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Sample records for carnosine retards tumor

  1. [Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases].

    PubMed

    Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna

    2012-04-20

     Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Carnosine inhibits advanced glycation end product formation and reduces the synthesis of matrix proteins such as fibronectin and collagen type VI of podocytes and mesangial cells. In experimental studies it was shown that carnosine reduces the level of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. It is suggested that carnosine is a naturally occurring anti-aging substance in human organisms with a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. This paper reports the results of studies concerning carnosine's role in kidney diseases, particularly in ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and also in blood pressure regulation. The correlations between serum carnosine and serum carnosinase activity and polymorphism in the CNDP1 gene are analyzed. The role of CNDP1 gene polymorphism in the development of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease is discussed. Carnosine is engaged in different metabolic pathways. It has nephroprotective features. Further studies of carnosine metabolism and its biological properties, particularly those concerning the human organism, are required.

  2. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  3. Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells through Both of the Mitochondrial Respiration and Glycolysis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25115854

  4. Carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through both of the mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy.

  5. The antineoplastic effect of carnosine is accompanied by induction of PDK4 and can be mimicked by L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Letzien, Ulrike; Oppermann, Henry; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring dipeptide that shows antineoplastic effects in cell culture as well as in animal experiments. Since its mode of action and the targets at the molecular level have not yet been elucidated, we performed qRT-PCR experiments with RNA isolated from glioblastoma cell lines treated with carnosine, β-alanine, L-alanine, L-histidine and the dipeptide L-alanine-L-histidine. The experiments identified a strong induction of expression of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4) under the influence of carnosine and L-histidine, but not by the other substances employed. In addition, inhibition of cell viability was only detected in cells treated with carnosine and L-histidine, with the latter showing a significantly stronger effect than carnosine. Since the tumor cells expressed the tissue form of carnosinase (CN2) but almost no serum carnosinase (CN1), we conclude that cleavage by CN2 is a prerequisite for the antineoplastic effect of carnosine. In addition, enhanced expression of PDK4 under the influence of carnosine/L-histidine opens a new perspective for the interpretation of the ergogenic potential of dietary β-alanine supplementation and adds a new contribution to a growing body of evidence that single amino acids can regulate key metabolic pathways important in health and disease.

  6. Differential neuroprotective effects of carnosine, anserine, and N-acetyl carnosine against permanent focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Min, Jiangyong; Senut, Marie-Claude; Rajanikant, Krishnamurthy; Greenberg, Eric; Bandagi, Ram; Zemke, Daniel; Mousa, Ahmad; Kassab, Mounzer; Farooq, Muhammad U; Gupta, Rishi; Majid, Arshad

    2008-10-01

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we further characterized the effects of carnosine treatment in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and compared them with its related peptides anserine and N-acetylated carnosine. We also evaluated the efficacy of bestatin, a carnosinase inhibitor, in ameliorating ischemic brain damage. Permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Mice were subsequently randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (0.9% saline), carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, anserine, bestatin alone, or bestatin with carnosine. Infarct size was examined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 1, 3, and 7 days following pMCAO, and neurological function was evaluated using an 18-point-based scale. Brain levels of carnosine were measured in treated mice using high-performance liquid chromatography 1 day following pMCAO. We demonstrated that treatment with carnosine, but not its analogues, was able to significantly reduce infarct volume and improve neurological function compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. These beneficial effects were maintained for 7 days post-pMCAO. In contrast, compared with the vehicle-treated group, bestatin-treated mice displayed an increase in the severity of ischemic lesion, which was prevented by the addition of carnosine. These new data further characterize the neuroprotective effects of carnosine and suggest that carnosine may be an attractive candidate for testing as a stroke therapy.

  7. Differential Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine, Anserine, and N-Acetyl Carnosine against Permanent Focal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jiangyong; Senut, Marie-Claude; Rajanikant, Krishnamurthy; Greenberg, Eric; Bandagi, Ram; Zemke, Daniel; Mousa, Ahmad; Kassab, Mounzer; Farooq, Muhammad U.; Gupta, Rishi; Majid, Arshad

    2009-01-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we further characterized the effects of carnosine treatment in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and compared them with its related peptides anserine and N-acetylated carnosine. We also evaluated the efficacy of bestatin, a carnosinase inhibitor, in ameliorating ischemic brain damage. Permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Mice were subsequently randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (0.9% saline), carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, anserine, bestatin alone, or bestatin with carnosine. Infarct size was examined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 1, 3, and 7 days following pMCAO, and neurological function was evaluated using an 18-point-based scale. Brain levels of carnosine were measured in treated mice using high-performance liquid chromatography 1 day following pMCAO. We demonstrated that treatment with carnosine, but not its analogues, was able to significantly reduce infarct volume and improve neurological function compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. These beneficial effects were maintained for 7 days post-pMCAO. In contrast, compared with the vehicle-treated group, bestatin-treated mice displayed an increase in the severity of ischemic lesion, which was prevented by the addition of carnosine. These new data further characterize the neuroprotective effects of carnosine and suggest that carnosine may be an attractive candidate for testing as a stroke therapy. PMID:18543335

  8. Organophosphate Flame Retardants Act as Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in MA-10 Mouse Tumor Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Schang, Gauthier; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2016-04-01

    The organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have emerged as alternatives to banned brominated flame retardants but little is known about their possible activity as endocrine disruptors. Our goal was to compare the effects of 7 commonly used OPFRsin vitroon MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells to those of a major brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). The effects of OPFRs and BDE-47 on mitochondrial activity, cell counts, oxidative stress, steroid secretion and gene expression were investigated. BDE-47 and all 7 OPFRs tested significantly reduced MA-10 cell mitochondrial activity (concentrations ≥50 μM) and cell number (concentrations ≥10 μM). All of the OPFRs significantly increased (10 μM, 1.7-4.4-fold) superoxide production whereas BDE-47 had no significant effect. Basal progesterone production was significantly increased (10 μM, 1.5 to 3-fold) by 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, isodecyl diphenyl phosphate, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate, tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, and tricresyl phosphate, while BDE-47, triphenyl phosphate and tri-o-cresyl phosphate had no effect. Interestingly, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate enhanced dbcAMP-stimulated steroid production (∼2-fold), while tri-o-cresyl phosphate decreased (∼2/3) LH-stimulated steroid production. Several OPFRs affected the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of progesterone. In conclusion, all the OPFRs tested affected mitochondrial activity, cell survival, and superoxide production. Basal or stimulated steroid secretion was affected by all of the OPFRs except triphenyl phosphate; BDE-47 had no effect. Hence, the OPFRs currently used as alternatives affect Leydig cells to a greater extent than the brominated flame retardants that they have replaced.

  9. Plant-Made Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Inhibits HER2/Neu+ Cell Proliferation and Retards Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Skrypnik, Ksenia A.; Gleba, Yuri Y.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), trastuzumab (Herceptin). A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i) binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii) testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT) bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:21390232

  10. Free radical scavenging and radioprotective effects of carnosine and anserine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Hata, Kuniki; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-12-01

    Two histidine-containing natural dipeptides, carnosine and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl- L-histidine), have been examined for their antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. Pulse radiolysis studies indicated the antioxidative properties of carnosine and anserine aqueous solutions at different pH. The rate constants for the reaction OH radical with carnosine at neutral pH were determined to be 5.3×10 9 M -1 s -1 at 300 nm, and 4.1×10 9 M -1 s -1 at 400 nm, respectively. Carnosine and anserine also protected plasmid pUC18 DNA from X-ray radiation-induced strand breaks as evidenced from the studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. Carnosine showed higher protective efficiency under the experimental conditions. Our data demonstrated that carnosine and anserine may play an important role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system.

  11. Use of Carnosine for Oxidative Stress Reduction in Different Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Prokopieva, V. D.; Yarygina, E. G.; Bokhan, N. A.; Ivanova, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The main properties and biological effects of the antioxidant carnosine, the natural dipeptide β-alanyl-L-histidine, are considered. Data on the effective use of carnosine in different pathologies are presented. Special attention is paid to issues of use of carnosine in neurologic and mental diseases, in alcoholism as well as in physiological states accompanied by activation of free-radical processes and formation of oxidative stress. PMID:26904160

  12. Inhibitory effect of carnosine and N-acetyl carnosine on LPS-induced microglial oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal; Abramovitch-Dahan, Chen; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Apte, Ron; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2009-07-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. A growing body of research focuses on the role of microglia, the primary immune cells in the brain, in modulating brain inflammation and oxidative stress. One of the most abundant antioxidants in the brain, particularly in glia, is the dipeptide carnosine, beta-alanyl-L-histidine. Carnosine is believed to be involved in cellular defense such as free radical detoxification and inhibition of protein cross-linking. The more stable N-acetyl derivative of carnosine has also been identified in the brain. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of carnosine and N-acetyl carnosine in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial inflammation and oxidative damage. In this study, BV2 microglial cells were stimulated with bacterial LPS, a potent inflammatory stimulus. The data shows that both carnosine and N-acetyl carnosine significantly attenuated the LPS-induced nitric oxide synthesis and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by 60% and 70%, respectively. By competitive spectrophotometric measurement and electrospray mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated a direct interaction of N-acetyl carnosine with nitric oxide. LPS-induced TNFalpha secretion and carbonyl formation were also significantly attenuated by both compounds. N-acetyl carnosine was more potent than carnosine in inhibiting the release of the inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators. These observations suggest the presence of a novel regulatory pathway through which carnosine and N-acetyl carnosine inhibit the synthesis of microglial inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators, and thus may prove to play a role in brain inflammation.

  13. Salmonella typhimurium peptidase active on carnosine.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsh, M; Dembinski, D R; Hartman, P E; Miller, C G

    1978-01-01

    Wild-type Salmonella typhimurium can use carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) as a source of histidine, but carnosine utilization is blocked in particular mutants defective in the constitutive enzyme peptidase D, the product of the pepD gene. Biochemical evidence for assigning carnosinase activity to peptidase D (a broad-specificity dipeptidase) includes: (i) coelution of carnosinase and dipeptidase activity from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Bio-Gel P-300 columns; (ii) coelectrophoresis of carnosinase and dipeptidase on polyacrylamide gels; and (iii) inactivation of carnosinase and dipeptidase activities at identical rates at both 4 and 42 degrees C. Genetic evidence indicates that mutations leading to loss of carnosinase activity map at pepD. Several independent pepD mutants have been isolated by different selection procedures, and the patterns of peptide utilization of strains carrying various pepD alleles have been studied. Many pepD mutations lead to the production of partially active peptidase D enzymes with substrate specificities that differ strikingly from those of the wild-type enzyme. The growth yields of carnosinase-deficient strains growing in Difco nutrient broth indicate that carnosine is the major utilizable source of histidine in this medium. PMID:26655

  14. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yali; Su, Dan; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Shaofeng; Liu, Kuangyi; Peng, Mi; Li, Hanyun; Song, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL−1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL−1. The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle. PMID:27190533

  15. Preventive Effects of Carnosine on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sugizaki, Toshifumi; Kanda, Yuki; Tamura, Fumiya; Niino, Tomomi; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute lung injury, which involves neutrophilic inflammation and pulmonary cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in ARDS development. New compounds for inhibiting the onset and progression of ARDS are required. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a small di-peptide with numerous activities, including antioxidant effects, metal chelation, proton buffering capacity and the inhibition of protein carbonylation and glycoxidation. We have examined the preventive effects of carnosine on tissue injury, oedema and inflammation in a murine model for ARDS. Oral administration of carnosine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular permeability, tissue injury and inflammation in the lung. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that LPS administration increased the level of ROS and that this increase was inhibited by carnosine administration. Carnosine also suppressed LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation (evaluated by activation of myeloperoxidase in the lung and increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). Furthermore, carnosine administration suppressed the LPS-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo. These results suggest that the oral administration of carnosine suppresses LPS-induced lung injury via carnosine’s ROS-reducing activity. Therefore, carnosine may be beneficial for suppressing the onset and progression of ARDS. PMID:28205623

  16. Carnosine and its possible roles in nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    The dipeptide carnosine has been observed to exert antiaging activity at cellular and whole animal levels. This review discusses the possible mechanisms by which carnosine may exert antiaging action and considers whether the dipeptide could be beneficial to humans. Carnosine's possible biological activities include scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), chelator of zinc and copper ions, and antiglycating and anticross-linking activities. Carnosine's ability to react with deleterious aldehydes such as malondialdehyde, methylglyoxal, hydroxynonenal, and acetaldehyde may also contribute to its protective functions. Physiologically carnosine may help to suppress some secondary complications of diabetes, and the deleterious consequences of ischemic-reperfusion injury, most likely due to antioxidation and carbonyl-scavenging functions. Other, and much more speculative, possible functions of carnosine considered include transglutaminase inhibition, stimulation of proteolysis mediated via effects on proteasome activity or induction of protease and stress-protein gene expression, upregulation of corticosteroid synthesis, stimulation of protein repair, and effects on ADP-ribose metabolism associated with sirtuin and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) activities. Evidence for carnosine's possible protective action against secondary diabetic complications, neurodegeneration, cancer, and other age-related pathologies is briefly discussed.

  17. On the enigma of carnosine's anti-ageing actions.

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2009-04-01

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has described as a forgotten and enigmatic dipeptide. Carnosine's enigma is particularly exemplified by its apparent anti-ageing actions; it suppresses cultured human fibroblast senescence and delays ageing in senescence-accelerated mice and Drosophila, but the mechanisms responsible remain uncertain. In addition to carnosine's well-documented anti-oxidant, anti-glycating, aldehyde-scavenging and toxic metal-ion chelating properties, its ability to influence the metabolism of altered polypeptides, whose accumulation characterises the senescent phenotype, should also be considered. When added to cultured cells, carnosine was found in a recent study to suppress phosphorylation of the translational initiation factor eIF4E resulting in decreased translation frequency of certain mRNA species. Mutations in the gene coding for eIF4E in nematodes extend organism lifespan, hence carnosine's anti-ageing effects may be a consequence of decreased error-protein synthesis which in turn lowers formation of protein carbonyls and increases protease availability for degradation of polypeptides altered postsynthetically. Other studies have revealed carnosine-induced upregulation of stress protein expression and nitric oxide synthesis, both of which may stimulate proteasomal elimination of altered proteins. Some anti-convulsants can enhance nematode longevity and suppress the effects of a protein repair defect in mice, and as carnosine exerts anti-convulsant effects in rodents, it is speculated that the dipeptide may participate in the repair of protein isoaspartyl groups. These new observations only add to the enigma of carnosine's real in vivo functions. More experimentation is clearly required.

  18. Effects of carnosine and related compounds on the stability and morphology of erythrocytes from alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Prokopieva, V D; Bohan, N A; Johnson, P; Abe, H; Boldyrev, A A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of carnosine and related compounds on erythrocytes from alcoholics were studied. In their presence, erythrocytes showed an increased ability to resist haemolysis and showed a more normal morphology, with carnosine and N-acetyl-carnosine being the most effective compounds. These beneficial properties of the dipeptides do not appear to be directly related to their antioxidant or buffering properties.

  19. Effect of carnosine on rats under experimental brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gallant, S; Kukley, M; Stvolinsky, S; Bulygina, E; Boldyrev, A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary carnosine on the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats under experimental ischemia was studied. Carnosine was shown to improve the animals orientation and learning in "Open Field" and "T-Maze" tests, and this effect was accompanied with an increase in glutamate binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain synaptosomes. Long-term brain ischemia induced by both sides' occlusion of common carotid arteries resulted in 55% mortality of experimental rats, and those who survived were characterized by partial suppression of orientation in T-maze. In the group of rats treated with carnosine, mortality after ischemic attack was decreased (from 55% to 17%) and most of the learning parameters were kept at the pre-ischemic level. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in brain of the carnosine treated rats was not changed by ischemia significantly (compared to that of ischemic untreated rats) but NMDA binding to brain synaptosomal membranes being increased by ischemic attack was significantly suppressed and reached the level characteristic of normal brain. The suggestion was made that carnosine possesses a dual effect on NMDA receptors resulting in increase in their amount after long-term treatment but decrease the capacity to bind NMDA after ischemic attack.

  20. Distribution of carnosine-like peptides in the nervous system of developing and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and embryonic effects of chronic carnosine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Azher, Seema; Margolis, Frank L.; Patel, Kamakshi; Mousa, Ahmad; Majid, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine-like peptides (carnosine-LP) are a family of histidine derivatives that are present in the nervous system of various species and that exhibit antioxidant, anti-matrix-metalloproteinase, anti-excitotoxic, and free-radical scavenging properties. They are also neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia. Although the function of carnosine-LP is largely unknown, the hypothesis has been advanced that they play a role in the developing nervous system. Since the zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying development and disease, we have examined the distribution pattern of carnosine-LP in the adult and developing zebrafish. In the adult, immunoreactivity for carnosine-LP is specifically concentrated in sensory neurons and non-sensory cells of the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory nerve, and the olfactory bulb. Robust staining has also been observed in the retinal outer nuclear layer and the corneal epithelium. Developmental studies have revealed immunostaining for carnosine-LP as early as 18 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-fertilization in, respectively, the olfactory, corneal, and retinal primordia. These data suggest that carnosine-LP are involved in olfactory and visual function. We have also investigated the effects of chronic (7 days) exposure to carnosine on embryonic development and show that 0.01 μM to 10 mM concentrations of carnosine do not elicit significant deleterious effects. Conversely, treatment with 100 mM carnosine results in developmental delay and compromised larval survival. These results indicate that, at lower concentrations, exogenously administered carnosine can be used to explore the role of carnosine in development and developmental disorders of the nervous system. PMID:19440736

  1. [Effect of carnosine and its N-acetyl derivative on the stability of erythrocytes in patients with alcoholism during abstinence].

    PubMed

    Prokop'eva, V D; Bohan, N A; Johnson, P; Boldyrev, A A

    1998-01-01

    The effects of carnosine, a natural dipeptide, and its derivative, N- acetyl-carnosine (Ac-carnosine), on the stability and shape of red blood cells obtained from abstinent alcoholics was studied. In the presence of both carnosine and Ac-carnosine, the erythrocytes of abstinent alcoholics show a statistically significant increase in their ability to resist acidic hemolysis. Investigations of microscope pictures also show that carnosine and Ac-carnosine have beneficial effects on the pathological state of abstinent alcoholic erythrocytes. The addition of carnosine and Ac-carnosine resulted in the normalization of cell morphology (in 12 and 17 out of 30 cases, respectively). These results may be due to the stabilizing and regenerating ability of these compounds on alcoholic erythrocytes.

  2. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  3. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    PubMed Central

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species. PMID:27265207

  4. Role of histidine/histamine in carnosine-induced neuroprotection during ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Majid, Arshad

    2013-08-21

    Urgent need exists for new therapeutic options in ischemic stroke. We recently demonstrated that carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide consisting of alanine and histidine, is robustly neuroprotective in ischemic brain injury and has a wide clinically relevant therapeutic time window. The precise mechanistic pathways that mediate this neuroprotective effect are not known. Following in vivo administration, carnosine is hydrolyzed into histidine, a precursor of histamine. It has been hypothesized that carnosine may exert its neuroprotective activities through the histidine/histamine pathway. Herein, we investigated whether the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is mediated by the histidine/histamine pathway using in vitro primary astrocytes and cortical neurons, and an in vivo rat model of ischemic stroke. In primary astrocytes, carnosine significantly reduced ischemic cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation, and this effect was abolished by histamine receptor type I antagonist. However, histidine or histamine did not exhibit a protective effect on ischemic astrocytic cell death. In primary neuronal cultures, carnosine was found to be neuroprotective but histamine receptor antagonists had no effect on the extent of neuroprotection. The in vivo effect of histidine and carnosine was compared using a rat model of ischemic stroke; only carnosine exhibited neuroprotection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that although the protective effects of carnosine may be partially mediated by activity at the histamine type 1 receptor on astrocytes, the histidine/histamine pathway does not appear to play a critical role in carnosine induced neuroprotection.

