

  6. Modulation of π-spacer of carbazole-carbazole based organic dyes toward high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Kungwan, Nawee; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2017-03-01

    The effects of type and position of π-linker in carbazole-carbazole based dyes on their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated by DFT and TDDFT methods. The calculated electronic energy level, electron density composition, charge injection and charge recombination properties were compared with those of the high performance CCT3A dye synthesized recently. It is found that that mixing a benzothiadizole (B) unit with two thiophene (T) units in the π-spacer can greatly shift absorption wavelength to near infrared region and enhance the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) resulting in increasing of short-circuit current density (Jsc), whereas a thienothiophene unit does not affect those properties. However, a B should be not directly connected to the anchoring group of the dye because it brings electrolyte to the TiO2 surface which may increase charge recombination rate and consequently decrease open circuit voltage (Voc). This work shows how type and position of the π-linker affect the performance of DSSCs, and how to modulate those properties. We predicted that the designed dye derived from insertion of the B unit in between the two T units would have higher performance than CCT3A dye. The insight understanding from this study is useful for further design of higher performance dyes by molecular engineering.

  7. A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-15

    A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework, (Me{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}[Zn{sub 2}L{sub 1.5}bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H{sub 4}L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}{sup +}, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: A porous anionic metal–organic framework (BUT-201) can selectively adsorb the cationic dyes by cationic guest molecule substitution, and the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • An anionic metal-organic framework (BUT-201) has been synthesized and characterized. • BUT-201 has a three-dimensional (3D) pillared double-layer structure. • BUT-201 can selectively and rapidly adsorb cationic dyes. • The adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}.

  8. Stability of fluorescent labels in PLGA polymeric nanoparticles: Quantum dots versus organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Beduneau, Arnaud; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-10-15

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are currently being investigated for various therapeutic, diagnostic and drug delivery applications. The study of their interactions and fate in biological systems is frequently performed via their fluorescent labeling and following them using fluorescent microscopy. Quantum dots are proposed as stable fluorescent label and compared to other organic dyes (Nile red and DiI) in terms of their entrapment, diffusion in different aqueous or lipophilic media and photostability. In vitro transfer to hydrophilic PBS solution showed that after 8h, 4.2±2.2, 15.5±2.0 and 0.9±0.02% was released from the QDs, NR and DiI nanoparticles, respectively. However, higher diffusion rates were observed in the lipophilic medium chain triglyceride and artificial sebum for all the dyes used. Fluorescent intensity of the three different markers was found to be stable over a period of 24h. Continuous illumination with laser beam using a confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated the superior stability of quantum dots compared to the other organic dyes. Skin permeation experiments have shown that QDs were the most representative marker for the polymeric nanoparticles skin penetration.

  9. Tailoring of Energy Levels in D-π-A Organic Dyes via Fluorination of Acceptor Units for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Kim, Jae-Yup; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Kyungkon; Lee, Duck-Hyung; Ko, Min Jae

    2015-01-01

    A molecular design is presented for tailoring the energy levels in D-π-A organic dyes through fluorination of their acceptor units, which is aimed at achieving efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This is achieved by exploiting the chemical structure of common D-π-A organic dyes and incorporating one or two fluorine atoms at the ortho-positions of the cyanoacetic acid as additional acceptor units. As the number of incorporated fluorine atoms increases, the LUMO energy level of the organic dye is gradually lowered due to the electron-withdrawing effect of fluorine, which ultimately results in a gradual reduction of the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and an improvement in the spectral response. Systematic investigation of the effects of incorporating fluorine on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs reveals an upshift in the conduction-band potential of the TiO2 electrode during impedance analysis; however, the incorporation of fluorine also results in an increased electron recombination rate, leading to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc). Despite this limitation, the conversion efficiency is gradually enhanced as the number of incorporated fluorine atoms is increased, which is attributed to the highly improved spectral response and photocurrent. PMID:25591722

  10. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanabal, R.; Velmathi, S.; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag3PO4. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag3PO4. The functional group of the Ag3PO4 has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag3PO4 is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag3PO4 starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag3PO4 catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  11. Efficient catalytic effect of CuO nanostructures on the degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Zainelabdin, A.; Amin, G.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2012-11-01

    An efficient catalytic effect of petals and flowers like CuO nanostructures (NSs) on the degradation of two organic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) were investigated. The highest degradation of 95% in CuO petals and 72% in flowers for MB is observed in 24 h. For RB, the degradation was 85% and 80% in petals and flowers, respectively for 5 h. It was observed that CuO petals appeared to be more active than flowers for degradation of both dyes associated to high specific surface area. The petals and flower like CuO NSs were synthesized using the chemical bath method at 90 °C. The grown CuO NSs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  12. Computational characterization of the molecular structure and properties of Dye 7 for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Castorena-González, José; Flores-Holguin, Norma; Calderón-Guillén, Joel; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Organic dyes have great potential for its use in solar cells. In this recent work, the molecular structure and properties of Dye 7 were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and different levels of calculation. Upon comparing the molecular structure and the ultraviolet visible spectrum with experimental data reported in the literature, it was found that the M05-2X/6-31G(d) level of calculation gave the best approximation. Once the appropriate methodology had been obtained, the molecule was characterized by obtaining the infrared spectrum, dipole moment, total energy, isotropic polarizability, molecular orbital energies, free energy of solvation in different solvents, and the chemical reactivity sites using the condensed Fukui functions.

  13. Enhanced anaerobic fermentation with azo dye as electron acceptor: simultaneous acceleration of organics decomposition and azo decolorization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Jingxin; Chen, Shuo; Afzal, Shahzad

    2014-10-01

    Accumulation of hydrogen during anaerobic processes usually results in low decomposition of volatile organic acids (VFAs). On the other hand, hydrogen is a good electron donor for dye reduction, which would help the acetogenic conversion in keeping low hydrogen concentration. The main objective of the study was to accelerate VFA composition through using azo dye as electron acceptor. The results indicated that the azo dye serving as an electron acceptor could avoid H2 accumulation and accelerate anaerobic digestion of VFAs. After adding the azo dye, propionate decreased from 2400.0 to 689.5mg/L and acetate production increased from 180.0 to 519.5mg/L. It meant that the conversion of propionate into acetate was enhanced. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundance of propionate-utilizing acetogens with the presence of azo dye was greater than that in a reference without azo dye. The experiments via using glucose as the substrate further demonstrated that the VFA decomposition and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased by 319.7mg/L and 23.3% respectively after adding the azo dye. Therefore, adding moderate azo dye might be a way to recover anaerobic system from deterioration due to the accumulation of H2 or VFAs.

  14. Rapid Synthesis of Thiophene-Based, Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) by a One-Pot, Four-Component Coupling Approach.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Keisuke; Yoshizaki, Soichi; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Fuse, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-26

    This one-pot, four-component coupling approach (Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/C-H direct arylation/Knoevenagel condensation) was developed for the rapid synthesis of thiophene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Seven thiophene-based, organic dyes of various donor structures with/without the use of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moiety were successfully synthesized in good yields based on a readily available thiophene boronic acid pinacol ester scaffold (one-pot, 3-step, 35-61%). Evaluation of the photovoltaic properties of the solar cells that were prepared using the synthesized dyes revealed that the introduction of an EDOT structure beside a cyanoacrylic acid moiety improved the short-circuit current (Jsc) while decreasing the fill factor (FF). The donor structure significantly influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the FF, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The use of a n-hexyloxyphenyl amine donor, and our originally developed, rigid, and nonplanar donor, both promoted good cell performance (η=5.2-5.6%).

  15. Metal-organic gel templated synthesis of magnetic porous carbon for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luhuan; Ke, Fei; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-03-21

    Magnetic porous carbon composites are promising materials in various applications, such as adsorbents, supercapacitors and catalyst supports, due to their high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and easy separation. However, despite the increasing number of reports of magnetic porous carbon composites, the preparation of these materials with environmentally friendly procedures still remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare a magnetic porous carbon composite with high surface area from a Fe-based metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended structure of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The obtained magnetic porous carbon composite was applied to remove organic dyes from an aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange (MO) as a model molecule. It exhibits excellent adsorption capacity (182.82 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption kinetics (8.13 × 10(-3) g mg(-1) min(-1)), and a perfect magnetic separation performance for the MO removal. This study demonstrates a new way to achieve clean synthesis of magnetic porous carbon materials, and opens a new door for the application of MOGs in organic dye removal.

  16. Cosensitization of D-A-π-A quinoxaline organic dye: efficiently filling the absorption valley with high photovoltaic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Li, Hui; Geng, Zhiyuan; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-03-11

    In the efficient cosensitization, the pure organic sensitizers with high molecular extinction coefficients and long wavelength response are highly preferable since the dye loading amount for each dye in cosensitization is decreased with respect to single dye sensitization. A D-A-π-A featured quinoxaline organic sensitizer IQ21 is specifically designed. The high conjugation building block of 4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT) is introduced as the π bridge, instead of the traditional thiophene unit, especially in realizing high molecular extinction coefficients (up to 66 600 M(-1) cm(-1)) and extending the light response wavelength. With respect to the reference dye IQ4, the slightly lower efficiency of IQ21 (9.03%) arises from the decrease of VOC, which offsets the gain in JSC. While cosensitized with a smaller D-π-A dye S2, the efficiency in IQ21 is further improved to 10.41% (JSC = 19.8 mA cm(-2), VOC = 731 mV, FF = 0.72). The large improvement in efficiency is attributed to the well-matched molecular structures and loading amounts of both dyes in the cosensitization system. We also demonstrated that coabsorbent dye S2 can distinctly compensate the inherent drawbacks of IQ21, not only enhancing the response intensity of IPCE, making up the absorption defects around low wavelength region of IPCE, but also repressing the charge recombination rate to some extent.

  17. Particle-size Dependent Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Upconversion Nanoparticles to Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Verena; Würth, Christian; Kraft, Marco; Buchner, Markus; Resch-Genger, Ute; Baeumner, Antje J; Hirsch, Thomas

    2017-03-22

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are attractive candidates for energy transfer-based analytical applications. In contrast to classical donor-acceptor pairs, these particles contain many emitting lanthanide ions together with numerous acceptor dye molecules at different distances to each other, strongly depending on the particle diameter. UCNPs with precisely controlled sizes between 10 and 43 nm were prepared and functionalized with rose bengal and sulforhodamine B by a ligand exchange procedure. Time-resolved studies of the upconversion luminescence of the UCNP donor revealed a considerable shortening of the donor lifetime as a clear hint for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). FRET was most pronounced for 21 nm-sized UCNPs, yielding a FRET efficiency of 60%. At larger surface-to-volume ratios the FRET efficiency decreased by an increasing competition of non-radiative surface deactivation. Such dye-UCNP architectures can also provide an elegant way to shift the UCNP emission color, since the fluorescence intensity of the organic dyes excited by FRET was comparable to that of the upconversion emission of smaller particles.

  18. A highly selective optode for determination of Hg (II) by a modified immobilization of indigo carmine on a triacetylcellulose membrane.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Shaabanpur, Elham; Vahdati, Parvin

    2012-04-01

    A new mercury optical sensor was designed with indigo carmine (IC) as a dye indicator. The water-soluble indicator was lipophilized in the form of an ion-pair with N-cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and dissolved in methanol (70 °C), then immobilized on a triacetylcellulose membrane. This optode exhibits a linear range of 24.0-468.0 μM of the Hg (II) ion concentration with detection limit of 7.2 μM at 669.5 nm. Response time was within 8-10 min, depending on the Hg (II) ion concentration. The sensor could readily be regenerated with a hydrochloric acid solution (0.01 M) in a reversible manner and its response was reproducible (RSD=3.2%). The method was applied to the determination of mercury content of a variety of samples which gave satisfactory results.

  19. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  20. Evidences for Ti-N anchoring in organic dyes on TiO2 and its influence on photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Meng, Sheng; SEEC Lab Team

    2011-03-01

    New metal-free organic dyes with a novel donor-pi-acceptor design produce efficiencies exceeding 10% for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications since 2010. Based on state-of- the-art electronic structure calculations and real time time- dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations, we present consolidated evidences for novel Ti-N anchoring at the interface for such a broad group of new dyes, inferred from energetics, vibrational recognition, and electronic and optical data. This fact is contrary to what people usually believed and assumed in previous experiments and was largely ignored. We further demonstrate that the presence of interface Ti-N bonds largely benefit the electronic level alignment and photoelectron injection dynamics, greatly contributing to the improved efficiencies of DSSC based on cost-effective, environment-friendly organic dyes. We acknowledge supports from NSFC and hundred-talent program of CAS.

  1. Degradation of organic dyes via bismuth silver oxide initiated direct oxidation coupled with sodium bismuthate based visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Yang, Shaogui; Liu, Cun; Chen, Hongzhe; Li, Hui; Sun, Cheng; Boyd, Stephen A

    2012-07-03

    Organic dye degradation was achieved via direct oxidation by bismuth silver oxide coupled with visible light photocatalysis by sodium bismuthate. Crystal violet dye decomposition by each reagent proceeded via two distinct pathways, each involving different active oxygen species. A comparison of each treatment method alone and in combination demonstrated that using the combined methods in sequence achieved a higher degree of degradation, and especially mineralization, than that obtained using either method alone. In the combined process direct oxidation acts as a pretreatment to rapidly bleach the dye solution which substantially facilitates subsequent visible light photocatalytic processes. The integrated sequential direct oxidation and visible light photocatalysis are complementary manifesting a > 100% increase in TOC removal, compared to either isolated method. The combined process is proposed as a novel and effective technology based on one primary material, sodium bismuthate, for treating wastewaters contaminated by high concentrations of organic dyes.

  2. FRET Sensor for Erythrosine Dye Based on Organic Nanoparticles: Application to Analysis of Food Stuff.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2016-07-01

    An aqueous suspension of fluorescent nanoparticles (PHNNPs) of naphthol based fluorescent organic compound 1-[(Z)-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene) methyl] naphthalene -2-ol (PHN) were prepared using reprecipitation method shows bathochromically shifted aggregation induced enhanced emission (AIEE) in the spectral region where erythrosine (ETS) food dye absorbs strongly. The average size of 72.6 nm of aqueous suspension of PHNNPs obtained by Dynamic light scattering results shows a narrow particle size distribution. The negative zeta potential of nano probe (-22.6 mV) responsible to adsorb oppositely charged analyte on its surface and further permit to bind nano probe and analyte within the close distance proximity required for efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to take place from donor (PHNNPs) to acceptor (ETS). Systematic FRET experiments performed by measuring fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs with successive addition of ETS solution exploited the use of the PHNNPs as a novel nano probe for the detection of ETS in aqueous solution with extremely lower limit of detection equal to 3.6 nM (3.1 ng/mL). The estimation of photo kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as quenching rate constant, enthalpy change (∆H), Gibbs free energy change (∆G) and entropy change (∆S) was obtained by the quenching results obtained at different constant temperatures which were found to fit the well-known Stern-Volmer relation. The mechanism of binding and fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs by ETS food dye is proposed on the basis of results obtained in photophysical studies, thermodynamic parameter, energy transfer efficiency, critical energy transfer distance (R0) and distance of approach between donor-acceptor molecules (r). The proposed FRET method based on fluorescence quenching of PHNNPs was successfully applied to develop an analytical method for estimation of ETS from food stuffs without interference of other complex ingredients. Graphical Abstract A

  3. Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite flocculant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye). The effect of viscosity (eta), basicity (B = [OH]/[Al]) and organic content (W(P)) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated. The eta was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA. PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate eta (2400 mPa x sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers. The W(P) of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation. The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with eta of 300 or 4300 mPa x sec played an important role with the increase of W(P), whereas the charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of W(P). There was interaction between W(P) and B on the removal of reactive dye. The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater, which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage.

  4. Degradation of organic substances and reactive dye in an immobilized-cell sequencing batch reactor operation on simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S

    2003-01-01

    Textile wastewater generally consists of high organic substances and is strongly colored. Reactive dye has been used extensively in the textile industries. It is water soluble and difficult to remove by chemical coagulation. Removal of organic substances simultaneously with dye can be achieved by a biological process. This study aims to investigate the treatability of the organic substances and reactive dye in immobilized-cell sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Three different supporting medias namely activated carbon, steel slag and plastic were used. The performance of each reactor was compared with a conventional sequencing batch reactor. The simulated textile wastewater containing the reactive azo dye Procion Red H-E7B of a concentration of 40 mg/L and COD 300 mg/L, was fed into the reactors. The supporting media in the SBR system, it will enhance the capability of COD and dye operating of the SBRs consisted of 5 periods; Fill 1.5 h, React (anoxic:oxic) 20 (14:6) h, Settle 1.5 h, Draw 0.5 h and Idle 0.5 h. The results revealed that by adding removal. During a steady state of operation, the COD and dye concentrations of each period were investigated. In addition, the prolonged anoxic period brought about better decolorization efficiency.

  5. Triarylamine: Versatile Platform for Organic, Dye-Sensitized, and Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayu; Liu, Kuan; Ma, Lanchao; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-12-14

    Triarylamine (TAA) and related materials have dramatically promoted the development of organic and hybrid photovoltaics during the past decade. The power conversion efficiencies of TAA-based organic solar cells (OSCs), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have exceeded 11%, 14%, and 20%, which are among the best results for these three kinds of devices, respectively. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of the high-performance TAA-based materials in OSCs, DSSCs, and PSCs. We focus our discussion on the structure-property relationship of the TAA-based materials in order to shed light on the solutions to the challenges in the field of organic and hybrid photovoltaics. Some design strategies for improving the materials and device performance and possible research directions in the near future are also proposed.

  6. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

  7. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    PubMed

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world.

  8. 6H-Indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline-based organic dyes containing different electron-rich conjugated linkers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Lu, Lin; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A new class of organic dyes based on 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline are synthesized and applied as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Different electron-rich π-conjugated bridges such as oligothiophene, thienyl carbazole, and furyl carbazole are introduced to cooperate with 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline and cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group to give the dyes JY01, JY02, and JY03, respectively. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are further investigated. All three dyes show good performances as photosensitizers. In particular, DSSC based on JY01 shows the best photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density of 16.0 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage of 708 mV and a fill factor of 0.67, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.62% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2).

  9. Sol-gel-derived silica films with tailored microstructures for applications requiring organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, M.N.; Prabakar, S.; Brinker, C.J. |

    1994-09-01

    A three-step sol-gel process was developed to prepare organic dye-doped thin films with tailored porosity for applications in chemical sensing and optoelectronics. Varying the acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis steps of sols prepared from tetraethoxysilane with identical final H{sub 2}O/Si ratios, dilution factors and pH resulted in considerably different distributions of the silicate polymers in the sol (determined by {sup 29}Si NMR) and considerably different structures for the polymer clusters (determined by SAXS). During film formation these kinetic effects cause differences in the packing and collapse of the silicate network, leading to thin films with different refractive indices and volume fraction porosities. Under conditions where small pore-plugging species were avoided, the porosities of as-deposited films could be varied by aging the sol prior to film deposition. This strategy, which relies on the growth and aggregation of fractal polymeric clusters, is compatible with the low temperature and near neutral pH requirements of organic dyes.

  10. Preparation of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites under electric furnace and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Soo; Ko, Weon Bae

    2014-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were synthesized from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and thiourea under microwave irradiation. The ZnS-graphene nanocomposites were calcined in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C under an inert argon gas atmosphere for 2 hr. The heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. After heat treatment, ZnS-graphene nanocomposites had a more porous and larger surface area, than the unheated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites in the degradation of organic dyes, such as methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B, under ultraviolet light at 254 nm by UV- vis spectrophotometer was evaluated and compared with that of the unheated ZnS nanoparticles, heated ZnS nanoparticles, unheated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites. Among the our experimental results as a photocatalyst, the heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites exhibited remarkably higher photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes as compared to other nanomaterials such as unheated ZnS nanoparticles and heated ZnS-graphene nanocomposites.

  11. Preparation of C60 Nanowhiskers-SnO2 Nanocomposites and Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Soo; Ko, Weon Bae

    2015-10-01

    C60 nanowhiskers were prepared using a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method. Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a reaction of tin (IV) chloride pentahydrate with ammonium nitrate in an electric furnace. The C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites were calcined in an electric furnace at 700 °C under an inert argon gas atmosphere for 2 h. The crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity of the C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites in the degradation of the organic dyes, such as methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, and brilliant green, under ultraviolet light at 254 nm by UV-vis spectrophotometry was evaluated and compared with that of C60 nanowhiskers and SnO2 nanoparticles. The experimental results showed that C60 nanowhiskers-SnO2 nanocomposites exhibited remarkably higher photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes compared to C60 nanowhiskers and SnO2 nanoparticles.

  12. Hierarchical assembly of metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes using DNA origami scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Do, Jaekwon; Roller, Eva-Maria; Zhang, Tao; Schüller, Verena J.; Nickels, Philipp C.; Feldmann, Jochen; Liedl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of nanoscale elements into three-dimensional structures with precise shapes and sizes is important in fields such as nanophotonics, metamaterials and biotechnology. Short molecular linkers have previously been used to create assemblies of nanoparticles, but the approach is limited to small interparticle distances, typically less than 10 nm. Alternatively, DNA origami can precisely organize nanoscale objects over much larger length scales. Here we show that rigid DNA origami scaffolds can be used to assemble metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and organic dyes into hierarchical nanoclusters that have a planet-satellite-type structure. The nanoclusters have a tunable stoichiometry, defined distances of 5-200 nm between components, and controllable overall sizes of up to 500 nm. We also show that the nanoscale components can be positioned along the radial DNA spacers of the nanostructures, which allows short- and long-range interactions between nanoparticles and dyes to be studied in solution. The approach could, in the future, be used to construct efficient energy funnels, complex plasmonic architectures, and porous, nanoengineered scaffolds for catalysis.

  13. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes at gold nanoparticles impregnated silica materials: influence of functional groups and surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Pal, Manas

    2011-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three different silica based sol-gel matrixes with and without surfactants are prepared. They are characterized by UV-vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The size and shape of Au NPs varied with the organo-functional group present in the sol-gel matrix. In the presence of mercaptopropyl functionalized organo-silica, large sized (200-280 nm) spherical Au NPs are formed whereas in the presence of aminopropyl functionalized organo-silica small sized (5-15 nm) Au NPs are formed inside the tube like organo-silica. Further, it is found that Au NPs act as efficient catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes. The catalytic rate constant is evaluated from the decrease in absorbance of the dye molecules. Presence of cationic or anionic surfactants greatly influences the catalytic reaction. The other factors like hydrophobicity of the organic dyes, complex formation of the dyes with anionic surfactants, repulsion between dyes and cationic surfactant, adsorption of dyes on the Au NPs also play important role on the reaction rate.

  14. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of organic azo dyes by using strength of nonlinearity parameter and Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiei, H.; Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, two chemically synthesized organic azo dyes, 2-(2,5-Dichloro-phenyazo)-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (i)) and 5,5-Dimethyl-2-tolylazo-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (ii)), have been studied from optical Kerr nonlinearity point of view. These materials were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Experiments were performed using a continous wave diode-pumped laser at 532 nm wavelength in three intensities of the laser beam. Nonlinear absorption (β), refractive index (n2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)) of dyes, were calculated. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of dyes have been calculated from two methods; 1) using theoretical fits and experimental data in the Z-scan technique, 2) using the strength of nonlinearity curves. The values of β obtained from both of the methods were approximately the same. The results demonstrated that azo dye (ii) displays better nonlinearity and has a lower two-photon absorption threshold than azo dye (i). Calculated parameter related to strength of nonlinearity for azo dye (ii) was higher than azo dye (i), It may be due to presence of methyl in azo dye (ii) instead of chlorine in azo dye (i). Furthermore, The measured values of third order susceptibility of azo dyes were from the order of 10-9 esu . These azo dyes can be suitable candidate for optical switching devices.

  15. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells.

  16. Investigation of electrodeposited cobalt sulphide counter electrodes and their application in next-generation dye sensitized solar cells featuring organic dyes and cobalt-based redox electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Kapoor, Raman; Dutta, Viresh; Frey, Julien; Moehl, Thomas; Grätzel, Michael; Mathew, Simon; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2015-02-01

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) films are potentiodynamically deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates employing one, three and five sweep cycles (CoS-I, CoS-III and CoS-V respectively). Analysis of the CoS-III film by impedance spectroscopy reveals a lower charge transfer resistance (RCT) than that measured for Pt CE (0.75 Ω cm-2 and 0.85 Ω cm-2, respectively). The CoS films are used as counter electrodes (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) featuring the combination of a high absorption coefficient organic dye (C218) and the cobalt-based redox electrolyte [Co(bpy)3]2/3+. DSSCs fabricated with the CoS-III CE yield the highest short-circuit current density (JSC) of 12.84 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 805 mV and overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.72% under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm-2). These values are comparable to the performance of an analogous cell fabricated with the Pt CE (PCE = 6.94%). Owing to relative lower cost (due to the inherit earth abundance of Co) and non-toxicity, CoS can be considered as a promising alternative to the more expensive Pt as a CE material for next-generation DSSCs that utilize organic dyes and cobalt-based redox electrolytes.

  17. Connecting Direct C-H Arylation Reactions with Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Shortcut to D-A-π-A Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Han; Lu, Te-Jui; Cai, Deng-Jhou; Lee, Kun-Mu; Liu, Ching-Yuan

    2015-10-12

    A step-economical synthetic strategy is developed to target thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD)-based D-A-π-A organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Through sequential Pd-catalyzed direct C-H (hetero)arylation reaction, synthesis of the push-pull-type small molecules is reduced from the traditional six steps to two steps. In this report, we focus on the optimization of the key C-H monoarylation of TPD by screening ligands, acid additives, bases, and solvents. The reaction proves versatile toward new D-A-π-A organic dyes with a variety of different donor groups, and several derivatives are efficiently prepared under optimum reaction conditions. The sensitive aldehyde functionality that is a required intermediate for conversion into anchoring groups for TiO2 is well tolerated. Based on our synthetic study, DSSCs are fabricated and characterized using two designed sensitizers. The photovoltaic characterization of the devices affords an open-circuit voltage of 0.60-0.69 V, a short-circuit current density of 10.85-11.07 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 69.9-70.8 %, which corresponds to an overall power conversion efficiency of 4.61-5.33 %.

  18. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel-based assemblies for organic dye removal from water.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Deepika; Serpe, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylic acid (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgel assemblies (aggregates) were synthesized via polymerization of the cross-linker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in the presence of microgels in solution. In this case, the microgels were entrapped in the polymerized cross-linker network. The aggregates were investigated for their ability to remove the organic, azo dye molecule 4-(2-hydroxy-1-napthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Orange II) from water at both room and elevated temperatures. These results were compared with unaggregated microgels that were previously reported (Parasuraman, D.; Serpe, M. J. ACS. Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2011, 3, 2732.). It was found that the removal efficiency increased at elevated temperature, most likely due to the thermoresponsive nature of the pNIPAm-based aggregates, which expel water of solvation and deswell at higher temperature and reswell when they are cooled back to room temperature. Furthermore, increasing the number of cycles the aggregates are heated and cooled enhanced the percent removal of the dye from water. We also evaluated the effect of increasing cross-linker concentration on the removal efficiency, where we found the removal efficiency to increase with increasing cross-linker concentration in the aggregates. The maximum removal efficiency reached by the microgel aggregates at elevated temperatures was calculated to be 73.1%. This enhanced uptake is due to the presence of larger internal volume between the microgels in the aggregates, which the individual microgels lack. Control studies reveal that the structure and hydrophobicity of the aggregates lead to the enhanced uptake efficiencies and is not due to the presence of BIS alone. We determined that aggregates leak 75.6% of the dye that was originally removed from solution. The removal of Orange II by the aggregates at room temperature was fit by a Langmuir sorption isotherm.

  19. First principles study of thieno[2,3-b]indole-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Screen novel π-linkers and explore the interface between photosensitizers and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yaping; Wu, Wenpeng; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Weiyi; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jinglai

    2016-09-01

    Four organic compounds with different π-linkers are theoretically explored as potential photosensitizers for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Besides the isolated dyes, the interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 anatase (101) surface are theoretically investigated. The overall conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs is evaluated by the following items on the basis of the isolated dyes, including structures, absorption spectrum, energy gap, open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and reorganization energies (λtotal). After adsorbed on the TiO2 surface, the electron would be efficiently injected from dye into the TiO2 surface because of the increased of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level of the dyes, the decreased of the conduction band of TiO2 surface, and the narrowed band gaps for both dye and TiO2. Moreover, the injection times are in a reasonable range indicating that they are ideal dyes. Combination of all items, the performance of THI-2T-C (See Scheme 1, the sketch structures of all the investigated isolated dyes) stands out from the rest investigated dyes from the theoretical viewpoint. Only enlargement of the π-linker extent is not a smart choice, since the nature of π-linker plays a more important role in affecting the performance of DSSCs.

  20. Detailed analysis of ultrathin fluorescent red dye interlayer for organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Yue; Yu, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Na-Na; Jiang, Ya-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of an ultrathin 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) fluorescent dye layer at donor/acceptor heterojunction on the performance of small-molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell is studied. The structure of OPV cell is of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/DCJTB/fullerene (C60)/bathophenanthroline (Bphen)/Ag. The results show that open circuit voltage (VOC) increases to 0.57 V as the film thickness of DCJTB layer increases from 0.2 to 2.0 nm. By using an equivalent circuit model, the enhancement of VOC is found to be attributed to the reduced reverse saturation current density (JS) which is due to the lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level in DCJTB than that in CuPc. Also, the short circuit current density (JSC) is affected when the DCJTB layer becomes thicker, resulting from the high series resistance RSA due to the low charge carrier mobility of fluorescent red dye.

  1. Tunable organic distributed feedback dye laser device excited through Förster mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Hinode, Taiki

    2017-03-01

    Tunable organic distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser performances are re-investigated and characterized. The slab-type waveguide DFB device consists of air/active layer/glass substrate. Active layer consisted of tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3), 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) dye, and polystyrene (PS) matrix. Effective energy transfer from Alq3 to DCM through Förster mechanism enhances the laser emission. Slope efficiency in the range of 4.9 and 10% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.10-0.15 mJ cm-2 (lower threshold), which is due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing. Typical slope efficiency for lasing in the range of 2.0 and 3.0% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.25-0.30 mJ cm-2 (higher threshold). The tuning wavelength for the laser emission is ranged from 620 to 645 nm depending on the ASE region.

  2. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanabal, R.; Bose, A. Chandra; Velmathi, S.

    2015-06-24

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The functional group of the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  3. A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework, (Me2NH2)2[Zn2L1.5bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H4L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH3)2NH2+, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO3.