  5. Antioxidant effect of carnosine treatment on renal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yay, A; Akkuş, D; Yapıslar, H; Balcıoglu, E; Sonmez, M F; Ozdamar, S

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an antioxidant, carnosine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced renal injury in diabetic rats. We used four groups of eight rats: group 1, control; group 2, carnosine treated; group 3, untreated diabetic; group 4, carnosine treated diabetic. Kidneys were removed and processed, and sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subjected to eNOS immunohistochemistry. Examination by light microscopy revealed degenerated glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and glycogen accumulation in the tubules of diabetic kidneys. Carnosine treatment prevented the renal morphological damage caused by diabetes. Moreover, administration of carnosine decreased somewhat the oxidative damage of diabetic nephropathy. Appropriate doses of carnosine might be a useful therapeutic option to reduce oxidative stress and associated renal injury in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Carnosine on Primary Culture of Rat Cerebellar Cells under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopachev, A V; Lopacheva, O M; Abaimov, D A; Koroleva, O V; Vladychenskaya, E A; Erukhimovich, A A; Fedorova, T N

    2016-05-01

    Dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a natural antioxidant, but its protective effect under oxidative stress induced by neurotoxins is studied insufficiently. In this work, we show the neuroprotective effect of carnosine in primary cultures of rat cerebellar cells under oxidative stress induced by 1 mM 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH), which directly generates free radicals both in the medium and in the cells, and 20 nM rotenone, which increases the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In both models, adding 2 mM carnosine to the incubation medium decreased cell death calculated using fluorescence microscopy and enhanced cell viability estimated by the MTT assay. The antioxidant effect of carnosine inside cultured cells was demonstrated using the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescein. Carnosine reduced by half the increase in the number of ROS in neurons induced by 20 nM rotenone. Using iron-induced chemiluminescence, we showed that preincubation of primary neuronal cultures with 2 mM carnosine prevents the decrease in endogenous antioxidant potential of cells induced by 1 mM AAPH and 20 nM rotenone. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we showed that a 10-min incubation of neuronal cultures with 2 mM carnosine leads to a 14.5-fold increase in carnosine content in cell lysates. Thus, carnosine is able to penetrate neurons and exerts an antioxidant effect. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in rat cerebellar cells, which suggests the possibility of carnosine transport into the cells. At the same time, Western blot analysis showed no carnosine-induced changes in the level of apoptosis regulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family and in the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, which suggests that carnosine could have minimal or no side effects on proliferation and apoptosis control systems in normal cells.

  7. Dietary Carnosine Prevents Early Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in ApoE-null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barski, Oleg A.; Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Agarwal, Abhinav; Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Approach and Results We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apoE-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes - HNE and malonaldialdehyde in Cu2+-oxidized LDL. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced HNE-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apoE-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-HHE and protein-HNE adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, while urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23559625

  8. Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Chung, W; Baguet, A; Stegen, S; Stautemas, J; Achten, E; Derave, W

    2014-01-15

    Carnosine occurs in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle and assists working capacity during high-intensity exercise. Chronic beta-alanine (BA) supplementation has consistently been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, but the effect of training on the carnosine loading efficiency is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare muscle carnosine loading between trained and untrained arm and leg muscles. In a first study (n = 17), reliability of carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was evaluated in deltoid and triceps brachii muscles. In a second study, participants (n = 35; 10 nonathletes, 10 cyclists, 10 swimmers, and 5 kayakers) were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of slow-release BA for 23 days. Carnosine content was evaluated in soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and deltoid muscles by (1)H-MRS. All the results are reported as arbitrary units. In the nonathletes, BA supplementation increased carnosine content by 47% in the arm and 33% in the leg muscles (not significant). In kayakers, the increase was more pronounced in arm (deltoid) vs. leg (soleus + gastrocnemius) muscles (0.089 vs. 0.049), whereas the reverse pattern was observed in cyclists (0.065 vs. 0.084). Swimmers had significantly higher increase in carnosine in both deltoid (0.107 vs. 0.065) and gastrocnemius muscle (0.082 vs. 0.051) compared with nonathletes. We showed that 1) carnosine content can be reliably measured by (1)H-MRS in deltoid muscle, 2) carnosine loading is equally effective in arm vs. leg muscles of nonathletes, and 3) carnosine loading is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.

  9. Net release or uptake of histidine and carnosine in kidney of dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciaruso, B; Fukuda, S; Jones, M R; Kopple, J D

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies are equivocal as to whether the dog kidney produces histidine. Because one possible source of renal histidine is carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), we investigated net renal production (release) or utilization (uptake) (Qmet) of histidine and carnosine in 19 female dogs after they were fed histidine-free (9 dogs) or histidine-containing diets (10 dogs). Diets were fed in short-(2-11 days) or long-term (52-57 days) studies. Dogs were infused with half-normal saline for 120 min followed by an infusion of half-normal saline containing carnosine, 50 mumol/min. Renal Qmet histidine, calculated from either plasma or whole blood values, was positive during infusion of half-normal saline. During carnosine infusion, Qmet histidine increased markedly, and there was net renal uptake of carnosine. The Qmet histidine and carnosine were not different in the dogs fed histidine-free vs. histidine-containing diets. Thus there is net renal release of histidine in female dogs that increases when carnosine is administered. Qmet histidine or carnosine do not change adaptively when dogs are fed histidine-free diets.

  10. Treatment with carnosine reduces hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhen; Guo, Shang; Zhang, Linlin; Jia, Liting; Zhang, Zhan; Duan, Hongbao; Zhang, Jingbin; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-03-15

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and there is currently no effective therapy for HIBD. Carnosine plays a neuroprotective role in adult brain damage. We have previously demonstrated that carnosine pretreatment protects against HIBD in a neonatal rat model. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with carnosine would also have neuroprotective effects. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal days 7-9 (P7-9). Carnosine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250mg/kg at 0h, 24h, and 48h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced. The biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated at 72h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced, Brain learning and memory function performance were observed using the Morris water maze test on postnatal days 28-33 (P28-33). Treatment with carnosine post-HIBD significantly reduced the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandinF2alpha in brain tissue and decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the hippocampus CA1 region and cortex as well as the mitochondria caspase-3 protein expression. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the cognitive function of P28-33 rats, whose cognitive function decline was due to HIBD. These results demonstrate that carnosine treatment after HIBD can reduce the brain injury, improving brain function. Carnosine could be an attractive candidate for treating HIBD.

  11. Carnosine pretreatment protects against hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in the neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Song, Lili; Cheng, Xiuyong; Yang, Yi; Luan, Bin; Jia, Liting; Xu, Falin; Zhang, Zhan

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates and lacks an effective treatment thus far. Carnosine has been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role in the adult brain injuries. However, there is no information available concerning its neuroprotective role in the immature brains after hypoxia-ischemia insults. Therefore, we investigated whether carnosine could also confer neuroprotective effects in a neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia model. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal day 7 (P7). Carnosine (250 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 30 min prior to hypoxia-ischemia induction. Morphological brain injury and biochemical markers of apoptosis and oxidative stress were evaluated 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia induction. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris Water Maze test on P28-P33. We found that pretreatment with carnosine significantly reduced the infarct volume and the number of terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the hypoxia-ischemia brain. Carnosine also inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-inducing factor(AIF) and caspase-3, which was accompanied by an increase in superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and a decrease in the malondialdehyde(MDA)level in carnosine-treated rats. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats declined due to hypoxia-ischemia. These results demonstrate that carnosine can protect rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by antioxidation.

  12. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lan; Li, Qing-Huan; Tan, Zheng

    2004-11-12

    Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells. Cells continuously grown in 20 mM carnosine exhibited a slower telomere shortening rate and extended lifespan in population doublings. When kept in a long-term nonproliferating state, they accumulated much less damages in the telomeric DNA when cultured in the presence of carnosine. We suggest that the reduction in telomere shortening rate and damages in telomeric DNA made an important contribution to the life-extension effect of carnosine.

  13. Carnosine protects the brain of rats and Mongolian gerbils against ischemic injury: after-stroke-effect.

    PubMed

    Dobrota, Dusan; Fedorova, Tatiana; Stvolinsky, Sergey; Babusikova, Eva; Likavcanova, Katarina; Drgova, Anna; Strapkova, Adriana; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    Carnosine, a specific constituent of excitable tissues of vertebrates, exhibits a significant antioxidant protecting effect on the brain damaged by ischemic-reperfusion injury when it was administered to the animals before ischemic episode. In this study, the therapeutic effect of carnosine was estimated on animals when this drug was administered intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg body weight) after ischemic episode induced by experimental global brain ischemia. Treatment of the animals with carnosine after ischemic episode under long-term (7-14 days) reperfusion demonstrated its pronounced protective effect on neurological symptoms and animal mortality. Carnosine also prevented higher lipid peroxidation of brain membrane structures and increased a resistance of neuronal membranes to the in vitro induced oxidation. Measurements of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in brain homogenates showed its increase in the after brain stroke animals and decreased MDA level in the after brain stroke animals treated with carnosine. We concluded that carnosine compensates deficit in antioxidant defense system of brain damaged by ischemic injury. The data presented demonstrate that carnosine is effective in protecting the brain in the post-ischemic period.

  14. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Carnosine, An Endogenous Neuroprotective Agent for Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Serfozo, Kelsey; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Yong; Dorrance, Anne; Rumbeiha, Wilson; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Farooq, Muhammad U; Naravelta, Bharath; Bhatt, Archit; Majid, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose An urgent need exists to develop therapies for stroke which have high efficacy, long therapeutic time windows and acceptable toxicity. We undertook preclinical investigations of a novel therapeutic approach involving supplementation with carnosine, an endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide. Methods Efficacy and safety of carnosine treatment was evaluated in rat models of permanent or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mechanistic studies used primary neuronal/astrocytic cultures and ex vivo brain homogenates. Results Intravenous treatment with carnosine exhibited robust cerebroprotection in a dose-dependent manner, with long clinically-relevant therapeutic time windows of 6 h and 9 h in transient and permanent models, respectively. Histological outcomes and functional improvements including motor and sensory deficits were sustained at 14 d post-stroke onset. In safety and tolerability assessments, carnosine did not exhibit any evidence of adverse effects or toxicity. Moreover, histological evaluation of organs, complete blood count, coagulation tests and the serum chemistry did not reveal any abnormalities. In primary neuronal cell cultures and ex vivo brain homogenates, carnosine exhibited robust anti-excitotoxic, antioxidant, and mitochondria protecting activity. Conclusion In both permanent and transient ischemic models, carnosine treatment exhibited significant cerebroprotection against histological and functional damage, with wide therapeutic and clinically relevant time windows. Carnosine was well tolerated and exhibited no toxicity. Mechanistic data show that it influences multiple deleterious processes. Taken together, our data suggest that this endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide is a strong candidate for further development as a stroke treatment. PMID:23250994

  15. Carnosine is a quencher of 4-hydroxy-nonenal: through what mechanism of reaction?

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Carini, Marina; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Bradamante, Silvia; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2002-11-15

    The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of action through which carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) acts as a quencher of cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, using 4-hydroxy-trans-2,3-nonenal (HNE) as a model aldehyde. In phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4), carnosine was 10 times more active as an HNE quencher than L-histidine and N-acetyl-carnosine while beta-alanine was totally inactive; this indicates that the two constitutive amino acids act synergistically when incorporated as a dipeptide and that the beta-alanyl residue catalyzes the addition reaction of the histidine moiety to HNE. Two reaction products of carnosine were identified, in a pH-dependent equilibrium: (a) the Michael adduct, stabilized as a 5-member cyclic hemi-acetal and (b) an imine macrocyclic derivative. The adduction chemistry of carnosine to HNE thus appears to start with the formation of a reversible alpha,beta-unsaturated imine, followed by ring closure through an intra-molecular Michael addition. The biological role of carnosine as a quencher of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was verified by detecting carnosine-HNE reaction adducts in oxidized rat skeletal muscle homogenate.

  16. Carnosine metabolism in diabetes is altered by reactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Lanthaler, Barbara; Amberger, Albert; Fleming, Thomas; Forsberg, Elisabete; Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H; Yue, Wyatt W; Hoffmann, Georg F; Nawroth, Peter; Zschocke, Johannes; Schmitt, Claus P

    2015-11-01

    Carnosinase 1 (CN1) contributes to diabetic nephropathy by cleaving histidine-dipeptides which scavenge reactive oxygen and carbonyl species and increase nitric oxide (NO) production. In diabetic mice renal CN1 activity is increased, the regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We therefore analysed the in vitro and in vivo regulation of CN1 activity using recombinant and human CN1, and the db/db mouse model of diabetes. Glucose, leptin and insulin did not modify recombinant and human CN1 activity in vitro, glucose did not alter renal CN1 activity of WT or db/db mice ex vivo. Reactive metabolite methylglyoxal and Fenton reagent carbonylated recombinant CN1 and doubled CN1 efficiency. NO S-nitrosylated CN1 and decreased CN1 efficiency for carnosine by 70 % (p < 0.01), but not for anserine. Both CN1 cysteine residues were nitrosylated, the cysteine at position 102 but not at position 229 regulated CN1 activities. In db/db mice, renal CN1 mRNA and protein levels were similar as in non-diabetic controls, CN1 efficiency 1.9 and 1.6 fold higher for carnosine and anserine. Renal carbonyl stress was strongly increased and NO production halved, CN1 highly carbonylated and less S-nitrosylated compared to WT mice. GSH and NO2/3 concentrations were reduced and inversely related with carnosine degradation rate (r = -0.82/-0.85). Thus, reactive metabolites of diabetes upregulate CN1 activity by post-translational modifications, and thus decrease the availability of reactive metabolite-scavenging histidine dipeptides in the kidney in a positive feedback loop. Interference with this vicious circle may represent a new therapeutic target for mitigation of DN.

  17. Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions.

    PubMed

    Mozdzan, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Rysz, Jacek; Nowak, Dariusz

    2005-05-01

    Carnosine has antioxidant properties and is efficient in the treatment of chemically-induced inflammatory lesions in animals. However, some studies question its biological significance as antioxidant and show lack of protection and even pro-oxidant effect of carnosine in systems containing nickel and iron ions. The ability of carnosine to: (1) reduce Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions; (2) protect deoxyribose from oxidation by Fe(2+)-, Fe(3+)-, and Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2)-EDTA systems; (3) protect DNA from damage caused by Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems; (4) inhibit HClO- and H(2)O(2)-peroxidase-induced luminol dependent chemiluminescence was tested in vitro. At concentration 10 mM carnosine reduced 16.6+/-0.5 nmoles of Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions during 20 min. incubation and added to plasma significantly increased its ferric reducing ability. Inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation by 10 mM carnosine reached 56+/-5, 40+/-11 and 30+/-11% for systems containing Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively. The damage to DNA was decreased by 84+/-9 and 61+/-14% when Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems were applied. Combination of 10 mM histidine with alanine or histidine alone (but not alanine) enhanced 1.3 and 2.3 times (P<0.05) the DNA damage induced by Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate. These amino acids added to 10 mM carnosine decreased 3.1-fold (P<0.05) its protective effect on DNA. Carnosine at 10 and 20 mM decreased by more than 90% light emission from both chemiluminescent systems. It is concluded that carnosine has significant antioxidant activity especially in the presence of transition metal ions. However, hydrolysis of carnosine with subsequent histidine release may be responsible for some pro-oxidant effects.

  18. Effect of carnosine on the immunosuppressive effect of histamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpan, Yu. V.

    1985-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of carnosine (beta-imidazole-lactate) to affect histamine-induced immunosuppression of proliferative activity of various lymphocyte subpopulations and the realization of this effect through surface histamine receptors of the cells. The experiments were carried out on mice; lymphocytes were incubated with tritium-labeled thymidine for 4 h, after which their radioactivity was determined on a scintillation counter. The results show that histamine has an inhibitory action on antigen-induced proliferation of T suppressor lymphocytes through H-2 histamine receptors, for this effect was considerably inhibited by the H-2 histamine blockers metiamide, but not by the H-1 histamine blocker mepyramine.

  19. [Protective properties of L-carnosine studied in vitro on a hemorrhagic stroke model].

    PubMed

    Khama-Murad, A Kh

    2009-01-01

    The protective properties of L-carnosine have been studied in vitro on a model of hemorrhagic stroke developed on survival olfactory cortex slices of hypertensive rats after long-term exposure to autoblood. The preliminary application of L-carnosine in a concentration of 5 mg/ml regenerates an activity of glutamatergic and GABAergic components of focal potentials inhibited by autoblood and prevents tissue swelling. L-carnosine protects the bioelectrical activity of nerve cells after their long-term exposure to autoblood and produces an antiedematic effect.

  20. Fabrication and Intracellular Delivery of Doxorubicin/Carbonate Apatite Nanocomposites: Effect on Growth Retardation of Established Colon Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque; Wu, Xin; Hirose, Hajime; Haque, Amranul; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In continuing search for effective treatments of cancer, the emerging model aims at efficient intracellular delivery of therapeutics into tumor cells in order to increase the drug concentration. However, the implementation of this strategy suffers from inefficient cellular uptake and drug resistance. Therefore, pH-sensitive nanosystems have recently been developed to target slightly acidic extracellular pH environment of solid tumors. The pH targeting approach is regarded as a more general strategy than conventional specific tumor cell surface targeting approaches, because the acidic tumor microclimate is most common in solid tumors. When nanosystems are combined with triggered release mechanisms in endosomal or lysosomal acidic pH along with endosomolytic capability, the nanocarriers demonstrated to overcome multidrug resistance of various tumors. Here, novel pH sensitive carbonate apatite has been fabricated to efficiently deliver anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells, by virtue of its pH sensitivity being quite unstable under an acidic condition in endosomes and the desirable size of the resulting apatite-DOX for efficient cellular uptake as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Florescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated significant uptake of drug (92%) when complexed with apatite nanoparticles. In vitro chemosensitivity assay revealed that apatite-DOX nanoparticles executed high cytotoxicity in several human cancer cell lines compared to free drugs and consequently apatite-DOX-facilitated enhanced tumor inhibitory effect was observed in colorectal tumor model within BALB/cA nude mice, thereby shedding light on their potential applications in cancer therapy. PMID:23613726

  1. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  2. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis.

  3. Carnosine protects neurons against oxidative stress and modulates the time profile of MAPK cascade signaling.

    PubMed

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Karpova, Larisa; Lakonsteva, Ekaterina; Krasavin, Mikhail; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Carnosine is a known protector of neuronal cells against oxidative injury which prevents both apoptotic and necrotic cellular death. It was shown earlier that carnosine serves as an intracellular buffer of free radicals. Using the model of ligand-dependent oxidative stress in neurons, we have shown that homocysteine (HC) initiates long-term activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase, isoforms 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) which corresponds to exitotoxic effect resulting in cellular death. L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) protects neurons from both excitotoxic effect of homocysteine and cellular death. Its analogs, β-alanyl-D-histidine (D-carnosine) and L-histidyl-β-alanine, restricted accumulation of free radicals and delayed activation of ERK1/2 and JNK in neuronal cells, but did not promote neuronal viability.

  4. Effects of sprint training combined with vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine content and buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; De Naeyer, Hélène; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Stegen, Sanne; Beeckman, Sam; Achten, Eric; Vanhee, Lander; Volkaert, Anneke; Petrovic, Mirko; Taes, Youri; Derave, Wim

    2011-10-01

    Carnosine is an abundant dipeptide in human skeletal muscle with proton buffering capacity. There is controversy as to whether training can increase muscle carnosine and thereby provide a mechanism for increased buffering capacity. This study investigated the effects of 5 weeks sprint training combined with a vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine, carnosine synthase mRNA expression and muscle buffering capacity. Twenty omnivorous subjects participated in a 5 week sprint training intervention (2-3 times per week). They were randomized into a vegetarian and mixed diet group. Measurements (before and after the intervention period) included carnosine content in soleus, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), true-cut biopsy of the gastrocnemius lateralis to determine in vitro non-bicarbonate muscle buffering capacity, carnosine content (HPLC method) and carnosine synthase (CARNS) mRNA expression and 6 × 6 s repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. There was a significant diet × training interaction in soleus carnosine content, which was non-significantly increased (+11%) with mixed diet and non-significantly decreased (-9%) with vegetarian diet. Carnosine content in other muscles and gastrocnemius buffer capacity were not influenced by training. CARNS mRNA expression was independent of training, but decreased significantly in the vegetarian group. The performance during the RSA test improved by training, without difference between groups. We found a positive correlation (r = 0.517; p = 0.002) between an invasive and non-invasive method for muscle carnosine quantification. In conclusion, this study shows that 5 weeks sprint training has no effect on the muscle carnosine content and carnosine synthase mRNA.