  4. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  5. A novel structural Fenton-like nanocatalyst with highly improved catalytic performance for generalized preparation of iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanghui; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Hongping; Wang, Jianzhi; Zhou, Lincheng; Zhao, Tianqi; Huang, Zhihao; Jiang, Haifei

    2015-05-01

    FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles with a soap-bubble-like shell have been synthesized, and the materials exhibit excellent Fenton catalytic performance. More importantly, FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles as catalysts and precursors could catalyze organic dye molecules to form iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

  6. Molecular engineering and theoretical investigation of organic sensitizers based on indoline dyes for quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Wenjun; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Lei; Guo, Shaofu; Wei, Xiaoru; Zhu, Weihong; Liu, Qingbin

    2011-05-21

    Novel indoline dyes, I-1-I-4, with structural modification of π-linker group in the D-π-A system have been synthesized and fully characterized. Molecular engineering through expanding the π-linker segment has been performed. The ground and excited state properties of the dyes have been studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Larger π-conjugation linkers would lead to broader spectral response and higher molar extinction coefficient but would decrease dye-loaded amount on TiO(2) electrode and LUMO level. While applied in DSSCs, the variation trends in short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) were observed to be opposite to each other. The internal reasons were studied by experimental data and theoretical calculations in detail. Notably, I-2 showed comparable photocurrent values with liquid and quasi-solid state electrolyte, which suggested through molecular engineering of organic sensitizers the dilemma between optical absorption and charge diffusion lengths can be balanced well. Through studies of photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical calculation results, the internal relations between chemical structure and efficiency have been revealed, which serve to enhance our knowledge regarding design and optimization of new sensitizers for quasi-solid state DSSCs, providing a powerful strategy for prediction of photovoltaic performances.

  7. Molecular engineering of organic dyes with a hole-extending donor tail for efficient all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Hsu-Yang; Wu, Hui-Ping; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2015-08-10

    We report a new concept for the design of metal-free organic dyes (OD5-OD9) with an extended donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) molecular framework, in which the donor terminal unit is attached by a hole-extending side chain to retard back electron transfer and charge recombination; the π-bridge component contains varied thiophene-based substituents to enhance the light-harvesting ability of the device. The best dye (OD9) has a D-A-π-A configuration with the hexyloxyphenylthiophene (HPT) side chain as a hole-extension component and a benzothiadiazole (BTD) internal acceptor as a π-extension component. The co-sensitization of OD9 with the new porphyrin dye LW24 enhanced the light-harvesting ability to 800 nm; thus, a power conversion efficiency 5.5 % was achieved. Photoinduced absorption (PIA) and transient absorption spectral (TAS) techniques were applied to account for the observed trend of the open-circuit voltage (VOC ) of the devices. This work provides insights into the molecular design, photovoltaic performance, and kinetics of charge recombination.

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of organic dyes having a double D-π-A configurations for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanay, Mannix P.; Choi, Kyu-Seok; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Dong Hee

    2017-02-01

    Two spiro-like organic dyes linked at the thiophene bridge (KS-11 and KS-12) together with the original rod-shaped D-π-A configuration (C1) were designed, synthesized, and characterized based on their electronic structure, and determine the photophysical and photovoltaic properties for its application in dye-sensitized solar cells. Compared to C1, the double D-π-A spiro-like configuration, which consists of two separated light-harvesting moieties, was found to be beneficial to photocurrent generation provided that they are separated properly to prevent intramolecular exciton annihilation. This was observed when KS-11, which is linked at the β-position of the thiophene moiety of D-π-A, was compared with KS-12, where the two D-π-A are linked with an additional thiophene using a α-β linkage. The results show that KS-12 produced a 20% and 17% increase in photovoltaic efficiency under simulated AM 1.5G solar irradiation compared to KS-11 and C1, respectively. This increase in photovoltaic performance is credited mostly to the reduction of recombination effects and the increase in the density of states at the semiconductor surface due to high dye loading and better charge-transfer properties.

  9. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed.

  10. Preparation of magnetic Ni@graphene nanocomposites and efficient removal organic dye under assistance of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Guo, Jianhui; Yang, Qing; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Zhou, Jingfang; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report a facile one-step synthesis of Ni@graphene nanocomposite microspheres (NGs) in hydrazine hydrate solution under ultrasound conditions. During the ultrasonic process, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced effectively under mild conditions and Ni nanoparticles were simultaneously formed and anchored on graphene sheets, which act as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. The target products exhibit excellent performance for fast and efficient removal of dye contaminants, rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution, under assistance of ultrasound. Finally, the nanocomposites can be easily separated from solution by a magnet. Furthermore, higher content of graphene can be produced under sonication, which facilitates faster and more efficient removal of organic contaminates in the solution. The nanocomposites were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. The microwave-assisted photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jung, S C

    2011-01-01

    In this study, TiO(2) photo-catalyst balls produced by the chemical vapour deposition method were used for degradation of organic dyes in which simultaneous irradiation of microwave and UV was evaluated. An electrodeless UV lamp that emits UV upon the irradiation of microwave was developed to irradiate microwave and UV simultaneously. The degradation reaction rate was shown to be higher with higher microwave intensity, under stronger acidic or basic conditions, and with a larger amount of O(2) gas or H(2)O(2) addition. The effect of addition of H(2)O(2) was not significant when photo-catalysis was used without additional microwave irradiation or when microwave was irradiated without the use of photo-catalysts. When H(2)O(2) was added under simultaneous use of photo-catalysis and microwave irradiation, however, considerably higher degradation reaction rates were observed.

  12. Silver nanoparticles on amidoxime fibers for photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes in waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Tao, Ting-Xian; Zhang, Lifeng; Fong, Hao

    2010-11-01

    Herein we report that a new photo-catalyst of silver nanoparticles attached on the surface of amidoxime fibers was developed and evaluated. The nanoparticles had different sizes from tens to hundreds of nanometers and varied shapes of cube, plate, and sphere; and there were coordination interactions between the nanoparticles and the amidoxime fibers. The developed photo-catalyst demonstrated high activities for degradation of an organic dye of methyl orange, particularly under sunlight; and the catalyst could be re-activated for several times by simple tetrahydrofuran treatment. The results also suggested that the silver nanoparticles initiated and/or mediated the photo-oxidation reaction of methyl orange through localized surface plasmon resonance under sunlight, and the photo-catalytic activities were primarily determined by sizes and/or surface-to-mass ratios instead of shapes of the silver nanoparticles.

  13. Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2013-10-01

    Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF⊃dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry-Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640 nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices.

  14. Hierarchically porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon-carbon-nitrogen (Si-C-N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg.g-1 and 1084.5 mg.g-1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si-C-N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants.

  15. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  16. Synthesis of magnetic nanoporous carbon from metal-organic framework for the fast removal of organic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Caina; Wang, Yanen; Li, Menghua; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (Fe3O4/NPC) was successfully synthesized by using MOF-5 as carbon precursor and Fe salt as magnetic precursor. The texture properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Fe3O4/NPC had a high surface area with strong magnetic strength. Its adsorption behavior was tested by its adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that the Fe3O4/NPC had a high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate, and easy magnetic separabilty. Moreover, the adsorbent could be easily regenerated by washing it with ethanol. The Fe3O4/NPC can be used as a good alternative for the effective removal of organic dyes from wastewater.

  17. Selective degradation of organic dyes by a resin modified Fe-based metal-organic framework under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tirusew; Chen, Chun-cheng; Jia, Man-ke; Johnson, David; Li, Ruiping; Huang, Ying-ping

    2017-02-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of porous crystalline materials have attracted attention because of potential applications in environmental remediation. In this work, an Fe-based MOF, FeBTC (BTC = 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid), was successfully modified with Amberlite IRA-200 resin to yield a novel heterogeneous photocatalyst, A@FeBTC. The modification resulted in higher photocatalytic activity than FeBTC under the same conditions. After 60 min of visible light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm) 99% of rhodamine B was degraded. The modification lowers the zeta potential, enhancing charge-based selective adsorption and subsequent photocatalytic degradation of cationic dye pollutants. The composite also improved catalyst stability and recyclability by significantly reducing loss of iron leaching. Photoluminescence studies show that introduction of the resin reduces the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers thereby improving the photocatalytic activity of the composite. Finally, a plausible photocatalytic reaction mechanism is proposed.

  18. Arthroscopic decompression with indigo carmine for treating paralabral cysts in the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kabuto, Y; Morihara, T; Furukawa, R; Kida, Y; Sukenari, T; Onishi, O; Minami, M; Arai, Y; Fujiwara, H; Kubo, T

    2016-12-01

    Paralabral cysts in the shoulder are a relatively rare pathology. It is sometimes difficult to detect the location of a paralabral cyst in the shoulder using arthroscopy, and it can be difficult to confirm sufficient decompression by arthroscopy. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent arthroscopic decompression for a paralabral cyst in the shoulder. Indigo carmine was injected into the cyst under ultrasonography guidance just before the operation. The leakage point of indigo carmine was detected using arthroscopy. Arthroscopic decompression was performed until the indigo carmine was completely discharged. Her shoulder pain, limited range of motion, and muscle weakness during abduction and external rotation improved postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the disappearance of the cyst. Arthroscopic decompression using an ultrasonography-guided injection of indigo carmine is a useful treatment for a paralabral cyst in the shoulder.

  19. Direct comparison of highly efficient solution- and vacuum-processed organic solar cells based on merocyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Nils M; Steinmann, Vera; Bürckstümmer, Hannah; Hwang, Jaehyung; Hertel, Dirk; Würthner, Frank; Meerholz, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    Identically configured bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine dye donor and fullerene acceptor compounds (see figure) are manufactured either from solution or by vacuum deposition, to enable a direct comparison. Whereas the former approach is more suitable for screening purposes, the latter approach affords higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency.

  20. Morphological influence of TiO2 nanostructures (nanozigzag, nanohelics and nanorod) on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sadaf Bashir; Hou, Mengjing; Shuang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical nanostructures have drawn significant attention and incredible performance in photodriven chemical conversion area due to its unique physicochemical properties. Herein, we study the morphological influence of TiO2 nanostructures on photocatalytic degradation of different organic dyes methyl blue, methyl violet and methyl orange present in industrial wastewater. Nanorod, nanohelics and nanozigzag TiO2 nanofilms were fabricated by using galancing angle deposition technique (GLAD). TiO2 nanofilms were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and raman analysis. BET surface area analysis were carried out by using nitrogen adsorption desorption curves. The results show that TiO2 morphology had great influence on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes due to difference in specific surface area and pore volume of nanostructures. The photocatalytic degradation experiments were carried out for three hours under UV-vis light irradiation. Catalysis recycling and organic dyes concentration influence were also studied. In case of high concentration of organic dyes, negligible degradation rate is observed. TiO2 nanozigzag films show better degradation performance than nanohelics and nanorod due to presence of large surface area for reaction, higher porosity with dispersion of active sites at different length scales of pores and presence of oxygen vacancies.

  1. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the absorption spectra of organic dyes differing by the conjugation sequence: illusion of negative solvatochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Absorption peak maxima of two organic dyes differing by the position of the methine unit differ by 61 nm in dioxane and 128 nm in acetonnitrile. The difference is not reproduced by TDDFT using ab initio or hybrid functionals. TDDFT errors are different between the molecules due to a different albeit small extent of charge transfer, leading to a qualitative failure of TDDFT to predict relative energetics of the dyes. The TDDFT errors in non-polar solvents (such as dioxane) could be corrected based on the approach of Peach et al. (J. Chem. Phy. 128, 044118 (2008)). Here, we focus on the effect on the absorption spectrum of a polar solvent, specifically of the different between the two molecules sign of the solvatochromic shift vs. dioxane. Using the corrrection due to Peach et al, the absolute TDDFT errors can be brought within accetable ranges of 0.2-0.3 eV with the PCM solvent model, and the blue shift vs.dioxane is reporoduced, although both dyes are predicted to exhibit positive solvatochromism. The inclusion of explicit solvent molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the dye did not appreciably change neither TDDFT energies nor the correction term. These results show the importance of a more careful assessment of computational errors in the strategy of computationaly dye design by changing the conjugation order, where they are expected to be more important than in the case of an extension of the size of conjugation, and more so when polar solvents are used.

  3. Photoconductivity of organic polymer films doped with porous silicon nanoparticles and ionic polymethine dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Davidenko, N. A. Skrichevsky, V. A.; Ishchenko, A. A.; Karlash, A. Yu.; Mokrinskaya, E. V.

    2009-05-15

    Features of electrical conductivity and photoconductivity of polyvinylbutyral films containing porous silicon nanoparticles and similar films doped with cationic and anionic polymethine dyes are studied. Sensitization of the photoelectric effect by dyes with different ionicities in films is explained by the possible photogeneration of holes and electrons from dye molecules and the intrinsic bipolar conductivity of porous silicon nanoparticles. It is assumed that the electronic conductivity in porous silicon nanoparticles is higher in comparison with p-type conductivity.

  4. Organic photosensitizers with a heteroleptic dual donor for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Young Sik

    2012-04-01

    Using DFT and TDDFT calculations, we investigated the substitution effect in the electronic and optical properties of dye sensitizers with a dual donor composed of triphenylamine and/or indoline moieties. Due to replacement with the dual donor moieties, the HOMO levels were split into HOMO and HOMO - 1 levels, and the bandgaps between the HOMO and LUMO levels decreased, leading to the creation of bathochromically extended absorption spectra. Nearly degenerated splitting of the HOMO levels resulted from the similarity of the electronic structure between the HOMO and the HOMO - 1 levels, delocalized over both dual-donor moieties, when replacing the dual donors. It was shown that the additional electron-donating group creates an additional absorption band and causes a cascading two-electron process aiding the charge separation process. Owing to a more panchromatic attribute, easier energy transfer and feasible retardation of the recombination between the injected electrons and the electrolyte, it is expected that dyeTI will show better performance than the other dyes (dyeT dyeTT and dyeIT) as denoted here in terms of the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This work presents the probable benefits of dye sensitizers with dual-donor moieties and provides insight into the development of more efficient dye sensitizers for DSSCs through modification of the Frontier molecular orbitals.

  5. Theoretical study of an asymmetric A-π-D-π-D-π-A' tribranched organic sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Hyeong; Kim, Young Sik

    2016-08-01

    An asymmetric A-π-D-π-D-π-A' tribranched organic dye (dye1) with cyanoacrylic acid and indolinum carboxyl acid as electron acceptors and triphenylamine as an electron donor was designed and theoretically investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Dye1 was compared to reference well-known dyes with single electron acceptors (D5 and JYL-SQ6). Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used to estimate the photovoltaic properties of the dyes. Due to the different lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels of each acceptor and the energy antenna of the dual electron donor (D-π-D), the absorption spectra of the branches displayed different shapes. If the overall properties are considered, the asymmetric A-π-D-π-D-π-A' tribranched organic dye exhibited a high conversion efficiency performance for DSSCs. The findings of this work suggest that optimizing the branch of electron donors and acceptors in dye sensitizers based on asymmetric A-π-D-π-D-π-A' tribranched organic dye produces good photovoltaic properties for DSSCs.

  6. A metal-organic tetrahedron as a redox vehicle to encapsulate organic dyes for photocatalytic proton reduction.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

    2015-03-25

    The design of artificial systems that mimic highly evolved and finely tuned natural photosynthetic systems is a subject of intensive research. We report herein a new approach to constructing supramolecular systems for the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water by encapsulating an organic dye molecule into the pocket of a redox-active metal-organic polyhedron. The assembled neutral Co4L4 tetrahedron consists of four ligands and four cobalt ions that connect together in alternating fashion. The cobalt ions are coordinated by three thiosemicarbazone NS chelators and exhibit a redox potential suitable for electrochemical proton reduction. The close proximity between the redox site and the photosensitizer encapsulated in the pocket enables photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of the photosensitizer to the cobalt-based catalytic sites via a powerful pseudo-intramolecular pathway. The modified supramolecular system exhibits TON values comparable to the highest values reported for related cobalt/fluorescein systems. Control experiments based on a smaller tetrahedral analogue of the vehicle with a filled pocket and a mononuclear compound resembling the cobalt corner of the tetrahedron suggest an enzymatic dynamics behavior. The new, well-elucidated reaction pathways and the increased molarity of the reaction within the confined space render these supramolecular systems superior to other relevant systems.

  7. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g−1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g−1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g−1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π–π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g−1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L−1, which increased to 245 mg g−1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L−1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  8. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH2)6N4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant-TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2x10(-7) g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96x10(-8) g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62x10(-5) s-1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Organic Dye Effects on DNAPL Entry Pressure in Water Saturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, G.M.

    2001-10-02

    One of three diazo dyes with the same fundamental structure have been used in most studies of DNAPL behavior in porous media to stain the NAPL: Sudan III, Sudan IV, or Oil-Red-O. The dyes are generally implicitly assumed to not influence DNAPL behavior. That assumption was tested using simple entry pressure experiments.

  10. Phenothiazine-sensitized organic solar cells: effect of dye anchor group positioning on the cell performance.

    PubMed

    Hart, Aaron S; K C, Chandra Bikram; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Karr, Paul A; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-11-01

    Effect of positioning of the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group on ring periphery of phenothiazine dye on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. Two types of dyes, one having substitution on the C-3 aromatic ring (Type 1) and another through the N-terminal (Type 2), have been synthesized for this purpose. Absorption and fluorescence studies have been performed to visualize the effect of substitution pattern on the spectral coverage and electrochemical studies to monitor the tuning of redox levels. B3LYP/6-31G* studies are performed to visualize the frontier orbital location and their significance in charge injection when surface modified on semiconducting TiO₂. New DSSCs have been built on nanocrystalline TiO₂ according to traditional two-electrode Grätzel solar cell setup with a reference cell based on N719 dye for comparison. The lifetime of the adsorbed phenothiazine dye is found to be quenched significantly upon immobilizing on TiO₂ suggesting charge injection from excited dye to semiconducting TiO₂. The performances of the cells are found to be prominent for solar cells made out of Type 1 dyes compared to Type 2 dyes. This trend has been rationalized on the basis of spectral, electrochemical, computational, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.

  11. Novel metal-organic photocatalysts: synthesis, characterization and decomposition of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Gopal Reddy, N B; Murali Krishna, P; Kottam, Nagaraju

    2015-02-25

    An efficient method for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous medium was developed using metal-organic complexes. Two novel complexes were synthesized using, Schiff base ligand, N'-[(E)-(4-ethylphenyl)methylidene]-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide (HL) and Ni(II) (Complex 1)/Co(II) (Complex 2) chloride respectively. These complexes were characterized using microanalysis, various spectral techniques. Spectral studies reveal that the complexes exhibit square planar geometry with ligand coordination through azomethine nitrogen and enolic oxygen. The effects of catalyst dosage, irradiation time and aqueous pH on the photocatalytic activity were studied systematically. The photocatalytic activity was found to be more efficient in the presence of Ni(II) complexes than the Co(II) complex. Possible mechanistic aspects were discussed.

  12. High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells based on low-cost commercial P25 TiO2 and organic dye.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiong; Xue, Zhaosheng; Wang, Long; Cheng, Yueming; Liu, Bin

    2012-03-01

    High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on low-cost commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2) and organic indoline dye D149 have been fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with compression post-treatment at room temperature. The pressed EPD electrode outperformed the sintered EPD electrode and as-prepared EPD electrode in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. About 150% and 180% enhancement in power conversion efficiency have been achieved in DSC devices with sintering and compression post-treatment as compared to the as-prepared electrode, respectively. Several characterizations including intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra have been employed to reveal the nature of improvement with post-treatment. Experimental results indicate that the sintering and compression post-treatment are beneficial to improve the electron transport and thus lead to the enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the compression post-treatment is more efficient than sintering post-treatment in improving interparticle connection in the as-prepared EPD electrode. Under optimized conditions, the conversion efficiency of plastic devices with D149-sensitized P25 TiO(2) photoanode has reached 5.76% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)). This study demonstrates that the EPD combined with compression post-treatment provides a way to fabricate highly efficient plastic photovoltaic devices.

  13. From stimuli-responsive polymorphic organic dye crystals to photoluminescent cationic open-framework metal phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2012-06-20

    Four photoluminescent dye crystals, TPB-n (n = 1-3) and TPCH, have been synthesized in isolation from carbon-carbon coupling of 4,4'-trimethylene-dipyridine (tmdp) in the absence of organic solvent and catalyst via in situ one-pot metal/ligand oxidative-dehydrogenation reactions. Large crystals have been obtained and readily separated from reaction products without the need for purification. Their structures were characterized: TPB and TPCH represent two dissimilar oxidized forms of tmdp dimers; TPCH was less oxidized but accompanied with partial hydrolysis with molecular formula further confirmed by FAB-MASS analysis. They exhibit distinct photoluminescence (PL) with quantum efficiency measured up to 42%. TPB-2 and TPB-3 are two polymorphic dihydrates, stimuli-responsive toward photoluminescence color changes; both can transform to TPB-1 upon gentle heating. Importantly, the three TPB-n crystals establish the first tetrapyridyl-type ligands adapted by metal phosphates to create a cationic luminescent framework, NTHU-12. This study serves as an inspiring route beyond conventional C-C bond formation reactions and has generated four tmdp dimers in isolation. The facile syntheses have resulted in ample production of a rare type of tetrapyridyl ligands, leading to the discovery of the first positively charged hybrid topology in nanoporous solids. The features of the four luminescent tmdp dimers and NTHU-12 embodied in synthesis, structure, and optical property are reported.

  14. Investigation of 1H NMR chemical shifts of organic dye with hydrogen bonds and ring currents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Soo; Won, Yong Sun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Jae Hong

    2011-04-07

    The (1)H NMR chemical shifts were theoretically computed for the organic dyes 2-(2,6-dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-malononitrile (1), cyano-(2,6-dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-acetic acid methyl ester (2), 2-(2,6-bis(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-malononitrile (3), and methyl 2-(2,6-bis(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-2-cyanoacetate (4) at the GIAO/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Moreover, the intramolecular rotational barriers of the molecules were calculated to evaluate the internal flexibility with respect to the torsional degrees of freedom, and the nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICS) were employed to analyze the ring currents. The difference was explained in terms of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and ring currents of the molecules. The (1)H NMR spectra were reproduced by experiments for the comparison with computationally constructed data. Our results suggest a good guideline in interpreting (1)H NMR chemical shifts using computational methods and furthermore a reliable perspective for designing molecular structures.

  15. Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

  16. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  17. Preparation of graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites by heat treatment and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum Hwi; Ko, Weon Bae

    2013-11-01

    ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by combining a solution containing zinconyl chloride in distilled water with a NH4OH solution under microwave irradiation. Graphene and ZrO2 nanocomposites were synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for 2 hours. The heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. The photocatalytic effect of the heated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites was compared with that of unheated graphene nanoparticles, heated graphene nanoparticles, and unheated graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposites in organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B) under ultraviolet light at 254 nm.

  18. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ► Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ► The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ► Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  19. Resonance energy transfer in conjugates of semiconductor nanocrystals and organic dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    I analyze the efficiency of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in luminescent donor-acceptor complexes based on conjugates of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and nanorods and the luminescent dyes. Semiconductor nanocrystals serve either as FRET donors or acceptors. Experimentally observed reduced FRET efficiency in complexes of nanorods and dye molecules as compared to quantum dots are found to be attributable to a distance-limited energy transfer rate in case of point-like dye dipoles and extended nanorod dipole.

  20. Simulation of solid-state dye solar cells based on organic and Perovskite sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Aldo; Gentilini, Desireé; Gagliardi, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a multiscale numerical simulation of solid-state Dye and Perovskite Solar Cells where the real morphology of the mesoporous active layer is taken into account. Band alignment and current densities are computed using the drift-diffusion model. In the case of Dye cells, a portion of the real interface is merged between two regions described using the effective medium approximation, casting light on the role of trapped states at the interface between TiO2 / Dye / hole transporting materials. A second case of study is the simulation of Perovskite Solar Cell where the performances of cells based on Alumina and Titania mesoporous layer are compared.

  1. High-temperature solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Baoquan; Lin, Bencai; Qiu, Lihua; Zhang, Yueguang; Chen, Xiaojian; Lu, Jianmei; Yan, Feng

    2012-02-14

    Organic ionic plastic crystal, 1-ethyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium iodide (P(12) I), is employed as the solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The fabricated solid-state devices show an overall power conversion efficiency of ~5.8% under AM 1.5 radiation (50 mW/cm(2) ) and excellent long-term stability at 80 °C.

  2. Modulating triphenylamine-based organic dyes for their potential application in dye-sensitized solar cells: a first principle theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Chakraborty, Arnab; Pal, Sougata; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-12-14

    By using computational methodologies based on time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) we study the opto-electronic properties of three types of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes, namely TPA-TBT-1, TPA-DBT-1, and TPA-BT-1, and these are proposed as potential candidates for photovoltaic applications. Energy band modulation has been performed by functionalizing these dyes with different electron donating and electron withdrawing groups. Photoelectron spectra and photovoltaic properties of the dyes have been investigated by a combination of DFT and TDDFT approaches. Based on the optimized molecular geometry, relative position of the frontier energy levels, and the absorption maximum of the dyes we propose some dyes offering good photovoltaic performance. At the same time, these results provide a direction for optimizing the composition of dye-metal surface nanodevices for fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  3. Photophysical studies of dipolar organic dyes that feature a 1,3-cyclohexadiene conjugated linkage: the implication of a twisted intramolecular charge-transfer state on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Chang, Che-Wei; Lin, Ju-Ling; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Yeh, Ming-Chang P; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2010-11-15

    A detailed study of the synthesis and photophysical properties of a new series of dipolar organic photosensitizers that feature a 1,3-cyclohexadiene moiety integrated into the π-conjugated structural backbone has been carried out. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on these structurally simple dyes have shown appreciable photo-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency, with the highest one up to 4.03 %. Solvent-dependent fluorescence studies along with the observation of dual emission on dye 4 b and single emission on dyes 4 a and 32 suggest that dye 4 b possesses a highly polar emissive excited state located at a lower-energy position than at the normal emissive excited state. A detailed photophysical investigation in conjunction with computational studies confirmed the twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) state to be the lowest emissive excited state for dye 4 b in polar solvents. The relaxation from higher-charge-injection excited states to the lowest TICT state renders the back-electron transfer process a forbidden one and significantly retards the charge recombination to boost the photocurrent. The electrochemical impedance under illumination and transient photovoltage decay studies showed smaller charge resistance and longer electron lifetime in 4 b-based DSSC compared to the DSSCs with reference dyes 4 a and 32, which further illustrates the positive influence of the TICT state on the performance of DSSCs.

  4. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages..., Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages... wines sold in the United States. The letter explained that because DISCUS is in the process...

  5. 2,3-Dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline-Based Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Bridges and Electron Donors on Solar Cell Performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zu-Sheng; Zang, Xu-Feng; Hua, Tao; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2015-09-16

    Five novel metal-free organic dyes DQ1-5 containing a dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (DPQ) unit were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where DPQ was employed as a π-spacer for the first time. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical calculations and photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated. All the five dyes show broad photoresponse. Especially the absorption edges of DQ3-5 extend to 800 nm on the TiO2 films. The inserted electron-rich unit 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or electron-withdrawing group benzothiadiazole (BTD) in DPQ-based dyes can greatly influence the optoelectronic properties of the dyes. In addition, the different electron donors also significantly affect the performance of the DSSCs. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar light conditions, the DQ5 sensitized solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 7.12%. The result indicates that the rigid DPQ-based organic dye is a promising candidate for efficient DSSCs.

  6. Ultrafast photoinduced relaxation dynamics of the indoline dye D149 in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Peter W; Kuhnt, Julia; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Scholz, Mirko; Ekimova, Maria; Oekermann, Torsten; Lenzer, Thomas; Oum, Kawon

    2011-11-21

    The relaxation dynamics of the indoline dye D149, a well-known sensitizer for photoelectrochemical solar cells, have been extensively characterized in various organic solvents by combining results from ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe (PSCP) spectroscopy, transient UV-pump VIS-probe spectroscopy, time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) measurements as well as steady-state absorption and fluorescence. In the steady-state spectra, the position of the absorption maximum shows only a weak solvent dependence, whereas the fluorescence Stokes shift Δν̃(F) correlates with solvent polarity. Photoexcitation at around 480 nm provides access to the S(1) state of D149 which exhibits solvation dynamics on characteristic timescales, as monitored by a red-shift of the stimulated emission and spectral development of the excited-state absorption in the transient PSCP spectra. In all cases, the spectral dynamics can be modeled by a global kinetic analysis using a time-dependent S(1) spectrum. The lifetime τ(1) of the S(1) state roughly correlates with polarity [acetonitrile (280 ps) < acetone (540 ps) < THF (720 ps) < chloroform (800 ps)], yet in alcohols it is much shorter [methanol (99 ps) < ethanol (178 ps) < acetonitrile (280 ps)], suggesting an appreciable influence of hydrogen bonding on the dynamics. A minor component with a characteristic time constant in the range 19-30 ps, readily observed in the PSCP spectra of D149 in acetonitrile and THF, is likely due to removal of vibrational excess energy from the S(1) state by collisions with solvent molecules. Additional weak fluorescence in the range 390-500 nm is observed upon excitation in the S(0)→S(2) band, which contains short-lived S(2)→S(0) emission of D149. Transient absorption signals after excitation at 377.5 nm yield an additional time constant in the subpicosecond range, representing the lifetime of the S(2) state. S(2) excitation also produces photoproducts.

  7. Microscopy of hierarchically organized TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode for dye solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eskandar, A.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2015-07-22

    Research on improving the performance of dye solar cells has various aspects of the device being investigated. This paper analyzes the deliberately hierarchized photoelectrode configuration for DSC applications to improve the performance of DSCs. Multiple layers of differently composed TiO{sub 2} particle types namely aggregates and nanoparticles were deposited to form a photoelectrode with thickness of about 12 µm. The photoelectrodes were assembled into working DSCs with an active area of 1 cm{sup 2}. Measurement for solar power conversion performance was measured under 1 sun at AM1.5 spectrum simulated sunlight. Electron microscopy for photoelectrode analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scattering Electron Microscopy with enhanced resolution. External Quantum Efficiency was measured using a purpose built instrument. Kinetics were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement with a potentiostat. The best performing DSC is of the hierarchically organized photoelectrode with a photoconversion efficiency of 4.58%, an increase of 14% in comparison to the reference samples with fully aggregates configuration. Short circuit current density, Jsc increases by about 2.223 mA cm{sup −2} relative to the blanks. The electron microscopy confirmed expected thickness at around 10 µm and layers forming the photoelectrode being hierarchically deposited with ∼20 nm TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 450 nm TiO{sub 2} aggregates mixture composition. EQE improved especially for visible region of 500-550 nm light wavelengths with 12 % increase in the response of in that region. Improvement to the diffusion coefficient as measured by the EIS contributed to the performance increase of the photoelectrode configuration under investigation.

  8. Organic solar cells with a multicharge separation structure consisting of a thin rubrene fluorescent dye for open circuit voltage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells were fabricated by inserting a thin rubrene fluorescent dye between pentacene and fullerene heterojunction with a multicharge separation (MCS) structure, which was adopted to inherently further improve maximum open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency. The morphology of organic films showed that a more surface roughness of pentacene film could be beneficial for an effective MCS interface, exciton dissociation, and charge carrier transportation. Moreover, a slight improvement of short-circuit current density when adding a 1 or 2 nm rubrene layer was also analyzed in detail based on external quantum efficiency spectra and optical transfer matrix theory.