  5. Impairment of electron transfer chain induced by acute carnosine administration in skeletal muscle of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I-III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I-III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  6. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  7. Pyruvate attenuates the anti-neoplastic effect of carnosine independently from oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Here we analyzed whether the anti-neoplastic effect of carnosine, which inhibits glycolytic ATP production, can be antagonized by ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation fueled by pyruvate. Therefore, glioblastoma cells were cultivated in medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or pyruvate and in the presence or absence of carnosine. CPI-613 was employed to inhibit the entry of pyruvate into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and 2,4-dinitrophenol to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation. Energy metabolism and viability were assessed by cell based assays and histochemistry. ATP in cell lysates and dehydrogenase activity in living cells revealed a strong reduction of viability under the influence of carnosine when cells received glucose or galactose but not in the presence of pyruvate. CPI-613 and 2,4-dinitrophenol reduced viability of cells cultivated in pyruvate, but no effect was seen in the presence of glucose. No effect of carnosine on viability was observed in the presence of glucose and pyruvate even in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol or CPI-613. In conclusion, glioblastoma cells produce ATP from pyruvate via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of a glycolytic substrate. In addition, pyruvate attenuates the anti-neoplastic effect of carnosine, even when ATP production via tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is blocked. We also observed an inhibitory effect of carnosine on the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a stimulating effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on glycolytic ATP production. PMID:27811375

  8. Protective effects of carnosine on white matter damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Bo, Shu-hong; Lu, Xiao-tong; Xu, A-jing; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide that scavenges free radicals, inhibits inflammation in the central nervous system, and protects against ischemic and hypoxic brain damage through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic actions. Therefore, we hypothesized that carnosine would also protect against white matter damage caused by subcortical ischemic injury. White matter damage was induced by right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice. The animals were treated with 200, 500 or 750 mg/kg carnosine by intraperitoneal injection 30 minutes before injury and every other day after injury. Then, 37 days later, Klüver-Barrera staining, toluidine blue staining and immunofluorescence staining were performed. Carnosine (200, 500 mg/kg) substantially reduced damage to the white matter in the corpus callosum, internal capsule and optic tract, and it rescued expression of myelin basic protein, and alleviated the loss of oligodendrocytes. However, carnosine at the higher dose of 750 mg/kg did not have the same effects as the 200 and 500 mg/kg doses. These findings show that carnosine, at a particular dose range, protects against white matter damage caused by chronic cerebral ischemia in mice, likely by reducing oligodendroglial cell loss. PMID:27857746

  9. Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ansurudeen, Ishrath; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Grünler, Jacob; Peters, Verena; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Brismar, Kerstin; Forsberg, Elisabete Alcantara

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disorder with severe late complications. Normal wound healing involves a series of complex and well-orchestrated molecular events dictated by multiple factors. In diabetes, wound healing is grossly impaired due to defective, and dysregulated cellular and molecular events at all phases of wound healing resulting in chronic wounds that fail to heal. Carnosine, a dipeptide of alanine and histidine and an endogenous antioxidant is documented to accelerate healing of wounds and ulcers. However, not much is known about its role in wound healing in diabetes. Therefore, we studied the effect of carnosine in wound healing in db/db mice, a mice model of Type 2 DM. Six millimeter circular wounds were made in db/db mice and analyzed for wound healing every other day. Carnosine (100 mg/kg) was injected (I.P.) every day and also applied locally. Treatment with carnosine enhanced wound healing significantly, and wound tissue analysis showed increased expression of growth factors and cytokines genes involved in wound healing. In vitro studies with human dermal fibroblasts and microvascular-endothelial cells showed that carnosine increases cell viability in presence of high glucose. These effects, in addition to its known role as an antioxidant and a precursor for histamine synthesis, provide evidence for a possible therapeutic use of carnosine in diabetic wound healing.

  10. Carnosine modulates glutamine synthetase expression in senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojie; Wang, Bingyu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Yuyan; Cao, Pei; Shen, Yao; Lyu, Jianxin

    2017-01-20

    Carnosine is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. However, few reports concern its function on senescent astrocytes during cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on cell damage and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in D-galactose-induced senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R). The results showed that OGD/R caused massive cell damage and a significant decrease in GS expression both in the young and senescent astrocytes. The GS expression level was partly recovered whereas it continued to decline in the recovery stage in the young and senescent astrocytes, respectively. Decreased GS expression significantly inhibited glutamate uptake and glutamine production and release. Carnosine prevented the cell damage, rescued the expression of GS and reversed the glutamate uptake activity and glutamine production in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R. The modulatory effect of carnosine on GS expression was partly antagonized by pyrilamine, a selective histamine H1 receptors antagonist, but not bestatin. Bisindolylmaleimide II, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PKC could also reverse the action of carnosine on GS expression. Thus, histamine H1 receptors and PKC pathway may be involved in the modulatory action of carnosine in GS expression in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R.

  11. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

  12. Protective effect of carnosine after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion possibly through suppressing astrocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Jihui; Bo, Shuhong; Lu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) induced by chronic hypoperfusion is a common cause of vascular dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of carnosine on white matter lesion after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through suppressing astrocyte activation. Methods: Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to permanent occlusion of the right unilateral common carotid arteries (rUCCAO) and treated with carnosine or histidine. Open field test, freezing test, Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses and western blot were performed after rUCCAO. Results: We found that carnosine ameliorated white matter lesion and cognitive impairment after rUCCAO. Carnosine suppressed the activation of astrocyte in both wide type mice and histidine decarboxylase knockout mice. However, administration of histidine did not show the same effect. We found that there were no differences between rUCCAO group and sham group for the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Furthermore, carnosine significantly attenuated the increase of inflammatory cytokine interferon gama. Conclusion: These data suggest carnosine induced neuroprotection during SIVD in mice is not dependent on the histaminergic pathway or the regulation of the expression of GLT-1 and GLAST, but may be due to a suppression of astrocyte activation and inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:26885268

  13. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  14. Phytosome-hyaluronic acid systems for ocular delivery of L-carnosine

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Longman, Michael R; Alany, Raid G; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on L-carnosine phytosomes as an alternative for the prodrug N-acetyl-L-carnosine as a novel delivery system to the lens. L-carnosine was loaded into lipid-based phytosomes and hyaluronic acid (HA)-dispersed phytosomes. L-carnosine-phospholipid complexes (PC) of different molar ratios, 1:1 and 1:2, were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. These complexes were characterized with thermal and spectral analyses. PC were dispersed in either phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 or HA (0.1% w/v) in phosphate buffered saline to form phytosomes PC1:1, PC1:2, and PC1:2 HA, respectively. These phytosomal formulations were studied for size, zeta potential, morphology, contact angle, spreading coefficient, viscosity, ex vivo transcorneal permeation, and cytotoxicity using primary human corneal cells. L-carnosine-phospholipid formed a complex at a 1:2 molar ratio and phytosomes were in the size range of 380–450 nm, polydispersity index of 0.12–0.2. The viscosity of PC1:2 HA increased by 2.4 to 5-fold compared with HA solution and PC 1:2, respectively; significantly lower surface tension, contact angle, and greater spreading ability for phytosomes were also recorded. Ex vivo transcorneal permeation parameters showed significantly controlled corneal permeation of L-carnosine with the novel carrier systems without any significant impact on primary human corneal cell viability. Ex vivo porcine lenses incubated in high sugar media without and with L-carnosine showed concentration-dependent marked inhibition of lens brunescence indicative of the potential for delaying changes that underlie cataractogenesis that may be linked to diabetic processes. PMID:27366062

  15. Neurotropic effect of exogenous L-carnosine in cultured slices of the olfactory cortex from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Khama-Murad, A X; Pavlinova, L I; Mokrushin, A A

    2008-07-01

    Incubation of cultured slices of the olfactory cortex from rat brain with L-carnosine in concentrations of 50, 250, and 500 M induced activation of glutamatergic and GABAB-ergic mechanisms and facilitated long-term posttetanic potentiation. The effect of L-carnosine is mediated by its effect on AMPA- and NMDA-related glutamatergic receptors and on inhibitory GABAB receptors.

  16. Carnosine Attenuates the Development of both Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Thomas; Schilperoort, Maaike; Zhang, Shiqi; Braun, Jana D.; Qiu, Jiedong; Rodriguez, Angelica; Pastene, Diego O.; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Köppel, Hannes; Baelde, Hans; de Heer, Emile; Anna Altomare, Alessandra; Regazzoni, Luca; Denisi, Alessandra; Aldini, Giancarlo; van den Born, Jacob; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.

    2017-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in the carnosinase-1 gene (CNDP1) determine the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Carnosine, the substrate of the enzyme encoded by this gene, is considered renoprotective and could possibly be used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we examined the effect of carnosine treatment in vivo in BTBR (Black and Tan, BRachyuric) ob/ob mice, a type 2 diabetes model which develops a phenotype that closely resembles advanced human DN. Treatment of BTBR ob/ob mice with 4 mM carnosine for 18 weeks reduced plasma glucose and HbA1c, concomitant with elevated insulin and C-peptide levels. Also, albuminuria and kidney weights were reduced in carnosine-treated mice, which showed less glomerular hypertrophy due to a decrease in the surface area of Bowman’s capsule and space. Carnosine treatment restored the glomerular ultrastructure without affecting podocyte number, resulted in a modified molecular composition of the expanded mesangial matrix and led to the formation of carnosine-acrolein adducts. Our results demonstrate that treatment with carnosine improves glucose metabolism, albuminuria and pathology in BTBR ob/ob mice. Hence, carnosine could be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat patients with DN and/or be used to prevent DN in patients with diabetes. PMID:28281693

  17. Carnosine's Effect on Amyloid Fibril Formation and Induced Cytotoxicity of Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Josephine W.; Liu, Kuan-Nan; How, Su-Chun; Chen, Wei-An; Lai, Chia-Min; Liu, Hwai-Shen; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Wang, Steven S. -S.

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine, a common dipeptide in mammals, has previously been shown to dissemble alpha-crystallin amyloid fibrils. To date, the dipeptide's anti-fibrillogensis effect has not been thoroughly characterized in other proteins. For a more complete understanding of carnosine's mechanism of action in amyloid fibril inhibition, we have investigated the effect of the dipeptide on lysozyme fibril formation and induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our study demonstrates a positive correlation between the concentration and inhibitory effect of carnosine against lysozyme fibril formation. Molecular docking results show carnosine's mechanism of fibrillogenesis inhibition may be initiated by binding with the aggregation-prone region of the protein. The dipeptide attenuates the amyloid fibril-induced cytotoxicity of human neuronal cells by reducing both apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths. Our study provides solid support for carnosine's amyloid fibril inhibitory property and its effect against fibril-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The additional insights gained herein may pave way to the discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effects against amyloid fibril formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24349167

  18. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  19. Carbon nanotube as a carrier in drug delivery system for carnosine dipeptide: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ketabi, Sepideh; Rahmani, Leila

    2017-04-01

    Biological application of carbon nanotube in drug delivery is our main concern in this investigation. For this purpose interaction of carnosine and carbon nanotube was studied in both gas phase and separately in aqueous media. Three possible interactions of carnosine dipeptide with (5,5) carbon nanotube in physiological media were considered. At first step each species were modeled using quantum mechanical calculations, in the next step, their properties in aqueous solution were studied by applying Monte Carlo simulations. The results of density functional calculations in gas phase showed that interaction of zwitterion of carnosine with carbon nanotube via NH3(+) had relatively higher interaction energy than the other complexes. Computation of solvation free energies in water showed functionalization with carnosine enhanced the solubility of carbon nanotube significantly that improve the medicinal applications of these materials. Calculation of complexation free energies indicated that zwitterion of carnosine with carbon nanotube via NH3(+) produced the most stable complex in aqueous solution. This tendency could be observed in gas and liquid phase similarly.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  1. Modulation of mitochondrial function and autophagy mediates carnosine neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong-A; Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Yu, Seong Woon; Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the rapidly increasing global burden of ischemic stroke, no therapeutic options for neuroprotection against stroke currently exist. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a key role in ischemic neuronal death and treatments that target autophagy may represent a novel strategy in neuroprotection. We investigated whether autophagy is regulated by carnosine, an endogenous pleiotropic dipeptide which has robust neuroprotective activity against ischemic brain damage. Methods We examined the effect of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic processes in rat focal ischemia and in neuronal cultures. Results Autophagic pathways such as reduction of phosphorylated mTOR/p70S6K and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II were enhanced in the ischemic brain. However, treatment with carnosine significantly attenuated autophagic signaling in the ischemic brain, with improvement of brain mitochondrial function and mitophagy signaling. The protective effect of carnosine against autophagy was also confirmed in primary cortical neurons. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is at least partially mediated by mitochondrial protection, and attenuation of deleterious autophagic processes. Our findings shed new light on the mechanistic pathways that this exciting neuroprotective agent influences. PMID:24938837

  2. Protective effect of carnosine during nitrosative stress in astroglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Colombrita, C; Guagliano, E; Sapienza, M; Ravagna, A; Cardile, V; Scapagnini, G; Santoro, A M; Mangiameli, A; Butterfield, D A; Giuffrida Stella, A M; Rizzarelli, E

    2005-01-01

    Formation of nitric oxide by astrocytes has been suggested to contribute, via impairment of mitochondrial function, to the neurodegenerative process. Mitochondria under oxidative stress are thought to play a key role in various neurodegenerative disorders; therefore protection by antioxidants against oxidative stress to mitochondria may prove to be beneficial in delaying the onset or progression of these diseases. Carnosine has been recently proposed to act as antioxidant in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate its neuroprotective effect in astrocytes exposed to LPS- and INFgamma-induced nitrosative stress. Carnosine protected against nitric oxide-induced impairment of mitochondrial function. This effect was associated with decreased formation of oxidatively modified proteins and with decreased up-regulation oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as Hsp32, Hsp70 and mt-SOD. Our results sustain the possibility that carnosine might have anti-ageing effects to brain cells under pathophysiological conditions leading to degenerative damage, such as aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  4. Electrophysiological evidence of biphasic action of carnosine on long-term potentiation in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Suer, Cem; Dolu, Nazan; Artis, A Seda; Sahin, Leyla; Aydogan, Sami

    2011-02-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide synthesized by the carnosine synthetase from β-alanine and l-histidine. The well-known effects of carnosine may be related with mechanisms producing long-term potentiation which is one of the electrophysiological signs of memory. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effect of four different doses of carnosine on long-term potentiation in urethane-anesthetized rat. A bipolar stimulating electrode was placed in the medial perforant path and a double-barrel glass micropipette was placed in the dentate gyrus as the recording electrode. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (in the control group) or carnosine (0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/μL) was infused into the dentate gyrus. Our results showed that the I/O curve of the excitatory postsynaptic potential slope or population spike amplitude was not significantly shifted by carnosine. We found that population spike amplitude increased to 244% and 287% at the dose of 100μg/μL in the post-tetanic and induction phases, respectively, but decreased to 163% and 186% at the dose of 0.1μg/μL and to 145% and 162% at the dose of 1μg/μL when compared with 203% and 232% of the control values. However, there were no significant differences for the slope of excitatory postsynaptic potential. Carnosine had no effect on the EPSP slope or PS amplitude recorded from the dentate gyrus in response to test stimuli when high-frequency stimulation was not delivered. In the present study, we speculated that the effects of carnosine in lower or higher doses could be explained by its effect on different processes, such as soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibition or the conversion of carnosine into histamine.

  5. Identification and characterization of a mouse dipeptidase that hydrolyzes L-carnosine.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hiroto; Okumura, Nobuaki; Hashida-Okumura, Akiko; Nagai, Katsuya

    2005-02-01

    L-Carnosine is a bioactive dipeptide present in mammalian tissues including the central nervous system. We have recently shown that L-carnosine is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the autonomic nervous system, but the mechanisms for its biosynthesis and degradation have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we report the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of a mammalian protein that has a 17% overall amino acid sequence homology with a Lactobacilus carnosinase, PepV. A recombinant protein expressed in E. coli has the enzymatic ability to digest L-carnosine and various other dipeptides, and this activity is inhibited by bestatin. It requires Mn2+ for enzymatic activity and its effect is reversible. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that a few neuronal populations express this protein at very high levels. It is highly expressed in the parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus and the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb. In addition, neuronal processes, but not cell bodies, are stained in the striatum. In all these areas, the protein did not colocalize with the glial fibrilary acidic protein. These results suggest that a peptidase that digests L-carnosine is enriched in several specific neuronal populations in the central nervous system.

  6. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Hill, C A; Harris, R C; Kim, H J; Harris, B D; Sale, C; Boobis, L H; Kim, C K; Wise, J A

    2007-02-01

    Muscle carnosine synthesis is limited by the availability of beta-alanine. Thirteen male subjects were supplemented with beta-alanine (CarnoSyn) for 4 wks, 8 of these for 10 wks. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis was obtained from 6 of the 8 at 0, 4 and 10 wks. Subjects undertook a cycle capacity test to determine total work done (TWD) at 110% (CCT(110%)) of their maximum power (Wmax). Twelve matched subjects received a placebo. Eleven of these completed the CCT(110%) at 0 and 4 wks, and 8, 10 wks. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 5 of the 8 and one additional subject. Muscle carnosine was significantly increased by +58.8% and +80.1% after 4 and 10 wks beta-alanine supplementation. Carnosine, initially 1.71 times higher in type IIa fibres, increased equally in both type I and IIa fibres. No increase was seen in control subjects. Taurine was unchanged by 10 wks of supplementation. 4 wks beta-alanine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TWD (+13.0%); with a further +3.2% increase at 10 wks. TWD was unchanged at 4 and 10 wks in the control subjects. The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine.

  7. Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8).

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Jones, Glenys; Hespel, Peter; Harris, Roger C

    2008-06-01

    The histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD) carnosine and anserine are found in high concentrations in mammalian skeletal muscle. Given its versatile biologic properties, such as antioxidative, antiglycation, and pH buffering capacity, carnosine has been implicated as a protective factor in the aging process. The present study aimed to systematically explore age-related changes in skeletal muscles HCD content in a murine model of accelerated aging. Additionally, we investigated the effect of lifelong creatine supplementation on muscle HCD content and contractile fatiguability. Male senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) were fed control or creatine-supplemented (2% of food intake) diet from the age of 10 to 60 weeks. At week 10, 25, and 60, tibialis anterior muscles were dissected and analysed for HCD and taurine content by HPLC. Soleus and EDL muscles were tested for in vitro contractile fatigue and recovery. From 10 to 60 weeks of age, muscular carnosine (-45%), taurine (-24%), and total creatine (-42%) concentrations gradually and significantly decreased. At 25 but not at 60 weeks, oral creatine supplementation significantly increased carnosine (+88%) and anserine (+40%) content compared to age-matched control-fed animals. Taurine and total creatine content were not affected by creatine supplementation at any age. Creatine-treated mice showed attenuated muscle fatigue (soleus) and enhanced force recovery (m. extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) compared to controls at 25 weeks, but not at 60 weeks. From the present study, we can conclude that skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a significant decline in HCD content at old age. Oral creatine supplementation is able to transiently but potently increase muscle carnosine and anserine content, which coincides with improved resistance to contractile fatigue.

  8. Collision-induced dissociation products of the protonated dipeptide carnosine: structural elucidation, fragmentation pathways and potential energy surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Ritacco, Ida; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-05-21

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on protonated carnosine, [carnosine + H](+), with several collision energies were shown to yield eleven different fragment ions with the generation of product ions [carnosine-H2O + H](+) and [carnosine-NH3 + H](+) being the lowest energy processes. Energy-resolved CID showed that at slightly higher collision energies the ions [histidine + H](+) and [histidine-H2O-CO + H](+) are formed. At even higher energies four other product ions were observed, however, attained relatively lower abundances. Quantum chemistry calculations, carried out at different levels of theory, were employed to probe fragmentation mechanisms that account for all the experimental data. All the adopted computational protocols give similar energetic trends, and the range of the calculated free energy barrier values for the generation of all the observed product ions is in agreement with the fragmentation mechanisms offered here.

  9. Control of the structural stability of α-crystallin under thermal and chemical stress: the role of carnosine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Valentina; Attanasio, Francesco; Micali, Norberto

    2014-11-26

    The structural properties of α-crystallin, the major protein of the eye lens of mammals, in aqueous solution are investigated by means of small angle X-ray and dynamic light scattering. The research interest is devoted in particular to the effect of carnosine in protecting the protein under stress conditions, like temperature increase and presence of denaturant (guanidinium-HCl). The results suggest that carnosine interacts, through mechanisms involving hydrophobic interactions, with α-crystallin and avoids the structural changes in the quaternary structure induced by thermal and chemical stress. It is also shown that, if mediated by carnosine, the self-aggregation of α-crystallin induced by the denaturant at higher temperature can be controlled and even partially reversed. Therefore, carnosine is effective in preserving the structural integrity of the protein, suggesting the possibility of new strategies of intervention for preventing or treating pathologies related to protein aggregation, like cataracts.

  10. Anti-Stress Effects of Carnosine on Restraint-Evoked Immunocompromise in Mice through Spleen Lymphocyte Number Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Tsoi, Bun; Li, Xiao-Di; Li, Wei-Xi; Abe, Keiichi; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been characterized as a putative neurotransmitter and serves as a reservoir for brain histamine, which could act on histaminergic neurons system to relieve stress-induced damages. However, understanding of the role of carnosine in stress-evoked immunocompromise is limited. In this study, results showed that when mice were subjected to restraint stress, spleen index and the number of spleen lymphocytes including Natural Killer (NK) cells were obviously decreased. Results also demonstrated that restraint stress decreased the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen (LU10/spleen) while the activity of a single NK cell (LU10/106 cells) was not changed. However, oral administration of carnosine (150 and 300 mg/kg) increased spleen index and number of spleen lymphocytes (including NK cells), and elevated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen in restraint-stressed mice. These results indicated that carnosine ameliorated stress-evoked immunocompromise through spleen lymphocyte number maintenance. Carnosine was further found to reduce stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone level. On the other hand, results showed that carnosine and RU486 (a glucocorticoids receptor antagonist) treatment prevented the reduction in mitochondrion membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm, increased Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio, as well as decreased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in spleen lymphocytes of stressed mice. The results above suggested that the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number by carnosine was related with the inhibition of lymphocytes apoptosis caused by glucocorticoids overflow. The stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation by carnosine also contributed to the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number in stressed mice. In view of the elevated histamine level, the anti-stress effects of

  11. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of carnosine derivatives as selective and efficient sequestering agents of cytotoxic reactive carbonyl species.

    PubMed

    Vistoli, Giulio; Orioli, Marica; Pedretti, Alessandro; Regazzoni, Luca; Canevotti, Renato; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2009-06-01

    Carnosine aryl derivatives as sequestering agents of RCS: Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are cytotoxic mediators representing a novel drug target, as they are presumed to play a pathogenic role in several diseases. Carnosine is a selective RCS-sequestering agent, but is rapidly hydrolyzed by serum carnosinase. Herein we describe the in silico design, synthesis, and evaluation of a set of carnosine aryl derivatives.Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are important cytotoxic mediators generated by lipid oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and represent a novel drug target, as they are presumed to play a pathogenic role in several diseases. L-Carnosine (L-CAR, beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a specific detoxifying agent of RCS, but is rapidly hydrolyzed in human serum by carnosinase, a specific dipeptidase. Herein we describe the in silico design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of carnosine derivatives that are resistant to carnosinase and that have increased quenching efficacy. Stability against carnosinase-mediated turnover was achieved by isomerization of the histidine residue, leading to D-carnosine (D-CAR, beta-alanyl-D-histidine), which maintains the same quenching activity of L-carnosine. A molecular modeling approach was then used to design derivatives characterized by an increased quenching efficacy. The most promising candidates were synthesized, and their stability and quenching activity were evaluated. This study describes a set of aryl derivatives that are characterized by high stability in human plasma and a quenching activity toward 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), chosen as a model of RCS, up to threefold greater than D-carnosine.

  12. Systematic review and stratified meta-analysis of the efficacy of carnosine in animal models of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Charles K; Laud, Peter J; Bahor, Zsanett; Majid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a naturally occurring pleotropic dipeptide which influences multiple deleterious mechanisms that are activated during stroke. Numerous published studies have reported that carnosine has robust efficacy in ischemic stroke models. To further evaluate these data, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We included publications describing in vivo models of ischemic stroke where the neuroprotective efficacy of carnosine was being evaluated through the reporting of infarct volume and/or neurological score as outcomes. Overall efficacy was evaluated using weighted mean difference random effects meta-analysis. We also evaluated for study quality and publication bias. We identified eight publications that met our inclusion criteria describing a total of 29 comparisons and 454 animals. Overall methodological quality of studies was moderate (median = 4/9). Carnosine reduced infarct volume by 29.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 24.0% to 34.9%; 29 comparisons). A clear dose-response effect was observed, and efficacy was reduced when carnosine was administered more than 6 h after ischemia. Our findings suggest that carnosine administered before or after the onset of ischemia exhibits robust efficacy in experimental ischemic stroke. However, the methodological quality of some of the studies was low and testing occurred only in healthy young male animals. PMID:27401803

  13. Energy metabolism, proteotoxic stress and age-related dysfunction - protection by carnosine.

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2011-08-01

    This review will discuss the relationship between energy metabolism, protein dysfunction and the causation and modulation of age-related proteotoxicity and disease. It is proposed that excessive glycolysis, rather than aerobic (mitochondrial) activity, could be causal to proteotoxic stress and age-related pathology, due to the generation of endogenous glycating metabolites: the deleterious role of methylglyoxal (MG) is emphasized. It is suggested that TOR inhibition, exercise, fasting and increased mitochondrial activity suppress formation of MG (and other deleterious low molecular weight carbonyl compounds) which could control onset and progression of proteostatic dysfunction. Possible mechanisms by which the endogenous dipeptide, carnosine, which, by way of its putative aldehyde-scavenging activity, may control age-related proteotoxicity, cellular dysfunction and pathology, including cancer, are also considered. Whether carnosine could be regarded as a rapamycin mimic is briefly discussed.

  14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Blood Meal and Additional Magnesium on Carnosine and Anserine Concentrations of Pig Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of blood meal as a source of L-histidine, and the addition of magnesium (Mg) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase for the carnosine and anserine concentrations of pig muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD and vastus intermedius, VI). A total of twenty-four pigs with an average body weight of 60.2±4.2 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (eight replicates), during 56 d of the feeding trial. Dietary treatments included: (1) Basal: basal diet; (2) BM: 95% basal diet + 5% blood meal; and (3) BM+Mg: 94.8% basal diet + 5% blood meal + 0.2% MgO (60% Mg). Results indicated that drip loss in the LD was less (p<0.05) for meat with BM+Mg treatment than that with Basal treatment, but the values for BM treatment did not differ from those of the other two treatment groups. The concentrations of carnosine in the LD were increased by 10.0% in both BM and BM+Mg treatment groups over the Basal treatment group (significance not verified). The concentrations of carnosine and anserine in the VI were not affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of additional Mg in diets had no effect on carnosine and anserine concentrations in the LD and VI. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of blood meal could be a potential method of fortifying the pork with carnosine. Inclusion of additional Mg in the diets containing blood meal had no benefit on carnosine and anserine depositions in pig muscles. PMID:26760946

  15. Bioaccessibility of the Bioactive Peptide Carnosine during in Vitro Digestion of Cured Beef Meat.

    PubMed

    Marcolini, Elena; Babini, Elena; Bordoni, Alessandra; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Laghi, Luca; Maczó, Anita; Picone, Gianfranco; Szerdahelyi, Emoke; Valli, Veronica; Capozzi, Francesco

    2015-05-27

    A bioactive compound is a food component that may have an impact on health. Its bioaccessibility, defined as the fraction released from the food matrix into the gastrointestinal tract during digestion, depends on compound stability, interactions with other food components, and supramolecular organization of food. In this study, the effect of pH on the bioaccessibility of the bioactive dipeptide carnosine was evaluated in two commercial samples of the Italian cured beef meat bresaola at two key points of digestion: before the gastric and after the duodenal phases. The digestion process was simulated using an in vitro static system, whereas capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for quantitative analysis. The gap between the total carnosine content, measured by CZE, and its free diffusible fraction observable by NMR spectroscopy, was 11 and 19% for two independent bresaola products, where such percentages represent the fraction of carnosine not accessible for intestinal absorption because it was adsorbed to the food matrix dispersed in the digestion fluid.

  16. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise after ingestion of carnosine and anserine.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazushige; Maemura, Hirohiko; Takamatsu, Kaoru; Ishii, Naokata

    2011-02-01

    Intramuscular carnosine buffers protons (H+) in skeletal muscle. We examined the effects of supplementation with chicken breast meat extract (CBEX) containing carnosine and anserine on hormonal responses to resistance exercise. Twenty-two men were assigned to a CBEX drink group (CBEX containing total 2 g of carnosine and anserine) (n = 14) or a placebo drink group (n = 8). The subjects ingested the prescribed drink (100 mL) twice daily for 30 days without physical training. Before and after the supplementation period, the subjects completed 5 sets of bilateral knee extension exercises (with a 90-s rest between sets). The magnitude of the increase in exercise-induced free testosterone did not change significantly after supplementation in either group. The blood lactate response to exercise was attenuated after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05). In the CBEX group, the plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations after exercise were significantly lower after supplementation (p < 0.05). The serum growth hormone response to exercise was also reduced in the CBEX group after supplementation (delta value: 5.4 ± 1.9 ng/mL [pre] vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 ng/mL [post], p = 0.05). No significant differences in exercise-induced strength reduction (fatigue index) were observed in the 2 groups after supplementation. These results suggest that short-term supplementation with CBEX attenuates the exercise-induced epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone responses.

  17. Effect of dietary histidine on contents of carnosine and anserine in muscles of broilers.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shinichi; Watanabe, Genya; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) are dipeptides mainly found in skeletal muscle and brain of many vertebrates, and particularly high concentrations are observed in chicken pectoral muscles. It was reported that these peptides have many functions, such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we examined the effect of different levels of dietary histidine on carnosine and anserine contents in broiler muscles. The 14-days-old female Chunky strain broilers were given feeds containing three different levels of histidine; 67% (Low-His), 100% (Control) and 200% (High-His) of histidine requirement according to the NRC (1994). Chicks were fed experimental diets for 10 days. Both dipeptides in muscle were significantly decreased. In particular, carnosine was not detected at all in the Low-His group and was significantly increased in the High-His group. Both dipeptides were not detected in plasma. These results indicated the possibility to produce chicken meat with enhanced amount of these dipeptides by high histidine feeding.

  18. Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has contrasting but beneficial effects on cellular activity. It delays cellular senescence and rejuvenates cultured senescent mammalian cells. However, it also inhibits the growth of cultured tumour cells. Based on studies in several organisms, we speculate that carnosine exerts these apparently opposing actions by affecting energy metabolism and/or protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Specific effects on energy metabolism include the dipeptide’s influence on cellular ATP concentrations. Carnosine’s ability to reduce the formation of altered proteins (typically adducts of methylglyoxal) and enhance proteolysis of aberrant polypeptides is indicative of its influence on proteostasis. Furthermore these dual actions might provide a rationale for the use of carnosine in the treatment or prevention of diverse age-related conditions where energy metabolism or proteostasis are compromised. These include cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and the complications of type-2 diabetes (nephropathy, cataracts, stroke and pain), which might all benefit from knowledge of carnosine’s mode of action on human cells. PMID:23442334

  19. Carnosine, taurine and enzyme activities of human skeletal muscle fibres from elderly subjects with osteoarthritis and young moderately active subjects.

    PubMed

    Tallon, Mark J; Harris, Roger C; Maffulli, Nicola; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    Ageing is associated with a reduction in muscle carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), but there are no data on the changes specifically in type I and type II muscle fibres. Given the higher carnosine content of type II fibers, changes observed in whole muscle may be secondary to a shift in fibre composition. Carnosine, beta-alanine, histidine, taurine, and citrate synthase (CS) and glycogen phosphorylase (Phos), were measured in pools of single muscle fibres from freeze-dried muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis of nine elderly sedentary subjects (65-80 years) with osteoarthritis of the knee and undergoing total knee replacement, and nine young moderately active healthy subjects (20-35 years). Fibres were characterised as type I or II by myosin ATPase activity. Carnosine was 53.2% lower in type II fibres of older subjects resulting in an estimated 7% (and most probably still higher) decline in intracellular physico-chemical buffering capacity. Younger subjects showed higher CS activities in type I and higher Phos activities in type II fibres. These differences were less apparent in elderly subjects. Possible causes for the change in the carnosine content are reduced physical activity, reduced meat intake, or the result of progressive denervation.

  20. Carnosine protects brain microvascular endothelial cells against rotenone-induced oxidative stress injury through histamine H₁ and H₂ receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyi; Yao, Ke; Fan, Yanying; He, Ping; Wang, Xiaofen; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Although it is believed that carnosine has protective effects on various cell types, its effect on microvascular endothelial cells has not been well defined. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of carnosine in microvascular endothelial cells using an in vitro rotenone-induced oxidative stress model. Mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to 1 μmol/L rotenone for 18 h. In some experiments, carnosine (100 nmol/L-1 mmol/L) was added 30 min prior to rotenone exposure. When used, histamine receptor antagonists (100 nmol/L-10 μmol/L) were added 15 min before carnosine treatment. After rotenone exposure, apoptosis of microvascular cells was analysed by Hoechst 33342 staining, whereas mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1 staining. Intracellular carnosine and histamine levels were determined using HPLC or ultra-HPLC. Over the range 1 μmol/L-1 mmol/L, carnosine concentration-dependently decreased the number of apoptotic cells after 18 h exposure to rotenone. This effect was reversed by the histamine H1 receptor antagonists pyrilamine and diphenhydramine (1 and 10 μmol/L) and the H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine (100 nmol/L-10 μmol/L) and zolatidine (10 μmol/L). α-Fluoromethylhistidine (100 μmol/L), a selective and irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, also significantly inhibited the protective effects of carnosine. At 0.1 mmol/L, carnosine restored the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential after 6 h exposure to 1 μmol/L rotenone and this effect was also reversed by the H1 and H2 receptor antagonists. Moreover, intracellular carnosine levels increased as early as 1 h after carnosine treatment, whereas intracellular histamine levels increased 18 h after carnosine treatment. The results of the present study indicate that carnosine protects brain microvascular endothelial cells against rotenone-induced oxidative stress injury via histamine H1 and H2 receptors. The

  1. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  2. Bioactive peptide carnosin protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Kazemian-Mahtaj, Azam; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-08-01

    Context Oxidative stress is a common mechanism of liver injury. Carnosine is a dipeptide having strong antioxidant effects. Objectives We investigated the effects of carnosine on lead-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Materials and methods Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/L in the drinking water) and/or daily oral gavage of carnosine (10 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Rats were then weighed and used for the biochemical (commercial kits), molecular (standard chemical methods) and histological (microscopic) evaluations. Results Lead-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue was indicated by a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (8.25 ± 0.15 nmol/mg) as well as decrease in the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (1.72 ± 0.25 μmol/g) and total thiol (SH) groups) 1.9 ± 0.22 μmol/g). Carnosine treatment decreased MDA (4 ± 0.08 nmol/mg), whereas it increased the contents of total thiol (3.25 ± 0.04 μmol/g) and TAC (3.44 ± 0.32 μmol/g) in the lead group. Carnosine also prevented the decreased body weight (p < 0.001), albumin (p < 0.05) and total protein levels (p < 0.001) and increased liver weight (p < 0.05) and activates of hepatic enzymes (p's < 0.001) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) in the lead group. Furthermore, histopathological study showed that carnosine attenuates liver damage by decreasing necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion Carnosine prevented lead-induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by molecular, biochemical and histopathological analyses through inhibiting lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defence systems. Therefore, carnosine makes a good candidate to protect against the deleterious effect of chronic lead intoxication.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of neuroprotective alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde scavenger histidyl-containing analogues of carnosine.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Andrea; Calderan, Andrea; Ruzza, Paolo; Osler, Alessio; Rubini, Chiara; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Mattson, Mark P; Borin, Gianfranco

    2005-09-22

    The synthesis, scavenging activity, and cytoprotective profiles of histidyl-containing carnosine analogues bearing hydrazide or 1,2-diol moieties is reported. Some compounds have demonstrated higher aldehyde-sequestering efficiency than carnosine and were also efficient in protecting SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and rat hippocampal neurons from 4-hydroxy-trans-2,3-nonenal (HNE)-mediated death. The cytoprotective efficacy of these compounds suggests their potential use as therapeutic agents for disorders that involve excessive membrane lipids peroxidation and HNE-mediated neuronal toxicity.

  4. The effects of carnosine on oxidative DNA damage levels and in vitro lifespan in human peripheral blood derived CD4+T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Hyland, P; Duggan, O; Hipkiss, A; Barnett, C; Barnett, Y

    2000-12-20

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), an abundant naturally-occurring dipeptide has been shown to exhibit anti-ageing properties towards cultured cells, possibly due in part to its antioxidant/free radical scavenging abilities. In this paper the results of an investigation on the effects of carnosine, at the physiological concentration of 20 mM, on oxidative DNA damage levels and in vitro lifespan in peripheral blood derived human CD4+ T cell clones are reported. Under the culture conditions used (20% O(2)) long term culture with carnosine resulted in a significant increase in the lifespan of a clone derived from a healthy young subject. No such extension was observed when a T cell clone from a healthy old SENIEUR donor was similarly cultured. Culture with carnosine from the midpoint of each clone's lifespan did not have any effect on longevity, independent of donor age. Oxidative DNA damage levels were measured in the clones at various points in their lifespans. Carnosine acted as a weak antioxidant, with levels of oxidative DNA damage being lower in T cells grown long term in the presence of carnosine. The possibility that carnosine might confer anti-ageing effects to T cells under physiological oxygen tensions would appear to be worthy of further investigation.

  5. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some throat ...

  6. Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal may contain “unknown growth factors” that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-ß-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. ...

  7. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40–78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  8. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  9. Oxaliplatin complexes with carnosine and its derivatives: in vitro cytotoxicity, mass spectrometric and computational studies with a focus on complex fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Camp, Claire L; Youssef, Ahmed S; Amleh, Asma; Reid, Helen J; Sharp, Barry L; Shoeib, Tamer

    2013-11-01

    The complexation of the Pt-based anti-cancer drug oxaliplatin (OxPt) with biological ligands other than DNA is believed to be a major cellular sink for the drug reducing its therapeutic potential and acting as a potential cause of toxicity. In this paper, the very first hypothesis driven investigation of the role of the naturally abundant cytoplasmic dipeptide ligand β-alanyl-l-histidine dipeptide (carnosine) in OxPt detoxification is presented. In vitro studies on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells suggest that carnosine may inhibit the cytotoxic action of OxPt most likely through the formation of complexes that are less cytotoxic than OxPt alone. Evidence is provided to suggest that pre-exposure of HepG2 cells to elevated levels of carnosine appears to have a lasting effect on reducing the cytotoxicity of OxPt even after the removal of the externally added carnosine. This effect, however, is likely under kinetic control as its magnitude was shown not to vary significantly with the level of carnosine exposure within the concentration range used in this study. Various mass spectrometry techniques employing electrospray ionization and chip nanospray were employed to study the interaction of oxaliplatin with carnosine as well as two of its derivatives β-alanyl-N-methylhistidine (anserine) and N-acetylcarnosine (NAC). Evidence of complexation between OxPt and each of the three ligands examined is presented. Most species observed were unambiguously assigned and compared to their theoretical isotopic patterns. Common fragmentation products due to the collisionally-activated protonated complexes of each of the ligands examined with OxPt, [M + OxPt + H](+), where M = carnosine, anserine or NAC, were reported. Density functional calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level were used to obtain structural information and relative free energies of different isomers of the observed precursor [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) both in the gas phase and in solution as well as to probe its

  10. Zinc carnosine protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in WIL2-NS lymphoblastoid cell line independent of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase expression.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Mohammad, Nur Hafiza; Sharif, Razinah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of zinc carnosine to protect the human lymphoblastoid (WIL2-NS) cell line from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Cells were cultured with medium containing zinc carnosine at the concentrations of 0.4, 4, 16 and 32 μM for 9 days prior to treatment with 30 μM of hydrogen peroxide (30 min). Zinc carnosine at the concentration 16 μM was optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and gave the lowest percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Results showed that zinc carnosine was able to induce glutathione production and protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress at all concentration and the highest protection was observed at 32-μM zinc carnosine culture. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay showed that cells cultured with 4-32 μM of zinc carnosine showed significant reduction in micronuclei formation, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear bud frequencies (p < 0.05), suggesting that these concentrations maybe optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. However, after being challenged with hydrogen peroxide, no increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression was observed. Thus, results from this study demonstrate that zinc carnosines possess antioxidant properties and are able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in vitro independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Further studies are warranted to understand the mechanism of protection of zinc carnosine against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage.

  11. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  12. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  13. On the Anticataractogenic Effects of L-Carnosine: Is It Best Described as an Antioxidant, Metal-Chelating Agent or Glycation Inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Longman, Michael; Alany, Raid G; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. L-Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide which recently gained popularity as an anticataractogenic agent due to its purported antioxidant activities. There is a paucity of research and conclusive evidence to support such claims. This work offers compelling data that help clarify the mechanism(s) behind the anticataract properties of L-carnosine. Methods. Direct in vitro antioxidant free radical scavenging properties were assayed using three different antioxidant (TEAC, CUPRAC, and DPPH) assays. Indirect in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant assays were studied by measuring glutathione bleaching capacity and total sulfhydryl (SH) capacity of bovine lens homogenates as well as hydrogen-peroxide-stress assay using human lens epithelial cells. Whole porcine lenses were incubated in high galactose media to study the anticataract effects of L-carnosine. MTT cytotoxicity assays were conducted on human lens epithelial cells. Results. The results showed that L-carnosine is a highly potent antiglycating agent but with weak metal chelating and antioxidant properties. There were no significant decreases in lens epithelial cell viability compared to negative controls. Whole porcine lenses incubated in high galactose media and treated with 20 mM L-carnosine showed a dramatic inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation as evidenced by NBT and boronate affinity chromatography assays. Conclusion. L-Carnosine offers prospects for investigating new methods of treatment for diabetic cataract and any diseases that are caused by glycation.