  9. Iron phthalocyanine supported on amidoximated PAN fiber as effective catalyst for controllable hydrogen peroxide activation in oxidizing organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenbang; Han, Xu; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yu, Jiantao; Xu, Hang

    2016-12-15

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine was immobilized onto amidoximated polyacrylonitrile fiber to construct a bioinspired catalytic system for oxidizing organic dyes by H2O2 activation. The amidoxime groups greatly helped to anchor Iron(II) phthalocyanine molecules onto the fiber through coordination interaction, which has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analyses. Electron spin resonance studies indicate that the catalytic process of physically anchored Iron(II) phthalocyanine performed via a hydroxyl radical pathway, while the catalyst bonded Iron(II) phthalocyanine through coordination effect could selectively catalyze the H2O2 decomposition to generate high-valent iron-oxo species. This may result from the amidoxime groups functioning as the axial fifth ligands to favor the heterolytic cleavage of the peroxide OO bond. This feature also enables the catalyst to only degrade the dyes adjacent to the catalytic active centers and enhances the efficient utilization of H2O2. In addition, this catalyst could effectively catalyze the mineralization of organic dyes and can be easily recycled without any loss of activity.

  10. Thermoresponsive cellulose ether and its flocculation behavior for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen; Hou, Linan

    2016-01-20

    A thermoresponsive polymer, 2-hydroxy-3-butoxypropyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (HBPEC), was prepared by grafting butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) of HBPEC were varied by changing the molar substitution (MS) and salt concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HBPEC can assemble into micelles. Additionally, using Nile Red as a model dye, the performance of HBPEC for the removing Nile Red from aqueous solutions via cloud point extraction procedures was investigated in detail. The encapsulation behavior of dye in the aqueous solution of HBPEC was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscope. The experimental results indicated that 99.4% of dye was removed from the aqueous solutions, and the HBPEC was recycled and reused easily, Furthermore, the recycle efficiency (RE) and maximum loading capacity portrayed little loss with the number of cycles.

  11. Plasmonic core-shell metal-organic nanoparticles enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Meng, Weisi; Huang, Yidong

    2012-11-05

    We present an investigation on introducing core-shell Au@PVP nanoparticles (NPs) into dye-sensitized solar cells. As a novel core-shell NPs structure, Au@PVP present not only the chemical stability to iodide/triiodide electrolyte, but also the adhesiveness to dye molecules, which could help to localize most of dye molecules around plasmonic NPs, hence increasing the optical absorption consequently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device. We obtain a PCE enhancement of 30% from 3.3% to 4.3% with incorporation of Au@PVP NPs. Moreover, the device performance with different concentration of Au@PVP NPs from 0 to 12.5 wt% has been studied, and we draw the conclusion that the performance of DSCs could be well improved through enhancing the light absorption by local surface plasmon (LSP) effect from Au@PVP NPs with an optimized concentration.

  12. Filling the Green Gap of a Megadalton Photosystem I Complex by Conjugation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gordiichuk, Pavlo I; Rimmerman, Dolev; Paul, Avishek; Gautier, Daniel A; Gruszka, Agnieszka; Saller, Manfred; de Vries, Jan Willem; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A H; Manca, Marianna; Gomulya, Widianta; Matmor, Maayan; Gloukhikh, Ekaterina; Loznik, Mark; Ashkenasy, Nurit; Blom, Paul W M; Rögner, Matthias; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Richter, Shachar; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-20

    Photosynthesis is Nature's major process for converting solar into chemical energy. One of the key players in this process is the multiprotein complex photosystem I (PSI) that through absorption of incident photons enables electron transfer, which makes this protein attractive for applications in bioinspired photoactive hybrid materials. However, the efficiency of PSI is still limited by its poor absorption in the green part of the solar spectrum. Inspired by the existence of natural phycobilisome light-harvesting antennae, we have widened the absorption spectrum of PSI by covalent attachment of synthetic dyes to the protein backbone. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence reveal that energy transfer occurs from these dyes to PSI. It is shown by oxygen-consumption measurements that subsequent charge generation is substantially enhanced under broad and narrow band excitation. Ultimately, surface photovoltage (SPV) experiments prove the enhanced activity of dye-modified PSI even in the solid state.

  13. Clickable degradable aliphatic polyesters via copolymerization with alkyne epoxy esters: synthesis and postfunctionalization with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Teske, Nele S; Voigt, Julia; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-07-23

    Degradable aliphatic polyesters are the cornerstones of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics. In this paradigm, covalent modification of the NP with cell-targeting motifs and dyes can aid in guiding the NP to its destination and gaining visual confirmation. Therefore, strategies to impart chemistries along the polymer backbone that are amenable to easy modification, such as 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azide to an alkyne (the "click reaction"), could be significant. Here we present a simple and efficient way to introduce alkyne groups at high density in aliphatic polyesters without compromising their crystallinity via the copolymerization of cyclic lactones with propargyl 3-methylpentenoate oxide (PMPO). Copolymers of lactic acid and ε-caprolactone with PMPO were synthesized with up to 9 mol % alkyne content, and accessibility of the alkyne groups to the click reaction was demonstrated using several dyes commonly employed in fluorescence microscopy and imaging (Cy3, ATTO-740, and coumarin 343). In order to establish the suitability of these copolymers as nanocarriers, copolymers were formulated into NPs, and cytocompatibility, cellular uptake, and visualization studies undertaken in HeLa cells. Dye-modified NPs exhibited no quenching, remained stable in solution for at least 10 days, showed no cytotoxicity, and were readily taken up by HeLa cells. Furthermore, in addition to enabling the incorporation of multiple fluorophores within the same NP through blending of individual dye-modified copolymers, dye-modified polyesters offer advantages over physical entrapment of dye, including improved signal to noise ratio and localization of the fluorescence signal within cells, and possess the necessary prerequisites for drug delivery and imaging.

  14. A 'Plug and Play' Method to Create Water-dispersible Nanoassemblies Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer, Organic Dyes and Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arafeh, Khaled M; Asadirad, Amir M; Li, Jason Woodson; Wilson, Danielle; Wu, Tuoqi; Branda, Neil R

    2015-11-14

    In this protocol, we first describe a procedure to synthesize lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). We then demonstrate how to generate amphiphilic polymers in situ, and describe a protocol to encapsulate the prepared UCNPs and different organic dye molecules (porphyrins and diarylethenes) using polymer shells to form stable water-dispersible nanoassemblies. The nanoassembly samples containing both the UCNPs and the diarylethene organic dyes have interesting photochemical and photophysical properties. Upon 365 nm UV irradiation, the diarylethene group undergoes a visual color change. When the samples are irradiated with visible light of another specific wavelength, the color fades and the samples return to the initial colorless state. The samples also emit visible light from the UCNPs upon irradiation with 980 nm near-infrared light. The emission intensity of the samples can be tuned through alternate irradiation with UV and visible light. Modulation of fluorescence can be performed for many cycles without observable degradation of the samples. This versatile encapsulation procedure allows for the transfer of hydrophobic molecules and nanoparticles from an organic solvent to an aqueous medium. The polymer helps to maintain a lipid-like microenvironment for the organic molecules to aid in preservation of their photochemical behavior in water. Thus this method is ideal to prepare water-dispersible photoresponsive systems. The use of near-infrared light to activate upconverting nanoparticles allows for lower energy light to be used to activate photoreactions instead of more harmful ultraviolet light.

  15. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Yoon, Na-Rae; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt's dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics. PMID:24988381

  16. Doping effects of fluorinated organic dyes on the open-circuit voltage of bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tomoki; Yamashita, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated photovoltaic properties of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic absorption layer doped with fluorinated Coumarin dyes. By dilute doping of a fluorinated Coumarin dye, Coumarin 307, into poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ absorption layer, the open-circuit voltage of photovoltaic device increased by ∼90 mV without the significant degradation in the short-circuit current density. On the other hand, the doping of non-fluorinated Coumarin dye such as Coumarin 2 did not induce such the enhancement effect in the open-circuit voltage. In ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, the doping of Coumarin 307 was found to have no impact on P3HT, but the density of state of PCBM was significantly modified by the doping. The change in the density of state was confirmed also in ultraviolet absorption measurement. Possible explanations for the enhancement in the open-circuit voltage are discussed from the experimental results, and a shift of the vacuum level by the doping can be considered as a direct origin.

  17. Preparation of the GO/Pd nanocomposite and its application for the degradation of organic dyes in water.

    PubMed

    Omidvar, Afshan; Jaleh, Babak; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-06-15

    A GO/Pd nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized applying a simple method via immobilizing Pd on the surface of the graphene oxide (GO). The GO/Pd nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The surface morphology of Pd NPs was viewed by TEM, the particles are spherical with an average particle size of 11nm. The catalytic activity of the GO/Pd nanocomposite is excellent for the degradation of organic dyes such as Congo red (CR), methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous media at room temperature. For the first time, the degradation of CR, MB and MO was reported using GO/Pd nanocomposite as a heterogeneous catalyst. The excellent catalytic effect for the degradation of dyes was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at regular time intervals. When GO/Pd nanocomposite was added into the solution containing dye and NaBH4, the intensity of the strong absorption peak gradually decreased and the whole peak disappeared. It followed the pseudo-first order reaction and time of the reduction reactions is short. In addition, the catalyst can be recovered and reused up to multiple runs without any marked loss in its catalytic activity.

  18. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H; Dhananjaya, N

    2015-02-05

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB>RhB>MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  19. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: Applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C.; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H.; Dhananjaya, N.

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB > RhB > MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  20. Evaluation of the water and organic liquids extraction efficiency of Spirulina maxima dyes using thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B

    2008-01-01

    Thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography was applied for separation and quantification studies of Spirulina maxima dyes isolated from pharmaceutical formulation by a simple one-step liquid extraction. The isolation process was performed using a number of liquids, including water; 10 mM water solutions of native alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin and their hydroxypropyl derivatives; and a number of common organic liquids characterized by different polarity, namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetonitrile, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, toluene, and n-hexane. Chromatographic studies were performed on RP18W plates working inside a small thermostated horizontal chamber allowing a development distance of 45 mm. Using a mobile phase consisting of acetone-n-hexane (30 + 70, v/v) and 40 degrees C separation temperature, plate peak capacity of at least 15 spots/lane and developing time <5 min were obtained. Validation data indicated that under such conditions, with an office scanner used for chromatogram digitalization, spot quantification could be accurately performed within an analyte mass range of 2 factors. The raw quantitative data obtained from microchromatograms acquired under visible light conditions were explored using cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Chemometric investigations revealed that the best extraction liquids for isolation of dye mixtures from Spirulina samples were methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, and dichloromethane. Moreover, it was found that the liquids' parachor values could be used for estimation of the dye extraction efficiency from complex samples.

  1. Optimization of atmospheric air plasma for degradation of organic dyes in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Chaitanya; Dixit, Y; Milosavljevic, Vladimir; Bourke, Paula; Sullivan, Carl; Cullen, P J

    2017-01-01

    This study optimises the degradation of a cocktail of the dyes methyl orange and bromothymol blue by atmospheric air plasma. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the efficacy of the plasma process parameters on degradation efficiency. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimise the degradation of dyes by air plasma discharge. A second order polynomial equation was proposed to predict process efficiency. It was observed that the predicted values are significant (p < 0.001) with coefficients of determination 0.98, 0.96, 0.98 for dye degradation, pH value and ozone concentration, respectively. The analysis of variance results showed that the coefficients of the polynomials for the percentage degradation and ozone concentration responses indicated positive linear effects (p < 0.001), whereas a negative linear effect was found for pH. The positive linear effect of variable emphasises that voltage and treatment time were the most dominant factors (p < 0.001), meaning that higher degradation efficiencies are achieved with an increase in treatment duration. This study showed that a BBD model and RSM could be employed to optimize the colour degradation parameters of non-thermal plasma treated model dyes while minimising the number of experiments required.

  2. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  3. Rational Molecular Engineering of Indoline-Based D-A-π-A Organic Sensitizers for Long-Wavelength-Responsive Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Yongzhen; Zhu, Haibo; Chai, Qipeng; Liu, Jingchuan; Li, Hui; Song, Xiongrong; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-12-09

    Indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers are promising candidates for highly efficient and long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to further broaden the spectral response of the known indoline dye WS-2, we rationally engineer the molecular structure through enhancing the electron donor and extending the π-bridge, resulting in two novel indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers WS-92 and WS-95. By replacing the 4-methylphenyl group on the indoline donor of WS-2 with a more electron-rich carbazole unit, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band of dye WS-92 is slightly red-shifted from 550 nm (WS-2) to 554 nm (WS-92). In comparison, the incorporation of a larger π-bridge of cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) unit in dye WS-95 not only greatly bathochromatically tunes the absorption band to 574 nm but also largely enhances the molar extinction coefficients (ε), thus dramatically improving the light-harvesting capability. Under the standard global AM 1.5 solar light condition, the photovoltaic performances of both organic dyes have been evaluated in DSSCs on the basis of the iodide/triiodide electrolyte without any coadsorbent or cosensitizer. The DSSCs based on WS-95 display better device performance with power conversion efficiency (η) of 7.69%. The additional coadsorbent in the dye bath of WS-95 does not improve the photovoltaic performance, indicative of its negligible dye aggregation, which can be rationalized by the grafted dioctyl chains on the CPDT unit. The cosensitization of WS-95 with a short absorption wavelength dye S2 enhances the IPCE and improves the η to 9.18%. Our results indicate that extending the π-spacer is more rational than enhancing the electron donor in terms of broadening the spectral response of indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks MIL-88A hexagonal microrods as a new photocatalyst for efficient decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Ma, Lin; Ke, Fei; Peng, Fu-Min; Xu, Geng-Sheng; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Yuan, Yu-Peng

    2014-03-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) MIL-88A hexagonal microrods as a new photocatalyst show an active performance for methylene blue (MB) dye decolorization using visible light. MB decolorization over the MIL-88A photocatalyst follows first-order kinetics. The addition of a H2O2 electron acceptor can markedly enhance the photocatalytic MB decoloration performance of MIL-88A. Moreover, MIL-88A showed a very stable activity for MB decoloration after four consecutive usages. Owing to the advantages of the visible light response, low cost and abundance in nature, this active MIL-88A MOF photocatalyst would have great potential for environmental purification.

  5. The hazardous effects of three natural food dyes on developmental stages and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Handan; Semerdöken, Sıdıka; Çolak, Deniz Altun; Ayar, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, food dyes obtained from herbal, animal, microbial and mineral sources are widely used as food additives. In this study, the toxic effects of three different natural food dyes (carmine, turmeric and annatto) on 72 ± 4 h larvae of Oregon-R wild type of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this purpose, four different application doses (50, 75, 100, 125 mg mL(-1)) were chosen by means of preliminary studies. It was determined that larval mortality increased with increasing concentration in the application groups and the toxicity order was carmine > turmeric > annatto. It was observed that the survival rate was highest in the control with 98% and lowest in 125 mg mL(-1) carmine with 16%. In addition, the average lifespan of the adult individuals obtained from third instar larvae was also studied. While the average lifespan was 40.88 ± 1.44 days in the control group, these values were 10.81 ± 0.55-23.90 ± 1.27 days in the carmine group, 15.00 ± 0.80-22.42 ± 1.43 days in the turmeric group and 10.33 ± 1.03-35.68 ± 1.54 days in the annatto group, respectively. According to the obtained results, when both the developmental period from larvae into adults and the lifespan of the developing adults were compared with the control group, the food dyes were found to be toxic and the toxicity order of carmine > turmeric > annatto was identified.

  6. Comparative study on the process behavior and reaction kinetics in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by powder and nanotubes TiO2.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yean Ling; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi

    2012-05-01

    Sonocatalytic degradation of various organic dyes (Congo Red, Reactive Blue 4, Methyl Orange, Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) catalyzed by powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was studied. Both catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface analyzer, Raman spectroscope and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sonocatalytic activity of powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was elucidated based on the degradation of various organic dyes. The former catalyst was favorable for treatment of anionic dyes, while the latter was more beneficial for cationic dyes. Sonocatalytic activity of TiO(2) nanotubes could be up to four times as compared to TiO(2) powder under an ultrasonic power of 100 W and a frequency of 42 kHz. This was associated with the higher surface area and the electrostatic attraction between dye molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to identify changes that occurred on the functional group in Rhodamine B molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes after the reaction. Sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by TiO(2) nanotubes apparently followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption kinetic model with surface reaction rate of 1.75 mg/L min. TiO(2) nanotubes were proven for their high potential to be applied in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

  7. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Akki, Spurti U; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO(2) (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO(2) followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O approximately = acriflavine approximately = safranin O. CS TiO(2) showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO(2) and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye.

  8. Self-organization and photo-induced formation of cyanine dye aggregates on the plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Nabiullina, Rezida D.; Toropov, Nikita A.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of hybrid film based on plasmon Ag nanoparticles of different size and cyanine dyes with different length of conjugation chain depending on the relative position of the plasmon resonance and the absorption of organic molecules were studied. The absorption spectra of the films revealed several molecular forms, such as all-trans- and cisisomers, dimers and J-aggregate, which also exist in pure organic films without Ag nanoparticles. It's shown that the absorption of aggregate bands increased after exposure by nanosecond laser on the hybrid films due to photo-induced additional self-organization of aggregates. In the presence of Ag nanoparticles, laser radiation leads to the change of molecular forms at a comparatively low threshold.

  9. Superiority of D-A-D over D-A type of organic dyes for the application in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santu; Pramanik, Anup; Ahmed, Tasnim; Sahoo, Suman Kalyan; Sarkar, Pranab

    2016-04-01

    We study the optoelectronic properties of some recently synthesized D-A-D chromophores which are susceptible for superior intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) property. Our first principle calculations reveal that, the chromophores have enhanced charge transfer probability in the excited state in comparison to their corresponding ground states indicating faster electron injection at the interface of dye-semiconductor composites. We compute the photovoltaic properties of the dyes with and without substitution and way out a root for optimizing the device performance. Finally, dye-TiO2 QD composite systems are studied as a model for realistic photovoltaic device.

  10. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells containing double-layer organized mesoporous TiO2 films sensitized by a dye with a high molar extinction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juangang; Shang, Yunli

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, we describe a practical technique to construct double-layer organized mesoporous TiO2 films with a combined thickness of 0.85 μm. Large mesopores (25.74 nm) formed in the film by using ovalbumin as the main template facilitate entry and adsorption of dye molecules. The films were sensitized by a dye that exhibits a high molar extinction coefficient because it contains a ligand with a fused-ring system. The double-layer films exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of 7.37%, which was about 35% higher than that of monolayer films.

  11. ZnO double layer film with a novel organic sensitizer as an efficient photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chuan-Pei; Chen, Ping-Wei; Li, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yi-June; Li, Sie-Rong; Chang, Ling-Yu; Chen, Pei-Yu; Lin, Lu-Yin; Vittal, R.; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    A novel organic sensitizer, coded CR147, is applied to sensitize a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The common problem of ZnO dissolution and Zn2+/dye agglomeration, caused by the use of ruthenium-based dyes, is solved by the application of this CR147 dye. The highest power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.77% is achieved for the DSSC using a photoanode with a film of commercial ZnO nanoparticles (Csbnd ZnO) and the CR147 dye, while the η is only 3.41% for the DSSC with the commercial N719 dye. The cell performance with the CR147 dye is further improved by using a photoanode with the double layer ZnO film (D-ZnO), composed of an underlayer with coral-like ZnO nanocrystals and an overlayer with hexagonal club-like ZnO submicrocrystals. The DSSC with the D-ZnO film exhibits an η of 6.89%, which is ca. 45% higher than that of the DSSC with the Csbnd ZnO film (4.77%). This higher efficiency is attributed to the superior charge transfer and light-scattering abilities provided by coral-like ZnO nanocrystals and hexagonal clubs-like ZnO submicrocrystals, respectively, with reference to these parameters of Csbnd ZnO.

  12. Random lasing in liquid and solid solutions oversaturated with organic laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznitko, Lech; Cyprych, Konrad; Szukalski, Adam; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of studies carried out for oversaturated solutions with common laser dye 4- (Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 3-(1,1-Dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) nonlinear chromophore. We show that oversaturating the solution leads to formation of crystals suspension resulting in strong Mie scattering and thus random laser operation can be observed. The formation of aggregates can be induced be oversaturating the solution or by injection of non-solvent to the dye solution, leading to reduction of solubility limit. Similar situation can be obtained for polymeric matrices for which small crystals are precipitated during layer formation (solvent evaporation) when film is casted from the solution.

  13. Room temperature synthesis of a Zn(II) metal-organic coordination polymer for dye removal

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Alireza; Gharib, Maniya; Najafi, Mahnaz; Janczak, Jan

    2016-03-15

    A new one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer, [Zn(4,4′-bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}](ADC)·4H{sub 2}O (1) (4,4′-bpy=4,4′-bipyridine and H{sub 2}ADC=acetylenedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized at room temperature. The crystal structure of the coordination polymer was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was also characterized by FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity of 1 was evaluated in the color removal of Bismarck brown as a representative of dye pollutant in water under mild conditions. Coordination polymer 1 exhibited good catalytic activity and stability in the decolorization of Bismarck brown and could be easily recovered and reused for at least three cycles. - Graphical abstract: A new 1D coordination polymer as catalyst for the degradation of Bismarck brown aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A 1D coordination polymer has been synthesized at room temperature. • The prepared compound was utilized for color removal of Bismarck brown dye. • Good catalytic activity and stability in the dye decolorization has been found.

  14. Organic dyes in illuminated manuscripts: a unique cultural and historic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Maria João; Nabais, Paula; Guimarães, Maria; Araújo, Rita; Castro, Rita; Oliveira, Maria Conceição; Whitworth, Isabella

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we successfully addressed the challenges posed by the identification of dyes in medieval illuminations. Brazilwood pigment lakes and orcein purple colours were unequivocally identified in illuminated manuscripts dated by art historians to be from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries and in the Fernão Vaz Dourado Atlas (sixteenth century). All three works were on a parchment support. This was possible by combining Raman microscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with microspectrofluorimetry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that brazilein, the main chromophore in brazilwood lake pigments, has been unequivocally identified by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in an illuminated work (the Dourado Atlas). Complementing this identification, through microspectrofluorimetry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was possible to propose a complete paint formulation by comparison with our database of references; the dark pink hues, in the three case studies, were produced by combining brazilwood pigment lakes and gypsum in a protein- and gum arabic-based tempera. Orcein purple, also known as orchil dye, has been previously identified in medieval manuscripts, dated from the sixth to the ninth centuries. Our findings in fourteenth-sixteenth century manuscripts confirm the hypothesis that this dye was lost during the High Middle Ages, to be later rediscovered. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  15. Chromatographic and spectroscopic identification and recognition of ammoniacal cochineal dyes and pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieli, A.; Sanyova, J.; Doherty, B.; Brunetti, B. G.; Miliani, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this work a combined chromatographic and spectroscopic approach is used to provide a diagnostic assessment of semi-synthetic ammoniacal cochineal through the syntheses of its dyes and lakes according to art historical recipes. Commercially introduced in the late XIX century as a dye and pigment, it was used to obtain a brilliant purplish/violet nuance which provided a more stable option over carminic acid although its evidenced use in manufacts and artworks of heritage importance have been scarcely documented. Through HPLC-DAD, it has been possible to identify 4-aminocarminic acid as the main component of ammoniacal cochineal highlighting a chemical formula analogous to acid stable carmine, a recent patented food dye. FTIR clearly distinguishes the amine group in the ammoniacal cochineal dye preparation and TLC-SERS allows for an adequate separation and spectral differentiation in its main components to be evidenced. Colloidal SERS has permitted spectral markers useful in discerning ammoniacal cochineal over carminic acid to be highlighted and discussed. Finally, the methods experimented in this study for the identification of ammoniacal cochineal have been validated on analyzing a sample of dyed wool.

  16. An organic dye-polymer (phenol red-poly (vinyl alcohol)) composite architecture towards tunable -optical and -saturable absorption characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Sreeja; Illyaskutty, Navas; Sreedhanya, S.; Philip, Reji; Muneera, C. I.

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that blending an organic dye (guest/filler), with a vinyl polymer (host template), is an inexpensive and simple approach for the fabrication of multifunctional photonic materials which could display an enhancement in the desirable properties of the constituent materials and, at the same time provide novel synergistic properties for the guest-host system. A new guest-host nanocomposite system comprising Phenol Red dye and poly (vinyl alcohol) as guest and host template, respectively, which exhibits tunable optical characteristics and saturable absorption behavior, is introduced. The dependence of local electronic environment provided by the polymer template and the interactions of the polymer molecules with the encapsulated guest molecules on the observed optical/nonlinear absorption behavior is discussed. An understanding of the tunability of the optical/ photophysical processes, with respect to the filler content, as discussed herein could help in the design of improved optical materials for several photonic device applications like organic light emitting diodes and saturable absorbers.

  17. Graphene Oxide/Silver Nanohybrid as Multi-functional Material for Highly Efficient Bacterial Disinfection and Detection of Organic Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Le Thi; Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Van Quy, Nguyen; Huy, Tran Quang; Ngo, Duc-The; Mølhave, Kristian; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a multi-functional hybrid system consisting of graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag NPs) was successfully synthesized by using a two-step chemical process. We firstly demonstrated noticeable bactericidal ability of the GO-Ag hybrid system. We provide more chemo-physical evidence explaining the antibacterial behavior of GO-Ag nanohybrid against Gram-negative Escherichia Coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus in light of ultrastructural damage analyses and Ag1+ ions release rate onto the cells/medium. A further understanding of the mode of antimicrobial action is very important for designing and developing advanced antimicrobial systems. Secondly, we have also demonstrated that the GO-Ag nanohybrid material could be used as a potential surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect and quantify organic dyes, e.g., methylene blue (MB), in aqueous media. Our findings revealed that the GO-Ag hybrid system showed better SERS performance of MB detection than that of pure Ag-NPs. MB could be detected at a concentration as low as 1 ppm. The GO-Ag-based SERS platform can be effectively used to detect trace concentrations of various types of organic dyes in aqueous media. With the aforementioned properties, the GO-Ag hybrid system is found to be very promising as a multi-functional material for advanced biomedicine and environmental monitoring applications.

  18. Preparation of C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite under electric furnace and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum Hwi; Oh, Youn Jun; Mun, Sang Mi; Ko, Weon Bae

    2012-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized sonochemically by applying ultrasonic irradiation to a mixed aqueous-alcoholic solution of zinc nitrate with sodium hydroxide at room temperature. The morphology and optical properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The C60(O)n nanoparticles were synthesized by heating a mixture of C60 and 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid in a benzene solvent under the reflux system. The heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for two hours. The heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM, and examined as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic effect of the heated C60(O)n-ZnO nanocomposite was evaluated by a comparison with that of unheated C60(O)n nanoparticles, heated C60(O)n nanoparticles, and unheated C60(O)n-ZnO in organic dyes, such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet light at 365 nm.

  19. Synthesis of [60]fullerene-ZnO nanocomposite under electric furnace and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Ko, Weon Bae

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a reaction between an aqueous-alcoholic solution of zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature. The morphology, optical properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The [60]fullerene and zinc oxide nanocomposite were synthesized in an electric furnace at 700 degrees C for two hours. The [60]fullerene-ZnO nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the [60]fullerene-ZnO nanocomposite was investigated as a catalyst in the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes using UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the [60]fullerene-ZnO nanocomposite was compared with that of ZnO nanoparticles, heated ZnO nanoparticles after synthesis, pure [60]fullerene, and heated pure [60]fullerene in organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet light at 254 nm.

  20. Fast assembly of cyanine dyes into aggregates onto [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester surfaces from organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jakob; Steiger, Rolf; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2010-03-16

    Supramolecular agglomerates of organic colorants based on noncovalent interactions are promising candidates for the development of sensors, optoelectronics, lighting, or photovoltaics. However, their fast and defect-free fabrication on large scales using low-cost technologies has proven elusive so far. Here, we introduce a so far unreported mechanism to induce molecular order in cyanine dyes within minutes from organic solvents by self-assembly. Spin coating blends of a cyanine dye and a soluble fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)) from apolar, aprotic solvents leads to phase-separated structures on the micrometer scale. With this superordinated phase structure, adjustment of dye aggregation is possible, leading to novel optical properties of the film emerging from dye self-assembly on the nanometer scale. In the primary process, semiporous PCBM domains act as nucleation sites for H-aggregates. H-aggregates can then be reconstructed into J-aggregates by dissolving PCBM from the film. Unexpectedly, the method even works for sterically hindered cyanine dyes that are known for their reduced tendency to aggregate. Additionally, selective removal of H-aggregates leaves a template of PCBM nanocrystals, onto which cyanine dye monomers readsorb from solution, forming H-aggregates of similar quality.

  1. Optical fiber sensor for the measurement of the pH level using organic dyes deposited by the sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Martínez, Juan Pablo; Santiago Núñez, Imelda; Beltrán Pérez, Georgina; Castillo Mixcóatl, Juan; Muñoz Aguirre, Severino; Palomino Merino, Rodolfo

    2007-03-01

    Some pH sensors based on optical fibers use organic dyes which are sensitive to the pH levels. Such dyes are deposited over the fiber and they are supported by a matrix, (TiO II) in this case. In this work, we present the results obtained of the fabrication and characterization of an optical fibers sensor with a thin film doped with two different organics dyes (Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin), deposited in a little section of the optical fiber by the SOL - GEL process. It was found that each dye is sensitive to different pH ranges (2 to 12). The fiber optics sensor can be used for the measured of the pH level of aqueous testing solution, and the combination of the dyes is possible to cover a dynamic ranges from 2 to 12. It is also analyzed the sensitivity of the sensor with the Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin dye for different molar concentrations in a range 0.01% to 0.08% and to determine this way the best concentration for the sensor.

  2. A novel Ce(IO3)4 catalyst: Facile preparation and high activity in degradation of organic dyes without light irradiation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiayin; Ma, Xinping; Zhao, Caixian; Lan, Fujun; Chen, Feng; Liu, Xuan; Tang, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    Developing efficient catalysts capable of degrading organic dye free of light irradiation is highly interesting from the energy-saving point of view. In this work, we prepared a new Ce(IO3)4 catalyst by a facile precipitation method. The obtained Ce(IO3)4 sample showed remarkably superior performance to the reported CeGeO4 analog in degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) or methylene blue (MB) dyes in the dark at room temperature. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra of dye solution during degradation, the XPS results of Ce(IO3)4 and the control experiments confirmed that the dye degradation is a catalytic process. The reusability of it was also investigated in the degradation experiments.

  3. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  4. Hydrothermal fabrication of selectively doped organic assisted advanced ZnO nanomaterial for solar driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Namratha, K; Byrappa, K; Byrappa, S; Venkateswarlu, P; Rajasekhar, D; Deepthi, B K

    2015-08-01

    Hydrothermal fabrication of selectively doped (Ag(+)+Pd(3+)) advanced ZnO nanomaterial has been carried out under mild pressure temperature conditions (autogeneous; 150°C). Gluconic acid has been used as a surface modifier to effectively control the particle size and morphology of these ZnO nanoparticles. The experimental parameters were tuned to achieve optimum conditions for the synthesis of selectively doped ZnO nanomaterials with an experimental duration of 4 hr. These selectively doped ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The solar driven photocatalytic studies have been carried out for organic dyes, i.e., Procion MX-5B dye, Cibacron Brilliant Yellow dye, Indigo Carmine dye, separately and all three mixed, by using gluconic acid modified selectively doped advanced ZnO nanomaterial. The influence of catalyst, its concentration and initial dye concentration resulted in the photocatalytic efficiency of 89% under daylight.

  5. Effects of indigo carmine intravenous injection on noninvasive and continuous total hemoglobin measurement with using the Revision L sensor.

    PubMed

    Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Obara, Shinju; Hakozaki, Takahiro; Imaizumi, Tsuyoshi; Iseki, Yuzo; Mogami, Midori; Ohashi, Satoshi; Ikegami, Yukihiro; Kurosawa, Shin; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    The effects of intravenous injection of indigo carmine on noninvasive and continuous total hemoglobin (SpHb) measurement were retrospectively evaluated with the Revision L sensor. The subjects were 18 patients who underwent elective gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. During surgery, 5 mL of 0.4 % indigo carmine was injected intravenously, and changes in SpHb concentrations between before and after the injection were evaluated. The mean age was 52.4 ± 12.8 years. Before injection, the median SpHb level was 10.1 (range, 6.8-13.4) g/dL. The results demonstrated no change in SpHb concentration between before and after indigo carmine injection as detected by the Revision L sensor. SpHb measurements as determined with the Revision L sensor were not affected, even after the intravenous injection of indigo carmine.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected.

  7. Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2014-05-01

    Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1μ (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20μ). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric

  8. Evaluation of starch-based flocculants for the flocculation of dissolved organic matter from textile dyeing secondary wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hu; Liu, Zhouzhou; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-05-01

    China is a major textile manufacturer in the world; as a result, large quantities of dyeing effluents are generated every year in the country. In this study, the performances of two cationic starch-based flocculants with different chain architectures, i.e., starch-graft-poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] (STC-g-PDMC) and starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (STC-CTA), in flocculating dissolved organic matter (DOM) in dyeing secondary effluents were investigated and compared with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC). In the exploration of the flocculation mechanisms, humic acid (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were selected as main representatives of DOM in textile dyeing secondary effluents, which were humic/fulvic acid-like and protein-like extracellular matters according to the studied wastewater's characteristics based on its three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectrum. According to experimental results of the flocculation of both the real and synthetic wastewaters, STC-g-PDMC with cationic branches had remarkable advantages over STC-CTA and PAC because of the more efficient charge neutralization and bridging flocculation effects of STC-g-PDMC. Another interesting finding in this study was the reaggregation phenomenon after restabilization at an overdose during the flocculation of BSA effluents by STC-g-PDMC at a very narrow pH range under a nearly neutral condition. This phenomenon might be ascribed to the formation of STC-g-PDMC/BSA complexes induced by some local charge interactions between starch-based flocculant and the amino acid fragments of protein due to charge patch effects.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of liquid temperature on the sonolytic degradation of some organic dyes in water.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Boutamine, Zineb; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of liquid temperature on the sonochemical degradation of three organic dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB), Acid orange 7 (AO7) and Malachite green (MG), largely used in the textile industry. The experiments have been carried out for an ultrasonic frequency of 300 kHz. The obtained experimental results were discussed using a new approach combining the results of single-bubble event and the number of active bubbles. The single-bubble event was predicted using a model that combines the bubble dynamics with chemical kinetics occurring inside a bubble during the strong collapse. The number of active bubbles was predicted using a method developed in our previous work. The experiments showed that the degradation rate of the three dyes increased significantly with increasing liquid temperature in the range 25-55°C. It was predicted that the main pathway of pollutants degradation is the attack by OH radicals. The simulations showed that there exists an optimum liquid temperature of about 35°C for the production of OH inside a bubble whereas the number of active bubbles increased sharply with the rise of the liquid temperature. It was predicted that the overall production rate of OH increased with increasing liquid temperature in the range 25-55°C. Finally, it was concluded that the effect of liquid temperature on the sonochemical degradation of the three dyes in aqueous phase was controlled by the number of active bubbles in the range 35-55°C and by both the number of bubbles and the single bubble yield in the range 25-35°C.

  10. Amorphous-crystal transition of organic dye assemblies: Application to rewritable color recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Katsuyuki

    1995-07-01

    Media composed of a color former (leuco dye), a developer (phenol compound), and a reversible matrix (steroid) were colored in the crystalline states of the matrix and colorless in the amorphous states. Another medium composed of a color former and a developer serving for a reversible matrix (steroid substituted by a phenol group) was colorless in the crystalline state and colored in the amorphous state. Reversible color changes were possible by a heat treatment. Melting, glass transition, and crystallization temperatures were widely controlled by changing the materials.

  11. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  12. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-06-03

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  13. Facile decoration of TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene for solar degradation of organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Shiva; Salem, Amin; Rezaei, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    The reduced graphene oxide is interesting material for the synthesis of TiO2-based photocatalyst. In the present investigation, blackberry fruit, which contains high levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, was employed as a reducing agent mainly due to its high antioxidant capacity. The nano-crystalline TiO2 was decorated on different amounts of graphene oxide with sol-gel method and then the photocatalytic activity for degradation of cationic dye was evaluated by UV spectroscopy to achieve the optimum content of graphene oxide. The decoration of anatase nanoparticles on prepared reduced graphene oxide was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The new composite gives significantly higher activity when is compared to the compositions fabricated by graphene oxide. The compact layer provides a large TiO2-graphene contact area and reduces the electron recombination. The decoration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 5-10 nm, on the graphene oxide reduced by blackberry juice further improves the dye removal. The results imply that the nanoparticle decoration is the key strategy to increase the degradation capacity.

  14. Influence of niobium doping in hierarchically organized titania nanostructure on performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hoon; Noh, Jun Hong; Han, Byung Suh; Shin, Seong Sik; Park, Ik Jae; Kim, Dong Hoe; Hong, Kug Sun

    2012-06-01

    Niobium doped hierarchically organized TiO2 nanostructures composed of 20 nm size anatase nanocrystals were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Nb doping concentration could be facilely controlled by adjusting the concentration of Nb in target materials. We could investigate the influence of Nb doping in the TiO2 photoelectrode on the cell performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by the exclusion of morphological effects using the prepared Nb-doped TiO2 anostructures. We found no significant change in short circuit current density (Jsc) as a function of Nb doping concentration. However, open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) monotonously decrease with increasing Nb concentration. Dark current characteristics of the DSSCs reveal that the decrease in Voc and FF is attributed to the decrease in shunt resistance due to the increase in conductivity TiO2 by Nb doping. However, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) analysis at open circuit condition under illumination showed that the resistance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface increases with Nb concentration, revealing that Nb doping suppress the charge recombination at the interface. In addition, electron life time obtained using characteristic frequency in Bode plot increases from 14 msec to 56 msec with increasing Nb concentration from 0 to 1.2 at%. This implies that the improved light harvesting can be achieved by increasing diffusion length through Nb-doping in the conventional TiO2 photoelectrode.

  15. Hybrid functional calculated optical and electronic structures of thin anatase TiO2 nanowires with organic dye adsorbates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Hatice; Gunceler, Deniz; Gülseren, Oğuz; Ellialtıoğlu, Şinasi; Mete, Ersen

    2015-11-01

    The electronic and optical properties of thin anatase TiO2 (1 0 1) and (0 0 1) nanowires have been investigated using the screened Coulomb hybrid density functional calculations. For the bare nanowires with sub-nanometer diameters, the calculated band gaps are larger relative to the bulk values due to size effects. The role of organic light harvesting sensitizers on the absorption characteristics of the anatase nanowires has been examined using the hybrid density functional method incorporating partial exact exchange with range separation. For the lowest lying excitations, directional charge redistribution of tetrahydroquinoline (C2-1) dye shows a remarkably different profile in comparison to a simple molecule which is chosen as the coumarin skeleton. The binding modes and the adsorption energies of C2-1 dye and coumarin core on the anatase nanowires have been studied including non-linear solvation effetcs. The calculated optical and electronic properties of the nanowires with these two different types of sensitizers have been interpreted in terms of their electron-hole generation, charge carrier injection and recombination characteristics.

  16. Electrodeposited ZnO nanowires as photoelectrodes in solid-state organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Muguerra, Hervé; Berthoux, Gaëlle; Yahya, Wan Zaireen Nisa; Kervella, Yann; Ivanova, Valentina; Bouclé, Johann; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-04-28

    A new approach for developing solid-state dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) on glass/ITO and plastic substrates (PEN/ITO) is presented in this manuscript. A two step electrodeposition technique has been employed to realize the ZnO photoelectrodes. First a ZnO thin film is deposited on the ITO substrate and subsequently on this buffer layer 650 nm long ZnO nanowires are grown. The different nanostructured electrodes are crystallized and show a transparency close to 80% in the visible spectral range. The electrodes are then sensitized with a new purely organic dye, whose synthesis is presented here, which reveals a wide absorption spectrum and a high molar extinction coefficient. Finally, the sensitized electrodes were employed for the fabrication of liquid and solid-state DSSCs, using, respectively, a liquid iodine/iodide electrolyte and the spiro-OMeTAD hole transporter. These devices represent the first solid-state DSSCs fabricated using electrodeposited zinc oxide nanowires. Their power conversion efficiency is still limited, respectively, 0.18% and 0.03% under standard AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW cm(-2)), nevertheless, these results prove the interest in this low-temperature deposition method for the realization of nanostructured electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates, and open up new perspectives for the development of solid state DSSCs on plastic substrates.

  17. Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation. PMID:25258615

  18. Comparison of mono- and polyatomic primary ions for the characterization of organic dye overlayers with static secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Jens; Van Vaeck, Luc; Gijbels, Renaat; Van Luppen, Jaymes

    2004-01-01

    Organic carbocyanine dye coatings have been analyzed by time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-S-SIMS) using three types of primary ions: Ga(+) operating at 25 keV, and Xe(+) and SF(5) (+) both operating at 9 keV. Secondary ion yields obtained with these three primary ions have been compared for coatings with different layer thickness, varying from (sub)-monolayer to multilayers, on different substrates (Si, Ag and AgBr cubic microcrystals). For (sub)-monolayers deposited on Ag, Xe(+) and SF(5) (+) primary ions generate similar precursor ion intensities, but with Ga(+) slightly lower precursor ion intensities were obtained. Thick coatings on Ag as well as mono- and multilayers on Si produce the highest precursor and fragment ion intensities with the polyatomic primary ion. The yield difference between SF(5) (+) and Xe(+) can reach a factor of 6. In comparison with Ga(+), yield enhancements by up to a factor of 180 are observed with SF(5) (+). For the mass spectrometric analysis of dye layers on AgBr microcrystals, SF(5) (+) again proves to be the primary ion of choice.

  19. Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhou; Wu, Qingzhi; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

  20. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Magnetic Hybrids for Fast and Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Yazhou; Wu, Yitian; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Gao, Faming; Bauer, Adam J. P.; Liu, Jianzhao; Zeng, Tingying; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the facile preparation and the dye removal efficiency of nanohybrids composed of graphene oxide (GO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with various geometrical structures. In comparison to previously reported GO/Fe3O4 composites prepared through the one-pot, in situ deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids reported here were obtained by taking advantage of the physical affinities between sulfonated GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which allows tuning the dimensions and geometries of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to decrease their contact area with GO, while still maintaining the magnetic properties of the nanohybrids for easy separation and adsorbent recycling. Both the as-prepared and regenerated nanohybrids demonstrate a nearly 100% removal rate for methylene blue and an impressively high removal rate for Rhodamine B. This study provides new insights into the facile and controllable industrial scale fabrication of safe and highly efficient GO-based adsorbents for dye or other organic pollutants in a wide range of environmental-related applications. PMID:26220847

  1. An anionic zeolite-like metal-organic framework (AZMOF) with a Moravia network for organic dye absorption through cation-exchange.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Fan, Cong-Cong; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Du, Jie; Zhu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yue

    2016-07-05

    An anionic zeolite-like metal-organic framework (AZMOF) with a twisted partially augmented the net, known as the "Moravia" net, [(CH3)2NH2]6[Sr13(O)3()8(OH)2(H2O)16]·xS (, where S represents non-coordinated solvent molecules, and is the abbreviation of benzo-(1,2;3,4;5,6)-tris-(thiophene-2'-carboxylic acid)), has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized, which possesses an anionic framework and nano-sized sodalite cage. Through cation-exchange, is capable of uptaking large organic cationic dyes including Rhodamine B (RB), Basic Red 2 (BR2), Crystal Violet (CV) and Methylene Blue (MB), amongst which the adsorption capability for RB (up to 545 mg g(-1)), and BR2 (up to 675 mg g(-1)) is the highest for reported absorbants to date.

  2. Interaction between an organic dye in water and sand packs in a flume system.

    PubMed

    Nome, Rene A; Souza, Aloisio J; Nome, Carlos A; Souza, Bruno S; Nome, Faruk; Fiedler, Haidi D

    2010-11-01

    The sorption kinetics of methylene blue (MB), a standard compound in the American Society for Testing and Materials tests, on natural sand in a batch system at a reciprocal shaking speed of 120 rpm is fast, with equilibrium and surface coverage attained in minutes. When the same experiment is carried out in a recirculating flume, adsorption is much slower, with lifetimes increasing up to several months in the flume. Sorption retardation is dependent on the diffusion coefficient of the dye and on the depth of penetration of the MB layer in sand. The experimental results suggest that, in field experiments, formation of thin films dramatically inhibits the sorption kinetics and, in a closed system, such as a lake or reservoir, contaminants will remain in the water column for long periods, with very slow penetration in the sediment layer. In rivers, the contaminant will travel farther with less penetration into the sediment layer, compared to more static systems.

  3. Gold nanoworms immobilized graphene oxide polymer brush nanohybrid for catalytic degradation studies of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogha, Navin Kumar; Gosain, Saransh; Masram, Dhanraj T.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we report gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on poly (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes immobilized reduced graphene oxide (Au/PDMAEMA/RGO) as catalyst for degradation kinetic studies of Rhodamine B (RB), Methyl Orange (MO) and Eosine Y (EY) dyes, having an excellent catalytic activity, as evident by the apparent rate constant (kapp), which is found to be 21.8, 26.2, and 8.7 (×10-3 s-1), for RB, MO and EY respectively. Au/PDMAEMA/RGO catalyst is easy to use, highly efficient, recyclable, which make it suitable for applications in waste water management. Foremost, synthesis of PDMAEMA brushes on graphene oxide is accomplished by Atom transfer radical polymerization method (ATRP), whereas AuNPs are synthesized by simple chemical reduction method.

  4. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    PubMed Central

    Swierk, John R.; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D.; McCool, Nicholas S.; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J.; Oster, Nolan V.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (λ > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  5. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency ( C E) and power efficiency ( P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively.

  6. Ligand Induced Anionic Cuprous Cyanide Framework for Cupric Ion Turn on Luminescence Sensing and Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Cheng; Yu, Ya-Dong; Huang, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-04

    A new microporous luminescent coordination polymer [(CH3)2NH2]·[Cu2(CN)3] (1) with channels occupied by dimethylamine cations was synthesized due to the inducing effect of 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole. Complex 1 exhibits bright-green emission in the solid state, and its emission intensity would be significantly enhanced, especially by DMAc and cupric ion after immersing the as-synthesized crystals of 1 into common organic solvents or methanol solutions of various metal ions. In addition, 1 exhibits photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB and MB under natural light and is stable during the photocatalysis process. Thus, 1 can act as a multifunctional material for selectively sensing of Cu(2+) and effectively photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

  7. Quantum dots of ZnSe(S) doped with copper as nanophotocatalyst in the degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Alamo-Nole, Luis; Bailon-Ruiz, Sonia; Cruz-Acuña, Ricardo; Perales-Pérez, Oscar; Román, Félix R

    2014-09-01

    Copper-doped quantum dots of ZnSe(S) synthesized via microwave-heating conditions were used as photocatalyst in the photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV) and victoria blue (VB) under UV irradiation (302 nm) in aqueous phase and at pH 6.5. Quantum dots were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The degradation of MB, MV and VB were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at 660 nm, 590 nm and 610 nm, respectively. Degradations percentages of 46%, 88% and 90% of MB, MV and VB, respectively, were achieved in presence of 1000 mg/L of quantum dots and 6 hours of UV-irradiation. Cu-doped ZnSe(S) QDs evidenced a remarkable capability to degrade cationic organic dyes as single components and in mixtures.

  8. A shortcut organic dye-based staining method for the detection of DNA both in agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Chen, Mao; Zhu, Zhongxin; Liu, Zhiguo; Nan, Jia; Ye, Weijian; Ni, Maowei; Zhao, Ting; Jin, Litai

    2013-02-21

    In this study, we describe a brief, sensitive and safe organic dye-based staining method for the visualization of DNA both in agarose and polyacrylamide gels by using Victoria Pure Blue BO (VPBBO). Down to 0.8-1.6 ng of λ DNA/HindIII markers in agarose gels and 0.4-0.8 ng of pUC18 DNA/Mspl markers in polyacrylamide gels can be successfully detected within 15 and 10 min by the new developed technique, respectively. Moreover, the mechanism of the VPBBO staining was investigated and further confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and molecular docking. The results indicated that the interaction between VPBBO and DNA is mainly due to groove binding.

  9. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  10. Nonlinear optical organic co-crystals of merocyanine dyes and phenolic derivatives with short hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard, Christian; Pan, Feng; Wong, Man Shing; Manetta, Sabine; Spreiter, Rolf; Cai, Chengzhi; Günter, Peter; Gramlich, Volker

    1999-07-01

    We investigated the co-crystallization of merocyanine dyes M ( M: R-N +C 5H 4-CHCH-C 6H 4O -, M1: R=CH 3, M2: R=HO-CH 2-CH 2-) with phenolic and aniline derivatives and show that the short or very short hydrogen bond between the two phenolic oxygen atoms which lead to a self-assembly of the M dyes and phenol derivatives is the key steering force for the co-crystallization process. The co-crystal formation was studied by melting point determination, by second-harmonic generation using the Kurtz and Perry powder test, and X-ray structural analysis. We present detailed results on the growth, polymorphism, and nonlinear optical properties of co-crystals of derivatives of M1 ( M2) and m-nitrophenol (mNP) and co-crystals of M2 and methyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDB). Three phases of the co-crystal M2·mNP and three phases of the co-crystal M2·MDB were found. Both M2·MDB(I) and (II) have the same crystal structure (space group symmetry Cc determined by X-ray diffraction), but show different linear and nonlinear optical properties. This unusual property in the co-crystals of M2·MDB(I) and (II) may be caused by a different proton location of the short hydrogen bond (O-H-O) in the aggregation between M2 and MDB which could not be resolved by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by polyoxometalate-based metal-organic framework composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Gong, Wenpeng; Luo, Jing; Zou, Chentao; Yang, Yun; Yang, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    A novel environmental friendly adsorbent H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was synthesized by a simple one-step reaction under solvothermal conditions and characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The removal rate of H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was quite greater (85%) than that of MOF-5 (almost zero), showing that the adsorption performance of porous MOF-5 can be improved through the modification of H6P2W18O62. Further study revealed that H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 exhibited a fast adsorption rate and selective adsorption ability towards the cationic dyes in aqueous solution. The removal rate was up to 97% for cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and 68% for rhodamine B(Rhb) within 10 min. However, anionicdye methyl orange(MO) can only reach to 10%. The influences including initial concentration, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature of MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 were investigated in detail. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of MB onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 followed the pseudo second-order model well. The isotherm obtained from experimental data fitted the Langmuir model, yielding maximum adsorption capacity of 51.81 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters analysis illustrated that the MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62 immobilized MOF-5 was spontaneous and endothermic process. Besides, these results implied that designing a novel material polyoxometalate-based metal-organic frameworks is great potential for removing cationic organic pollutants and even extended to improve other specific application.

  12. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  13. Evaluation of Quantum dot immunofluorescence and a digital CMOS imaging system as an alternative to conventional organic fluorescence dyes and laser scanning for quantifying protein microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Aarti; Taghavian, Omid; Vallejo, Derek; Dotsey, Emmanuel; Schwartz, Dan; Bell, Florian G.; Greef, Chad; Davies, D. Huw; Grudzien, Jennipher; Lee, Abraham P.; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Organic fluorescent dyes are widely used for the visualization of bound antibody in a variety of immunofluorescence assays. However, the detection equipment is often expensive, fragile and hard to deploy widely. Quantum dots (Qdot®) are nanocrystals made of semiconductor materials that emit light at different wavelengths according to the size of the crystal, with increased brightness and stability. Here we have evaluated a small benchtop ‘personal’ optical imager (ArrayCAM™) developed for quantification of protein arrays probed by Qdot -based indirect immunofluorescence. The aim was to determine if the Qdot imager system provides equivalent data to the conventional organic dye-labelled antibody/laser scanner system. To do this, duplicate proteome microarrays of Vaccinia virus, Brucella melitensis and Plasmodium falciparum were probed with identical samples of immune sera, and IgG, IgA and IgM profiles visualized using biotinylated secondary antibodies followed by a tertiary reagent of streptavidin coupled to either P3 (an organic cyanine dye typically used for microarrays) or Q800 (Qdot). The data show excellent correlation for all samples tested (R>0.8) with no significant change of antibody reactivity profiles. We conclude that Qdot detection provides data equivalent to that obtained using conventional organic dye detection. The portable imager offers an economical, more robust and deployable alternative to conventional laser array scanners. PMID:26842269

  14. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency.

  15. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Cu doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-10-14

    Copper doped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural properties of as-synthesized nanomaterials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study their optical properties. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes in water was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that there is an optimum Cu doping level which leads to the highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures, as compared to pure ZnO nanostructures. A mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the combined effects of improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers due to optimal Cu doping in ZnO nanostructures and the formation of ZnO-CuO nanoheterojunctions.

  16. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Xue, Can E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  17. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Xue, Can

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h-1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  18. Effects of surface modification on dye-sensitized solar cell based on an organic dye with naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Guo, Lei; Xia, Ping Fang; Zheng, Fan; Wong, Man Shing; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-02-12

    We have investigated the effects of surface modification on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on a donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor organic dye. A major challenge for donor-(π-spacer)--acceptor molecules as sensitizers in DSSCs is the fast recombination reactions that occur at both the photoanode (e.g., TiO2) surface and the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode, which presents unfavorable effects on the DSSC performance. The two interfaces of TiO2/electrolyte and FTO/electrolyte are passivated selectively in a DSSC using an organic dye with Naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene as the conjugated linker and the I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte. The current density-voltage characteristics, the dark current analysis, the open circuit voltage-light intensity dependence, and the transient photovoltage/photocurrent results indicate that the recombination processes are affected strongly by surface passivation under variable light intensity. At high light intensity, the recombination reaction at the TiO2 surface is dominant. In this case, silane passivation of the TiO2 surface can suppress recombination significantly, while the c-TiO2 layer makes little contribution to the reduction of the recombination. At low illumination intensity, the recombination at FTO becomes significant, and the recombination can be reduced by applying a c-TiO2 layer.

  19. High catalytic activity of magnetic CuFe2O4/graphene oxide composite for the degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Xing, Xiang; Xie, Huifang; Sheng, Qi; Qu, Hongxia

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic CuFe2O4/graphene oxide composite (CuFe2O4/GO) has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and showed excellent visible-light-photocatalytic activity for the degradation of different dyes as Rhodamine B (RhB) and acid orange II (AO7) with no need of H2O2. The Structure and morphology were investigated by XRD, FTIR and TEM and the performance of the catalyst was systematically investigated under various experimental conditions as pH, the dosage of catalyst, dye initial concentration, etc. The dyes degradation on CuFe2O4/GO was also remained in a level in the presence of *OH2- radical scavenger (2-propanol), while it decreased in the presence of *O2- radical scavenger (benzoquinone) and h+ radical scavenger (ammonium oxalate), indicating that *O2- and h+ radicals were responsible for the dye degradation. The magnetic CuFe2O4/GO composite shows potential applications in organic dye water treatment due to its magnetically recyclability and powerful visible-light-photocatalytic activity.

  20. Bis(phenothiazyl-ethynylene)-Based Organic Dyes Containing Di-Anchoring Groups with Efficiency Comparable to N719 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chi-Ho; Lee, Lawrence Tien Lin; Ho, Po-Yu; Ho, Cheuk-Lam; Chen, Tao; Suramitr, Songwut; Hannongbua, Supa; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wei, Mingdeng; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2017-02-01

    A new series of acetylene-bridged phenothiazine-based di-anchoring dyes have been synthesized, fully characterized, and used as the photoactive layer for the fabrication of conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Tuning of their photophysical and electrochemical properties using different π-conjugated aromatic rings as the central bridges has been demonstrated. This molecular design strategy successfully inhibits the undesirable charge recombination and prolongs the electron lifetime significantly to improve the power conversion efficiency (η), which was proven by the detailed studies of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD). Under a standard air mass (AM) 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm(-2) ), the DSSC based on the dye with phenyl bridging unit exhibits the highest η of 7.44 % with open-circuit photovoltage (Voc ) of 0.796 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc ) of 12.49 mA cm(-2) and fill factor (ff) of 0.748. This η value is comparable to that of the benchmark N719 under the same conditions.

  1. A simple method for determination of carmine in food samples based on cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Hosseini, Mohammad; Zarabi, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and cost effective method was developed for extraction and pre-concentration of carmine in food samples by using cloud point extraction (CPE) prior to its spectrophotometric determination. Carmine was extracted from aqueous solution using Triton X-100 as extracting solvent. The effects of main parameters such as solution pH, surfactant and salt concentrations, incubation time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.04-5.0 μg mL(-1) of carmine in the initial solution with regression coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification were 0.012 and 0.04 μg mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) at low concentration level (0.05 μg mL(-1)) of carmine was 4.8% (n=7). Recovery values in different concentration levels were in the range of 93.7-105.8%. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed method can be applied satisfactory to determine the carmine in food samples.

  2. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell performances by molecular engineering: highly efficient π-extended organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; De Marco, Luisa; Agosta, Rita; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of two π-extended organic sensitizers (G1 and G2) for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials are designed with a D-A-π-A structure constituted by i) a triarylamine group as the donor part, ii) a dithienyl-benzothiadiazole chromophore followed by iii) a further ethynylene-thiophene (G1) or ethynylene-benzene (G2) π-spacer and iv) a cyano-acrylic moiety as acceptor and anchoring part. An unusual structural extension of the π-bridge characterizes these structures. The so-configured sensitizers exhibit a broad absorption profile, the origin of which is supported by density functional theory. The absence of hypsochromic shifts as a consequence of deprotonation as well as notable optical and electrochemical stabilities are also observed. Concerning the performances in devices, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the structural modification of the π-spacer mainly increases the electron lifetime of G2 with respect to G1. In devices, this feature translates into a superior power conversion efficiency of G2, reaching 8.1%. These results are comparable to those recorded for N719 and are higher with respect to literature congeners, supporting further structural engineering of the π-bridge extension in the search for better performing π-extended organic sensitizers.

  3. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-18

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  4. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  5. Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; De Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850 nm and at −1 V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6 cm2 are demonstrated. PMID:25803320

  6. Film Properties and Polycrystallization of Organic Dyes on ITOs with Surface Treatment for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwama, Yuki; Mori, Tatsuo; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    ITO(Indium-Tin-Oxide) has been now widely used as the transparent anode for organic light-emitting devices(OLEDs). We used various methods of ITO surface treatment and examined the effects of them by measuring contact angle and calculating surface energy. We also prepared OLEDs with ITO treated by each method, and estimated their characteristics. The surface of ITO treated by UV-O3 or O2-plasma was more hydrophilic than that treated by only organic rinse or no treatment, and consequently the characteristic of the OLED was improved. We suppose these treatments affect the hole injection from ITO into organic layer, due to ionization potential or surface cleanness. We also investigated time degradation of NPD films on the ITO substrates. The films deposited with high deposition rate porycrystallized faster.

  7. Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2005-08-27

    Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7.

  8. Limitation of high-power optical radiation by organic molecules: I. Substituted pyranes and cyanine dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kopylova, T N; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A; Mayer, G V; Samsonova, L G; Filinov, D N; Pomogaev, V A; Tel'minov, E N; Lapin, I N; Svetlichnaya, N N; Sinchenko, E I; Reznichenko, A V; Podgaetskii, Vitalii M; Ponomareva, O V

    2003-11-30

    Photophysical processes proceeding in polyatomic organic molecules (pyran derivatives and cyanines) excited by high-power laser radiation at 532 nm are studied. Some properties of their changes depending on the structure, solvent, and excitation conditions are determined. The effect of limitation of high-power exciting radiation by the organic molecules is found. The maximum limitation (K{sub max} = 15.0 at the initial transmission equal to 70%) was observed for the cyanine derivative and is comparable to this effect for fullerenes C{sub 60}, which are widely used as radiation limiters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  9. Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

  10. TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  11. TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-12

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture.

  12. Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-10

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.

  13. Photocatalytic property of a keggin-type polyoxometalates-containing bilayer system for degradation organic dye model.

    PubMed

    Li, Taohai; Gao, Shuiying; Li, Feng; Cao, Rong

    2009-10-15

    The photocatalytic activity composite films incorporating the Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POM) K6CoW12O40.-16H2O and K3PW12O40.-nH2O (MW12 (M=P, Co)) and [Cu(II)(1,8-dimethyl-1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13-hexaazacycloteradecane)](2+)(L) have been prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The experimental results show that the deposition process is linear and highly reproducible from layer to layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the L/MW12 composite films indicate that the film surface is relatively uniform and smooth. In addition, the films show high photocatalytic activity to the degradation of organic dye model (methyl orange (MO)), attributed to the formation of an O-->W charge-transfer excited state at W-O-W bridge bond, resulting in generating highly reactive holes and electrons; The photocatalytic efficiency of the films have little change after several times of photocatalytic cycle, indicating that the composite films are stable, reused and recovered.

  14. Internalization of styryl dye FM1-43 in the hair cells of lateral line organs in Xenopus larvae.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S; Sasaki, F

    1996-07-01

    We used a fluorescent dye, FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransduction mechanisms in the hair cells of lateral line organs of Xenopus larvae. FM1-43 specifically labeled the hair cells. The photo-oxidation technique was performed with election microscopy to examine the labeling sites and their mechanisms. The results showed that the labeling sites were mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cytoplasm. Endocytic activity of the hair cells was limited to endosomes and small granules located at the apical part of the cells. Blockers of the mechanosensitive cation channel (neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and amiloride) effectively inhibited FM1-43 labeling. One of the blockers, amiloride, was found to bind to hair cells when its fluorescence was examined. Divalent cations such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, but not monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, inhibited FM1-43 labeling when they were added in excess amounts. These results suggest that FM1-43 internalizes hair cells via the putative mechanosensitive cation channel in the plasma membrane.

  15. New photocatalysts based on MIL-53 metal-organic frameworks for the decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Sun, Jia-Xin; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-06-15

    The photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution using a novel photocatalyst MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic frameworks was investigated under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation. The effect of electron acceptor H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) addition on the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) was also evaluated. The results show that MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst exhibited photocatalytic activity for MB decolorization both under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation, and the MB decolorization over MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst followed the first-order kinetics. The addition of different electron acceptors all enhances the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst, and the enhanced rate follows the order of H(2)O(2)>(NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>KBrO(3) under UV-vis light irradiation, while in the order of (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>H(2)O(2)>KBrO(3) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, MIL-53(Fe) did not exhibit any obvious loss of the activity for MB decolorization during five repeated usages. The photocatalytic activities over MIL-53(M) (M=Al, Fe), the isostructure to MIL-53(Fe), indicate that the metal centers show nil effect on the photocatalytic activity of MIL-53(M) photocatalysts.