  14. Effects of carnosine on long-term plasticity of medial perforant pathway/dentate gyrus synapses in urethane-anesthetized rats: an in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Süer, Cem; Dolu, Nazan; Artis, Seda; Aydogan, Sami

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of carnosine on the hippocampal-dependent learning in perforant pathway/dentate gyrus synapses. The experiments were carried out on adult rats. A bipolar stimulating electrode was placed to the medial perforant path and a double-barrel glass micropipette was placed in the dentate gyrus as the recording electrode. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (to control group) or carnosine (0.1, 1 microg/microL) was infused into the dentate gyrus via one of the barrels of the glass electrode. Our results showed that the I/O curve of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slope or population spike (PS) amplitude was not significantly shifted by carnosine. Although carnosine infused prior to high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreased the slope of EPSP and amplitude of PS, when infused after HFS, no effect was observed. In the present study, we speculated that carnosine decreased LTP by inhibiting sGC activation. The present experiment provides the first evidence that carnosine may play a role in synaptic plasticity in dentate gyrus in vivo.

  15. On the Anticataractogenic Effects of L-Carnosine: Is It Best Described as an Antioxidant, Metal-Chelating Agent or Glycation Inhibitor?

    PubMed Central

    Alany, Raid G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. L-Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide which recently gained popularity as an anticataractogenic agent due to its purported antioxidant activities. There is a paucity of research and conclusive evidence to support such claims. This work offers compelling data that help clarify the mechanism(s) behind the anticataract properties of L-carnosine. Methods. Direct in vitro antioxidant free radical scavenging properties were assayed using three different antioxidant (TEAC, CUPRAC, and DPPH) assays. Indirect in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant assays were studied by measuring glutathione bleaching capacity and total sulfhydryl (SH) capacity of bovine lens homogenates as well as hydrogen-peroxide-stress assay using human lens epithelial cells. Whole porcine lenses were incubated in high galactose media to study the anticataract effects of L-carnosine. MTT cytotoxicity assays were conducted on human lens epithelial cells. Results. The results showed that L-carnosine is a highly potent antiglycating agent but with weak metal chelating and antioxidant properties. There were no significant decreases in lens epithelial cell viability compared to negative controls. Whole porcine lenses incubated in high galactose media and treated with 20 mM L-carnosine showed a dramatic inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation as evidenced by NBT and boronate affinity chromatography assays. Conclusion. L-Carnosine offers prospects for investigating new methods of treatment for diabetic cataract and any diseases that are caused by glycation. PMID:27822337

  16. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  17. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  18. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  19. Carnosine prevents necrotic and apoptotic death of rat thymocytes via ouabain-sensitive Na/K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Smolyaninova, Larisa V; Dergalev, Alexander A; Kulebyakin, Konstantin Y; Carpenter, David O; Boldyrev, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    It is known that ouabain, a selective inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, not only can cause the activation of signal cascades, which regulate the cell viability, but also can cause the accumulation of free radicals, which can evoke the oxidative stress. We have shown that the nanomolar concentrations of ouabain result in the temporary increase in the level of intracellular free radicals, but the millimolar concentration of ouabain induces a stable intracellular accumulation of free radicals in rat thymocytes. The increasing level of free radicals resulting from both low and high concentrations of ouabain can be attenuated by the antioxidant, carnosine. Moreover, the long-term incubation with ouabain leads to the cell death by necrosis and apoptosis. Ouabain-mediated apoptosis and necrosis were also abolished by carnosine.

  20. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beef

  1. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  2. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  3. Biological activities of the natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics n-acetylcarnosine, carcinine and L-carnosine in ophthalmic and skin care products.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2006-04-11

    Apart from genetically programmed cell aging, different external aggressors related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) can accelerate the skin aging phenomenon. Oxidative stress associated with the formation of lipid peroxides is suggested to contribute to pathological processes in aging and systemic diseases known as the risk factors for cataract. Despite the fact that L-carnosine-related peptidomimetics N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) (NAC) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) are metabolically related to L-carnosine and have been demonstrated to occur in tissues of many vertebrates, including humans, these compounds were shown resistant toward enzymatic hydrolysis. A series of related biocompatible imidazole-containing peptidomimetics were synthesized in order to confer resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and ex vivo improvement of protective antioxidative properties related to L-carnosine. The included findings revealed a greater role of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) and carcinine ex vivo in the prolongation and potentiation of physiological responses to the therapeutical and cosmetics treatments with L-carnosine as antioxidant. 3-D molecular conformation studies proposed the antioxidant activity of peptidomimetics (carcinine, L-prolylhistamine, N-acetylcarnosine, L-carnosine) for metal ion binding, quenching of a number free radicals, and binding of hydroperoxide or aldehyde (including dialdehyde LPO products) in an imidazole-peroxide adducts. NAC can act as a time release (carrier) stable version of L-carnosine during application in ophthalmic pharmaceutical and cosmetics formulations which include lubricants. Carcinine, L-prolylhistamine show efficient deactivation of lipid hydroperoxides monitored by HPLC and protection of membrane phospholipids and water soluble proteins from the lipid peroxides-induced damages. This activity is superior over the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E. The biologically significant applications of

  4. Graphene Oxides Decorated with Carnosine as an Adjuvant To Modulate Innate Immune and Improve Adaptive Immunity in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhi, Xiao; Li, Chao; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan; Ma, Lijun; Lu, Hongmin; Chen, Di; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-23

    Current studies have revealed the immune effects of graphene oxide (GO) and have utilized them as vaccine carriers and adjuvants. However, GO easily induces strong oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction at the site of injection. It is very necessary to develop an alternative adjuvant based on graphene oxide derivatives for improving immune responses and decreasing side effects. Carnosine (Car) is an outstanding and safe antioxidant. Herein, the feasibility and efficiency of ultrasmall graphene oxide decorated with carnosine as an alternative immune adjuvant were explored. OVA@GO-Car was prepared by simply mixing ovalbumin (OVA, a model antigen) with ultrasmall GO covalently modified with carnosine (GO-Car). We investigated the immunological properties of the GO-Car adjuvant in model mice. Results show that OVA@GO-Car can promote robust and durable OVA-specific antibody response, increase lymphocyte proliferation efficiency, and enhance CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell activation. The presence of Car in GO also probably contributes to enhancing the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through modulating the expression of some cytokines, including IL-6, CXCL1, CCL2, and CSF3. In addition, the safety of GO-Car as an adjuvant was evaluated comprehensively. No symptoms such as allergic response, inflammatory redness swelling, raised surface temperatures, physiological anomalies of blood, and remarkable weight changes were observed. Besides, after modification with carnosine, histological damages caused by GO-Car in lung, muscle, kidney, and spleen became weaken significantly. This study sufficiently suggest that GO-Car as a safe adjuvant can effectively enhance humoral and innate immune responses against antigens in vivo.

  5. Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Brain Homocarnosine/Carnosine Signal and Cognitive Function: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Ruth M; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Otaduy, Maria C.; Roschel, Hamilton; Robertson, Jacques; Martin, Daniel; S. Painelli, Vitor; Harris, Roger C.; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1) and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men) and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation), with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task) being performed before and after exercise on each occasion. Results In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99) or omnivores (p = 0.27); nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19). Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27). In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P<0.05), although there was no effect (P>0.05) of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise. Conclusion 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4g d-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:25875297

  6. Intravitreal injection of forskolin, homotaurine, and L-carnosine affords neuroprotection to retinal ganglion cells following retinal ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Adornetto, Annagrazia; Cavaliere, Federica; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Rusciano, Dario; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Nucci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the final event leading to visual impairment in glaucoma; therefore, identification of neuroprotective strategies able to slow down or prevent the process is one of the main challenges for glaucoma research. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of RGC death induced by the in vivo transient increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) of a combined treatment with forskolin, homotaurine, and L-carnosine. Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-8, 13-epoxy-1a, 6β, 9a-trihydroxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is an activator of adenylate cyclase that decreases IOP by reducing aqueous humor production and functions as a neuroprotector due to its neurotrophin-stimulating activity. Homotaurine is a natural aminosulfonate compound endowed with neuromodulatory effects, while the dipeptide L-carnosine is known for its antioxidant properties. Methods Retinal ischemia was induced in the right eye of adult male Wistar rats by acutely increasing the IOP. Forskolin, homotaurine, and L-carnosine were intravitreally injected and RGC survival evaluated following retrograde labeling with FluoroGold. Total and phosphorylated Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) protein levels, as well as calpain activity, were analyzed with western blot. Protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by intravitreal injection of H89. Results A synergic neuroprotective effect on RGC survival was observed following the combined treatment with forskolin, homotaurine, and L-carnosine compared to forskolin alone. The observed neuroprotection was associated with reduced calpain activity, upregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, and inhibition of GSK-3β but was independent from PKA activation and distinct from the hypotensive effects of forskolin. Conclusions A multidrug/multitarget approach, by interfering with several pathways involved in RGC degeneration, may be promising to achieve glaucoma neuroprotection. PMID:26167113

  7. Low taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and carnosine levels in plasma of diabetic pregnant rats: consequences for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Aerts, L; Van Assche, F A

    2001-01-01

    Gestational diabetes compromises fetal development and induces a diabetogenic effect in the offspring, including the development of gestational diabetes and the transmission of the effect to the next generation. Changes are not limited to glucose and insulin metabolism, and appear to be modulated by alterations at the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In the present work, serum concentrations are given for the non-protein amino-acids taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), both neurotransmitters essential for normal brain development, and for the endogenous neuroprotector carnosine, a known anti-oxydans. Taurine levels are significantly below normal values in mildly diabetic mothers, in their fetal and adult offspring, virgin and pregnant, and in the fetuses of these pregnant offspring. GABA and carnosine levels are at the limit of detection in the diabetic mothers and their offspring at every stage. It is concluded that the low taurine, GABA and carnosine levels in diabetic mothers and their fetuses might compromise the normal structural and functional development of the fetal brain. When adult, these offspring present a deficiency of the circulating levels of these neurotransmitters involved in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal regulation of insulin secretion. This might contribute to the development of impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes, thereby transmitting the effect to the next generation.

  8. Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid and L-carnosine are powerful antioxidants and are often used as a health supplement and as an ergogenic aid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid and/or L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activity in serum, skin, and liver of rats and blood lipid profiles for 6 weeks. Four treatment groups received diets containing regular rat chow diet (control, CON), 0.5% α-lipoic acid (ALA), 0.25% α-lipoic acid + 0.25% L-carnosine (ALA + LC), or 0.5% L-carnosine (LC). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, were analyzed in serum, skin, and liver. Blood lipid profiles were measured, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Skin and liver SOD activities of the ALA and LC groups were higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05), but serum SOD activity was higher only in the LC group compared to that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Additionally, only liver GSH-Px activity in the LC group was higher than that of the CON and the other groups. Serum and skin MDA levels in the ALA and LC groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Serum TG and TC in the ALA and ALA + LC groups were lower than those in the CON and LC groups (P < 0.05). The HDL-C level in the LC group was higher than that in any other group (P < 0.05). LDL-C level was lower in the ALA + LC and LC groups than that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Thus, α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation increased antioxidant activity, decreased lipid peroxidation in the serum, liver, and skin of rats and positively modified blood lipid profiles. PMID:22125679

  9. Effect of carnosine, aminoguanidine, and aspirin drops on the prevention of cataracts in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Zhenghua; Ha, Wenjing; Harding, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of carnosine (CA), aminoguanidine (AG), and aspirin (ASA) drops, all inhibitors of glycation, on the development of diabetic cataract in rat. Methods Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and based on the level of plasma glucose, they were assigned as non-diabetic rats (<14 mmol/l plasma glucose) and diabetic rats (>14 mmol/l plasma glucose). Animals in the treated groups received CA, AG, and ASA as drops to the left eyes starting from the day of streptozotocin injection. Progression of lens opacification was recorded using the slit lamp at regular time intervals. All the rats were killed after the week 13, and the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGE), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) were determined. Results Lens opacification progressed in a biphasic manner in the diabetic rats, an initial slow increase during the first eight weeks of diabetes followed by a steep increase in the next five weeks. Carnosine treatment delayed the progression of cataracts in diabetic rats, and the delay was statistically significant on the fourth week of diabetes (p<0.05, when compared with untreated moderately diabetic rats). A decrease in the antioxidant enzymes of CAT and the level of GSH was found in the lens of the untreated diabetic rats at 13 weeks after injection. Some protection was provided in the treated eyes. The level of glycation in the untreated diabetic rats was significantly higher than that in the normal rats (p<0.001). After treatment with CA, AG, and ASA, those diabetic rats had a lower level of glycated lens protein compared to the untreated diabetic rats (p<0.001). Conclusions These results thus suggest that the effect of CA, AG, and ASA is indeed inhibition of the formation of AGEs. However, the effect of CA, AG, and ASA is overwhelmed by the excessive accumulation of AGEs in the severely diabetic rats. CA compared with AG and ASA treatment can delay the progression of lens

  10. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  11. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  12. L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Babizhayev, M A; Seguin, M C; Gueyne, J; Evstigneeva, R P; Ageyeva, E A; Zheltukhina, G A

    1994-01-01

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) are natural imidazole-containing compounds found in the non-protein fraction of mammalian tissues. Carcinine was synthesized by an original procedure and characterized. Both carnosine and carcinine (10-25 mM) are capable of inhibiting the catalysis of linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine liposomal peroxidation (LPO) by the O2(-.)-dependent iron-ascorbate and lipid-peroxyl-radical-generating linoleic acid 13-monohydroperoxide (LOOH)-activated haemoglobin systems, as measured by thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substance. Carcinine and carnosine are good scavengers of OH. radicals, as detected by iron-dependent radical damage to the sugar deoxyribose. This suggests that carnosine and carcinine are able to scavenge free radicals or donate hydrogen ions. The iodometric, conjugated diene and t.l.c. assessments of lipid hydroperoxides (13-monohydroperoxide linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide) showed their efficient reduction and deactivation by carnosine and carcinine (10-25 mM) in the liberated and bound-to-artificial-bilayer states. This suggests that the peroxidase activity exceeded that susceptible to direct reduction with glutathione peroxidase. Imidazole, solutions of beta-alanine, or their mixtures with peptide moieties did not show antioxidant potential. Free L-histidine and especially histamine stimulated iron (II) salt-dependent LPO. Due to the combination of weak metal chelating (abolished by EDTA), OH. and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biological membranes and aqueous environments. PMID:7998987

  13. 78 SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CARNOSINE DURING IN VITRO CULTURE IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF IN VITRO-PRODUCED BOVINE EMBRYOS.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, D; Verachten, M; Salvetti, P; Hochet, M; Schibler, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation of culture medium with carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine; Sigma, St-Quentin Fallavier, France), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, on in vitro bovine embryo development and survival following cryopreservation. Abattoir-derived bovine oocytes (4 replicates) were in vitro matured and fertilized with frozen-thawed semen of one bull, according to our standard procedures. In Experiment 1, 20h after IVF, groups of presumptive zygotes were cultured in 30μL of SOF BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum with 0 (control; n=205) or 5μgmL(-1) of carnosine (n=209) under humidified air with 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 88% N2. Cleavage rates were determined on Day 2, and the blastocyst rates and grade were assessed on Day 7 according to IETS classification. Day 7 grade 1 expanded blastocysts (n=25 control and n=27 carnosine) were frozen in 1.5M ethylene glycol+0.1M sucrose. Embryos were thawed and then cultured for 72h in SOF-BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum for re-expansion and hatching rate assessments at +24h, +48h, and +72h post-thawing. In Experiment 2, presumed zygotes were cultured in SOF BSAaa+1% oestrus cow serum with 0 (control; n=48) or 5μgmL(-1) of carnosine (n=48) in a WOW dish and observed with Time Laps Cinematography (Primo Vision®, VitroLife, Göteborg, Sweden). Images were recorded every 15min for up to 168h post-insemination. For embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, mean timing of the first cleavage (C1; 2-cell stage), second cleavage (C2; 4-cell stage), second cleavage to compaction (C3), and blastocoel cavity appearance (B4) were recorded. Chi-square test for Experiment 1 and Student's t-test for Experiment 2 were used, and differences were considered significant at P<0.05. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate on Day 7, and grade 1 blastocyst rate between both control and carnosine groups (84.0±4.2v.85.2±3.8, P=0.7; 46.9±7.1v. 45.0±7.5, P=0.7; 24

  14. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  15. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  16. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  17. Accurate analysis of taurine, anserine, carnosine and free amino acids in a cattle muscle biopsy sample.

    PubMed

    Imanari, Mai; Higuchi, Mikito; Shiba, Nobuya; Watanabe, Akira

    2010-06-01

    We have established an analysis method for some free amino acids (FAAs), as well as taurine (Tau), anserine (Ans) and carnosine (Car), in a fresh biopsy sample from cattle muscle. A series of model biopsy samples, corresponding to the mixtures of lean meat, fat and connective tissue, was prepared and showed high correlation coefficients between the compound concentration and the 3-methylhistidine (3-MeHis) content derived from hydrolysis of the biopsy sample (r = 0.74-0.95, P < 0.01). Interference from blood contamination could not be neglected, because the concentration of some FAAs in blood was comparable to that in muscle. However, it was possible to control the contamination of Tau, Ans, Car, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparatic acid and alanine to less than 5.0% when the blood contamination was controlled to less than 23%.These results suggest the necessity of measuring 3-MeHis as an index of lean meat and hemoglobin as an index of blood contamination when compounds in muscle biopsy samples are evaluated. We have carried out a series of these analyses using one biopsy sample and reveal differences in Tau, Ans, Car and some FAAs in beef muscle after different feeding regimes.

  18. Antiglycation effects of carnosine and other compounds on the long-term survival of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Evan D; Farrell, Michael J; Nord, Gary; Finkel, Steven E

    2010-12-01

    Glycation, or nonenzymatic glycosylation, is a chemical reaction between reactive carbonyl-containing compounds and biomolecules containing free amino groups. Carbonyl-containing compounds include reducing sugars such as glucose or fructose, carbohydrate-derived compounds such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and nonsugars such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. The latter group includes molecules such as proteins, DNA, and amino lipids. Glycation-induced damage to these biomolecules has been shown to be a contributing factor in human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and cataracts and in diabetic complications. Glycation also affects Escherichia coli under standard laboratory conditions, leading to a decline in bacterial population density and long-term survival. Here we have shown that as E. coli aged in batch culture, the amount of carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product, accumulated over time and that this accumulation was affected by the addition of glucose to the culture medium. The addition of excess glucose or methylglyoxal to the culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent loss of cell viability. We have also demonstrated that glyoxylase enzyme GloA plays a role in cell survival during glycation stress. In addition, we have provided evidence that carnosine, folic acid, and aminoguanidine inhibit glycation in prokaryotes. These agents may also prove to be beneficial to eukaryotes since the chemical processes of glycation are similar in these two domains of life.

  19. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  20. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  1. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  2. Multiband retardation control using multi-twist retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Komanduri, Ravi K.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an approach to create highly chromatic retardation spectra across various wave­ lengths. The design approach is based on Multi-Twist Retarder (MTR) principle where multiple liquid crystal polymer layers are coated on top of each other on a single substrate. Previous MTRs have been applied to develop broadband achromatic retarders, but here we show that MTRs are quite flexible, and their retardation spectrum can be tuned to create arbitrary profiles. As a representative example, we show this tailorability by creating a retarder which produces approximately zero retardation in visible (500-900 nm) and half-wave retardation in near- infrared (1-2.7 μm) wavelength region. This would provide enhancement in remote sensing, telecom, and spectroscopy systems where it is advantageous to have an optical element which affects only one band, but is largely transparent otherwise.

  3. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  4. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  5. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  6. Retarded gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ν/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  7. The effects of ascorbic acid, taurine, carnosine and rosemary powder on colour and lipid stability of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Escalante, A; Djenane, D; Torrescano, G; Beltrán, J A; Roncalés, P

    2001-08-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the inhibition of oxidative changes of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere (70% O(2)+20% CO(2)+10% N(2)) by natural antioxidants: ascorbic acid (500 ppm), taurine (50 mM), carnosine (50 mM), rosemary powder (1000 ppm) and their combinations with the first. Beef patties stored at 2±1°C for 20 days were evaluated for colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and H*), TBARS, metmyoglobin formation (% of total myoglobin), psychrotrophic microbial counts and sensory odour and discolouration. Rosemary, either alone or with ascorbic acid, was highly effective in inhibiting both metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation; sensory analysis was in agreement with these results. Ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid+taurine and ascorbic acid+carnosine treatments showed a limited inhibitory effect of myoglobin oxidation, while carnosine and carnosine+ascorbic acid were effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. Taurine alone failed to exert any antioxidant effect. Principal components analysis confirmed these results.

  8. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism.