  16. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Huimin; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK) was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v) organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide) could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM) and Ethyl Violet (25 μM), respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions. PMID:27741324

  17. Synthesis of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates using organic aliphatic acids and investigation of sunlight enhanced photodegradation of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Vinod; Gayathri, K.; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates and nanorods were synthesized using organic structure controlling agents and demonstrated sun light enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) dyes in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • α-MoO{sub 3} hexagonal nanoplates using organic structure controlling agents. • Tunable optical band gap of MoO{sub 3}. • Demonstrated strong sun light mediated enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine blue. • Photodegradation did not use any other external oxidizing agents. - Abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates were synthesized using organic aliphatic acids as structure controlling agents and investigated photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) in presence of sun light. Three different organic aliphatic acids, citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to control morphologies. CA and TA predominantly produced extended hexagonal plates where EDTA gave nanorods as well as nanoplates. PXRD studies confirmed the formation of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. HR-TEM and FE-SEM reveal the formation of plate morphologies with 20–40 nm thickness, 50–100 nm diameter and 600 nm lengths. The different morphologies of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles lead to the tunable optical band gap between 2.80 and 2.98 eV which was obtained from diffused reflectance spectra (DRS). Interestingly, the synthesized α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates exhibited strong photocatalytic degradation of MB and Rh-B up to 99% in presence of sun light without using any oxidizing agents.

  18. Determination of boron in produced water using the carminic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Floquet, Cedric F A; Sieben, Vincent J; MacKay, Bruce A; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-04-01

    Using the carminic acid assay, we determined the concentration of boron in oilfield waters. We investigated the effect of high concentrations of salts and dissolved metals on the assay performance. The influence of temperature, development time, reagent concentration, and water volume was studied. Ten produced and flowback water samples of different origins were measured, and the method was successfully validated against ICP-MS measurements. In water-stressed regions, produced water is a potential source of fresh water for irrigation, industrial applications, or consumption. Therefore, boron concentration must be determined and controlled to match the envisaged waste water reuse. Fast, precise, and onsite measurements are needed to minimize errors introduced by sample transportation to laboratories. We found that the optimum conditions for our application were a 5:1 mixing volume ratio (reagent to sample), a 1 g L(-1) carminic acid concentration in 99.99% sulfuric acid, and a 30 min reaction time at ambient temperature (20 °C to 23 °C). Absorption values were best measured at 610 nm and 630 nm and baseline corrected at 865 nm. Under these conditions, the sensitivity of the assay to boron was maximized while its cross-sensitivity to dissolved titanium, iron, barium and zirconium was minimized, alleviating the need for masking agents and extraction methods.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine by hydrothermally synthesized Bi₂MoO ₆ in presence of EDTA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Trinidad, C; Martínez-de la Cruz, A; López Cuéllar, E

    2015-01-01

    Bi2MoO6 oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in the presence of EDTA under different experimental conditions (time of reaction and EDTA concentration) in order to obtain materials with specific textural properties. It was determined that the addition of EDTA influences the final physical properties of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 samples was evaluated in the degradation reaction of indigo carmine (IC) in aqueous solution under solar radiation type. The best results as photocatalyst were obtained with the sample hydrothermally synthesized at 150 ºC for 4h in presence of a 0.031 M EDTA solution. This sample was able to whiten a solution of IC in a 94% after 120 min of lamp irradiation with t 1/2 = 31 min. In general, the samples prepared with lower concentrations of EDTA were the best photocatalysts. A gradual decrease in the activity was observed in the samples prepared with the same EDTA concentration as was increased in the reaction time. Beyond differences in morphology and textural properties of the samples prepared, the presence of EDTA by-products on the samples and the decomposition degree of it were important factors in determining the activity of the photocatalysts. Analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) of samples irradiated for 100 h confirmed that Bi2MoO6 oxide is able to mineralize the complex organic molecule of IC to CO2 and H2O in 55 %.

  20. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Peng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Yayun; Shi, Xiaoyang; Lü, Xiaomeng; Chen, Xi

    2015-11-01

    Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO) as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB) from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion) character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  1. Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and

  2. Photodegradation of organic dyes in the presence of [Fe(III)-salen]Cl complex and H2O2 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Sarifuddin; Rajakumar, Ananthakrishnan; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2010-11-15

    Photodegradation of persistent organic dyes (Rhodamine B (RhB), Malachite Green Oxalate (MG) and Crystal Violet 10B (CV)) is studied with Fe(III)-salen complex (λ(max) 494 nm), and hydrogen peroxide under visible light irradiation (λ≥400 nm). The complete decolourization of the dyes (60 mg/L each) was achieved in the aqueous medium. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants of RhB, MG, CV were found to be 2.83×10(-3) s(-1), 1.57×10(-3) s(-1) and 1.34×10(-3) s(-1), respectively. The effect of various parameters like concentration of H(2)O(2), pH of the medium, and influence of electrolytes are investigated on the degradation of RhB. A modified benzoic acid hydroxylation method has been used to detect the active oxygen species (OH radicals) in this study. The hydroxyl radical production is increased with the increase in irradiation time. Interestingly, even an excess amount of scavenger could not arrest the degradation of the dyes. This may be due to the formation of some secondary oxidants. Here, active ferryl ion was identified as the secondary oxidant. Degradation products of the dye (RhB) were determined by GC-MS, and phthalic acid was identified as the major one. From the results, a possible photodegradation mechanism has been proposed.

  3. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  4. Luminescent Properties of Arylpolyene Organic Dyes and Cross-Conjugated Ketones Promising for Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, N. L.; Vasilyeva, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    The spectral-luminescent properties of some dyes of substituted arylpolyenes and cross-conjugated ketones class in Shpolsky matrices, promising for using in solving quantum optics and nanophotonics, were studied.

  5. Re-evaluation of all-plastic organic dye laser with DFB structure fabricated using photoresists

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Nagi, Saori; Kinashi, Kenji; Sakai, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid-state lasers (OSSLs) with distributed feedback structures can detect nanoscale materials and therefore offer an attractive sensing platform for biological and medical applications. Here we investigate the lasing characteristics, i.e., the threshold and slope efficiency, as a function of the grating depth in OSSL devices with distributed feedback (DFB) structure fabricated using photoresists. Two types of photoresists were used for the DFB structures: a negative photoresist, SU-8 2002, and a positive photoresist, ma-P 1275. The DFB structure was fabricated using a Lloyd-mirror configuration. The active layer was a rhodamine 6G-doped cellulose acetate waveguide. The threshold for the first order mode (m  = 1) was lower than that for the second and third order modes (m = 2, and 3). A low threshold of 27 μJ cm−2 pulse−1 (58 nJ) was obtained using SU-8 2002, with m = 1. The slope efficiency was evaluated as a function of grating depth for each mode and increased as the grating depth increased. PMID:27703217

  6. Re-evaluation of all-plastic organic dye laser with DFB structure fabricated using photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Nagi, Saori; Kinashi, Kenji; Sakai, Wataru

    2016-10-01

    Organic solid-state lasers (OSSLs) with distributed feedback structures can detect nanoscale materials and therefore offer an attractive sensing platform for biological and medical applications. Here we investigate the lasing characteristics, i.e., the threshold and slope efficiency, as a function of the grating depth in OSSL devices with distributed feedback (DFB) structure fabricated using photoresists. Two types of photoresists were used for the DFB structures: a negative photoresist, SU-8 2002, and a positive photoresist, ma-P 1275. The DFB structure was fabricated using a Lloyd-mirror configuration. The active layer was a rhodamine 6G-doped cellulose acetate waveguide. The threshold for the first order mode (m  = 1) was lower than that for the second and third order modes (m = 2, and 3). A low threshold of 27 μJ cm‑2 pulse‑1 (58 nJ) was obtained using SU-8 2002, with m = 1. The slope efficiency was evaluated as a function of grating depth for each mode and increased as the grating depth increased.

  7. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed...

  8. A novel adsorbent obtained by inserting carbon nanotubes into cavities of diatomite and applications for organic dye elimination from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2010-05-15

    A novel approach is described for establishing adsorbents for elimination of water-soluble organic dyes by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the adsorptive sites. Agglomerates of MWCNTs were dispersed into individual tubes (dispersed-MWCNTs) using sodium n-dodecyl itaconate mixed with 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate as the dispersants. The resultant dispersed-MWCNTs were inserted into cavities of diatomite to form composites of diatomite/MWCNTs. These composites were finally immobilized onto the cell walls of flexible polyurethane foams (PUF) through an in situ PUF formation process to produce the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. Ethidium bromide, acridine orange, methylene blue, eosin B, and eosin Y were chosen to represent typical water-soluble organic dyes for studying the adsorptive capabilities of the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. For comparisons, adsorptive experiments were also carried out by using agglomerates of the sole MWCNTs as adsorbents. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents were found to have higher adsorptive capacities than the CNT agglomerates for all five dyes; in addition, they are macro-sized, durable, flexible, hydrophilic and easy to use. Adsorption isotherms plotted based on the Langmuir equation gave linear results, suggesting that the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent functioned in the Langmuir adsorption manner. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents are reusable after regeneration with aqueous ethanol solution.

  9. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-02

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling.

  10. Comparative study of UV/TiO2, UV/ZnO and photo-Fenton processes for the organic reactive dye degradation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Igor T; Koprivanac, Natalija; Bozić, Ana M Loncarić; Kusić, Hrvoje M

    2007-09-05

    In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UV/TiO(2), UV/ZnO and photo-Fenton, were applied in order to degrade C.I. Reactive Red 45 (RR45) dye in aqueous solution. The effects of key operating parameters, such as initial pH, catalyst and hydrogen peroxide dosage as well as the effect of initial dye concentration on decolorization and mineralization extents were studied. Primary objective was to determine the optimal conditions for each of the processes. The influence of added zeolite on the process efficiency was also studied. UV/vis spectrophotometric and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements were performed for determination of decolorization and mineralization extents. It has been found that photo-Fenton process was the most efficient with 74.2% TOC removal and complete color removal achieved after a 1h treatment.

  11. A cascaded QSAR model for efficient prediction of overall power conversion efficiency of all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhi; Zhong, Ziyan; Li, Lin; Gao, Rui; Cui, Jingxia; Gao, Ting; Hu, Li Hong; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Hui

    2015-05-30

    A cascaded model is proposed to establish the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of all-organic dye sensitizers. The cascaded model is a two-level network in which the outputs of the first level (JSC, VOC, and FF) are the inputs of the second level, and the ultimate end-point is the overall PCE of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The model combines quantum chemical methods and machine learning methods, further including quantum chemical calculations, data division, feature selection, regression, and validation steps. To improve the efficiency of the model and reduce the redundancy and noise of the molecular descriptors, six feature selection methods (multiple linear regression, genetic algorithms, mean impact value, forward selection, backward elimination, and +n-m algorithm) are used with the support vector machine. The best established cascaded model predicts the PCE values of DSSCs with a MAE of 0.57 (%), which is about 10% of the mean value PCE (5.62%). The validation parameters according to the OECD principles are R(2) (0.75), Q(2) (0.77), and Qcv2 (0.76), which demonstrate the great goodness-of-fit, predictivity, and robustness of the model. Additionally, the applicability domain of the cascaded QSAR model is defined for further application. This study demonstrates that the established cascaded model is able to effectively predict the PCE for organic dye sensitizers with very low cost and relatively high accuracy, providing a useful tool for the design of dye sensitizers with high PCE.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes over MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites under UV-visible irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Santhanam; Selvaraj, Ayyasamy; Ramasamy, Anaipalayam Kandasamy

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes have been investigated using MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites in the presence of electron acceptors under UV-Visible light irradiation. This MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were prepared by annealing different mass ratios of pyrophanite MnTiO3 (3-11 wt%) and TiO2 at 300°C. All the MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were characterized by spectral techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and diffused reflectance UV-visible spectroscopic analysis (DRS). Among them, 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB 4). The photocatalytic efficiency of 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was further enhanced by the addition of substantial amount of electron acceptors like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonium peroxydisulfate ([NH4]2S2O8). The presence of oxidants (electron acceptors) facilitates the fast degradation of dye solution even in higher concentration upto 200 mg/L. The photocatalytic activity of MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also studied for the degradation of other four different structured reactive dyes. The extent of mineralization of these organic reactive dyes during photocatalytic degradation was estimated from COD analysis. MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also found to have good photostability in the presence of oxidants.

  13. Highly efficient decomposition of organic dyes by aqueous-fiber phase transfer and in situ catalytic oxidation using fiber-supported cobalt phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Wangyang; Yao, Yuyuan; Xu, Minhong

    2007-09-01

    A novel metallophthalocyanine derivative, cobalt tetra (2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine) aminophthalocyanine (Co-TDTAPc), was prepared and immobilized on cellulosic fiber by covalent bond to obtain a supported oxidation catalyst (Co-TDTAPc-F). Co-TDTAPc-F/H202 system based on phase-transfer catalytic oxidation for decomposing dyes, including acid, reactive, and direct dyes, has been investigated thoroughly. Compared to traditional adsorption technologies and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for dye treatment, Co-TDTAPc-F/H202 combines the advantages of both and is more efficient and more effective. Azo dyes such as C. I. Acid Red 1 (AR1) can be quickly adsorbed onto/into the fiber from aqueous solution and decomposed in situ simultaneously in the presence of Co-TDTAPc-F and H2O2. It has been found that the reaction process is not affected by the visible light. Furthermore, it turns the negative effect of NaCl normally observed in homogeneous catalysis into positive one. The catalytic reaction can proceed at a wide pH range from acidic to alkaline. In 60 min, more than 98% of AR1 was eliminated at initial pH 2. In 90 min, about 40% of the carbon was found mineralized as determined by the analysis of the residual total organic carbon. The high-performance liquid chromatography result indicated that a substantial amount of the starting AR1 was converted to other organic products, while gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed the rest of the carbon existed mainly as small molecular biodegradable aliphatic carboxylic compounds such as oxalic acid, malonic acid, and maleic acid, etc. Co-TDTAPc-F is stable, causes no secondary pollution, and remains efficient in repetitive test cycles with no obvious degradation of catalytic activity.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Lu, Chunxiao; Tang, Liang; Song, Yahui; Wei, Shengnan; Rong, Yang; Zhang, Zhaohong; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites were prepared by the sol-gel method. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Photo-degradation of azo fuchsine (AF) as a model dye under solar light irradiation was studied to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Co- and Fe-doped ZnO composites can be obviously enhanced by upconversion luminescence agent (Er3+: YAlO3). Besides, the photocatalytic activity of Er3+: YAlO3/Fe-doped ZnO is better than that of Er3+: YAlO3/Co-doped ZnO. The influence of experiment conditions, such as the concentration of Er3+: YAlO3, heat-treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of the Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites was studied. In addition, the effects of solar light irradiation time, dye initial concentration, Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO amount on the photocatalytic degradation of azo fuchsine in aqueous solution were investigated in detail. Simultaneously, some other organic dyes, such as Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RM-B), Acid Red B (AR-B), Congo Red (CR), and Methyl Blue (MB) were also studied. The possible excitation principle of Er3+: YAlO3/Co- and Fe-doped ZnO coated composites under solar light irradiation and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of organic dyes were discussed.

  15. Heterogeneous Fenton degradation of organic dyes in batch and fixed bed using La-Fe montmorillonite as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fida, Hussain; Zhang, Gaoke; Guo, Sheng; Naeem, Abdul

    2017-03-15

    The La-Fe montmorillonite (La-Fe MMT) composite was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and was used for the degradation of dyes in both batch and fixed bed experiments. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis (HRTEM) confirmed the existence of Fe2O3 and La2O3 in the composite. The presence of La enhanced the degradation efficiency of dyes by the composite at neutral pH and results in little iron leaching consequently increasing the lifetime. More than 97% and 96% removal of the MB and RhB (100mg/L each) by the La-Fe MMT Fenton system could be achieved in less than 1h. The catalyst also exhibited excellent efficiency in fixed bed reactor with 91% MB degradation corresponds to 65% COD removal, even after 200h of use. The factors such as solution pH, catalyst dosage, H2O2 dosage and temperature on the degradation of dyes were investigated. Fluorescence and quenchers experiments indicated that OH was the main reactive species for the degradation of dyes. Due to the low cost, efficient reactivity, high stability and low metal leaching, the La-Fe MMT possesses a great potential to be a green catalyst for the heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of hazardous dyes.

  16. Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater using recycled waste iron shavings as a catalyst: Removal and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Ma, Luming; Chen, Yunlu; Cheng, Yunqin; Liu, Yan; Zha, Xiaosong

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from actual bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater (BDFW) with iron shavings was investigated. Catalytic ozonation effectively removed organic pollutants at initial pH values of 7.18-7.52, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) level decreased from 142 to 70 mg·L(-1) with a discharge limitation of 80 mg·L(-1). A total of 100% and 42% of the proteins and polysaccharides, respectively, were removed with a decrease in their contribution to the soluble COD from 76% to 41%. Among the 218 organic species detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 58, 77, 79 and 4 species were completely removed, partially removed, increased and newly generated, respectively. Species including textile auxiliaries and dye intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect decreased from 51% to 33%, suggesting a reduction in the acute toxicity. The enhanced effect was due to hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants. The proteins were removed by OH oxidation (6%), by direct ozonation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants (94%). The corresponding values for polysaccharides were 21% and 21%, respectively. In addition, the iron shavings behaved well in successive runs. These results indicated that the process was favorable for engineering applications for removal of organic pollutants from BDFW.

  17. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  18. Two novel POM-based inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: synthesis, structures, magnetic properties, photodegradation and selective absorption of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Dui, Xue-Jing; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Kuang, Xiaofei; Liao, Jian-Zhen; Yu, Rongmin; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2015-05-28

    The hydrothermal reactions of a mixture of (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, Cu(Ac)2·H2O and 3-bpo ligands at different temperatures result in the isolation of two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials containing different but related isopolymolybdate units, [Cu(3-bpo)(H2O)(Mo4O13)]·3H2O () and [Cu2(3-bpo)2(Mo6O20)] (). The {Mo4O13}n chains in and unprecedented [Mo6O20](4-) isopolyhexamolybdate anions in are linked by octahedral Cu(2+) ions into two-dimensional hybrid layers. Interestingly, 3-bpo ligands in both and are located on either side of these hybrid layers and serve as arched footbridges to link Cu(ii) ions in the layer via pyridyl N-donors, and at the same time connect these hybrid layers into 3D supramolecular frameworks via weak MoNoxadiazole bonds. Another important point for is that water clusters are filled in the 1D channels surrounded by isopolytetramolybdate units. In addition, dye adsorption and photocatalytic properties of and magnetic properties of have been investigated. The results indicated that complex is not only a good heterogeneous photocatalyst in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), but also has high absorption capacity of MB at room temperature and can selectively capture MB molecules from binary mixtures of MB/MO or MB/RhB. All MB molecules absorbed on can be completely released and photodegraded in the presence of adequate peroxide. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility revealed that complex exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at about 5 K, and a spin-flop transition was observed at about 5.8 T at 2 K, indicating metamagnetic-like behaviour from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phases.

  19. Nitrogen doped nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide: An efficient UV active photocatalyst for the oxidation of an organic dye using slurry Photoreactor.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Saranya; Sivasamy, A; Kumar, B Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution is a cause for serious concern in today's world. A major contributor to water pollution is industrial effluents containing dyes and other organic molecules. Waste water treatment has become a priority area in today's applied scientific research as it seeks to minimize the toxicity of the effluents being discharged and increase the possibility of water recycling. An efficient and eco-friendly way of degrading toxic molecules is to use nano metal-oxide photocatalysts. The present study aims at enhancing the photocatalytic activity of a semiconductor metal oxide by doping it with nitrogen. A sol-gel cum combustion method was employed to synthesize the catalyst. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV-DRS, FESEM and AFM techniques. UV-DRS result showed the catalyst to possess band gap energy of 2.97eV, thus making it active in the UV region of the spectrum. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of a model pollutant-Orange G dye, under UV light irradiation. Preliminary experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration on the extent of dye degradation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics. The effect of electrolytes on catalyst efficiency was also studied. The progress of the reaction was monitored by absorption studies and measuring the reduction in COD. The catalyst thus prepared was seen to have a high photocatalytic efficiency. The use of this catalyst is a promising means of waste water treatment.

  20. Direct assembly of preformed nanoparticles and graft copolymer for the fabrication of micrometer-thick, organized TiO2 films: high efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Chi, Won Seok; Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan; Roh, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jong Hak

    2012-01-24

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with 7.1% efficiency at 100 mW/cm(2) is reported, one of the highest observed for N719 dye. Excellent performance was achieved via a graft copolymer-templated, organized mesoporous TiO(2) film with a large surface area using spindle-shaped, preformed TiO(2) nanoparticles and solid polymer electrolyte.

  1. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  2. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  3. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  4. Enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction with ferric-organic ligands for the treatment of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soares, Petrick A; Batalha, Mauro; Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-04-01

    Literature describes a kinetic mineralization profile for most of acrylic-textile dyeing wastewaters using a photo-Fenton reaction characterized by a slow degradation process and high reactants consumption. This work tries to elucidate that the slow decay on DOC concentration is associated with the formation of stable complexes between Fe(3+) and textile auxiliary products, limiting the photoreduction of Fe(3+). This work also evaluates the enhancement of a solar photo-Fenton reaction through the use of different ferric-organic ligands applied to the treatment of a simulated acrylic-textile dyeing wastewater, as a pre-oxidation step to enhance its biodegradability. The photo-Fenton reaction was negatively affected by two dyeing auxiliary products: i) Sera(®) Tard A-AS, a surfactant mainly composed of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and ii) Sera(®) Sperse M-IW, a dispersing agent composed of polyglycol solvents. The catalytic activity of the organic ligands toward the ferrous-catalysed system followed this order: Fe(III)-Oxalate > Fe(III)-Citrate > Fe(III)-EDDS, and all were better than the traditional photo-Fenton reaction. Different design parameters such as iron concentration, pH, temperature, flow conditions, UV irradiance and H2O2 addition strategy and dose were evaluated. The ferrioxalate induced photo-Fenton process presented the best results, achieving 87% mineralization after 9.3 kJUV L(-1) and allowing to work until near neutral pH values. As expected, the biodegradability of the textile wastewater was significantly enhanced during the photo-Fenton treatment, achieving a value of 73%, consuming 32.4 mM of H2O2 and 5.7 kJUV L(-1).

  5. Analysis of the phosphorescent dye concentration dependence of triplet-triplet annihilation in organic host-guest systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; van Eersel, H.; Bobbert, P. A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2016-10-01

    Using a novel method for analyzing transient photoluminescence (PL) experiments, a microscopic description is obtained for the dye concentration dependence of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) in phosphorescent host-guest systems. It is demonstrated that the TTA-mechanism, which could be a single-step dominated process or a diffusion-mediated multi-step process, can be deduced for any given dye concentration from a recently proposed PL intensity analysis. A comparison with the results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations provides the TTA-Förster radius and shows that the TTA enhancement due to triplet diffusion can be well described in a microscopic manner assuming Förster- or Dexter-type energy transfer.

  6. Laser dye toxicity, hazards, and recommended controls

    SciTech Connect

    Mosovsky, J.A.

    1983-05-06

    Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated have been categorized according to their central chemical structures. These include the xanthenes (rhodamines and fluoresceins), polymethines (cyanines and carbocyanines), coumarins, and stilbenes. A few other miscellaneous dyes that do not fall into one of these categories have also been investigated. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

  7. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-06-09

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus.

  8. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus. PMID:27294957

  9. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-02-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index.

  10. Microchip electrophoresis with background electrolyte containing polyacrylic acid and high content organic solvent in cyclic olefin copolymer microchips for easily adsorbed dyes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuan; Sun, Ping; Yang, Shenghong; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Li, Fengyun; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-07-29

    Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75μm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%.

  11. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  12. Green synthesis of AgI-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: Toward enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for organic dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Jiha; Park, Seonhwa; Ma, Rory; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO) enwrapped AgI nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by a facile template-free ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The structural, morphological, and optical studies demonstrate that the obtained nanostructures have good crystallinity and that the graphene nanosheets are decorated densely with AgI nanostructures. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was evaluated by the degradation of an organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under visible-light irradiation. The results indicate that AgI with incorporated graphene exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgI due to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated carriers and that it prolonged the lifetime of the electron-hole pairs due to the chemical bonding between AgI and graphene. AgI (0.4 mg mL-1 of graphene oxide) nanocomposites displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 70 min were ∼96%. Moreover, with the assistance of H2O2 the photocatalytic ability of the as-obtained AgI-RGO nanocomposites was enhanced. The corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 30 min were ∼96.8% (for 1 mL H2O2) under the same irradiation conditions. The excellent visible-light photocatalytic efficiency and luminescence properties make the AgI-RGO nanocomposites promising candidates for the removal of organic dyes for water purification and enable their application in near-UV white LEDs.

  13. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  14. Solution-processable, photo-stable, low-threshold, and broadly tunable thin film organic lasers based on novel high-performing laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, María. A.; Morales-Vidal, Marta; Ramírez, Manuel G.; Villalvilla, José M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Quintana, José A.; Retolaza, A.; Merino, S.

    2015-09-01

    Thin film organic lasers (TFOLs) represent a new generation of inexpensive, mechanically flexible devices with demonstrated applicability in numerous applications in the fields of spectroscopy, optical communications and sensing requiring an organic, efficient, stable, wavelength-tunable and solution-processable laser material. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser is a particularly attractive TFOL because it shows single mode emission, low pump energy, easy integration with other devices, mechanical flexibility and potentially low production cost. Here, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and DFB laser applications of novel high performing perylene dyes and p-phenylenevinylene (PV) oligomers, both dispersed in thermoplastic polymers, used as passive matrixes, are reported. Second-order DFB lasers based on these materials show single mode emission, wavelength tunability across the visible spectrum, operational lifetimes of >105 pump pulses, larger than previously reported PV oligomers or polymers, and thresholds close to pumping requirements with light-emitting diodes.

  15. Chitin nanowhisker (ChNW)-functionalized electrospun PVDF membrane for enhanced removal of Indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Sreerag; Balakrishnan, Preetha; Pius, Anitha; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, an active functional adsorbent membrane developed by combining both hydrophilic bio polymer filler such as chitin nanowhiskers (ChNW) which contains two functional groups and a hydrophobic polymer matrix such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) using electrospinning technique. Here ChNW were successfully extracted by excluding proteins and mineral and well characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. The optimized combination of PVDF/ChNW (15%:1%) membrane was fabricated and well characterized using SEM, water contact angle and FTIR spectroscopy. There was a remarkable difference in contact angle observed for PVDF/ChNW (22.72°) compared to neat PVDF (93.1°) membrane. Ultimately the membrane used for indigo carmine (IC) adsorption and an enhanced removal efficiency (88.9%) and adsorption capacity (72.6mgg(-1)) were observed compared to neat PVDF. In the future, the overall idea can make leads to various applications such as proteins, virus and hormones adsorption from the contaminated sources.

  16. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Solís, A.; Perea, F.; Solís, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Pérez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  17. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    SciTech Connect

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K.

    2013-02-05

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  18. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  19. Novel CuCr2O4 embedded CuO nanocomposites for efficient photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jinsub

    2015-10-01

    Novel photocatalyst based on CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites was synthesized for different Cr3+ concentration by reflux condensation method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue dyes (MB) under UV light irradiation. Phase evolution by X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic CuO and tetragonal CuCr2O4 as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the incorporation of Cr3+ in CuO lattice alters the morphology of CuO from microsphere to cluster shape. Photoluminescence spectra of CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. As expected, the CuCr2O4 loaded CuO showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for MO and MB dyes, and the kinetic studies suggest that the degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites can be attributed to the presence of CuCr2O4 as an electron acceptor, which improves the effective charge separation in CuO.

  20. J-aggregates of organic dye molecules complexed with iron oxide nanoparticles for imaging-guided photothermal therapy under 915-nm light.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Gong, Hua; Liu, Teng; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Liang, Chao; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-11-12

    Recently, the development of nano-theranostic agents aiming at imaging guided therapy has received great attention. In this work, a near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine indocyanine dye, IR825, in the presence of cationic polymer, polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), forms J-aggregates with red-shifted and significantly enhanced absorbance. After further complexing with ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and the followed functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG composite nanoparticles are highly stable in different physiological media. With a sharp absorbance peak, IR825@PAH-IONP-PEG can serve as an effective photothermal agent under laser irradiation at 915 nm, which appears to be optimal in photothermal therapy application considering its improved tissue penetration compared with 808-nm light and much lower water heating in comparison to 980-nm light. As revealed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, those nanoparticles after intravenous injection exhibit high tumor accumulation, which is then harnessed for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors, achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This study demonstrates for the first time that J-aggregates of organic dye molecules are an interesting class of photothermal material, which when combined with other imageable nanoprobes could serve as a theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancer.

  1. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media.

  2. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the long-wavelength (700 nm) region in the visible by energy transfer between organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong

    2014-06-01

    In this work, organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with single-mode laser output in the long-wavelength region (~700 nm) of the visible were reported based on the energy transfer between dye pairs consisting of pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and rhodamine 700 (LD700). By co-doping PM597 into the polymeric hosts, the fluorescence intensity of LD700 was enhanced by 30-fold and the photophysical parameters of the donor-acceptor pairs were investigated, indicating the involvement of non-radiative resonance energy transfer processes between PM597 and LD700. Active distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were made by alternately spin-coating dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole and cellulose acetate thin films as the high and low refractive index layers, respectively. By sandwiching the active layer with 2 DBR mirrors, VCSEL emission at 698.9 nm in the biological first window (650-950 nm) was observed under the 532-nm laser pulses. The laser slope efficiency and threshold were also measured.

  3. New composites of nanoparticle Cu (I) oxide and titania in a novel inorganic polymer (geopolymer) matrix for destruction of dyes and hazardous organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Falah, Mahroo; MacKenzie, Kenneth J D; Knibbe, Ruth; Page, Samuel J; Hanna, John V

    2016-11-15

    New photoactive composites to efficiently remove organic dyes from water are reported. These consist of Cu2O/TiO2 nanoparticles in a novel inorganic geopolymer matrix modified by a large tertiary ammonium species (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) whose presence in the matrix is demonstrated by FTIR spectroscopy. The CTAB does not disrupt the tetrahedral geopolymer structural silica and alumina units as demonstrated by (29)Si and (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. SEM/EDS, TEM and BET measurements suggest that the Cu2O/TiO2 nanoparticles are homogenously distributed on the surface and within the geopolymer pores. The mechanism of removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from solution consists of a combination of adsorption (under dark conditions) and photodegradation (under UV radiation). MB adsorption in the dark follows pseudo second-order kinetics and is described by Freundlich-Langmuir type isotherms. The performance of the CTAB-modified geopolymer based composites is superior to composites based on unmodified geopolymer hosts, the most effective composite containing 5wt% Cu2O/TiO2 in a CTAB-modified geopolymer host. These composites constitute a new class of materials with excellent potential in environmental protection applications.

  4. Organic-free Anatase TiO₂ Paste for Efficient Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Low Temperature Processed Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nianqing; Huang, Chun; Liu, Yan; Li, Xing; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Limin; Peng, Feng; Liu, Yanchun; Huang, Haitao

    2015-09-02

    Recently, the synthesis of fine TiO2 paste with organic-free binder emerged as an indispensable technique for plastic photovoltaics due to the low temperature processing requirement. In this study, pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and organic-free TiO2-sol were successfully synthesized individually in organic-free solution. By mixing the pure anatase TiO2 with the newly developed TiO2-sol binder, mechanically robust and well-interconnected TiO2 films were prepared via UV-irradiation at low temperature for applications in plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs). The structural, electrical, and photovoltaic properties of the films as well as the devices were investigated by various techniques. The dye-loading amount of the obtained film is 2.6 times that of the P25 electrodes. As revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results, the film derived from the as-prepared anatase TiO2 paste (A-TiO2) exhibits much smaller charge transport resistance and lower electron recombination rate than the P25 film, while the introduction of TiO2-sol into the paste can further remarkably decrease the resistance of the produced film (AS-TiO2). The p-DSSCs employing AS-TiO2 photoanode yield a high efficiency up to 7.51%, which is 86% higher than the P25 reference cells and also 31% higher than the A-TiO2 cell. As a proof of concept, the newly developed AS-TiO2 paste was also applied to low temperature processed perovskite solar cells (PSCs), and a promising high efficiency up to 9.95% was achieved.

  5. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of organic pigments using silver and gold nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    The identification of pigments used in ancient times represents an interesting task in order to discriminate a production of a precise geographic area or to trace out the ancient commercial networks. Conventional micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), being a non-destructiveness technique, has been largely used for the analysis of dyes. Nevertheless several pigments, especially of organic origin, show weak Raman activity beside a strong a fluorescence that prevents their identification. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can address such difficulties. The presence of noble metal nanoparticles induces a giant amplification of the Raman signal beside the fluorescence quenching. In this work we present the use of gold and silver nanoparticles to enhance the Raman signal of some commercial red organic dyes: bazilwood, dragon's blood, carmine and madder lake. The nanoparticles were prepared adopting two approaches: (1) ablating metallic targets in water using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and (2) depositing the nanoparticles on glass substrates by means of a KrF excimer laser ablation process, performed in a controlled argon atmosphere.

  7. Influence of the Terminal Electron Donor in D-D-π-A Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole versus Bis(amine).

    PubMed

    Dai, Panpan; Yang, Lin; Liang, Mao; Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Chunyao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-10-14

    With respect to the electron-withdrawing acceptors of D-A-π-A organic dyes, reports on the second electron-donating donors for D-D-π-A organic dyes are very limited. Both of the dyes have attracted significant attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, four new D-D-π-A organic dyes with dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) or bis(amine) donor have been designed and synthesized for a investigation of the influence of the terminal electron donor in D-D-π-A organic dye-sensitized solar cells. It is found that DTP is a promising building block as the terminal electron donor when introduced in the dithiophenepyrrole direction, but not just a good bridge, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently increasing the maximum molar absorption coefficient and extending the absorption bands; (ii) showing stronger charge transfer interaction as compared with the pyrrole direction; (iii) beneficial to photocurrent generation of DSCs employing cobalt electrolytes. DSCs based on M45 with the Co-phen electrolyte exhibit good light-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies as high as 9.02%, with a short circuit current density (JSC) of 15.3 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage (VOC) of 867 mV and fill factor (FF) of 0.68 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). The results demonstrate that N,S-heterocycles such as DTP unit could be promising candidates for application in highly efficient DSCs employing cobalt electrolyte.

  8. High-efficiency sono-solar-induced degradation of organic dye by the piezophototronic/photocatalytic coupling effect of FeS/ZnO nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao; Fu, Yongming; Hong, Deyi; Yu, Binwei; He, Haoxuan; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2016-09-01

    Highly-efficient sono-solar-induced degradation of organic dye by the piezophototronic/photocatalytic coupling effect of FeS/ZnO nanoarrays was achieved. A steel screen was used as the substrate for supporting FeS/ZnO nanoarrays, and the nanoarrays were vertically and uniformly grown on the substrate via a wet-chemical route. Under ultrasonic and solar irradiation, FeS/ZnO nanoarrays have high sono-photocatalytic activity for degrading methylene blue in water. The photogenerated carriers can be separated by a piezoelectric field and a built-in electric field, resulting in a low recombination rate and high photocatalytic efficiency. The piezophototronic and photocatalytic effects were coupled together. The experimental/theoretical data indicate that this novel wastewater treatment can co-use mechanical and solar energy in nature, and so is a promising technology for environment improvement.

  9. Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works.

    PubMed

    Kuckova, S; Nemec, I; Hynek, R; Hradilova, J; Grygar, T

    2005-05-01

    Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome slices. The detection limit of the three blue pigments examined is approximately 0.3 wt% in reference colour layers in linseed oil binder with calcite as extender and lead white as a drying agent. The sensitivity has been sufficient to identify Prussian blue in repaints on a Gothic painting. MALDI-TOF-MS has been used to identify proteinaceous binders in two historical paintings, namely isinglass (fish glue) and rabbit glue. MALDI-TOF-MS has also been proposed for identification of an insect red dye, cochineal carmine, according to its specific protein component. The enzymatic cleavage with trypsin before MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a very gentle and specific way of dissolution of the colour layers highly polymerised due to very long aging of old, e.g. medieval, samples.

  10. CTAB-assisted synthesis of novel ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets perpendicular to graphene for the adsorption and photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuxin; Xu, Mingquan; Chen, Xi; Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Hanshuo; Pan, Jun; Xiong, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructure of perpendicular ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets directly grown on graphene was produced by a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of CTAB. The vertically-oriented and ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets distribute uniformly on the surface of graphene, and the nanosheets are typically 2-3 layers, which is confirmed by TEM and red shift of the A1g Raman peak. In comparison with pure MoSe2 and MoSe2 nanospheres on graphene, vertically oriented MoSe2 nanosheets on graphene show enhanced organic dye adsorption ability and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB, RhB and MO under dark conditions and visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity may be contributed by the unique perpendicular MoSe2 nanosheets with fully exposed active edges and hybridized with graphene for reduced electron-hole pair recombination.A novel nanostructure of perpendicular ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets directly grown on graphene was produced by a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of CTAB. The vertically-oriented and ultrathin MoSe2 nanosheets distribute uniformly on the surface of graphene, and the nanosheets are typically 2-3 layers, which is confirmed by TEM and red shift of the A1g Raman peak. In comparison with pure MoSe2 and MoSe2 nanospheres on graphene, vertically oriented MoSe2 nanosheets on graphene show enhanced organic dye adsorption ability and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB, RhB and MO under dark conditions and visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity may be contributed by the unique perpendicular MoSe2 nanosheets with fully exposed active edges and hybridized with graphene for reduced electron-hole pair recombination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05748e

  11. Synergistic inhibition behavior between indigo carmine and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide on carbon steel corroded in a 0.5 M HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tian, Ningchen; Li, Xiuying; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wu, Ling; Huang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    This work reports on a newly observed synergistic inhibition between indigo carmine and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) on 1045 carbon steel (CS) corroded in a 0.5 M HCl solution. The results of electrochemical measurements showed that CTAB could change indigo carmine in a manner that would accelerate corrosion and produce an effective inhibitor. The maximal protection efficiency was significantly greater than 0.985, with the concentration of the combination inhibitors reaching approximately 5 × 10-5 M. The microstructure of the CS corrosion surface demonstrated that the indigo disulfonate anions and cetyltrimethylammonium cations were adsorbed simultaneously on the CS surface to protect it from corrosion. Diffusion coefficient analysis and the surface concentration profiles of the corrosive species were used to investigate the synergistic effect of the indigo carmine/CTAB combination inhibitors, and the results demonstrate the existence of synergy.

  12. Enhanced Electron Lifetimes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Dichromophoric Porphyrin: The Utility of Intermolecular Forces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Wagner, Pawel; van der Salm, Holly; Gordon, Keith C; Mori, Shogo; Mozer, Attila J

    2015-10-07

    Electron lifetimes in dye-sensitized solar cells employing a porphyrin dye, an organic dye, a 1:1 mixture of the two dyes, and a dichromophoric dye design consisting of the two dyes using a nonconjugated linker were measured, suggesting that the dispersion force of the organic dyes has a significant detrimental effect on the electron lifetime and that the dichromophoric design can be utilized to control the effect of the dispersion force.

  13. Synthesis of Tunable Band Gap Semiconductor Nickel Sulphide Nanoparticles: Rapid and Round the Clock Degradation of Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Aniruddha; Sahu, Meenakshi; Hussain, Sahid

    2016-01-01

    Controlled shape and size with tuneable band gap (1.92–2.41 eV), nickel sulphide NPs was achieved in presence of thiourea or thioacetamide as sulphur sources with the variations of temperature and capping agents. Synthesized NPs were fully characterized by powder XRD, IR, UV-vis, DRS, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, TGA and BET. Capping agent, temperature and sulphur sources have significant role in controlling the band gaps, morphology and surface area of NPs. The catalytic activities of NPs were tested for round the clock (light and dark) decomposition of crystal violet (CV), rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), nile blue (NB) and eriochrome black T (EBT). Agitation speed, temperature, pH and ionic strength have significant role on its catalytic activities. The catalyst was found to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) both in presence and absence of light which is responsible for the decomposition of dyes into small fractions, identified with ESI-mass spectra. PMID:27185051

  14. Synthesis of Tunable Band Gap Semiconductor Nickel Sulphide Nanoparticles: Rapid and Round the Clock Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molla, Aniruddha; Sahu, Meenakshi; Hussain, Sahid

    2016-05-01

    Controlled shape and size with tuneable band gap (1.92–2.41 eV), nickel sulphide NPs was achieved in presence of thiourea or thioacetamide as sulphur sources with the variations of temperature and capping agents. Synthesized NPs were fully characterized by powder XRD, IR, UV-vis, DRS, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, TGA and BET. Capping agent, temperature and sulphur sources have significant role in controlling the band gaps, morphology and surface area of NPs. The catalytic activities of NPs were tested for round the clock (light and dark) decomposition of crystal violet (CV), rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), nile blue (NB) and eriochrome black T (EBT). Agitation speed, temperature, pH and ionic strength have significant role on its catalytic activities. The catalyst was found to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) both in presence and absence of light which is responsible for the decomposition of dyes into small fractions, identified with ESI-mass spectra.

  15. Novel polymer gel electrolyte with organic solvents for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sheng-Yen; Dong, Rui-Xuan; Shih, Po-Ta; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-11-12

    A cross-linked copolymer was previously synthesized from poly(oxyethylene) diamine (POE-amine) and an aromatic anhydride and cured to generate an amide-imide cross-linking structure. The copolymer containing several chemical groups such as POE, amido acids, and imide, enabled to absorb liquid electrolytes in methoxypropionitrile (MPN) for suitable uses in dye-sensitized solar cells. To establish the advantages of polymer gel electrolytes (PGE), the same copolymer was studied by using different electrolyte solvents including propylene carbonate (PC), dimethylformamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and shown their long-term stability. The morphology of the copolymer after absorbing liquid electrolytes in these solvents was proven the same as a 3D interconnected nanochannels, evidenced field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Among these solvents, PC was selected as the optimized PGE, which demostrated a higher power conversion efficiency (8.31%) than that of the liquid electrolyte (7.89%). In particular, the long-term stability of only a 5% decrease in the cell efficiency after 1000 h of testing was achieved. It was proven the developed copolymer as PGE was versatile for different solvents showing high efficiency and long-term durability.

  16. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  17. The Determination of Food Dyes in Vitamins by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Šuleková, Monika; Hudák, Alexander; Smrčová, Miroslava

    2016-10-17

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the determination of five synthetic food dyes (Quinoline Yellow E104, Sunset Yellow E110, Ponceau 4R E124, Tartrazine E102 and Carmine E120) in vitamins was used. The dyes were analyzed within 10 min using a column with stationary phase C 18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 40 °C with isocratic elution, and the mobile phase contained acetonitrile and a mixture of CH₃COONa:CH₃OH (85:15, v/v) in a ratio of 10:90 (v/v) for yellow-colored capsules and 20:80 (v/v) for red-colored capsules, respectively. A diode-array detector was used to monitor the dyes between 190 and 800 nm. It was established that the analyzed samples contained synthetic dyes in a concentration range from 79.5 ± 0.01 μg/capsule of Ponceau 4R, E124 to 524 ± 0.01 μg/capsule of Tartrazine, E102. The obtained results were compared with existing acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for individual dyes. This paper provides information about the content of dyes in samples of vitamins. This information is not generally available to consumers.

  18. Application of the Kubelka-Munk correction for self-absorption of fluorescence emission in carmine lake paint layers.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Catia; Miliani, Costanza; Verri, Giovanni; Sotiropoulou, Sophia; Romani, Aldo; Brunetti, Brunetto G; Sgamellotti, A

    2009-12-01

    The variations of the fluorescence emission of carmine lake travelling through an absorbing and scattering medium, such as a paint layer, were investigated by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. Samples of the lake were studied in dilute and saturated solutions, on a reference test panel and a real case study. Relevant spectral modifications have been observed as a function of the lake concentration mainly consisting of a fluorescence quenching, red shift of emission maxima, and deformation of emission band. The application of a correction factor based on the Kubelka-Munk model allowed fluorescence spectra obtained in solution and on painted samples of known composition to be compared and correlated, highlighting that the fluorescence of the lake within paint layers is affected by both self-absorption and aggregation phenomena. This approach has been successfully applied on a painting by G. Vasari for the noninvasive identification of carmine lake. The results reported here emphasize the necessity of taking physical phenomena into account in the interpretation of the fluorescence spectra for a proper and reliable characterization and identification of painting materials in works of art.

  19. Hierarchical Heteroaggregation of Binary Metal-Organic Gels with Tunable Porosity and Mixed Valence Metal Sites for Removal of Dyes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Asif; Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Nasir; Wang, Qingfei; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heteronuclear metal-organic gels (MOGs) based on iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) metal-organic framework (MOF) backbones bridged by tri-carboxylate ligands have firstly been synthesized by simple solvothermal method. Monometallic MOGs based on Fe or Al give homogenous monoliths, which have been tuned by introduction of heterogeneity in the system (mismatched growth). The developed gels demonstrate that surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes can be readily tuned by optimizing heterogeneity. The work also elaborates effect of heterogeneity on size of MOG particles which increase substantially with increasing heterogeneity as well as obtaining mixed valence sites in the gels. High surface areas (1861 m2/g) and pore volumes (9.737 cc/g) were obtained for heterogeneous gels (0.5Fe-0.5Al). The large uptakes of dye molecules (290 mg/g rhodamine B and 265 mg/g methyl orange) with fast sorption kinetics in both neutral and acidic mediums show good stability and accessibility of MOG channels (micro and meso-/macropores), further demonstrating their potential applications in catalysis and sorption of large molecules. PMID:26014755

  20. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry.

  1. A recyclable and highly active Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles/titanate nanowire catalyst for organic dyes degradation with peroxymonosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhili; Chen, Shihua; Li, Yonghe; Si, Xiaolei; Huang, Jun; Massey, Sylvain; Chen, Guangliang

    2014-09-15

    Sodium ions of TNWs were exchanged with hydrogen ions, and this protocol was very suitable for capturing high density of cobalt ions. Meanwhile, the fabricated Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs nano-material presented a highly catalytic and stable activity for dye degradation. - Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were deposited on the pretreated TNWs surface. • The TNWs treated by hydrogen ions captures higher density of cobalt ions. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs catalyst possesses highly efficiency for dyes degradation with oxone. - Abstract: In this paper, we reported a recyclable and highly active porous catalyst of titanate nanowires (TNWs) coated with well-distributed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs). Sodium ions of TNWs were exchanged with hydrogen ions in the dilute nitric acid, and this protocol was very suitable for capturing cobalt ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated the existence of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase with unique lattice planes, such as (2 2 0), (3 1 1) and (5 1 1). Electron microscopes (FE-SEM and TEM) indicated that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs with an average diameter of 22 ± 3 nm were coated uniformly on TNWs surface (average diameter: 37 ± 5.5 nm), and the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs mainly exposed their (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) active planes. XPS analysis confirms the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase by the presence of Co 2p peaks at 780.1 eV (2p 3/2) and 795.5 eV (2p 1/2). Methylene blue (MB) and other organic dyes (rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO)) were chosen as target compounds for catalytic degradation under indoor scattering light. Compared to the original Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TNWs catalyst, the catalytic efficiency of nanoscaled catalyst with oxone for MB was about 15 times higher, and the MB solution (10 mg L{sup −1}) was completely degraded within 8 min. The catalytic activity of recycled catalyst used in the sixth run still remained very active, and the degradation time for MB was only 16 min

  2. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  3. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  4. An investigation of dye reduction by food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, S A; Kroll, R G; Thurston, C F

    1992-06-01

    The rates of reduction of seven redox dyes by 13 bacterial strains were measured and found to vary greatly between different bacterium/dye combinations. Phenazine ethosulphate and toluidine blue were the most rapidly reduced dyes by the majority of bacteria and resorufin and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were reduced slowly, if at all. There was also considerable variation in the rates of reduction with any single dye/organism combination. Glucose stimulated the rates of endogenous dye reduction in about half of the organisms. For Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli, dye reduction was stimulated by a range of exogenous substrates but lactose, the primary available carbon and energy source in milk, had little effect. In Lactococcus lactis, dye reduction was stimulated by sugars but not by organic acids. Oxygen successfully competed with dye reduction in organisms containing respiratory chains, but with membrane fractions, dye reduction was more rapid than oxygen consumption. All the organisms showed little cytosolic dye reduction, except L. lactis which showed substantial rates of reduction of some dyes by this fraction. With the membrane fraction of E. coli and Ps. fluorescens, cyanide inhibited NADH and succinate-dependent dye reduction, Antimycin A inhibited lactate and succinate and rotenone had no significant effect, but inhibition was not always observed with membrane from both organisms.

  5. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively.

  6. The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Alrawashdeh, Ibrahim M.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10 mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:25614741

  7. A Hyper-cross-linked Polynaphthalene Semiconductor with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance in the Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Song; Song, Jian; Kim, Il

    2017-02-28

    Hyper-cross-linked polynaphthalene nanoparticles (PNNs) capable of catalyzing the degradation of organic pollutants upon exposure to visible light have been developed. The nascent and metal-free PNNs with a porous structure, high specific surface area, and narrow bandgap are chemically and thermally stable in the catalytic system, which make it promising as a kind of excellent photocatalytic material compared to conventional photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of the as-obtained PNNs exhibits remarkable photocatalytic performance for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl blue (MB) under the irradiation of visible light. The easy preparation, high catalytic activity, and recyclability of the PNNs open new opportunities in the visible-light-promoted degradation of organic pollutants.

  8. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  9. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd(2+) ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  10. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:25382139

  11. Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) beads and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) beads were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing complex ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared beads were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water.

  12. Low-temperature sintering for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells using conventional TiO2 paste containing organic binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Ishibashi, Yuta; Ono, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require sintering of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, high-temperature sintering is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures. In previous papers, we proposed a surface treatment of TiO2 photoelectrodes to reduce the sintering temperature from 500 °C to 250 °C using a dielectric barrier discharge and ultraviolet light from a low-pressure mercury lamp. In this study, we improved the surface treatment of TiO2 photoelectrodes to further reduce the sintering temperature from 250 °C to 150 °C using a conventional TiO2 paste that contains organic binders. The sintering temperature of 150 °C is critical because it is the maximum tolerable temperature of plastic substrates. The improved surface treatment is applied to both glass and plastic substrate DSSCs. The energy conversion efficiency of glass and plastic substrate DSSCs sintered at 150 °C using our improved surface treatment are approximately 110% and 80%, respectively, of that of glass substrate DSSCs fabricated using the conventional method sintered at 500 °C.

  13. Platinum-Free Counter Electrode Comprised of Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF)-Derived Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shao-Hui; Li, Chun-Ting; Chien, Heng-Ta; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2014-11-01

    We fabricated a highly efficient (with a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 8.1%) Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The counter electrode was made of cobalt sulfide (CoS) nanoparticles synthesized via surfactant-assisted preparation of a metal organic framework, ZIF-67, with controllable particle sizes (50 to 320 nm) and subsequent oxidation and sulfide conversion. In contrast to conventional Pt counter electrodes, the synthesized CoS nanoparticles exhibited higher external surface areas and roughness factors, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) element mapping, and electrochemical analysis. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results showed an increase in the open circuit voltage (VOC) and a decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) for CoS-based DSSCs compared to Pt-based DSSCs, resulting in a similar power conversion efficiency. The CoS-based DSSC fabricated in the study show great potential for economically friendly production of Pt-free DSSCs.

  14. Redox-Active M8 L6 Cubic Hosts with Tetraphenylethylene Faces Encapsulate Organic Dyes for Light-Driven H2 Production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Chang, Zhiduo; Duan, Chunying

    2016-12-12

    The design of artificial systems that mimic highly evolved and finely tuned natural enzymes is a promising subject of intensive research. The assembly of O-symmetric cubic structures with an Fe8 L6 formula was reported through the direct combination of a C4 -symmetric tetraphenylethylene-based ligand with a C3 -symmetric tris(bipyridine)iron node. The robust metal-organic cubes are rich in π-electron density and provide favorable interactions with planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Within the confined space of the host, the aromatic hydrocarbons molecules are forced closer to the redox active host, and the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) is modified into a pseudo-intramolecular pathway. These iron vertices within the cubes exhibit suitable redox potential for electrochemical reduction of protons and the well-modified PET is further tailored to create artificial systems for light-driven hydrogen evolution from water through the encapsulation of fluorescein dyes. Control experiments based on a mononuclear compound resembling the iron corner of the octahedron suggest an enzymatic dynamic behavior. The new, well-elucidated reaction pathways and the increased molarity of the reaction within the confined space render these supramolecular systems superior to other relevant systems.

  15. The Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Asymmetric Au-Ni Nanoparticle Decorated Halloysite-Based Nanocomposite for the Degradation of Organic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lei; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui; Xu, Zhouqing

    2016-02-01

    Janus particles (JPs) are unique among the nano-/microobjects because they provide asymmetry and can thus impart drastically different chemical or physical properties. In this work, we have fabricated the magnetic halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based HNTs@Fe3O4 nanocomposite (NCs) and then anchored the Janus Au-Ni or isotropic Au nanoparticles (NPs) to the surface of external wall of sulfydryl modified magnetic nanotubes. The characterization by physical methods authenticates the successful fabrication of two different magnetic HNTs@Fe3O4@Au and HNTs@Fe3O4@Au-Ni NCs. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the two NCs have been evaluated considering the degradation of Congo red (CR) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using sodium borohydride as a model reaction. The results reveal that the symmetric Au NPs participated NCs display low activity in the degradation of the above organic dyes. However, a detailed kinetic study demonstrates that the employ of bimetallic Janus Au-Ni NPs in the NCs indicates enhanced catalytic activity, owing to the structurally specific nature. Furthermore, the magnetic functional NCs reported here can be used as recyclable catalyst which can be recovered simply by magnet.

  16. Microwave-enhanced synthesis of magnetic porous covalent triazine-based framework composites for fast separation of organic dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Liang, Fei; Li, Cun; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-02-28

    A novel type of magnetic porous carbonaceous polymeric material, CTF/Fe(2)O(3) composite (CTF = covalent triazine-based framework), has been synthesized by a facile microwave-enhanced high-temperature ionothermal method. By selecting ZnCl(2) as a reaction medium and the Lewis acid catalyst, and choosing FeCl(3)·6H(2)O as an iron oxide precursor, a series of CTF/Fe(2)O(3) composites with different γ-Fe(2)O(3) contents has been prepared in 60 min. The resulting samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and N(2) sorption-desorption isotherms. The obtained CTF/Fe(2)O(3) composites exhibit high surface areas (930-1149 m(2) g(-1)), and their saturation magnetizations at 300 K vary from 1.1 to 5.9 emu g(-1), depending respectively on different Fe(2)O(3) contents (6.43-12.43 wt%) in the CTF/Fe(2)O(3) composites. The CTF/Fe(2)O(3) composites were applied to remove organic dye from aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange as a model molecule, and both high adsorption capacity (291 mg g(-1), corresponding to 0.889 mmol g(-1)) and fast adsorption kinetics (k(ads) = 4.31 m(2) mg(-1) min(-1)) were observed.

  17. In situ gelation of Al(III)-4-tert-butylpyridine based metal-organic gel electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-Jie; Rao, Hua-Shang; Cao, Yang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-03-01

    A novel Al(III)-4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) gel electrolyte is successfully achieved by a simple and facile in situ gelation method and applied as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Through directly adding Al3+ into the TBP solution, the induced hydrolysis of Al3+ and the coordination interaction between Al3+ and TBP facilitates the formation of metal-organic gels(MOGs), in which such bi-functional TBP molecules will act as both gelators and active additives to tailor the performance of electrolytes. In addition, the gel electrolytes can largely preserve the properties of liquid electrolyte and penetrate well into the TiO2 photoanode film. Both Al3+ and TBP in the gel electrolytes affect the performance of cells. The Jsc of gel electrolytes decrease with the increasing concentration of gelators due to the enhanced strength and viscosity of the gel electrolytes, while the competition between Al3+ and TBP causes conduction band edge shift and electron recombination, leading to a variation of Voc. Herein, by tuning the molar ratio of Al3+/TBP, an impressive conversion efficiency of 8.25% is obtained, indicating a promising protocol of preparing MOGs not only to achieve high performance in solar cells, but also opens up extended scopes in other energy-related fields such as catalysis.

  18. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  19. Effect of nanographene platelets (NGP) surface area on organic dye adsorption using Fe3O4-NGP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    Fe3O4-NanoGraphene Platelets (NGP) composites with different surface area were successfully synthesized using sol gel method. The inverse cubic spinel structures as well as graphitic like structure from NGP were detected using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Measurement, while the ferromagnetic behavior for all samples were detected using Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) measurement. The vibrational mode for all samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal stability for all samples were characterized using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The adsorption process were tested using methylene blue (MB) as a model of organic pollutant. The result showed that the higher NGP surface area could enhance the adsorption capacity of the samples. The kinetic model of adsorption shows that the adsorption process of Fe3O4-NGP materials followed the second order kinetic reaction. The reusability of adsorbent were also performed to analyze the stability of the adsorbent.

  20. Comparison of dye doping and ultrathin emissive layer in white organic light-emitting devices with dual emissive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Qi, Yige; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-09-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with combined doping emissive layer (EML) and ultrathin EML have been fabricated to investigate the effect of each EML on the electroluminescent (EL) performance of the WOLEDs. Through tailoring doping concentration of bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'](picolinate) iridium(III) (FIrpic) and thickness of ultrathin bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2'] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt)2Ir(acac)] EML, it is found that the change in the doping ratio of FIrpic significantly influenced the EL efficiencies and spectra, while the alteration of ultrathin EML thickness had much milder effect on the EL performance. The results indicated that ultrathin EML is in favor of reproducibility in mass production compared with doping method.

  1. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    2 The dye usually consists of a metal complex such as a ruthenium bipyridine, excited by a metal- to-ligand charge transfer, or an organic compound...for baseline characterization of DSSC test modules. Both the N719 ruthenium dye and D149 indoline-based organic dye were purchased from Sigma...placed directly in the co-sensitizer dye bath. The dye solutions prepared previously consist of 0.3-mM solutions of the N719 ruthenium and the D149

  2. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  3. Chalcogenopyrylium Dyes as Differential Modulators of Organic Anion Transport by Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1), MRP2, and MRP4

    PubMed Central

    Myette, Robert L.; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Ebert, Sean P.; Wetzel, Bryan; Detty, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) mediate the ATP-dependent efflux of structurally diverse compounds, including anticancer drugs and physiologic organic anions. Five classes of chalcogenopyrylium dyes (CGPs) were examined for their ability to modulate transport of [3H]estradiol glucuronide (E217βG; a prototypical MRP substrate) into MRP-enriched inside-out membrane vesicles. Additionally, some CGPs were tested in intact transfected cells using a calcein efflux assay. Sixteen of 34 CGPs inhibited MRP1-mediated E217βG uptake by >50% (IC50 values: 0.7–7.6 µM). Of 9 CGPs with IC50 values ≤2 µM, two belonged to class I, two to class III, and five to class V. When tested in the intact cells, only 4 of 16 CGPs (at 10 µM) inhibited MRP1-mediated calcein efflux by >50% (III-1, V-3, V-4, V-6), whereas a fifth (I-5) inhibited efflux by just 23%. These five CGPs also inhibited [3H]E217βG uptake by MRP4. In contrast, their effects on MRP2 varied, with two (V-4, V-6) inhibiting E217βG transport (IC50 values: 2.0 and 9.2 µM) and two (V-3, III-1) stimulating transport (>2-fold), whereas CGP I-5 had no effect. Strikingly, although V-3 and V-4 had opposite effects on MRP2 activity, they are structurally identical except for their chalcogen atom (Se versus Te). This study is the first to identify class V CGPs, with their distinctive methine or trimethine linkage between two disubstituted pyrylium moieties, as a particularly potent class of MRP modulators, and to show that, within this core structure, differences in the electronegativity associated with a chalcogen atom can be the sole determinant of whether a compound will stimulate or inhibit MRP2. PMID:23530018

  4. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    PubMed

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  5. Sensitively monitoring photodegradation process of organic dye molecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag particle.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suhua; Cai, Wenya; Tang, Xianghu; Yang, Liangbao

    2014-11-07

    Photodegradation of organic dye molecules has attracted extensive attention because of their high toxicity to water resources. Compared with traditional UV-visible spectroscopy, SERS technology can reflect more sensitively the catalytic degradation process occurring on the surface of the catalysts. In this paper, we report the synthesis and structure of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite, which integrates SERS active Ag nanostructure with catalytically active titania. The degradation of the typical dye molecule crystal violet (CV), as an example, is investigated in the presence of the as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite structure, which exhibits high catalytic activity and good SERS performance. At the same time, renewable photocatalytic activity was also investigated.

  6. Anthraquinone dyes decolorization capacity of anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 strain and its HRP-like negative mutants.

    PubMed

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Rybczyńska, Kamila

    2014-06-01

    Cultures of the anamorphic fungus Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 decolorizing, in stationary cultures, 0.01 % solutions of carminic acid and Poly R-478, were characterised by a strong increase in the activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP-like) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) at a low activity of lignin peroxidase. Genotypically modified mutants of B. adusta CCBAS 930: 930-5 and 930-14, with total or partial loss of decolorization capabilities relative to anthraquinonic dyes, showed inhibition of the activity of HRP-like peroxidase and MnP. Whereas, compared to the parental strain, in the mutant cultures there was an increase in the activity of lignin peroxidase and laccase. The paper presents a discussion of the role of the studied enzymatic activities in the process of decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes by the strain B. adusta CCBAS 930.