  9. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism. PMID:20518851

  10. Evidence for rapid inter- and intramolecular chlorine transfer reactions of histamine and carnosine chloramines: implications for the prevention of hypochlorous-acid-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2006-07-04

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H(2)O(2) and Cl(-) by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that is implicated in a wide range of human diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). Histamine and carnosine have been proposed as protective agents against such damage. However, as recent studies have shown that histidine-containing compounds readily form imidazole chloramines that can rapidly chlorinate other targets, it was hypothesized that similar reactions may occur with histamine and carnosine, leading to propagation, rather than prevention, of HOCl-mediated damage. In this study, the reactions of HOCl with histamine, histidine, carnosine, and other compounds containing imidazole and free amine sites were examined. In all cases, rapid formation (k, 1.6 x 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) of imidazole chloramines was observed, followed by chlorine transfer to yield more stable, primary chloramines (R-NHCl). The rates of most of these secondary reactions are dependent upon substrate concentrations, consistent with intermolecular mechanisms (k, 10(3)-10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). However, for carnosine, the imidazole chloramine transfer rates are independent of the concentration, indicative of intramolecular processes (k, 0.6 s(-)(1)). High-performance liquid chromatography studies show that in all cases the resultant R-NHCl species can slowly chlorinate N-alpha-acetyl-Tyr. Thus, the current data indicate that the chloramines formed on the imidazole and free amine groups of these compounds can oxidize other target molecules but with limited efficiency, suggesting that histamine and particularly carnosine may be able to limit HOCl-mediated oxidation in vivo.

  11. Effect of carnosine, methylprednisolone and their combined application on irisin levels in the plasma and brain of rats with acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Serdal; Atci, İbrahim Burak; Kalayci, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Musa; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aydin, Suna; Kom, Mustafa; Ayden, Omer; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) might occur to anybody at any time and any age. In its treatment, methylprednisolone (MP) is a first choice worldwide, but there is still no significant breakthrough in truly beneficial treatment due to SCI's complex pathophysiology. We investigated the effect of carnosine, methylprednisolone (MP) and its combination on irisin levels in the plasma, brain and medulla spinalis tissues in SCI using a rat model. The rats were divided into 6 groups: I (Control, saline); II (sham animals with laminectomy without cross-clamping); III (SCI); IV (SCI treated with 150mg/kg carnosine); V (SCI treated with 30mg/kg methylprednisolone); and VI (SCI treated with a combination of carnosine and MP). The animals were given traumatic SCI after laminectomy, using 70-g closing force aneurysm clips (Yasargil FE 721). Irisin concentration was measured by ELISA. The distribution of irisin in brain and spinal cord tissues was examined by immunochemistry. Irisin was mainly expressed in the astrocytes and microglia of brain tissues, and multipolar neurones of the anterior horn of spinal cord tissue in rats of all groups, indicating that irisin is physiologically indispensable. MP and carnosine and the combination of the two, significantly increased irisin in plasma and were accompanied by a significant rise in irisin immunoreactivity of brain and spinal cord tissues of the injured rats compared with control and sham. This finding raises the possibility that methylprednisolone and carnosine regulate the brain and spinal cord tissues in SCI by inducing irisin expression, and may therefore offer a better neurological prognosis.

  12. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  13. [Search for chaperon-like anticataract drugs, the antiaggregants of lens crystallins. Communication. 1. Chaperon-like activity of N-acetyl carnosine dipeptide: in vitro study on a model of ultraviolet-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin].

    PubMed

    Muranov, K O; Dizhevskaia, A K; Boldyrev, A A; Karpova, O E; Sheremet, N L; Polunin, G S; Avetisov, S E; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation ofcrystallins, the lens proteins, is one of the basic stages of cataract formation. Among the protein aggregation models used to study the molecular mechanisms of the initial stages of lenticular opacity, UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin is most close to the in vivo conditions. The carnosine derivative N-acetyl carnosine has been shown to be effective in inhibiting the UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin. Examination of the accumulation kinetics of carbonyl groups in betaL-crystallin under UV irradiation has indicated that neither carnosine nor N-acetyl carnosine fails to affect this parameter--an indicator of oxidative protein damage. By taking into account also the fact that N-acetyl carnosine is not an antioxidant, it can be believed that the molecular mechanism of action of this compound on UV-induced aggregation of betaL is unassociated with its antioxidative properties. The authors hypothesize that the molecular chaperon-like properties similar to those of alpha-crystallin underlie the mechanism of action of the acetyl derivative carnosine. The prospects for searching anticataract agents of a new chaperon-like class are discussed.

  14. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  15. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  16. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  17. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  18. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  19. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  20. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  1. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  2. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  3. Improved spectral resolution and high reliability of in vivo (1) H MRS at 7 T allow the characterization of the effect of acute exercise on carnosine in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Just Kukurová, Ivica; Valkovič, Ladislav; Ukropec, Jozef; de Courten, Barbora; Chmelík, Marek; Ukropcová, Barbara; Trattnig, Siegfried; Krššák, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to observe the behavior of carnosine peaks in human soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GM) muscles following acute exercise, to determine the relaxation times and to assess the repeatability of carnosine quantification by (1) H MRS at 7 T. Relaxation constants in GM and SOL were measured by a stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) localization sequence. For T1 measurement, an inversion recovery sequence was used. The repeatability of the measurement and the absolute quantification of carnosine were determined in both muscles in five healthy volunteers. For absolute quantification, an internal water reference signal was used. The effect of acute exercise on carnosine levels and resonance lines was tested in eight recreational runners/cyclists. The defined carnosine measurement protocol was applied three times - before and twice after (approximately 20 and 40 min) a 1-h submaximal street run and additional toe-hopping. The measured T1 relaxation times for the C2-H carnosine peak at 7 T were 2002 ± 94 and 1997 ± 259 ms for GM and SOL, respectively, and the T2 times were 95.8 ± 9.4 and 81.0 ± 21.8 ms for GM and SOL, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the carnosine quantification measurement was 9.1% for GM and 6.3% for SOL, showing high repeatability, and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.93 for GM and 0.98 for SOL indicate the high reliability of the measurement. Acute exercise did not change the concentration of carnosine in the muscle, but affected the shape of the resonance lines, in terms of the shifting and splitting into doublets. Carnosine measurement by (1) H MRS at 7 T in skeletal muscle exhibits high repeatability and reliability. The observed effects of acute exercise were more prominent in GM, probably as a result of the larger portion of glycolytic fibers in this muscle and the more pronounced exercise-induced change in pH. Our results support the application of the MRS-based assessment of

  4. Mono- and di-halogenated histamine, histidine and carnosine derivatives are potent carbonic anhydrase I, II, VII, XII and XIV activators.

    PubMed

    Saada, Mohamed-Chiheb; Vullo, Daniela; Montero, Jean-Louis; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    Mono- and di-halogenated histamines, l-histidine methyl ester derivatives and carnosine derivatives incorporating chlorine, bromine and iodine were prepared and investigated as activators of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII, and the transmembrane hCA XII and XIV. All of them were activated in a diverse manner by the investigated compounds, with a distinct activation profile.

  5. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  6. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  7. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  8. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  9. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 Occurring from Hyperglycemia-Induced Neural Tube Defects Is Ameliorated by Carnosine But Not Folic Acid in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Huang, Wen-Shan; Tsoi, Bun; Hu, Dan; Wan, Xin; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Qi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of the embryonic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic gestation. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis influenced by hyperglycemia was investigated using chicken embryo models. High-concentration glucose was administered into chicken eggs and resulted in increased plasma and brain tissue glucose, and suppressed expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The rate of NTD positively correlated with hyperglycemia. Furthermore, abnormally increased O-GlcNAcylation, a nutritionally responsive modification, of the key neural tube marker Pax3 protein led to the loss of this protein. This loss was not observed in a folate-deficiency NTD induced by methotrexate. Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, showed significant recovery effects on neural tube development. In contrast, folic acid, a well-known periconceptional agent, surprisingly showed relatively minimal effect. Higher expression levels of the Pax3 protein were found in the carnosine-treated groups, while lower expression levels were found in folic acid groups. Furthermore, the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of the Pax3 protein was restored by carnosine. These results suggest new insights into using endogenous nutrients for the protection of embryonic neurodevelopment affected by diabetes gestation. The abnormal excessive O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 may be responsible for the neural tube defects associated with hyperglycemia.

  10. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  11. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  12. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  13. L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: may oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination?

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-05-01

    Influenza A is a viral disease of global dimension, presenting with high morbidity and mortality in annual epidemics, and in pandemics which are of infrequent occurrence but which have very high attack rates. Influenza vaccines of the future must be directed toward use of conserved group-specific viral antigens, such as are present in transitional proteins which are exposed during the fusion of virus to the host cell. Influenza probes revealed a continuing battle for survival between host and parasite in which the host population updates the specificity of its pool of humoral immunity by contact with and response to infection with the most recent viruses which possess altered antigenic specificity in their hemagglutinin (HA) ligand. It is well known that the HA protein is found on the surface of the influenza virus particle and is responsible for binding to receptors on host cells and initiating infection. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have been reported to be involved in the initial host response to influenza A virus (IAV). Early after IAV infection, neutrophils infiltrate the airway probably due to release of chemokines that attract PMN. Clearly, severe IAV infection is characterized by increased neutrophil influx into the lung or upper respiratory tract. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (N-β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) are found in skeletal muscle of most vertebrates, including those used for food; for example, 100 g of chicken breast contains 400 mg (17.6 mmol/L) of carnosine and 1020 mg (33.6 mmol/l) of anserine. Carnosine-stimulated respiratory burst in neutrophils is a universal biological mechanism of influenza virus destruction. Our own studies revealed previously unappreciated functional effects of carnosine and related histidine containing compounds as a natural biological prevention and barrier against Influenza virus infection, expand public understanding of the antiviral properties of imidazole-containing dipeptide based

  14. The membrane-stabilizing action of zinc carnosine (Z-103) in stress-induced gastric ulceration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Luk, C.T.; Ogle, C.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Zinc compounds have been shown to antagonize various types of gastric ulceration in rats. Zinc carnosine (Z-103), a newly developed agent was, therefore, examined for its antiulcer effect in stress-induced ulceration and also its membrane stabilizing action in rat stomachs. Cold-restraint stress induced severe hemorrhagic lesions together with increased mast cell degranulation and {beta}-glucuronidase release in the gastric glandular mucosa. A-103 pretreatment with a single oral dose reversed these actions in a dose-dependent manner. When the compound was incubated in concentrations of 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}6}, 10{sup {minus}5} or 10{sup {minus}4} M, with isolated hepatic lysosomes, it significantly reduced the spontaneous release of {beta}-glucuronidase in the medium. The present study not only demonstrates the antiulcer effect of Z-103 but also indicates that the protective action is likely to be mediated by its membrane-stabilizing action on mast cells and lysosomes in the gastric glandular mucosa.

  15. Effects of carnosine, taurine, and betaine pretreatments on diethylnitrosamine-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Başaran-Küçükgergin, C; Bingül, I; Tekkeşin, M Soluk; Olgaç, V; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, S; Uysal, M

    2016-08-01

    Several chemicals such as N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) promote hepatocellular cancer in rodents and induce hepatocyte injury. DEN affects the initiation stage of carcinogenesis together with enhanced cell proliferation accompanied by hepatocellular necrosis. DEN-induced hepatocellular necrosis is reported to be related to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. Carnosine (CAR), taurine (TAU), and betaine (BET) are known to have powerful antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of CAR, TAU, and BET pretreatments on DEN-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in male rats. Rats were given CAR (2 g L(-1) in drinking water), TAU (2.5% in chow), and BET (2.5% in chow) for 6 weeks and DEN (200 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally) was given 2 days before the end of this period. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities were determined and a histopathologic evaluation was performed on the liver tissue. Oxidative stress was detected in the liver by measuring malondialdehyde, diene conjugate, protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activities. Pretreatments with CAR, TAU, and BET decreased liver prooxidant status without remarkable changes in antioxidant parameters in DEN-treated rats. Pretreatments with TAU and BET, but not CAR, were also found to be effective to reduce liver damage in DEN-treated rats. In conclusion, TAU, BET, and possibly CAR may have an ameliorating effect on DEN-induced hepatic injury by reducing oxidative stress in rats.

  16. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  17. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  18. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  19. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  20. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  1. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  2. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  3. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  4. Scouting for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.

    The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…

  5. Scholarly Productivity in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)

  6. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  7. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  8. Β-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]β-alanine was taurine- and γ-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]β-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in β-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]β-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and β-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of β-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of β-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB.

  9. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  10. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  11. Non-Verbal Communication in Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier

    Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…

  12. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  13. Energy Conservation and Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others

    Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…

  14. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  15. Association of CTG repeat polymorphism in carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) gene with diabetic nephropathy in north Indians

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ashok K.; Sinha, Nisha; Kumar, Vinod; Bhansali, Anil; Dutta, Pinaki; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: CNDP1 gene, present on chromosome 18q22.3-23, encodes carnosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in hydrolysis of carnosine to β-alanine and L-histidine. Linkage of CTG trinucleotide (leucine) repeat polymorphism in CNDP1 gene with diabetic nephropathy has been observed in several populations. However, this association is conflicting and population-dependent. We investigated this association in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without nephropathy in north India. Methods: A total of 564 individuals [199 T2DM without nephropathy (DM), 185 T2DM with nephropathy (DN) and 180 healthy individuals (HC)] were enrolled. CNDP1 CTG repeat analysis was done by direct sequencing of a 377 base pair fragment in exon 2. Results: The most frequent leucine (L) repeats were 5L-5L, 6L-5L and 6L-6L. 5L-5L genotype frequency was reduced in DN (24.3%) as compared to DM (34.7%, P=0.035) and HC (38.4%, P=0.005). Similarly, 5L allele frequency was lower in DN (46.8%) as compared to DM (57.3%, P=0.004) and HC (60.5%, P<0.001). The genotype and allelic frequencies were similar in DM and HC groups. No gender specific difference was observed in the genotype or allelic frequencies between groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared to healthy individuals and those with diabetes but no kidney disease, patients with diabetic nephropathy exhibited lower frequencies of 5L-5L genotype and 5L allele of CNDP1 gene, suggesting that this allele might confer protection against development of kidney disease in this population. PMID:27834323

  16. Carnosine Reduces Oxidative Stress and Reverses Attenuation of Righting and Postural Reflexes in Rats with Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Krzysztof; Hilgier, Wojciech; Fręśko, Inez; Polowy, Rafał; Podsiadłowska, Anna; Zołocińska, Ewa; Grymanowska, Aneta W; Filipkowski, Robert K; Albrecht, Jan; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral oxidative stress (OS) contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Existing evidence suggests that systemic administration of L-histidine (His) attenuates OS in brain of HE animal models, but the underlying mechanism is complex and not sufficiently understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, Car) may be neuroprotective in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver failure in rats and that, being His metabolite, may mediate the well documented anti-OS activity of His. Amino acids [His or Car (100 mg/kg)] were administrated 2 h before TAA (i.p., 300 mg/kg 3× in 24 h intervals) injection into Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were thus tested for: (i) brain prefrontal cortex and blood contents of Car and His, (ii) amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), GSSG/GSH ratio and thioredoxin reductase (TRx) activity, and (iii) behavioral changes (several models were used, i.e. tests for reflexes, open field, grip test, Rotarod). Brain level of Car was reduced in TAA rats, and His administration significantly elevated Car levels in control and TAA rats. Car partly attenuated TAA-induced ROS production and reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, whereas the increase of TRx activity in TAA brain was not significantly modulated by Car. Further, Car improved TAA-affected behavioral functions in rats, as was shown by the tests of righting and postural reflexes. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that (i) Car may be added to the list of neuroprotective compounds of therapeutic potential on HE and that (ii) Car mediates at least a portion of the OS-attenuating activity of His in the setting of TAA-induced liver failure.

  17. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  18. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  19. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  20. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  1. [The inhibitory effect and the mechanism of ethanol absorption by L-carnosine zinc complex in mouse gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Natsuki, R; Nozaki, M; Fujimura, H

    1998-12-01

    The effect of L-carnosine-zinc complex(Car-Zn) on ethanol absorption was investigated after oral administration(adm) to mice. One hour after oral adm of Car-Zn, and 14C-ethanol was given orally or intraperitoneally(i.p.). After passage of time, the blood was drawn from the tail vein, and 14C-radioactivities determined. The Car-Zn showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the appearance of 14C-radioactivities in blood following oral 14C-ethanol loading, while Zn acetate did not induce any alteration as compared with control. Car-Zn pretreatment did not induce any change in the blood 14C-radioactivity when ethanol was given i.p. The 14C-radioactivity and zinc in gastrointestinal tract after oral adm of Car-Zn and 14C-ethanol showed significantly higher levels than those of control for 7 hr. Distribution of 14C-radioactivities in other organs of Car-Zn treated mice were lower than those of control 3 hr after adm, while it was similar or higher than those of control 7 hr after adm. The excretions of 14C-radioactivity through expiration in Car-Zn group was a lower than that of control. Also, the urinary and fecal excretions of 14C-radioactivity were low values at 5.0% and 0.5% of the administered dose 72 hr after adm, respectively. Also, the 14C-radioactivities remaining in the organs did not detect or were very low values. In vitro study, Car-Zn stimulated the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid in 9,000 g supernatant of small intestine. The major route of excretions of 14C-radioactivity may be excreted into the expired air. The results suggest that Car-Zn shows a long-term adhesive and permeable action on gastrointestinal tract in the mouse; as a result, this may inhibited ethanol absorption.

  2. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  3. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  4. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  5. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  6. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  7. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  8. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  9. Defining Mental Retardation from an Instructional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)

  10. Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.

    Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…

  11. The Effects of Retardation on Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploratory behavior of educationally mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-old children was compared to that of two independent groups of normal children matched on chronological and mental age. In a multidimensional assessment of exploration, results suggested that delays in exploratory behavior in retarded children are developmental in nature, and…

  12. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  13. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  14. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  15. New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Mo; Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Dong; He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Finite retardation ranges of linear retarders with fixed axes limit their applications in polarization control. In this work, we present a simple and efficient constraint scheme for this finite-retardation limitation. Its theoretical basis is given geometrically and mathematically. The new polarization control algorithm combines the constraint scheme and a widely-used maximum-search algorithm. Both simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme and control algorithm. In experiments, the control system uses four cascaded linear retarders with fast axes alternately oriented at 0° and 45°. Each retarder (fiber squeezer) has a finite retardation range of 4π. For a 15-min test, the mean (maximum) polarization error angle is 0.09 (0.28) rad while stabilizing a polarization fluctuation at an average speed of 26 rad/s. Furthermore, no events of hitting retardation limits occur.

  16. Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis side-product, induces Hsp90 glycation and YAP-mediated tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence; Peixoto, Paul; Chiavarina, Barbara; Peulen, Olivier; Blomme, Arnaud; Turtoi, Andrei; Costanza, Brunella; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Scheijen, Jean L; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Leenders, Justine; De Tullio, Pascal; Bianchi, Elettra; Thiry, Marc; Uchida, Koji; Spiegel, David A; Cochrane, James R; Hutton, Craig A; De Pauw, Edwin; Delvenne, Philippe; Belpomme, Dominique; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2016-10-19

    Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably induces methylglyoxal (MG) formation in cancer cells. MG mediates the glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have recently demonstrated that MG-induced AGEs are a common feature of breast cancer. Little is known regarding the impact of MG-mediated carbonyl stress on tumor progression. Breast tumors with MG stress presented with high nuclear YAP, a key transcriptional co-activator regulating tumor growth and invasion. Elevated MG levels resulted in sustained YAP nuclear localization/activity that could be reverted using Carnosine, a scavenger for MG. MG treatment affected Hsp90 chaperone activity and decreased its binding to LATS1, a key kinase of the Hippo pathway. Cancer cells with high MG stress showed enhanced growth and metastatic potential in vivo. These findings reinforce the cumulative evidence pointing to hyperglycemia as a risk factor for cancer incidence and bring renewed interest in MG scavengers for cancer treatment.

  17. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  18. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  19. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  20. [Correlations between vocal qualities and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappala, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1990-01-01

    This research is intended to verify the existence of vocal spectrographic alterations, with particular reference to the values of Fundamental Frequency, in patients with different levels of Mental Retardation. The results show the existence of a direct correspondence between the values of the Fundamental Frequency and the level of Mental Retardation: the spectrographic characteristics appear to be more altered in subjects with severe Mental Retardation. The spectrographics patterns are characterized by the presence of bi-phonation particularly at the onset time and at the end, and by a noise signal on constant frequency. The shifts of Fundamental Frequency and voice breakage are rarely detected.

  1. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  2. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  3. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  4. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  5. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  6. Galactosaemia: A Preventable Form of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)

  7. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  8. Physical Education: Equipment for Teaching the Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaya, John

    1976-01-01

    Equipment designed to help mentally retarded students develop flexibility, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination, muscle coordination, body balance and control, and social involvement in their peer group. (Author/MLF)

  9. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  10. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  11. Influence of Retardants to Burning Lignocellulosic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureková, Ivana; Harangozó, Jozef; Martinka, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with monitoring retardant changes of lignocellulosic materials. Combustion of lignocellulosic materials and fire-technical characteristics are described. In assessing the retarding effect of salt NH4H2PO4, fire-technical characteristics as limiting oxygen index (LOI) were measured, and by using thermoanalytical TG and DSC methods. High-temperature process of cellulose degradation at various flame concentrations was studied.