  7. Identification of anthraquinone coloring matters in natural red dyes by electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Maria; Orlińska, Magdalena; Ackacha, Mohamed A; Połeć-Pawlak, Kasia; Jarosz, Maciej

    2003-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with UV/visible diode-array detection (DAD) and electrospray mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection were used for the identification of anthraquinone color components of cochineal, lac-dye and madder, natural red dyestuffs often used by ancient painters. For the purpose of such analysis, ESI-MS was found to be a much more appropriate detection technique than DAD one owing to its higher sensitivity (detection limits in the range 0.1-0.5 micro g ml(-1)) and selectivity. The method developed made it possible to identify unequivocally carminic acid and laccaic acids A, B and E as coloring matters in the examined preparations of cochineal and lac-dye, respectively. In madder, European Rubia tinctorum, alizarin and purpurin were found. The method allows the rapid, direct and straightforward identification and quantification of components of natural products used in art and could be very helpful in restoration and conservation procedures.

  8. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of five food dyes using the somatic mutation and recombination test.

    PubMed

    Sarıkaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-08-01

    In this study, different concentrations of five food dyes (amaranth, patent blue, carminic acid, indigotine and erythrosine) have been evaluated for genotoxicity in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. Standard cross was used in the experiment. Larvae including two linked recessive wing hair mutations were chronically fed at different concentrations of the test compounds in standard Drosophila Instant Medium. Feeding ended with pupation of the surviving larvae. Wings of the emerging adult flies were scored for the presence of spots of mutant cells which can result from either somatic mutation or somatic recombination. For the evaluation of genotoxic effects, the frequencies of spots per wing in the treated series were compared to the control group, which was distilled water. The present study shows that carminic acid and indigotine demonstrated negative results while erythrosine demonstrated inconclusive results. In addition 25 mg mL(-1) concentration of patent blue and 12.5, 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) concentrations of amaranth demonstrated positive results in the SMART.

  9. Squaraine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuanjiang; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Han, Liyuan

    2013-08-01

    In the past few years, squaraine dyes have received increasing attention as a sensitizer for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. This class of dyes not only leaves open a good opportunity to afford conventional high performance dyes but also holds great promise for applications in transparent solar cells due to its low absorption intensity in the eye-sensitive region. This review provides a summary of the developments on squaraine dyes in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and the opportunities used to improve their overall energy conversion efficiency. In particular, the main factors responsible for the low values of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit photocurrent and fill factor are discussed in detail. Future directions in research and development of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials and their applications are proposed from a personal perspective.

  10. Energy and hole transfer between dyes attached to titania in cosensitized dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Brian E; Sellinger, Alan; Moehl, Thomas; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D

    2011-07-13

    Cosensitization of broadly absorbing ruthenium metal complex dyes with highly absorptive near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes is a clear pathway to increase near-infrared light harvesting in liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In cosensitized DSCs, dyes are intimately mixed, and intermolecular charge and energy transfer processes play an important role in device performance. Here, we demonstrate that an organic NIR dye incapable of hole regeneration is able to produce photocurrent via intermolecular energy transfer with an average excitation transfer efficiency of over 25% when cosensitized with a metal complex sensitizing dye (SD). We also show that intermolecular hole transfer from the SD to NIR dye is a competitive process with dye regeneration, reducing the internal quantum efficiency and the electron lifetime of the DSC. This work demonstrates the general feasibility of using energy transfer to boost light harvesting from 700 to 800 nm and also highlights a key challenge for developing highly efficient cosensitized dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Anthracene/phenothiazine π-conjugated sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells using redox mediator in organic and water-based solvents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Chuang, Tzu-Man; Wu, Feng-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chu, Te-Chun; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Lo, Yih-Hsing; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free dyes (MD1 to MD5) containing an anthracene/phenothiazine unit in the spacer have been synthesized. The conversion efficiency (7.13 %) of the dye-sensitized solar cell using MD3 as the sensitizer reached approximately 85 % of the N719-based standard cell (8.47 %). The cell efficiency (8.42 %) of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. The MD3 water-based DSSCs using a dual-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)/iodide electrolyte exhibited very promising cell performance of 4.96 % with an excellent Voc of 0.77 V.

  12. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27443236

  13. Self-Assembly of "Chalcone" Type Push-Pull Dye Molecules into Organic Single Crystalline Microribbons and Rigid Microrods for Vis/NIR Range Photonic Cavity Applications.

    PubMed

    Vattikunta, Radhika; Venkatakrishnarao, Dasari; Mohiddon, Mahamad Ahamad; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2016-11-04

    A novel supramolecular fluorescent donor-acceptor type dye molecule, (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyren-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (HPPD) self-assembles in a mixture of ethanol/chloroform through intermolecular π-π stacking (distance ca. 3.384 Å) to form J-aggregated single-crystalline microribbons displaying Fabry-Pèrot (F-P) type visible-range optical resonance. The corresponding borondifluoride dye (HPPD-BF), with a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap, self-assembles into crystalline microrods acting as an F-P type resonator in the near-infrared (NIR) range.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic and adsorptive degradation of organic dyes by mesoporous Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41: intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and OH radical generation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Parida, K M; Nanda, Binita

    2011-07-28

    Mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite was synthesized by two step processes; in situ incorporation of high surface area mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (in situ method) followed by impregnation of Cu(II) by incipient wetness method. The interesting thing is that starch was used for the first time as template for the preparation of high surface area MA. To evaluate the structural and electronic properties, these catalysts were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (LXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis DRS, FTIR and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. The various cationic dye such as methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (Rd 6G) of high concentration 500 mg L(-1) were degraded and adsorbed very efficiently (100%) using the 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite within 30 and 60 min, respectively. The high and quick removal of such concerted cationic organic dyes and also mixed dyes (MB+MV+MG+Rd 6G) by means of photocatalysis/adsorption is basically due to the combined effect three characteristics of synthesized mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. These characteristics are intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and ˙OH radical generation under solar light.

  15. Green synthesis of Pd/walnut shell nanocomposite using Equisetum arvense L. leaf extract and its application for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and organic dyes in a very short time.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Maryam; Mortazavimanesh, Nafiseh

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) have been immobilized on the surface of walnut shell powder using Equisetum arvense L. leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agents in this work. FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in the characterization of the nanocomposites thus prepared. High catalytic activity was shown by these nanocomposites in the reduction of different dyes. The PdNPs' diameter on the walnut shell was predominantly found within the 5-12-nm range. The advantages of these catalysts include facile and clean synthesis, simple preparation procedure, excellent properties, alterable supports, and low cost, which make them applicable in reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), methylene blue (MB), and rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of aqueous NaBH4 at room temperature. Pd/walnut shell nanocomposites were highly active catalysts for reduction of these dyes. Moreover, Pd/walnut shell nanocomposite can be recovered and recycled seven times without any appreciable loss of catalytic activity. Graphical abstract Waste walnut shell as a natural valuable resource support for green synthesis of Pd/walnut shell nanocomposite using Equisetum arvense L. leaf extract and its application for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and organic dyes in a very short time.

  16. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  17. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  18. Molecular architecture in cyanine dye aggregates at the air-water interface. Effect of monolayer composition and organization on fluorescent behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Patterson, L.K.; Moebius, D.; Gruniger, H.R.

    1985-01-31

    The fluorescence behavior of an amphiphatic oxacyanine dye and its thiacyanine analogue has been investigated in spread monolayers at the air-water interface. J-aggregate formation as a function of area/(dye molecule) was monitored by spectral changes in pure dye monolayers and in 1:1 mixtures of dye with various fatty acid coaggregates. Simultaneously, the thermodynamic behavior of these systems was characterized by the associated surface pressure-area isotherms. In all cases, J-aggregate formation may be related to a phase transition in the isotherm. The intensity of aggregate fluorescence is found to be inversely related to the work, ..delta..W, of compression of the monolayer through the transition. Inclusion of the fatty acid coaggregate was shown to facilitate J-aggregate formation in the order stearic > elaidic > oleic. Both fluorescence and thermodynamic data indicate more extensive aggregate formation in the thiacyanine systems. Aside from the paramount role played by the chromophore-chromophore interactions in determining J-aggregate phenomena, this study suggests important contributions from dispersion forces involving the long hydrocarbon moieties. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Graphene oxide/Fe3O4/chitosan nanocomposite: a recoverable and recyclable adsorbent for organic dyes removal. Application to methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hoang V.; Bui, Lieu T.; Dinh, Thuy T.; Le, Dang H.; Huynh, Chinh D.; Trinh, Anh X.

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the potential of chitosan/Fe3O4/graphene oxide (CS/Fe3O4/GO) nanocomposite for efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this purpose, first, graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from pencil’s graphite by Hummer’s method, then after, CS/Fe3O4/GO was synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from a mixture solution of GO, Fe3+, Fe2+ and chitosan. The synthesized CS/Fe3O4/GO was characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated. Dye adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer capacity (q max), was calculated from the Langmuir as 30.10 mg · g‑1. The results show that, CS/Fe3O4/GO nanocomposite, can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  20. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  1. Application of video recording technology to improve husbandry and reproduction in the carmine bee-eater (Merops n. nubicus).

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Gina M; Sky, Christy; Schutz, Paul J; Quinones, Glorieli; Breeding, Shawnlei; Plasse, Chelle; Leighty, Katherine A; Bettinger, Tammie L

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating technology with research is becoming increasingly important to enhance animal welfare in zoological settings. Video technology is used in the management of avian populations to facilitate efficient information collection on aspects of avian reproduction that are impractical or impossible to obtain through direct observation. Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) maintains a successful breeding colony of Northern carmine bee-eaters. This African species is a cavity nester, making their nesting behavior difficult to study and manage in an ex situ setting. After initial research focused on developing a suitable nesting environment, our goal was to continue developing methods to improve reproductive success and increase likelihood of chicks fledging. We installed infrared bullet cameras in five nest boxes and connected them to a digital video recording system, with data recorded continuously through the breeding season. We then scored and summarized nesting behaviors. Using remote video methods of observation provided much insight into the behavior of the birds in the colony's nest boxes. We observed aggression between birds during the egg-laying period, and therefore immediately removed all of the eggs for artificial incubation which completely eliminated egg breakage. We also used observations of adult feeding behavior to refine chick hand-rearing diet and practices. Although many video recording configurations have been summarized and evaluated in various reviews, we found success with the digital video recorder and infrared cameras described here. Applying emerging technologies to cavity nesting avian species is a necessary addition to improving management in and sustainability of zoo avian populations.

  2. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  3. The influence of Yb, B, and Ga-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12 on solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Gao, J. Q.; Wang, B. X.; Yang, Q.; Fan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Five up-conversion luminescence agents (Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n Al5O12, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12) were synthesized using sol-gel method and then the corresponding coated composites (Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Yb n Y3- n Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12/TiO2, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12/TiO2) as photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel coating process. The XRD and SEM were used to confirm the crystalline phase and surface morphology. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence-emission spectra were used to research the effect of doping category and amount on the up-conversion emission ability. The photocatalytic activities were detected through the degradation of Acid Red B dye in aqueous solution. Some key parameters of catalyst amount and initial concentration of organic dye on solar light photocatalytic degradation were also examined. The extensive feasibility of prepared photocatalysts in solar light degradation was detected by other organic dyes. The results suggest that the photocatalysts can be widely used in sewage treatment.

  4. Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Rui; Feng, Jiao; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu; Yang, Chunhong; Yang, Guoqiang

    2014-07-15

    The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.

  5. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  6. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  7. NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented. PMID:19926332

  8. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  10. Efficiency Records in Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Albero, Josep; Atienzar, Pedro; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review article is to show the progress achieved in the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by evolution in the structure and composition of the dye. After an initial brief description of DSSCs and the operating mechanism the major part of the present article is organized according to the type of dye, trying to show the logic in the variation of the dye structure in order to achieve strong binding on the surface of the layer of nanoparticulate TiO2 , efficient interfacial electron injection between the excited dye and the semiconductor, and minimization of the unwanted dark current processes. Besides metal complexes, including polypyridyls and nitrogenated macro rings, organic dyes and inorganic light harvesters such as quantum dots and perovskites have also been included in the review. The last section summarizes the current state of the art and provides an overview on future developments in the field.

  11. Improved photocatalytic activity of CdSe-nanocomposites: effect of Montmorillonite support towards efficient removal of Indigo Carmine.

    PubMed

    Chikate, Rajeev C; Kadu, Brijesh S

    2014-04-24

    To ascertain the contribution of adsorptive capacity of Montmorillonite (MMT) towards photocatalytic process, CdSe-MMT nanocomposites are explored for adsorptive removal of Indigo Carmine (IC). The nanocomposites are prepared via two approaches: (a) in-situ formation and (b) wet impregnation of CdSe onto MMT support. XRD analysis of composites suggested the proper dispersion of CdSe nanoparticles in MMT clay matrix with spherical morphology of 5-10nm sized CdSe nanoparticles. These nanocomposites are employed for photocatalytic degradation of IC under visible light at various IC concentrations and different amount of catalyst. Kinetics of IC is found to be of pseudo-second order with 10% in-situ and 50% loaded nanocomposites exhibiting better photocatalytic activity at 1.0 g L(-)(1) catalyst and 100 mg L(-)(1)of IC. Dynamics of its adsorptive removal on the composite surface evaluated by employing error estimation tools clearly suggest that Redlich-Peterson and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms effectively describe the multi-layer process. It is observed that spontaneous, exothermic chemisorption process occurring on the surface indeed enhances photocatalytic activity. Moreover, such a feature is also found to be associated with diffusion of IC within mesoporous structure of MMT that subsequently favors pore-diffusion controlled adsorption process. IR spectral analysis demonstrated that IC molecule is degraded on the catalyst surface. Light or oxygenated species induced photocorrosion of CdSe is suppressed due to its composite formation with MMT that results in 620 ppm removal of IC during successive cycles; a feature ascribed as improved photocatalytic activity for CdSe nanoparticles.

  12. Comparison of the ionizing radiation effects on cochineal, annatto and turmeric natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2016-07-01

    As studies on radiation stability of food dyes are scarce, commercially important natural food grade dyes were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity against gamma ionizing radiation. Cochineal, annatto and turmeric dyes with suitable concentrations were subjected to increasing doses up to 32 kGy and analyzed by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis. The results showed different pattern of absorbance versus absorbed dose for the three systems. Carmine, the glucosidal coloring matter from the scale insect Coccus cacti L., Homoptera (cochineal) remained almost unaffected by radiation up to doses of about 32 kGy (absorbance at 494 nm). Meanwhile, at that dose, a plant-derived product annatto or urucum (Bixa orellana L.) tincture presented a nearly 58% reduction in color intensity. Tincture of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) showed to be highly sensitive to radiation when diluted. These data shall be taken in account whenever food products containing these food colors were going to undergo radiation processing.

  13. Chitosan-based hydrogel for dye removal from aqueous solutions: Optimization of the preparation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioiella, Lucia; Altobelli, Rosaria; de Luna, Martina Salzano; Filippone, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of chitosan-based hydrogels in the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of different parameters. Hydrogels were obtained by gelation of chitosan with a non-toxic gelling agent based on an aqueous basic solution. The preparation procedure has been optimized in terms of chitosan concentration in the starting solution, gelling agent concentration and chitosan-to-gelling agent ratio. The goal is to properly select the material- and process-related parameters in order to optimize the performances of the chitosan-based dye adsorbent. First, the influence of such factors on the gelling process has been studied from a kinetic point of view. Then, the effects on the adsorption capacity and kinetics of the chitosan hydrogels obtained in different conditions have been investigated. A common food dye (Indigo Carmine) has been used for this purpose. Noticeably, although the disk-shaped hydrogels are in the bulk form, their adsorption capacity is comparable to that reported in the literature for films and beads. In addition, the bulk samples can be easily separated from the liquid phase after the adsorption process, which is highly attractive from a practical point of view. Compression tests reveal that the samples do not breakup even after relatively large compressive strains. The obtained results suggest that the fine tuning of the process parameters allows the production of mechanical resistant and highly adsorbing chitosan-based hydrogels.

  14. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-12-28

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, such structure-property relationships have been codified in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. This affords, for the first time, a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach.

  15. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  16. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  17. Recyclability of thin nylon film-supported p-CuBiS2/ n-TiO2 heterojunction-based nanocomposites for visible light photocatalytic degradation of organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau; Lee, Jiunn-Yih; Wu, Chang-Mou

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid film photocatalysts have been prepared by embedding SiO2/TiO2/CuBiS2/Ag nanocomposite spheres into nylon films (nylon/catalyst) for controlling the leaching problem of catalyst powders during the photodegradation of acid black 1 (AB 1) dye solution. The composite catalyst with 500 nm SiO2 sphere as a support which had uniform size and shape was synthesized by the sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The coupling between p-CuBiS2 and n-TiO2 nanoparticles showed synergetic effects to the enhancement of organic dye photodegradation under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the Ag nanoparticles on the nanocomposites increased the surface plasmonic resonance and acted as electron trapping which is leading to better photocarrier separation. The 20, 30, and 40 mg as-prepared nanocomposite catalysts were embedded into nylon films to produce three different compositions of 120 mg nylon/catalyst hybrids. The good photodegradation property of 40 mg nylon/catalyst hybrid was tested and was found that it could degrade the 100 mL of 5 ppm dye solution, respectively, in 150, 120, 180, and 150 min in four consecutive runs under 150 W halogen light irradiation. The hybrid films did not need a washing procedure after being used and could be incessantly used after that. The good reusability of hybrid photocatalyst films is attributed to its porosity, thin thickness, tiny size of nanoparticles (less than 10 nm), and the formation of nano p- n diodes between p-CuBiS2 and n-TiO2 nanoparticles.

  18. Rational design of hyperbranched 3D heteroarrays of SrS/CdS: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic properties for efficient hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziyauddin; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity.Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic experimental setup for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, TEM of CdS NWs and SrS NPs, FESEM images of 3D SrS/CdS, Low resolution TEM images for 3D SrS/CdS, EDX and SAED, SEM of SrS/CdS at different ratios, progress of hydrogen production at different time interval, different UV

  19. An ultrafast pre-organization of the [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of styryl dyes in 1:2 host-guest complexes with cucurbit[8]urils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, N. Kh.; Ivanov, D. A.; Shandarov, Yu. A.; Kryukov, I. V.; Svirida, A. D.; Avakyan, V. G.; Alfimov, M. V.; Lobova, N. A.; Gromov, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    The photocycloaddition of styryl dyes 1, mediated by 1:2 hostguest complexes with cucurbit[8]urils (CB[8]), was studied by fluorescence upconversion techniques. The lifetime of 14.5 ps for photoexcited 1 in aqueous solution and 3.8 ps for that inside the complexes were gained from the fluorescence decay, the rate constant of quenching being obtained within the diffusion control limit. Calculations confirmed that unexcited pairs of 1 inside CB[8] does not fit the topochemical principles. So a translational movement is required to produce a reaction-ready structure that is in agreement with the timeresolved fluorescence anisotropy measured in the range of 5 ps.

  20. A metal-free N-annulated thienocyclopentaperylene dye: power conversion efficiency of 12% for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Min; Li, Renzhi; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Yongna; Wang, Peng

    2015-05-11

    Reported are two highly efficient metal-free perylene dyes featuring N-annulated thienobenzoperylene (NTBP) and N-annulated thienocyclopentaperylene (NTCP), which are coplanar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Without the use of any coadsorbate, the metal-free organic dye derived from the NTCP segment was used for a dye-sensitized solar cell which attained a power conversion efficiency of 12% under an irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2), simulated air mass global (AM1.5G) sunlight.

  1. Synthesis of Laser Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-09

    block number) This report describes the progress made in attempts to prepare seven laser dyes. These dyes all have a 2-(L-pyridy.)-1,3- oxazole ...structure one dye, The synthesis of one dye, 2-(Ni-met.hyl-4-pyridiniiumi)pherianthroL9,10-dJ-1,3- oxazole tosylate (I) has been com-pleted. Preliminary...1,3- oxazoles . I~ 20 [IISTRI:’UTIGTJi/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 0UNITILA-,SIFIEDI.JNLiITED 0 SAME AS RPT El DTIC

  2. Tuning the physical properties of organic sensitizers by replacing triphenylamine with new donors for dye sensitized solar cells - a theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, Sekar; Manidurai, Paulraj

    2017-02-01

    New donor molecules with low ionization potential have been theoretically designed by replacing the benzene moieties in triphenylamine (TPA) with thiophene as well as furan. The designed new donors also exhibited planar structure, making an angle of 120° around the nitrogen atom that results in resonance effects through π-bonds of aryl rings. New sensitizers have been theoretically studied using DFT and TD-DFT by adopting these designed donors. UV-Vis absorption spectra, light harvesting ability (LHE) and electron injection ability (ΔGinject) of the designed sensitizers have been calculated by taking L0 as reference. Orbital overlapping between donor and acceptor facilitates intra-molecular charge transfer, thereby increasing the interfacial electron injection from the sensitizer to the semiconductor nanoparticles. Our theoretical results demonstrate that sensitizers DTPA-AA and DFPA-AA have broader absorption and lower ΔGinject respectively compare to L0, this opens a new way for designing sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). All the dyes designed were found to be good light harvesters.

  3. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  4. Tuning the physical properties of organic sensitizers by replacing triphenylamine with new donors for dye sensitized solar cells - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Sekar; Manidurai, Paulraj

    2017-02-15

    New donor molecules with low ionization potential have been theoretically designed by replacing the benzene moieties in triphenylamine (TPA) with thiophene as well as furan. The designed new donors also exhibited planar structure, making an angle of 120° around the nitrogen atom that results in resonance effects through π-bonds of aryl rings. New sensitizers have been theoretically studied using DFT and TD-DFT by adopting these designed donors. UV-Vis absorption spectra, light harvesting ability (LHE) and electron injection ability (ΔGinject) of the designed sensitizers have been calculated by taking L0 as reference. Orbital overlapping between donor and acceptor facilitates intra-molecular charge transfer, thereby increasing the interfacial electron injection from the sensitizer to the semiconductor nanoparticles. Our theoretical results demonstrate that sensitizers DTPA-AA and DFPA-AA have broader absorption and lower ΔGinject respectively compare to L0, this opens a new way for designing sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). All the dyes designed were found to be good light harvesters.

  5. Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO{sub 2} films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO{sub 2} paste containing organic binder

    SciTech Connect

    Zen, Shungo Ono, Ryo; Inoue, Yuki

    2015-03-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 °C to 150 °C for a TiO{sub 2} paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO{sub 2} film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO{sub 2} film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 °C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 °C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  6. Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing organic binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Inoue, Yuki; Ono, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2 photoelectrodes at 450 °C to 550 °C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low-temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 °C to 150 °C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we measure the electron diffusion length in the TiO2 film, the amount of dye adsorption on the TiO2 film, and the sheet resistance of a glass substrate of samples manufactured with the 150 °C annealing method, and we discuss the effect that the 150 °C annealing method has on those properties of DSSCs.

  7. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)₂ comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-15

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η=4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm(2)) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  8. 77 FR 22485 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... color additives are derived from insects. Accordingly, on November 3, 2010, TTB published in the Federal... derived from an insect. The commenter stated that while industry groups may not want to list the source of the dye for fear that consumers would find the thought of insect derivatives unappealing,...

  9. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  10. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  11. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  13. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  14. Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of CdS/TiO₂ nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers for high efficient adsorption and simultaneous decomposition of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bishweshwar; Barakat, Nasser A M; Pant, Hem Raj; Park, Mira; Saud, Prem Singh; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2014-11-15

    CdS/TiO2 NPs-decorated carbon nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning method followed by the calcination under argon atmosphere. As-synthesized nanocomposites exhibited a strong photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), reactive black 5, and reactive orange 16 under visible light radiation for many successive cycles. Moreover, in the dark, the carbon content revealed very good adsorption behavior as 95% of the dye was removed within 5 min, however less adsorption capacity was observed upon successive cycles. Therefore, the enhanced photocatalytic performance for the introduced nanofibers might be attributed to the adsorption characteristic of carbon nanofiber and the known photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 and CdS photocatalysts.

  15. Low temperature preparation of α-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide and its catalytic activity for the photodegradation of an organic dye.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Congcong; Long, Ying; Wynn, Jeanne; Liu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2013-10-04

    A new approach to prepare α-FeOOH/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) at room temperature has been developed. Instead of reducing graphene oxide (GO) with the most commonly used reagents, which are highly toxic or explosive, Fe²⁺ was used as the reducing reagent. Fe²⁺ efficiently reduced GO under mild conditions to form α-FeOOH/RGO via spontaneous in situ deposition of α-FeOOH nanorods onto the RGO surfaces. The resulting α-FeOOH/RGO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The α-FeOOH/RGO was then applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of the azo dye, methyl orange.

  16. Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-type dopant for organic semiconductors and its application in highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Burschka, Julian; Dualeh, Amalie; Kessler, Florian; Baranoff, Etienne; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Lê; Yi, Chenyi; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael

    2011-11-16

    Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co(III) complexes as p-type dopants for triarylamine-based hole conductors such as spiro-MeOTAD and their application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). We show that the proposed compounds fulfill the requirements for this application and that the discussed strategy is promising for tuning the conductivity of spiro-MeOTAD in ssDSCs, without having to rely on the commonly employed photo-doping. By using a recently developed high molar extinction coefficient organic D-π-A sensitizer and p-doped spiro-MeOTAD as hole conductor, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)). We expect these promising new dopants to find widespread applications in organic electronics in general and photovoltaics in particular.

  17. Photodegradation of organic pollutants RhB dye using UV simulated sunlight on ceria based TiO2 nanomaterials for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Kasinathan, Kaviyarasu; Kennedy, John; Elayaperumal, Manikandan; Henini, Mohamed; Malik, Maaza

    2016-11-30

    To photo-catalytically degrade RhB dye using solar irradiation, CeO2 doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized hydrothermally at 700 °C for 9 hrs. All emission spectra showed a prominent band centered at 442 nm that was attributed to oxygen related defects in the CeO2-TiO2 nanocrystals. Two sharp absorption bands at 1418 cm(-1) and 3323 cm(-1) were attributed to the deformation and stretching vibration, and bending vibration of the OH group of water physisorbed to TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated through the degradation of RhB under UV and UV+ visible light over a period of 8 hrs. After 8 hrs, the most intense absorption peak at 579 nm disappeared under the highest photocatalytic activity and 99.89% of RhB degraded under solar irradiation. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared from metal-ion incorporation, reduction of TiO2, non-metal doping or sensitizing of TiO2 using dyes. Studying the antibacterial activity of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals against E. coli revealed significant activity when 10 μg was used, suggesting that it can be used as an antibacterial agent. Its effectiveness is likely related to its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. This study also discusses the mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis in the presence of TiO2.

  18. Photodegradation of organic pollutants RhB dye using UV simulated sunlight on ceria based TiO2 nanomaterials for antibacterial applications

    PubMed Central

    Kasinathan, Kaviyarasu; Kennedy, John; Elayaperumal, Manikandan; Henini, Mohamed; Malik, Maaza

    2016-01-01

    To photo-catalytically degrade RhB dye using solar irradiation, CeO2 doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized hydrothermally at 700 °C for 9 hrs. All emission spectra showed a prominent band centered at 442 nm that was attributed to oxygen related defects in the CeO2-TiO2 nanocrystals. Two sharp absorption bands at 1418 cm−1 and 3323 cm−1 were attributed to the deformation and stretching vibration, and bending vibration of the OH group of water physisorbed to TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated through the degradation of RhB under UV and UV+ visible light over a period of 8 hrs. After 8 hrs, the most intense absorption peak at 579 nm disappeared under the highest photocatalytic activity and 99.89% of RhB degraded under solar irradiation. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared from metal-ion incorporation, reduction of TiO2, non-metal doping or sensitizing of TiO2 using dyes. Studying the antibacterial activity of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals against E. coli revealed significant activity when 10 μg was used, suggesting that it can be used as an antibacterial agent. Its effectiveness is likely related to its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. This study also discusses the mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis in the presence of TiO2. PMID:27901105

  19. Photodegradation of organic pollutants RhB dye using UV simulated sunlight on ceria based TiO2 nanomaterials for antibacterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Kaviyarasu; Kennedy, John; Elayaperumal, Manikandan; Henini, Mohamed; Malik, Maaza

    2016-11-01

    To photo-catalytically degrade RhB dye using solar irradiation, CeO2 doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized hydrothermally at 700 °C for 9 hrs. All emission spectra showed a prominent band centered at 442 nm that was attributed to oxygen related defects in the CeO2-TiO2 nanocrystals. Two sharp absorption bands at 1418 cm‑1 and 3323 cm‑1 were attributed to the deformation and stretching vibration, and bending vibration of the OH group of water physisorbed to TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated through the degradation of RhB under UV and UV+ visible light over a period of 8 hrs. After 8 hrs, the most intense absorption peak at 579 nm disappeared under the highest photocatalytic activity and 99.89% of RhB degraded under solar irradiation. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared from metal-ion incorporation, reduction of TiO2, non-metal doping or sensitizing of TiO2 using dyes. Studying the antibacterial activity of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals against E. coli revealed significant activity when 10 μg was used, suggesting that it can be used as an antibacterial agent. Its effectiveness is likely related to its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. This study also discusses the mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis in the presence of TiO2.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-07

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  3. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul; Seo, Bora; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI-RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI-RGO core-shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI-RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL-1 nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI-RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI-RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light-induced RGO-CuI quasi-shell-core nanocomposites for organic dye photo degradation in water.

  4. Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1984-10-23

    The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

  5. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  6. Direct thermal dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  7. Long-lived laser dye

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described of obtaining in a flashlamp pumped laser system, a long-lived flashpumped laser dye having a low threshold of lasing and a moderate output comprising the steps of: placing a dye solution comprising a laser dye, the N-methyl tosylate salt of 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxphenyl)oxazole, and a solvent into a laser dye cavity; screening the dye solution from ultraviolet light with an optical filter; flushing the dye solution with an inert gas; and optically pumping the dye solution with a flashlamp to produce laser emission.

  8. Influence of organic additive to PVDF-HFP mixed iodide electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Ganesan, S.; Arof, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (ATDT) on the ionic conductivity of poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) polymer electrolytes with mixed iodide salts (potassium iodide (KI) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)) and iodine (I2) were studied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The pure and different weight percentage (wt%) ratios (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%) of ATDT modified PVDF-HFP/KI+TBAI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as a solvent. The polymer electrolyte films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pure PVDF-HFP/TBAI+KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity value of 9.99×10-6 S cm-1 at room temperature, which was found to be improved to a maximum value of 2.82×10-4 S cm-1 at 4 wt% of ATDT modified polymer electrolyte. The photovoltaic characterization studies showed higher power conversion efficiency of 4.64% for DSSC assembled with the optimized wt% of ATDT modified polymer electrolyte than the pure PVDF-HFP/KI+TBAI/I2 electrolyte (1.88%) at an illumination intensity of 60 mW/cm2. Hence, the studies concluded that the ATDT modified polymer electrolyte can be a suitable material for DSSC applications.

  9. Heat treatment effects on the characteristics and sonocatalytic performance of TiO2 in the degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Ling, Pang Yean

    2010-01-15

    The ambient sonocatalytic degradation of congo red, methyl orange, and methylene blue by titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) catalyst at initial concentrations between 10 and 50mg/L, catalyst loadings between 1.0 and 3.0mg/L and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentrations up to 600 mg/L is reported. A 20 kHz ultrasonic processor at 50 W was used to accelerate the reaction. The catalysts were exposed to heat treatments between 400 and 1000 degrees C for up to 4h to induce phase change. Sonocatalysts with small amount of rutile phase showed better sonocatalytic activity but excessive rutile phase should be avoided. TiO(2) heated to 800 degrees C for 2h showed the highest sonocatalytic activity and the degradation of dyes was influenced by their chemical structures, chemical phases and characteristics of the catalysts. Congo red exhibited the highest degradation rate, attributed to multiple labile azo bonds to cause highest reactivity with the free radicals generated. An initial concentration of 10mg/L, 1.5 g/L of catalyst loading and 450 ppm of H(2)O(2) gave the best congo red removal efficiency of above 80% in 180 min. Rate coefficients for the sonocatalytic process was successfully established and the reused catalyst showed an activity drop by merely 10%.

  10. Novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages by direct sulfurizing metal-organic frameworks for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaodan; Xie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its excellent electrocatalytic properties, cobalt disulfide (CoS2) is regarded as a promising counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hindered by its relatively poor electrical conductivity and chemical instability, it remains a challenge to apply it into high-performance DSSCs. In this work, we have developed novel CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages as a CE in DSSCs, using ZIF-67 (zeolitic imidazolate framework 67, Co(mim)2, mim = 2-methylimidolate) as a template. The CoS2 samples sulfurized for different time lengths are prepared through a facile solution process. It is found that the sulfurization time can be optimized to maximize the DSSC efficiency and the DSSC based on the CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages sulfurized for 4 hours exhibits the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.20%, higher than those of DSSCs consisting of other CoS2 CEs and Pt-based DSSC (7.88%). The significantly improved DSSC PCE is contributed by the synergic effect of inner CoS2 nanoparticles and an amorphous carbon matrix, leading to a CE with high catalytic activity, good electrical conductivity and excellent durability. This study demonstrates that the CE based on inexpensive CoS2 embedded carbon nanocages is a prospective substitute to expensive platinum and provides a new approach for commercializing high-efficiency DSSCs.

  11. Improving the decolorization for textile dyes of a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu Huan; Ye, Mao; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xia; Li, Gang

    2011-08-01

    To obtain better performing laccases for textile dyes decolorization, random mutagenesis of Lac591, a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase, was carried out. After three rounds of error-prone PCR and high-throughput screening by assaying enzymatic activity toward the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), a mutant (Lac3T93) with remarkably improved enzymatic activity was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed that four amino acid substitutions (N40S, V55A, F62L, and E316V) were accumulated in the Lac3T93. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the specific activity of Lac3T93 toward 2,6-DMP was increased to 4.8-fold (61.22 U/mg), and its optimal temperature and pH were changed to 60°C and 8.0 from 55°C and 7.5 of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation ability of Lac3T93 for textile dyes was investigated, and the new variant represented improved decolorization percentage for four industrial dyes with complex phenyl structure (Basic Blue 3, Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Crystal Violet) and higher decolorization efficiency for Indigo Carmine than that of the parent enzyme. Furthermore, the decolorization percentage of Lac3T93 for five dyes in the absence of hydroxybenzotrizole (HBT) is clearly higher than those of the wild-type enzyme with 1 mM HBT, and HBT can further improve its decolorization ability.

  12. Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser dyes. Requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism. Technical report, 1 January 1982-31 October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II; Jackson, W.R.; Choi, C.; Bergmark, W.R.

    1983-10-31

    Photophysical parameters have been determined for coumarin laser dyes in organic solvents and water. Fluorescence yields and lifetimes were sensitive to solvent polarity depending on subtle features of dye structure. Protic solvents were important in reducing emission yield for certain dyes. Radiative and non-radiative rates were obtained and trends analyzed in terms of dye structure, solvent properties, and medium temperature.

  13. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  14. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  15. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater.

  16. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  17. Near Infrared Heptamethine Cyanine Dye-Mediated Cancer Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Shi, Chunmeng; Tong, Rong; Qian, Weiping; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Wang, Ruoxiang; Zhu, Guodong; Cheng, Jianjun; Yang, Vincent W.; Cheng, Tianmin; Henary, Maged; Strekowski, Lucjan; Chung, Leland W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has great potential for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumors. In this study, we demonstrate the preferential uptake and retention of two hepatamethine cyanine dyes, IR-783 and MHI-148, in tumor cells and tissues. Experimental Design IR-783 and MHI-148 were investigated for their ability to accumulate in human cancer cells, tumor xenografts and spontaneous mouse tumors in transgenic animals. Time- and concentration-dependent dye uptake and retention in normal and cancer cells and tissues were compared, and subcellular localization of the dyes and mechanisms of the dye uptake and retention in tumor cells were evaluated using organelle-specific tracking dyes and bromosulfophthalein (BSP), a competitive inhibitor of organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs). These dyes were used to detect human cancer metastases in a mouse model and differentiate cancer cells from normal cells in blood. Results These NIR hepatamethine cyanine dyes were retained in cancer cells but not normal cells, in tumor xenografts, and in spontaneous tumors in transgenic mice. They can be used to detect cancer metastasis and cancer cells in blood with a high degree of sensitivity. The dyes were found to concentrate in the mitochondria and lysosomes of cancer cells, probably through OATPs since the dye uptake and retention in cancer cells can be blocked completely by BSP. These dyes, when injected to mice, did not cause systemic toxicity. Conclusions These two heptamethine cyanine dyes are promising imaging agents for human cancers and can be further exploited to improve cancer detection, prognosis and treatment. PMID:20410058

  18. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Limitation of high-power optical radiation by organic molecules: I. Substituted pyranes and cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, T. N.; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A.; Mayer, G. V.; Reznichenko, A. V.; Podgaetskii, Vitalii M.; Ponomareva, O. V.; Samsonova, L. G.; Filinov, D. N.; Pomogaev, V. A.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Lapin, I. N.; Svetlichnaya, N. N.; Sinchenko, E. I.

    2003-11-01

    Photophysical processes proceeding in polyatomic organic molecules (pyran derivatives and cyanines) excited by high-power laser radiation at 532 nm are studied. Some properties of their changes depending on the structure, solvent, and excitation conditions are determined. The effect of limitation of high-power exciting radiation by the organic molecules is found. The maximum limitation (Kmax = 15.0 at the initial transmission equal to 70%) was observed for the cyanine derivative and is comparable to this effect for fullerenes C60, which are widely used as radiation limiters.

  20. Metabolism of the phthalocyanine textile dye remazol turquoise blue by phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed

    Conneely; Smyth; McMullan

    1999-10-15

    The ability of a strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to decolourise the commercially important copper-phthalocyanine dye Remazol turquoise blue was investigated. The fungus was found to completely decolourise the dye at a concentration of 200 mg l(-1) within 7 days. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polarographic analysis of culture supernatants indicated that degradation of the dye structure was occurring with the detection of one major organic breakdown product and the release of up to 50% dye-bound copper into culture supernatants during decolourisation. Biosorption of copper to the fungal biomass was found to occur during the initial stages of dye decolourisation.

  1. The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye: A Discovery-Oriented Capstone Project for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR, under basic conditions. The three naphthyl acetate derivatives used in this study are 2-naphthyl acetate (1a), 6-bromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1b) and 1,6-dibromo-2-naphthyl acetate (1c). The two-step, one-pot…

  2. Capturing the Potential of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a continually developing type of low-cost solar cells that have commercial efficiency around 6-10%. The proposed research here will be focusing on the photo-bleaching and improving techniques for electron transport. Nature has given us a goal to reach towards with proven techniques for converting light into energy with around 30-40% efficiency, however, chlorophyll, the light absorber in plants, is expensive and it is not practical to make solar cells with only chlorophyll as the absorber. One such alternative to chlorophyll is phthalocyanines which is a common industrial dye used in many applications. This dye has a common similar ring without the long phytol chain that chlorophyll has. Previous research has shown that encapsulating organic dyes can magnify the properties of dye from the increased concentration with a possible benefit of stabilizing the dye allowing it to slow down the photo bleaching significantly. Likewise, such encapsulation may help with thermal stability since many dye-sensitized solar cells require a liquid or gel solution that is sensitive to thermal expansion. Many researchers are also finding new ways to encapsulate the dyes or dope the p-n layers with nano and meso tubes to help with electron transport or build the p-n layers right in the tubes. This allows for countless layers and an overall more efficient design.

  3. In situ monitoring and optimization of room temperature ultra-fast sensitization for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew L; Watson, Trystan M; Holliman, Peter J; Connell, Arthur; Worsley, David A

    2014-10-25

    We describe the fastest dyeing of TiO2 photo-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells reported to date (<2 min) at room temperature giving η = 7.5% for an N719-SQ1-CDCA mixture which is significantly higher than devices dyed for >12 h using the same dye mixture (η = 5.5%). Time-lapse photography has been used to monitor the ultra-fast co-sensitization. The data show significantly different dye uptake between passive and pump dyeing reflecting competitive sorption between a Ru complex (N719) and an organic dye (SQ1).

  4. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  5. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  6. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions.

  7. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  8. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  9. Hybrid pigments resulting from several guest dyes onto γ-alumina host: A spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Erik; Ibarra, Ilich A; Guzmán, Ariel; Lima, Enrique

    2017-02-05

    The synthesis of hybrid pigments was made from combination of γ-Al2O3 and some organic chromophores such as carminic acid, alizarin, purpurin, curcumin, fluorescein and betacyanins. The γ-Al2O3 was obtained through sol-gel synthesis with 2-propanol and aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ATB). This article presents some spectroscopic evidences related to the formation of aluminium complexes between coordinative unsaturated sites (CUS) of aluminium and some organic groups (carboxylic acid, quaternary ammonium and β-keto enol) present in the chromophores structure. The physicochemical properties upcoming from a spectroscopic analysis point out that these materials can be applied in the design of new materials with potential uses in artworks and in the field of cultural heritage.

  10. Hybrid pigments resulting from several guest dyes onto γ-alumina host: A spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Erik; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Guzmán, Ariel; Lima, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of hybrid pigments was made from combination of γ-Al2O3 and some organic chromophores such as carminic acid, alizarin, purpurin, curcumin, fluorescein and betacyanins. The γ-Al2O3 was obtained through sol-gel synthesis with 2-propanol and aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ATB). This article presents some spectroscopic evidences related to the formation of aluminium complexes between coordinative unsaturated sites (CUS) of aluminium and some organic groups (carboxylic acid, quaternary ammonium and β-keto enol) present in the chromophores structure. The physicochemical properties upcoming from a spectroscopic analysis point out that these materials can be applied in the design of new materials with potential uses in artworks and in the field of cultural heritage.

  11. Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticle Sensitized Metal-Organic Framework Derived Mesoporous TiO2 as Photoanodes for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Xie, Zhirun; Zhou, Shujie; Zhang, Yanan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyuan; Yin, Longwei

    2016-08-31

    We present a facile hot injection and hydrothermal method to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles sensitized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived mesoporous TiO2. The MOFs-derived TiO2 inherits the large specific surface area and abundantly porous structures of the MOFs structure, which is of great benefit to effectively enhance the dye loading capacity, prolong the incident light traveling length by enhancing the multiple interparticle light-scattering process, and therefore improve the light absorption capacity. The sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles effectively enlarges the photoresponse range of TiO2 to the visible light region and facilitates photoinduced carrier transport. The formed heterostructure between CZTS nanoparticles and MOFs-derived TiO2 with matched band gap structure effectively suppresses the recombination rates of photogenerated electron/hole pairs and prolongs the lifespan of the carriers. Photoanodes based upon CZTS/MOFs-derived TiO2 photoanodes can achieve the maximal photocurrent of 17.27 mA cm(-2) and photoelectric conversion performance of 8.10%, nearly 1.93 and 2.21 times higher than those of TiO2-based photoanode. The related mechanism and model are investigated. The strikingly improved photoelectric properties are ascribed to a synergistic action between the MOFs-derived TiO2 and the sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles.

  12. Surface functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles with cationic polymers via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Characterization and enhanced removal of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-28

    Monodispersed SiO2 particles functionalized with cationic polymers poly-((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAPTCl) were prepared using mussel inspired surface modification strategy and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potential were employed to characterize these SiO2 samples. The adsorption performance of the functionalized SiO2 (donated as SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl) towards anionic organic dye Congo red (CR) was investigated to evaluate their potential environmental applications. We demonstrated that the surface of SiO2 particles can be successfully functionalized with cationic PAPTCl. The adsorption capability of as-prepared SiO2 was found to increases from 28.70 and 106.65mg/g after surface grafted with cationic polymers. The significant enhancement in the adsorption capability of SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl is mainly attributed to the introduction of cationic polymers. More importantly, this strategy is expected to be promising for fabrication of many other functional polymer nanocomposites for environmental applications due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and well designability and good monomer adaptability of SI-ATRP.

  13. Syntheses, structures, electrochemistry and catalytic oxidation degradation of organic dyes of two new coordination polymers derived from Cu(II) and Mn(II) and 1-(tetrazo-5-yl)-4-(triazo-1-yl)benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ming; Mu, Bao; Huang, Ru-Dan

    2017-02-01

    Two new coordination polymers (CPs), namely, [Cu2(ttbz)(H2btc)2(OH)]n (1) and [Mn(ttbz)2(H2O)2]n (2) (Httbz =1-(tetrazo-5-yl)-4-(triazo-1-yl)benzene, H3btc =1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits a (3,5,5,5)-connected 2D layer with a Schläfli symbol of {3·42}{3·440.520.63}{320.440.520.62}{320.440.530.6}, in which the ttbz- ligand can be described as μ5-bridge, linking Cu(II) ions into a 2D layer and H2btc- ions play a supporting role in complex 1. The ttbz- ligand in complex 2 represents the bridging coordination mode, connecting two Mn(II) ions to form the infinite 1D zigzag chains, respectively, which are further connected by two different types of hydrogen bonds to form a 3D supramolecular. Furthermore, catalytic oxidation activities toward organic dyes and electrochemical behaviors of the title complexes have been investigated at room temperature in aqueous solutions, indicating these complexes may be applicable to color removal in a textile wastewater stream and practical applications in areas of electrocatalytic reduction toward nitrite, respectively.

  14. Comparison of catalytic activities for photocatalytic and sonocatalytic degradation of organic dye in the presence of ternary Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO magnetic heteregenous nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    The Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO nanocatalyst with various CuO loading were synthesized by sol-gel method and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The findings demonstrate that all samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperatureand containa well-crystalline ternary oxide nanocatalyst. Methylene blue was taken as the model of organic dye to evaluate its photocatalytic and sonocatalytic degradation in the presence of Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO nanocatalyst. The observed degradation activity indicate that the order of degradation of methylene blue issonocatalysis> photocatalysis. Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO nanocatalyst with the lowest CuO loading exhibit the highest rate of degradation of methylene blue during the sono- and photocatalytic processes. The experimental data shows that holes are the predominant oxidative species involved in the sono- and photodegradation of methylene blue.

  15. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  16. Data Report: Organic Water Chemistry for 2005 Storm Events in Support of the Storm Water Studies in Sinclair and Dyes Inlet, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    maximum daily loads (TMDL) and assessing ecological risk within the watershed. Project ENVVEST will provide regulatory agencies with data that will help...obtained from these sampling efforts will be used to elucidate the interconnection of water quality and watershed hydrology, land use, and land cover...Zn and Hg JMB 04/10/05 2047 FC T1300 BI-SBC 2318* 455B STW Dissolved I-1-B Cd, Cu, Pb, Ag and Zn JMB 04/10/05 2047 FC ORGANICS T1300 BI-SBC 2318*453B

  17. Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified.

  18. Immobilization of Polyoxometalate in the Metal-Organic Framework rht-MOF-1: Towards a Highly Effective Heterogeneous Catalyst and Dye Scavenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing-Wen; Yan, Peng-Fei; An, Guang-Hui; Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Guang-Ming; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-05-01

    A series of three remarkable complexes [PMo12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)9]4·OH·31H2O (H3TZI = 5-tetrazolylisophthalic acid; denoted as HLJU-1, HLJU = Heilongjiang University), [SiMo12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)9]4·32H2O (denoted as HLJU-2), and [PW12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)6]4·OH·31H2O (denoted as HLJU-3) have been isolated by using simple one-step solvothermal reaction of copper chloride, 5-tetrazolylisophthalic acid (H3TZI), and various Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), respectively. Crystal analysis of HLJU 1‑3 reveals that Keggin-type polyoxoanions have been fitted snuggly in the cages of rht-MOF-1 (MOF: metal‑organic framework) with large cell volume in a range of 87968‑88800 Å3 and large pore volume of about 68%. HLJU 1–3 exhibit unique catalytic selectivity and reactivity in the oxidation of alkylbenzene with environmental benign oxidant under mild condition in aqueous phase as well as the uptake capacity towards organic pollutants in aqueous solution.

  19. Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Wu, Xiaohui

    2011-04-01

    The sonophotolytic advance oxidation system (US/UV/Fe(3+)) could achieve synergistic degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5), as compared to UV/Fe(3+) and US/Fe(3+) systems. A synergy factor of 2.5 based on the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (k(obs)) was found, along with enhancements in organic detoxification and mineralization. The presence of organic ligands could affect the US/UV/Fe(3+) system differently. Oxalate, citrate, tartrate and succinate could enhance the RB5 degradation, while NTA and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitions. The influence of these ligands on k(obs)(RB5) in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand systems followed the sequence of oxalate > tartrate > succinate > citrate > without ligand > NTA > EDTA, while they could be degraded simultaneously with the k(obs)(ligand) order of oxalate > citrate > tartrate > succinate > NTA > EDTA. Monitoring of iron species and the generated H(2)O(2) and •OH revealed that the ligands in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand system could play different mechanistic roles: (1) promoting H(2)O(2) production, (2) accelerating Fenton reaction, and (3) competing with RB5 for reacting with •OH. Among the ligands, oxalate exhibited the most significant enhancement of RB5 oxidation in the sonophotolytic system, and the process was pH-dependent. An initial reaction lag in RB5 degradation was observed when Fe(2+) was used in lieu of Fe(3+) as the catalyst in the sonophotolytic system.

  20. Removal of organic dye by air and macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid under room conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengjia; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lingling; Hao, Tianhong

    2011-07-01

    A new macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was synthesized by a method involving sol-gel technology and biomimetic synthesis. It was characterized by Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical degradation of 0.3 g/L Safranin T (ST) by air oxidation over macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was studied. It was found that the decolorization efficiency and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of ST reached above 95.3% and 93.2%, respectively, within 25 min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. And the organic pollutant was mineralized to simple inorganic species such as HCO3-, Cl- and NO3-, while the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased 95.4%. The structure and morphology of the catalyst were still stable after six cycling runs and the leaching test showed negligible leaching effect.

  1. Immobilization of Polyoxometalate in the Metal-Organic Framework rht-MOF-1: Towards a Highly Effective Heterogeneous Catalyst and Dye Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing-Wen; Yan, Peng-Fei; An, Guang-Hui; Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Guang-Ming; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A series of three remarkable complexes [PMo12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)9]4·OH·31H2O (H3TZI = 5-tetrazolylisophthalic acid; denoted as HLJU-1, HLJU = Heilongjiang University), [SiMo12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)9]4·32H2O (denoted as HLJU-2), and [PW12O40]@[Cu6O(TZI)3(H2O)6]4·OH·31H2O (denoted as HLJU-3) have been isolated by using simple one-step solvothermal reaction of copper chloride, 5-tetrazolylisophthalic acid (H3TZI), and various Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), respectively. Crystal analysis of HLJU 1−3 reveals that Keggin-type polyoxoanions have been fitted snuggly in the cages of rht-MOF-1 (MOF: metal−organic framework) with large cell volume in a range of 87968−88800 Å3 and large pore volume of about 68%. HLJU 1–3 exhibit unique catalytic selectivity and reactivity in the oxidation of alkylbenzene with environmental benign oxidant under mild condition in aqueous phase as well as the uptake capacity towards organic pollutants in aqueous solution. PMID:27157290

  2. Planar amine-based dye features the rigidified O-bridged dithiophene π-spacer: A potential high-efficiency sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Bai, Fu-Quan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a systematically theoretical study concerning the design of D-π-A organic dyes for DSSC. Two elaborate strategies, namely the rigidity of dithiophene and introduction of strong electron rich/deficient moieties, are proposed. By using the state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, the general influences of fastening atoms (C, N, and O) for π-spacer rigidification in planar amine-based organic dyes are firstly investigated and elucidated. The properties of isolated dye, dye/(TiO2)38, and dye-I2 interaction are discussed in detail. The results show that, compared with the P2T dye containing dithiophene π-spacer, its three counterparts with rigidified dithiophene π-spacers would present the improved absorption properties. We further demonstrate that incorporation of O-bridged dithiophene moiety into the π-spacer was promising to challenge the photoelectric conversion efficiency 8.29% of P2T. Furthermore, benzothiadiazole (BTD) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moieties are the well-known π-skeletons that can effectively tune the electronic structure properties and the light-harvesting ability. Subsequently, a series of dyes are designed through introducing the BTD and EDOT groups into π-spacer. The calculated results reveal that the dye with the incorporation of EDOT moiety would be more beneficial for photocurrent and photovoltage performance. The current theoretical studies are expected to be very relevant for the molecular design of D-π-A organic dyes in DSSC.

  3. Chalcogenopyrylium Dyes with Anchors to Nanoparticle and Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedics, Matthew Allen

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained widespread attention as a biomedical imaging technique due to its multiplexing capabilities and the low limits of detection (LODs) of SERS-nanoprobes. The library of available reporter molecules, which are used to generate unique SERS spectra, was previously limited to commercially available dyes or a small group of cyanine reporters. Herein, the design and synthesis of a novel group of chalcogenopyrylium SERS reporters is described. These dyes have a high affinity for Au and absorption maxima that range into the NIR region. These reporter molecules enabled the use of the 1280 nm laser, which was previously incompatible with SERS imaging. Also, nanoprobe LODs using these dyes as reporters are lower than any previously documented systems, with a 100 aM LOD using a 785 nm excitation and multiple examples of fM to pM LODs using a 1064 nm or 1280 nm excitation source. Nanoprobes functionalized with these compounds have also been successfully utilized in vivo, and produce more intense SERS spectra as compared to a commonly used cyanine reporter. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have produced considerable interest as an alternative to conventionally used Si-based solar cells. Specifically, DSSCs that use metal-free organic dyes as sensitizers are important due to the lower cost and the use of earth abundant materials as starting materials. Herein, a group of chalcogenopyrylium dyes were appended with an anchoring group to TiO2, which enables the use of these dyes as sensitizers. Structural modifications were used to extend absorption maxima into the near-infrared region of the light spectrum and to evaluate the effect that dye aggregation has on device performance. The monomethine dyes successfully produced a photocurrent, with incident photon to current efficiency values as high as 20%. Aggregation was found to benefit these systems due to the spectral broadening of aggregated dyes, and consequent increased range of

  4. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  5. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Kaneva, Nina; Spassov, Tony

    2017-04-01

    A new core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain (n-ZnO/PG) biocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple and low-temperature two-step liquid precipitation method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of pine pollen grains (PG) with Zn2+-organic complexes followed by a treatment in Zn(CH3COO)2/NaOH solution, thus producing a closed n-ZnO shell around the organic core, with a thickness of ∼450 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements along with N2 adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the resulting n-ZnO/PG biocomposite. The as-prepared core-shell microparticles are meso-/macro-porous with BET surface area of 25 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.26 cm3 g-1. The adsorption properties of n-ZnO/PG were evaluated through adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and adsorptive properties of the raw PG and pure n-ZnO were also examined. Results indicate that n-ZnO/PG is the most favorable for the adsorption of MG under the conditions used in this study. The adsorption kinetic data for PG, n-ZnO and n-ZnO/PG follow the pseudo-second order equation and the maximum adsorption capacity follows an order of n-ZnO/PG > n-ZnO > PG. For n-ZnO/PG an adsorption uptake up to 145.9 mg g-1 is observed. The as-prepared core-shell biocomposite material is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent due to its textural properties, surface chemistry, adsorption capacity and recyclability.

  6. Investigation of lasing from dye doped plastics using flash lamp and Nd:YAG excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Mark; de Armond, Mike; Reynolds, Clint; Suedhoff, Hans

    2006-05-01

    We present an investigation of organic dye doped plastics as a lasing medium. The host materials examined are poly(methyl methacrylate) [acrylic], epoxy, polyester and polyurethane. Various solvents are used to improve dye dispersion within the material. Two forms of excitation (flash lamp and frequency doubled Nd:YAG) are used. For the Nd:YAG pumped dye lasers, a disk of dye doped plastic is mounted in a housing to provide random orbital motion. The disk is within a Littmann configuration cavity. Each dye disk is tested for threshold, durability, power output, bandwidth, and tuning range. An end pumped cylinder is also explored. For the flash lamp pumped dye lasers two configurations are used: a traditional dye cylinder within an elliptical reflector and a hollow cylinder with the flash lamp within the hollow. A monolithic cavity for the flash lamp pumped system is investigated.

  7. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis

  8. Density functional theory study on dye-sensitized solar cells using oxadiazole-based dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Umer; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Harrabi, Khalil; Reddy, Belum V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TD-DFT) modeling techniques are used to conduct a computational study of the geometry and electronic structure of oxadiazole-based organic sensitizers. A DFT study on the thermodynamic aspects of the charge transport processes associated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suggests that the system with 1,2,4-oxadiazole has a balance among the different crucial factors and may result in the highest incident photon to charge carrier efficiency. The dye/) anatase clusters were also simulated to illustrate the electron injection efficiency at the interface. This study provides basic understanding of the impact of molecular design on the performance of oxadiazole dyes in DSSCs.

  9. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  10. Indanthrone dye revisited after sixty years.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Wamil, Damian; Materna, Mariusz; Skorka, Lukasz; Gunka, Piotr A; Nowakowski, Robert; Golec, Barbara; Luszczynska, Beata; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

    2014-10-09

    Indanthrone, an old, insoluble dye can be converted into a solution processable, self-assembling and electroluminescent organic semiconductor, namely tetraoctyloxydinaptho[2,3-a:2',3'-h]phenazine (P-C8), in a simple one-pot process consisting of the reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium dithionite followed by the substitution with solubility inducing groups under phase transfer catalysis conditions.

  11. Biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone and phthalocyanine dyes under various oxidation-reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young H; Matthews, Rosalyn D; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2006-02-01

    The decolorization of two anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4 [RB4] and Reactive Blue 19 [RB19]) and two phthalocyanine dyes (Reactive Blue 7 [RB7] and Reactive Blue 21 [RB21]) was investigated at an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L using an unacclimated, enrichment culture. The culture was fed a mixture of organic compounds and maintained initially under aerobic conditions, and then progressively developed anoxic/ anaerobic conditions. Biotransformation-related decolorization of the dyes did not take place under aerobic conditions, but use of the feed organic mixture and biomass production by the enrichment culture were not affected. Complete ammonia removal occurred in the control and all dye-amended cultures. The development and extent of nitrification were much lower in the latter cultures, in which ammonia removal via air stripping was the dominant mechanism. Prolonged incubation of the culture under anoxic/anaerobic conditions with multiple carbon source additions resulted in a high decolorization extent of anthraquinone dyes (over 84%) and only partial decolorization of phthalocyanine dyes (49 to 66%). Development of significant methanogenic activity took place in the control and, to a lesser extent, in the two phthalocyanine dye-amended cultures, but the anthraquinone dyes severely inhibited the development of methanogenic activity. The RB4 and RB19 decolorization was attributed to nonreversible, microbially mediated dye transformation(s), demonstrated by the accumulation of decolorization products with absorbance maxima in the 420- to 460-nm region. The decolorization of RB4 and RB19 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L, the observed maximum decolorization rate per unit biomass was 9.1 and 37.5 mg dye/mg volatile suspended solids x day for the RB4 and RB19, respectively. Thus, partial decolorization of reactive phthalocyanine dyes and extensive biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes is

  12. Reuse of reactive dyes for dyeing of jute fabric.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S N; Pan, N C; Day, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find out suitable method of dyeing so that costly reactive dye can be reused without draining them. The bleached jute fabric was dyed with four different class of reactive dyes namely, cold brand, hot brand, vinyl sulphone and high exhaustion (HE) brand. It is found that the two-step two-bath method of reactive dyeing, where exhaustion and fixation step is separated, is most ideal for reuse of dye bath. Separate original samples produced K/S value same as that of original sample and the K/S value of separate reuse sample varied from 50% to 80% of the original sample depending on the class of dye. In case of same bath method, colour yield of original reuse samples varies from only 10% to maximum 30% of the original samples depending on the class of dyes. Reuse of reactive dyes following separate bath method is particularly suitable for higher depth of shade (4% and above). This process not only utilises costly reactive dyes to the maximum extent but it also produces low water pollution as the effluent contain minimum amount of dye. So the process is economic and eco-friendly as well.

  13. Radiation induced degradation of dyes--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rauf, M A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as H, OH and e(aq)(-) are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e(aq)(-) is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  14. In-Situ Spectroscopic Analyses of the Dye Uptake on ZnO and TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Nadia; Pugliese, Diego; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Tresso, Elena

    2015-08-01

    UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements have been performed on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) photoanodes at different dye impregnation times ranging from few minutes to 24 hours. In addition to the traditional absorbance experiments, based on diffuse and specular reflectance of dye impregnated thin films and on the desorption of dye molecules from the photoanodes by means of a basic solution, an alternative in-situ solution depletion measurement, which enables fast and continuous evaluation of dye uptake, has been employed. Two different nanostructured semiconducting oxide films (mesoporous TiO2 and sponge-like ZnO) and two different dyes, the traditional Ruthenizer 535-bisTBA (N719) and a newly introduced metal-free organic dye based on a hemi-squaraine molecule (CT1), have been analyzed. DSSCs have been fabricated with the dye-impregnated photoanodes using a customized microfluidic architecture. The dye adsorption results are discussed and correlated to the obtained DSSC electrical performances such as photovoltaic conversion efficiencies and Incident Photon-to-electron Conversion Efficiency (IPCE) spectra. It is shown that simple UV-Vis measurements can give useful insights on the dye adsorption mechanisms and on the evaluation of the optimal impregnation times.

  15. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the

  16. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm – 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  17. Influence of ZnO nanoparticles on Coumarin-503 and Coumarin-540 dye mixture for energy transfer distributed feedback dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, G. V.; Basheer Ahamed, M.

    2016-07-01

    Using organic dyes Coumarin-503 (C503) and Coumarin-540 (C540) as donor and acceptor dyes, respectively, and Nd-YAG as pumping source (355 nm), an energy transfer-distributed feedback dye laser (ETDFDL) was constructed and its characteristics studied. Theoretical studies such as critical transfer radius (Ro), critical concentration (Co), and half quenching concentration (C1/2) were carried out using the absorption and fluorescence spectra of donor and acceptor dyes. On varying the input pump energy to the nanoparticle-incorporated ETDFDL and keeping the acceptor and donor dye concentrations constant, the lasing output obtained was found to be higher than that without the use of nanoparticles. This enhancement was due to the size, shape, and coupling between nanoparticles with the dye mixture. Tunability in the range of 435-553 nm was obtained for both donor (C503) and acceptor (C540) DFDL as a function of the angle of interfering beams of the pump laser.

  18. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-14

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.

  19. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-04-09

    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions.

  20. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.