  12. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  13. Gitelman's syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, A.; Ambey, R.; Gaur, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman's syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation. PMID:24574637

  14. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  15. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-10-01

    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  16. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  17. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Retarded and Non-Retarded Children at Two Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.; Connor, Catherine

    Cooperative and competitive interaction (interpersonal relationship) between pairs of retarded and nonretarded children of ages 6 to 7 and 11 to 12 were assessed in a situation involving a marble pull apparatus in which competitive interaction was nonadaptive in terms of reward attainment. The retarded group was significantly more cooperative than…

  18. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  19. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.

    PubMed

    Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L

    2000-11-06

    Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

  20. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F L

    2006-03-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.

  1. Hypothyroidism Enhances Tumor Invasiveness and Metastasis Development

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Iglesias, Olaia; García-Silva, Susana; Regadera, Javier; Aranda, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background Whereas there is increasing evidence that loss of expression and/or function of the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) could result in a selective advantage for tumor development, the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and human cancer is a controversial issue. It has been reported that hypothyroidism might be a possible risk factor for liver and breast cancer in humans, but a lower incidence of breast carcinoma has been also reported in hypothyroid patients Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we have analyzed the influence of hypothyroidism on tumor progression and metastasis development using xenografts of parental and TRβ1–expressing human hepatocarcinoma (SK-hep1) and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-468). In agreement with our previous observations tumor invasiveness and metastasis formation was strongly repressed when TRβ–expressing cells were injected into euthyroid nude mice. Whereas tumor growth was retarded when cells were inoculated into hypothyroid hosts, tumors had a more mesenchymal phenotype, were more invasive and metastatic growth was enhanced. Increased aggressiveness and tumor growth retardation was also observed with parental cells that do not express TRs. Conclusions/Significance These results show that changes in the stromal cells secondary to host hypothyroidism can modulate tumor progression and metastatic growth independently of the presence of TRs on the tumor cells. On the other hand, the finding that hypothyroidism can affect differentially tumor growth and invasiveness can contribute to the explanation of the confounding reports on the influence of thyroidal status in human cancer. PMID:19641612

  2. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  3. Mentally retarded workers' reactions to their jobs.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Z; Cnaan, R A; Cnaan, A

    1985-09-01

    Reactions of 34 mentally retarded employees to their jobs were examined in a field study conducted at a sheltered workshop. Three experienced social workers observed a group of retarded employees whose job was assembling toys. The workers were then interviewed on their perceptions of and reactions to their job characteristics and supervision, and these were related to performance data that included performance time, productivity, and effort ratings. Results showed that performance measures were related to perceived job characteristics and that growth-need strength (people's needs for personal development and achievement) affected these relationships. On the basis of these results, we discussed the feasibility of using motivation models for retarded workers that were designed for nonretarded workers.

  4. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  5. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  6. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  7. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  8. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  9. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  10. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  11. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  12. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  13. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  14. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  15. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  17. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  18. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  19. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  20. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  1. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  2. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  3. Throwing Patterns of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David

    This study explored developmental patterns in the acquisition of the gross motor skill of throwing among 110 educable, mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-olds. Each child was examined through cinematographic procedures to discover: a) variance in throwing patterns, b) elements composing throwing skills, and c) sequential integration of the elements…

  4. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  5. Halfway Houses for the Mildly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gia, Gilbert P.

    Investigated were number and location of community residences or halfway houses (of fewer than 61 persons) for the mildly retarded and their programing practices. Form letters and questionnaires uncovered 68 programs meeting internal delimitations of the study. Programs were categorized for analysis purposes into California Programs, New Programs…

  6. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  7. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  8. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  9. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  10. The Deaf Mentally Retarded: Understanding Their World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonies, Barbara C.

    Described photographically and textually in the brochure are the educational, vocational, and social needs of deaf mentally retarded (DMR) children and adults. The DMR person is discussed in relation to the double handicap which precludes educational benefits from a traditional program, secondary problems such as visual handicaps, and incidence…

  11. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  12. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  13. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The document presents an international directory of mental retardation resources. International organizations pertaining to the mentally retarded are listed and described, including those affiliated with the United Nations, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international coordinating agencies, and regional nongovernmental…

  14. Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence There were more than twenty times of observations about gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses since Maurice Allais’s pendulum test during the total solar eclipse of 1954 in Paris. All the theoretical modes are calculated according to Newton’s gravitation law. But due to the observation environments and conditions during above observations were not quite well, the platform for mounting the gravimeters were quite simple, so that the environment and human’s disturbance were unavoidable, therefore the data obtained from above observation where questionable. It is very hard to give a conclusion to say the gravity anomalies during the eclipses were really existing or not. The more important issue is that none of the suggested external factors could account for the magnitude and timing of observed anomalies, according to Chris Duif of University of Technology of Netherland. Since the total solar eclipse of Mohe, 1997, I have been working on a theory to explain the gravity anomalies. At Mohe, I was watching the image of the eclipse, and led a scientific term to conduct a comprehensive geophysical observation, including the gravity observation. The two kinds of observations were conducted at same location and same time. We noticed that solar light of the eclipse was emitted 500 seconds before the image reached to our eyes and cameras. It was reasonable to have similar idea that the gravitation emitted from the sun is also 500 seconds before our gravimeter received and recorded it; it means that gravitation is retarded. Based on either the Special Relativity or Leinard-Wiechert retarded potential, I have deduced the expressions for retarded gravitation; it is vector modification on Newton’s universal gravitation law. The retarded gravitation is gRT=-GM(R-Rβ)(1-β2)/R3(1-βr)3 For common cases, bodies move in a weak gravitation field along a quasi-straight light or with a slow speed, such as planets move around the

  15. Methylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Bellier, Justine; Durieux, Florence; Bletard, Noëlla; Sherer, Félicie; Lovinfosse, Pierre; Peulen, Olivier; Verset, Laurine; Dehon, Romain; Demetter, Pieter; Turtoi, Andrei; Uchida, Koji; Goldman, Serge; Hustinx, Roland; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression. PMID:28117708

  16. Methylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Bellier, Justine; Durieux, Florence; Bletard, Noëlla; Sherer, Félicie; Lovinfosse, Pierre; Peulen, Olivier; Verset, Laurine; Dehon, Romain; Demetter, Pieter; Turtoi, Andrei; Uchida, Koji; Goldman, Serge; Hustinx, Roland; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2017-01-21

    Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression.

  17. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  18. Evaluating Achievement of the Mentally Retarded: A Comprehensive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotick, Andrew L.

    Several factors should be considered in using standardized tests to measure achievement in the mentally retarded. Who should be included in the normative sample is a first consideration; this depends on the definition of mentally retarded being used. For achievement purposes the mentally retarded probably differ from one another as much as they do…

  19. Issues in Identification and Assessment in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal…

  20. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  1. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  2. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  3. [ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS - TOXICITY AND INFLUENCE ON HUMAN HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Frydrych, Barbara; Szymańska, Jadwiga Anna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs) have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium chloride (THPC), tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCP) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (THPS). In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP). They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs.

  4. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  5. An high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous analysis of acetylcarnitine taurinate, carnosine, asparagine and potassium aspartate and for the analysis of phosphoserine in alimentary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; Andreatta, P; Boschetti, S

    2013-07-12

    A RP-HPLC method with pre-column derivatization was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of carnosine (Carn), acetylcarnitine taurinate (AC-Tau), asparagine (Asn), potassium aspartate (Asp) and for the determination of phosphoserine (p-Ser) in new and commercial alimentary supplements. The effect of complex matrices was evaluated by the study of the amino acid derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) both in standard and placebo solutions. The reaction was carried out for 20 min at 70 °C in alkaline medium (pH10) for p-Ser analysis, whereas for 60 min in the case of Carn, AC-Tau, Asn and Asp analysis. The adducts have been separated on a Discovery RP Amide C16 (250 mm×4.6mm, i.d.) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylammonium (TEA) phosphate buffer (pH 3, 0.05 M) under gradient elution conditions at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection was set at λ=360 nm. The validation parameters such as linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be highly satisfactory. Linear responses were observed by placebo solutions (determination coefficient ≤0.9996). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤1.06% for corrected peak area and ≤0.99% for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Recovery studies showed good results for all examined compounds (from 97.7% to 101.5%) with RSD ranging from 0.5% to 1.3%). The high stability of derivatized compound solutions at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of a large number of samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by the use of an autosampler. The developed method can be considered suitable for the quality control of new and commercial products.

  6. Effect of carnosine alone or combined with α-tocopherol on hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in fructose-induced insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Giriş, Murat; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Kumral, Alkın; Olgaç, Vakur; Koçak-Toker, Necla; Uysal, Müjdat

    2014-06-01

    A diet high in fructose (HFr) induces insulin resistance in animals. Free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of HFr-induced insulin resistance. Carnosine (CAR) is a dipeptide with antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of CAR alone or in combination with α-tocopherol (CAR + TOC) on HFr-induced insulin-resistant rats. Rats fed with HFr containing 60% fructose received CAR (2 g/L in drinking water) with/without TOC (200 mg/kg, i.m. twice a week) for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance, serum lipids, inflammation markers, hepatic lipids, lipid peroxides, and glutathione (GSH) levels together with glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase 1 (CuZnSOD; SOD1) activities and their protein expressions were measured. Hepatic histopathological examinations were performed. HFr was observed to cause insulin resistance, inflammation and hypertriglyceridemia, and increased triglyceride and lipid peroxide levels in the liver. GSH-Px activity and expression decreased, but GSH levels and SOD1 activity and expression did not alter in HFr rats. Hepatic marker enzyme activities in serum increased and marked macro- and microvesicular steatosis were seen in the liver. CAR treatment did not alter insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia, but it decreased steatosis and lipid peroxidation without any change in the antioxidant system of the liver. However, CAR + TOC treatment decreased insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and lipid peroxidation and increased GSH-Px activity and expression in the liver. Our results may indicate that CAR + TOC treatment is more effective to decrease HFr-induced insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and dysfunction and pro-oxidant status in rats than CAR alone.

  7. Zinc-carnosine and vitamin E supplementation does not ameliorate gastrointestinal side effects associated with ciclosporin therapy of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura S; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Roycroft, Linda M

    2011-02-01

    Chelated zinc-carnosine and vitamin E [GastriCalm(®) (GCM); Teva Animal Health] is marketed as an anti-emetic supplement for dogs to assist the repair of damaged stomach and intestinal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether GCM reduced the frequency of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes during initiation of ciclosporin (Atopica(®); Novartis Animal Health) therapy for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. Sixty privately owned dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to GCM (n=30) or placebo (n=30) groups. All dogs received ∼ 5 mg/kg ciclosporin (range, 3.5-5.8 mg/kg) once daily. Dogs <13.6 kg received half a tablet of GCM or placebo; dogs ≥ 13.6 kg received one tablet once daily. GastriCalm(®) or placebo was administered 30 min prior to eating, and the ciclosporin was administered 2 h after feeding. Owners recorded episodes of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes. Dogs were examined on days 0 and 14. Forty-one of 60 dogs (68.3%) had at least one episode of vomiting, diarrhoea or appetite change, leaving nine placebo dogs (30%) and ten GCM dogs (33.3%) free of adverse events (AE). Twenty-seven of 60 dogs (45%) vomited, and 15 of 60 (25%) had diarrhoea. There was no significant difference in episodes of individual AEs, but the placebo group had a significantly lower total AE score (summation of episodes of appetite change, vomiting and diarrhoea; P=0.022). Small dogs (<6.82 kg) had significantly fewer total AEs in both treatment groups and tolerated ciclosporin better than larger dogs (P<0.05).

  8. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  9. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  10. [Hearing function in children with speech retardation].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Povarova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Hearing function was studied in 140 children aged between 2 and 5 years with speech retardation and perinatal pathology for formulation of further treatment policy and rehabilitation. Impedance audiometry, SEAAE, game audiometry identified hearing loss of the first, second, third, forth degree in 6 (4%), 10 (7%), 24 (17%), 31 (21%) children respectively. Deafness was registered in 17 (12%) children, 52 (37%) examinees were audiologically normal.

  11. Walking Habits of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…

  12. Mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

  13. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  14. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Wilms Tumor KidsHealth > For Parents > Wilms Tumor Print A A A What's in this article? ... their child has cancer. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor, a rare kidney cancer, survive and go on ...

  16. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  17. The research of far infrared flame retardant polyester staple fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingshan; Zhang, Kaijun; Luo, Jinqong; Li, Ji’an; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Qianqian; Jin, Yongxia; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared flame retardant slices was prepared, fiber with far infrared flame retardant composite function was also prepared by the method of melt spinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fibrous microscopic structure. In the SEM images, functional ultrafine powder particle size and distribution in the fiber were visible. The results show that the functional ultrafine powder is evenly distributed on the fibrous surface, which is closely combined with fiber, and the far infrared emissivity is F, which is more than (8 to 14 microns) 0.88. Far infrared flame retardant polyester fiber has not only good flame retardant, but also environmental health effect: releasing negative ions and launch far-infrared, which shows wide application prospect. The fiber was processed into far-infrared flame retardant electric blanket, whose functional indicators and flame retardant properties are not reduced.

  18. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  19. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  20. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  1. Tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of trachea and bronchi are uncommon and can occur in the form of benign or low- and high-grade malignant tumors. Although tracheobronchial tumors (TBTs) represent only 0.6% of all pulmonary tumors, they are clinically significant. Delays in diagnosis of these tumors commonly occur because the signs and symptoms caused by these tumors are nonspecific and chest radiographs are often considered unremarkable. Therefore, novel radiological techniques and better access to flexible bronchoscopy enable detection of larger number of TBT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of tracheal and bronchial tumors and discuss significant aspects of the different TBT with focus on clinical manifestations and diagnostic procedures. PMID:28066620

  2. Cleavage of the peptide bond of beta-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) induced by a Co(III)-amine complexes: reaction, structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manas K; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Bernal, Ivan

    2004-05-07

    Cleavage of the peptide bond occurs when beta]-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) reacts with [Co(tren)Cl2]+ (tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) to give [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 and [Co(tren)(beta-alanine)](2+) 2. [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 crystallizes in the enantiomorphic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and 2 crystallizes in the P2(1)/c space group. The mechanism of the cleavage reactions were studied in detail for the precursor [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and [Co(trien)Cl2]+, which convert into [Co(tren)(OH)2]+/[Co(tren)(OH)(OH2)]2+ and [Co(trien)(OH)2]+/[Co(trien)(OH)(OH2)]2+ in water at basic pH (trien = 1,4,7,10-tetraazadecane). At a slightly basic pH, the initial coordination of the substrate (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is by the carboxylate group for the reaction with [Co(tren)Cl2]+. This is followed by a rate-limiting nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. In a strongly basic reaction medium substrate, binding of the metal was through carboxylate and amine terminals. On the other hand, for the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine, the initial coordination of the substrate takes place via an imidazole ring nitrogen, independently, and followed by a nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. The circular dichroism spectrum for 1 suggests that a very small extent of racemization of the amino acid (L-histidine) takes place during the cleavage reaction between [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine. Reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine also causes cleavage of the peptide bond, producing a free beta-alanyl molecule and a cationic fragment [cis-alpha-Co(trien)(histidine)](2+) 3 that crystallizes in the optically active space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). Unlike the previous case an appreciable degree of racemization of the L-histidine takes place during the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta

  3. Scalable Preparation of Multifunctional Fire-Retardant Ultralight Graphene Foams.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xue, Jiangli; Dong, Liye; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Xiaopeng; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming

    2016-01-26

    Traditional flame-retardant materials often show poor tolerance to oxidants, strong acidic/alkaline reagents, organic solvents, along with toxicity problems. Herein, highly fire-retardant ultralight graphene foam has been developed, which possesses not only ultralight and compressible characteristics but also efficient flame-retardant properties, outperforming those traditional polymer, metallic oxide, and metal hydroxide based flame retardant materials and their composites. The newly developed unconventional refractory materials are promising for specific applications as demonstrated by the observed high temperature resistant microwave absorption capability.

  4. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D

    1978-10-01

    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  5. Rotatable broadband retarders for far infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, T.D.; Carr, G.; Zhou, T.; Kotelyanskii, M.; Sirenko, A.A.

    2010-12-09

    Rotatable retarders have been developed for applications in spectroscopic, full Mueller Matrix ellipsometry in the far-IR spectral range. Several materials, such as silicon, KRS-5, and a commercial polymer plastic (TOPAS) have been utilized to achieve a fully adjustable retardation between 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Experimental characteristics of the rotatable retarders that utilize three- and four-bounce designs are compared with calculations. We discuss the effect of light focusing on the performance of these rotatable retarders. Broadband optical retarders are required for spectroscopic ellipsometry in its full Mueller matrix (MM) realization. Performance of the MM ellipsometer depends on the capability to produce substantially linearly-independent Stokes vectors for the light incident onto the sample. As has been shown, the errors in the measuredMMof the sample are proportional to the condition number of the 4 x 4 matrix composed of the Stokes vectors of four polarization states incident at the sample. It can be proven that it is impossible to cover the Poincare sphere with linearly-independent Stokes vectors by only changing the linear polarization at the input surface of a stationary retarder. As we will illustrate further in this paper, total coverage of the Poincare sphere is possible by rotating a tandem of a linear polarizer and a retarder with a retardation of 90{sup o}. It is this goal that we are trying to achieve in the retarder designs described in this paper.

  6. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  7. Polarization characterization of liquid-crystal variable retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Iván.; Bruce, Neil C.; López-Téllez, Juan M.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison between two experimental techniques to characterize retardance as a function of applied voltage of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) is presented. In the first method the variable retarder was rotated between two polarizers with their transmission axes parallel, and the retardance was calculated from the Fourier series coefficients for each applied voltage. The second method involved using two polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular to each other, the variable retarder was placed between the polarizers with its optical axis at 45° from the horizontal, and a final stage known as "phase unwrapping" is used on experimental data to obtain the voltage-retardance function. With these two experimental methods, the voltage-retardance relationship was obtained. To verify the accuracy of this characterization a second experiment involving the production of specific polarization states was performed as the basis of a Mueller polarimeter. A method based on measuring the optical signal resulting from the application of a predetermined set of fixed values of retardance in each retarder was used. 16 elements of the Mueller matrix of a polarizer with its transmission axis at 0° and 90° were measured, and the results are compared to the expected theoretical values.

  8. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  9. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Nakari, Tarja; Pessala, Piia

    2005-09-10

    Estrogenicity of five brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-205, PBB-153 and technical Firemaster BP-6, were assessed by in vitro assays developed to detect chemicals with estrogenic properties. Recombinant yeast cells containing a human estrogen receptor gene failed to give any response to the chemicals tested. However, the positive control compound, estradiol-17beta, showed that the yeast cell assays had worked properly. The freshly separated fish hepatocyte assay based on the synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin from the isolated liver cells produced a clear dose-response curve in the presence of all tested flame retardants except Firemaster BP-6. The toxicity of the BFRs was detected by determining the cell ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD). The BFRs tested induced hepatic EROD activity at low test concentrations, but started to inhibit activity at higher concentrations. The decreased detoxification capacity of the hepatocytes resulted in a decrease in the vitellogenin production of the cells. The capability of in vitro assays to detect estrogenic properties of chemicals seems to vary. Thus, further work is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these reactions.

  10. Are brominated flame retardants endocrine disruptors?

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2003-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.

  11. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  12. Identification and Characterization of Tumor Antigens Associated with Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    syndrome (ATR-X syndrome) which effective antitumoral immunity is currently an area of includes a- thalassemia , urogenital abnormalities, and a active...major histocompatibility complex class I-re- linked mental retardation with a- thalassemia (ATR-X stricted antigen of a murine colon tumor derives from

  13. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  14. Role of curcumin-dependent modulation of tumor microenvironment of a murine T cell lymphoma in altered regulation of tumor cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-05-01

    Using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, in the present study, we report that tumor growth retarding action of curcumin involves modulation of some crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment regulating tumor progression. Curcumin-administration to tumor-bearing host caused an altered pH regulation in tumor cells associated with alteration in expression of cell survival and apoptosis regulatory proteins and genes. Nevertheless, an alteration was also observed in biophysical parameters of tumor microenvironment responsible for modulation of tumor growth pertaining to hypoxia, tumor acidosis, and glucose metabolism. The study thus sheds new light with respect to the antineoplastic action of curcumin against a tumor-bearing host with progressively growing tumor of hematological origin. This will help in optimizing application of the drug and anticancer research and therapy. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  15. Educational Initiatives in Mental Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Holland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijers, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)

  16. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  17. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  18. New monomers for fire-retardant radiation curable polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, W.G.; Bush, R.W.; Ketley, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Novel photosensitive compositions are described which combine excellent UV curability and good flame-retardant properties. These compositions consist of halogenated allyl or methallyl esters, which, in combination with polythiols and photoinitiators and other additives, result in screenable liquids which can be applied to electronic circuit boards and cured with UV light to hard, fire-retardant coatings.

  19. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  20. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  1. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  2. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  3. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  4. Effects on Learning of Relaxation Training with Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.

    Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…

  5. Novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorous-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produ...

  6. Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

    Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

  7. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  8. The Mentally Retarded Inmate: Prison Adjustment and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether or not there were differences in the prison adaptation of mentally retarded and nonretarded inmates. Compared 439 retarded inmates, 439 matched nonretarded inmates, and 439 unmatched nonretarded inmates. Found statistically significant differences between groups in the areas of assaults on correctional officers and other…

  9. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  10. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  11. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  12. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  13. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  14. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  15. RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.

    A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION"…

  16. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosen, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  17. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  18. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  20. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  1. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  2. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  3. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  4. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  5. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  6. Cognitive Development Among Retardates: Reanalysis of Inhelder's Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes

    A reanalysis of B. Inhelder's (1968) data concerning cognitive development among retardates was performed by selecting from the original 159 subjects a sample of 104 educable mentally retarded Ss (7-19 years old) who were diagnosed as fixated or nonfixated at three of the cognitive stages postulated by Jean Piaget. The results indicated that among…

  7. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  8. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  9. Crisis Intervention With the Mentally Retarded: The New Treatment Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny; Deutsch, Martin R.

    The trend toward normalization of the mentally retarded has brought a new dimension to the problem of their adjustment. Within the past several years, large numbers of the mentally retarded have been discharged into the community from residential facilities; the stress and anxiety they experience at being thrust into a strange and alien world…

  10. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  11. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  12. A Practical Guide for Teaching the Mentally Retarded to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…

  13. TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A HANDBOOK FOR WARD PERSONNEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENSBERG, GERALD J.

    WRITTEN FOR ATTENDANTS, VOLUNTEERS, PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE, AND PARENTS, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO BE AS INDEPENDENT AS POSSIBLE. THE FIRST SECTION PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND CONTRASTS THESE WITH SOME OF THE NEEDS OF THE RETARDED.…

  14. Behind the Wheel Training for Individuals Labeled Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zider, Steven J.; Gold, Marc W.

    1981-01-01

    The study investigated a strategy for teaching two moderately retarded adults to perform skills required for driving an automobile. Training consisted of two phases--simulator training and driving-range training. Data supported the claim that moderately mentally retarded individuals are capable of performing complex behaviors. (SB)

  15. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  16. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Results Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24±0.50 vs +0.12±0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Conclusions Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685 PMID:26406981

  17. Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) for Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Problems associated with Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA), which can be used to measure ion temperature/and density in the lower E region where ion temperature is 200-300 K, are discussed. Two major factors which need to be taken care of to get accurate ion temperature of extremely low values are the effect of mesh size of the grids to be used and the effect of electrode contamination. An electrode baking and vacuum sealing mechanisms are designed to keep the electrode surface clean. The effect of mesh sizes on the calculation of ion temperature is discussed by using simulation studies as well as laboratory experiments. The study suggests that the uniformity of the electric field in the RPA sensor is critical. The manuscript describes the principle of the RPA, the effect of the mesh size using computer simulation studies, and the mechanical design of the sensor sealing to remove electrode contamination.

  18. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  19. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  20. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  1. Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. They grow ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.

  2. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  3. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  4. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  5. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  6. Leber's congenital amaurosis. Is mental retardation a frequent associated defect?

    PubMed

    Nickel, B; Hoyt, C S

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-one patients had Leber's congenital amaurosis. Only one was severely retarded, and three demonstrated hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis on computed tomographic scanning. These findings are in contrast to those of previous investigators, who have emphasized the high incidence of psychomotor retardation associated with Leber's amaurosis. Much of the psychomotor retardation that has been reported is probably secondary to the sensory deprivation and not necessarily a sign of structural CNS dysfunction. The diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis does not, therefore, portend severe intellectual impairment and poor educability.

  7. Motivation, vocational interests and job satisfaction of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.

  8. Assessing Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge About Chemical Flame Retardants.

    PubMed

    Distelhorst, Laura; Bieda, Amy; DiMarco, Marguerite; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    Chemical flame retardants are routinely applied to children's products and are harmful to their health. Pediatric nurses are in a key position to provide education to caregivers on methods to decrease their children's exposure to these harmful chemicals. However, a critical barrier is the absence of any program to educate nurses about chemical flame retardants. In order to overcome this barrier, we must first assess their knowledge. This article provides key highlights every pediatric nurse should know about chemical flame retardants and reports the results of a knowledge assessment study.

  9. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  10. Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... team and have training in child development, recreation, psychology or social work. If your child must remain ... conditions/wilms-tumor/basics/definition/CON-20043492 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  11. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  12. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 49. Read More Brain tumor - children Hodgkin lymphoma Metastasis Spinal cord trauma Review Date 8/15/2016 Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review ...

  13. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of kidney cancer that occurs in children. Causes WT is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in most children is unknown. A missing iris of the eye ( ...

  14. Pituitary tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  15. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.

  16. Inhibition of Complement Retards Ankylosing Spondylitis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoqun; Ding, Peipei; Wang, Qingkai; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Jianquan; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Chen, Jianfeng; Yang, Guang; Hu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) resulting in back pain and progressive spinal ankyloses. Currently, there are no effective therapeutics targeting AS largely due to elusive pathogenesis mechanisms, even as potential candidates such as HLA-B27 autoantigen have been identified. Herein, we employed a proteoglycan (PG)-induced AS mouse model together with clinical specimens, and found that the complement system was substantially activated in the spinal bone marrow, accompanied by a remarkable proportion alteration of neutrophils and macrophage in bone marrow and spleen, and by the significant increase of TGF-β1 in serum. The combined treatment with a bacteria-derived complement inhibitor Efb-C (C-terminal of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus) remarkably retarded the progression of mouse AS by reducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two important modulators involved in AS disease, TGF-β1 and RANKL, were elevated upon in vitro complement attack in osteoblast and/or osteoclast cells. These findings further unravel that complement activation is closely related with the pathogenesis of AS, and suggest that complement inhibition may hold great potential for AS therapy. PMID:27698377

  17. Fire retardant effects of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hull, T Richard; Stec, Anna A; Nazare, Shonali

    2009-07-01

    Among the many and varied applications of nanotechnology, the dispersion of nanoscopic fillers to form polymer nanocomposites with improved fire behaviour illustrates the potential and diversity of nanoscience. Different polymers decompose in different ways and fire retardants act to inhibit the decomposition or flaming combustion processes. Polymer nanocomposites form barriers between the fuel and air, reducing the rate of burning, but beyond that there is little consistency in their effects. It is shown that the decomposition products of polypropylene are changed by the presence of nanoclay, although there is only a small influence on the mass loss rate. The rheological properties of molten polymer nanocomposites are radically different from those of virgin polymers, and these will profoundly affect the heat transfer through the material, resulting in a shorter time to ignition and lower peak in the heat release rate, typical of polymer nanocomposites. The dispersion of nanofillers within polymers is generally measured in the cold polymer, but since this does not reflect the condition at the time of ignition, it is proposed that temperature ramped rheological measurements are more appropriate indicators of dispersion. The influence of polymer nanocomposite formation on the yields of toxic products from fire is studied using the ISO 19700 steady state tube furnace, and it is found that under early stages of burning more carbon monoxide and organoirritants are formed, but under the more toxic under-ventilated conditions, less toxic products are formed.

  18. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  19. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  20. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard

    2006-01-01

    X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615

  1. Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis side-product, induces Hsp90 glycation and YAP-mediated tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence; Peixoto, Paul; Chiavarina, Barbara; Peulen, Olivier; Blomme, Arnaud; Turtoi, Andrei; Costanza, Brunella; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Scheijen, Jean L; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Leenders, Justine; De Tullio, Pascal; Bianchi, Elettra; Thiry, Marc; Uchida, Koji; Spiegel, David A; Cochrane, James R; Hutton, Craig A; De Pauw, Edwin; Delvenne, Philippe; Belpomme, Dominique; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably induces methylglyoxal (MG) formation in cancer cells. MG mediates the glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have recently demonstrated that MG-induced AGEs are a common feature of breast cancer. Little is known regarding the impact of MG-mediated carbonyl stress on tumor progression. Breast tumors with MG stress presented with high nuclear YAP, a key transcriptional co-activator regulating tumor growth and invasion. Elevated MG levels resulted in sustained YAP nuclear localization/activity that could be reverted using Carnosine, a scavenger for MG. MG treatment affected Hsp90 chaperone activity and decreased its binding to LATS1, a key kinase of the Hippo pathway. Cancer cells with high MG stress showed enhanced growth and metastatic potential in vivo. These findings reinforce the cumulative evidence pointing to hyperglycemia as a risk factor for cancer incidence and bring renewed interest in MG scavengers for cancer treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19375.001 PMID:27759563

  2. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  3. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  4. Comparative approaches to the nonconsensual sterilization of the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Price, D P

    1990-01-01

    Laws governing the sterilization of persons so mentally retarded as to be unable themselves to consent to the procedure have left a trail of manifest abuses right around the globe, and no less in North America than elsewhere. Ostensibly, as a kind of rebound effect, courts in North America, and most obviously in Canada, have erected substantial legal obstacles in the path of those seeking the sterilization of such a retarded individual. Historically, such abuses have been of a lesser scale, or at least have been much less manifest, in Great Britain. In the absence of any significant negative legacy, courts in Britain would seem to have developed a more balanced and equitable, although not necessarily more reasoned, approach to the determination of such cases to the seeming benefit of many seriously retarded persons. Ironically, these same courts hinder their own efforts in relation to retarded adults by denying jurisdiction in such cases and refusing to seek an adequate remedy for the lacuna.

  5. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  6. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  7. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  8. Reversal and Rotation Errors by Normal and Retarded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, F. William

    1973-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the incidence of and relationships among word and letter reversals in writing and Bender-Gestalt rotation errors in matched samples of normal and retarded readers. No significant diffenences were found in the two groups. (TO)

  9. Retarded boson-fermion interaction in atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sambhu N.; Misra, Anirban

    2006-08-01

    The retarded interaction between an electron and a spin-0 nucleus is derived from electrodynamical perturbation theory. The contribution of retardation at order v2/c2 mimics the Breit interaction [Phys. Rev. 34, 553 (1929); 36, 388 (1930); 39, 616 (1932)] with the Dirac matrix α2 being replaced by p2/m2c where p2 is the linear momentum operator for the nucleus. An effective one-electron retardation operator is obtained in relative coordinates, and this can be used through all orders in perturbation theory without any problem of infinite degeneracy. A few steps of unitary transformation lead to the nonrelativistic limit. The leading terms in retardation corrections to energy are of order (me/mn)α2Z4(α2mec2). The implications for atomic systems are discussed.

  10. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  11. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  12. A simple analytical method to obtain achromatic waveplate retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Lazarova-Lazarova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    A new linear and analytical method to design achromatic retarders using waveplates is proposed. The root of this procedure is a generalization of the Hariharan method, which supposes a set of waveplates with fast axes aligned. Hence, it imposes a set of contour conditions over the overall retardation with the aim of determining the thicknesses of the waveplates. Our method proposes a polynomial approximation of the birefringences, thus removing the contour condition. Analytic expressions for calculating the thicknesses of the waveplates are then derived, showing a non-explicit dependence on the wavelength. Moreover, the overall retardation obtained by this method is close to the optimal retardation curve achieved by minimizing the merit function of the achromatism degree.

  13. Retardation in Mathematics: A Consideration of Multi-Factorial Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdown, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Discusses mathematical retardation as a construct and examines the possible contributions of emotional factors, socioeconomic factors, poor teaching, cognitive factors, and sex difference to low achievement in mathematics. (JB)

  14. Auditory Reinforcement in Profoundly Retarded Multiply Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, R. E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four profoundly retarded multiply handicapped children (with a mean age of 12 years) were placed in a situation where auditory stimulation was made contingent on a visually directed lever-pulling response. (Author/MH)

  15. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  16. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used as additives in industrial and consumer products such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textiles, and building/construction materials. Due to human exposure and potential health effects, OPFRs inc...

  17. Burning To Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants--substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning--that can be introduced when discussing combustion reactions or during a practical or everyday chemistry unit. (ASK)

  18. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  19. Promoting Social Play in Small Groups of Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Daniel M.; McGourty, David G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for fading object rewards for superordinate prerequisites to social play simultaneously with socially rewarded training on specific play was effective in teaching games to 15 institutionalized retarded adolescents. (Author/CL)

  20. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  1. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame-Retardants on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) that are used as additives in industrial and consumer products including electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building/construction materials. T...

  2. Consumer Roulette: The Shopping Patterns of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Randall D.; Ewing, Sheryl

    1981-01-01

    To develop information regarding the commercial product purchasing behavior of mildly mentally retarded adults, 11 participants were included in a mock shopping exercise. The results indicated several serious deficiencies in the purchasing strategies of the participants. (Author/SB)

  3. A Survey of Toxoplasmosis Among Mentally Retarded Children

    PubMed Central

    Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.

    1965-01-01

    To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency. PMID:14282158

  4. BRIEF IN-PATIENT FAMILY INTERVENTION IN MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, H.S.; Girimaji, S.R.; Gandhi, D.H.; Raju, K. Maruthai; Rao, P. Madhu; Nardev, G.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel programme of intervention - brief inpatient family intervention - was formulated to impart the training skills to the parents of mentally retarded children to optimise the development of their retarded child. During the period of this study. 106 mentally retarded children with different socio-demographic backgrounds and degrees of handicap participated in this programme, with encouraging results. The individualised management plan, spread over 2 weeks of inpatient stay, included intensive counselling, training of the parents in techniques of multisensory stimulation, speech, motor, and self-help skills training, behaviour modification and medical management, as required. The programme could serve as a suitable model for professionals working with the mentally retarded, to implement with limited resources. PMID:21927322

  5. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  6. Spinal Cord Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord tumor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your ... as vertebral tumors. Tumors that begin within the spinal cord itself are called spinal cord tumors. There are ...

  7. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Wilms Tumor About Wilms Tumor What Is Wilms Tumor? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... live normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Wilms tumors Wilms tumors are the most common cancers in ...

  8. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  9. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  10. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  11. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  12. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  13. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  14. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  15. N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eyedrops possess all-in-one universal antioxidant protective effects of L-carnosine in aqueous and lipid membrane environments, aldehyde scavenging, and transglycation activities inherent to cataracts: a clinical study of the new vision-saving drug N-acetylcarnosine eyedrop therapy in a database population of over 50,500 patients.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Micans, Philip; Guiotto, Andrea; Kasus-Jacobi, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine, bioactivated in ocular tissues) versus N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine, ocular-targeted small dipeptide molecules) was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid environment, employing liposomes as a model of lipid membranes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated by an iron/ascorbate promoter system for induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO). L-carnosine, which is stabilized from enzymatic hydrolysis, operates as a universal aldehyde and ROS scavenger in both aqueous and lipid environments and is effective at preventing ROS-induced damage to biomolecules. Second-generation carnosine analogs bearing the histidyl-hydrazide moiety were synthesized and tested versus L-carnosine for their ability to reverse the glycation process, also known as the Maillard reaction, and reverse the stable intermolecular cross-links, monitored in the glucose-ethylamine Schiff base model, ultimately resulting in the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) from nonenzymatic glycation, accumulating in numerous body tissues and fluids. The obtained data demonstrate the transglycation properties of the ophthalmically stabilized L-carnosine and L-carnosine histidyl-hydrazide derivatives tested and can be used to decrease or predict the occurrence of long-term complications of AGE formation and improve therapeutically the quality of vision and length of life for diabetes mellitus patients and survivors with early aging. Scientists at Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP), developed lubricant eyedrops designed as a sustained-release 1% N-acetylcarnosine prodrug of L-carnosine. The eyedrops contain a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters and glycerine in a drug-delivery system. Anti-aging therapeutics with the ophthalmic drug eyedrop formula including N-acetylcarnosine showed efficacy in the nonsurgical treatment of age-related cataracts for

  16. Flame retardant exposure among collegiate United States gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Courtney C; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D; Roberts, Simon C; Stapleton, Heather M; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F

    2013-12-03

    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general United States population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air, and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18-22) from one gym in the eastern United States. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4-6.5 times higher than in the general United States population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2-3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general United States population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH.

  17. Flame Retardant Exposure among Collegiate U.S. Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D.; Roberts, Simon C.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general U.S. population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18–22) from one gym in the Eastern U.S. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4–6.5 times higher than general U.S. population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2–3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general U.S. population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH. PMID:24195753

  18. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  19. Molecular and comparative genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472

  20. Liquid crystal retarder spectral retardance characterization based on a Cauchy dispersion relation and a voltage transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Asticio; Donoso, Ramiro; Ramírez, Manuel; Carrión, José; del Mar Sánchez-López, María; Moreno, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    We present a methodology for the spectral characterization of the optical modulation properties of a liquid crystal retarder (LCR). The method includes its complete description with a single Cauchy dispersion relation and a single voltage transfer function. As a result, an accurate description of the LCR retardance is achieved, both versus applied voltage and versus wavelength, with very few parameters. Finally, an imaging polarimetric system has also been developed to characterize the spatial variations in the device.

  1. Non-flammable elastomeric fiber from a fluorinated elastomer and containing an halogenated flame retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S. G.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions are described comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain halogen containing polyols, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and articles of manufacture comprised of the flame retardant clastomeric materials and non elastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, nylons, etc.

  2. Radiation-Induced Growth Retardation and Microstructural and Metabolite Abnormalities in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zawaski, Janice A.; Sahnoune, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) increases survival in pediatric brain-tumor patients but can cause deleterious effects. This study evaluates the acute and long-term impact of CRT delivered during childhood/adolescence on the brain and body using a rodent model. Rats received CRT, either 4 Gy fractions × 5 d (fractionated) or a cumulative dose of 20 Gy (single dose) at 28 d of age. Animals were euthanized 1 d, 5 d, or 3.5 mo after CRT. The 3.5 mo group was imaged prior to euthanasia. At 3.5 mo, we observed significant growth retardation in irradiated animals, versus controls, and the effects of single dose on brain and body weights were more severe than fractionated. Acutely single dose significantly reduced body weight but increased brain weight, whereas fractionation significantly reduced brain but not body weights, versus controls. CRT suppressed cell proliferation in the hippocampal subgranular zone acutely. Fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fimbria was significantly lower in the single dose versus controls. Hippocampal metabolite levels were significantly altered in the single dose animals, reflecting a heightened state of inflammation that was absent in the fractionated. Our findings indicate that despite the differences in severity between the doses they both demonstrated an effect on cell proliferation and growth retardation, important factors in pediatric CRT. PMID:27242931

  3. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  4. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost always benign (not cancerous), but can cause hormonal imbalances and interfere with the normal function of the pituitary gland. Because the pituitary affects so many functions of the body, ... the tumor mass or hormonal changes (either too much or too little hormone). ...

  5. Duplication of 5q21 in a mildly retarded male and his non-retarded mother

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, R.; Zurcher, V.; Schwartz, S.

    1994-09-01

    Euchromatic autosomal additions to chromosomal complements are typically associated with global effects including mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphism. We report a familial duplication that does not appear to cause consistent, significant effects. A hyperactive male with mild MR was referred for fra(X) testing at 8 yrs. His karyotype was fra(X) negative and normal except for an addition in one 5q. The abnormal 5 was also in the maternal karyotype, but all other parental chromosomes were normal. The addition (=8.5% the length of a 5) was interpreted as a duplication of band 5q21. FISH with Coatasome 5 (Oncor) showed the addition was from 5. The proband`s karyotype was designated 46,XY,dup(5)(q15q22.1)mat; his mother`s, 46,XX,dup(5)(q15q22.1). Single copy probes are being used to test the cytogenetic interpretation. At 39 yrs, the non-retarded, somewhat inattentive mother, who has a high school diploma and subsequent secretarial courses, cares for the proband and his chromosomally normal, but learning disabled sister at home. The family situation is chaotic with reported paternal psychiatric illness and abuse of the proband and his sister. The mother`s father is dead, but her four younger siblings and mother are reportedly normal. Their chromosomes have not been available. The proband was born at 40 weeks following an uneventful pregnancy, with length and weight at the 5-10th centiles. He walked and talked at about one year. At 9 yrs, his ht/wt ratio was 10th centile. Foot length as <3rd centile; soft masses were present on the anterior ankles. He was otherwise physically normal. His estimated I.Q. was 75 and he was severely hyperactive despite Ritalin. This is the first report of a familial duplication in 5q; no identical, isolated case is known. Although additional family members need evaluation, the presence of the dup(5q) in the non-retarded mother suggests that it may not be associated with the proband`s MR.

  6. Insulin reverses the growth retardation effect of phorbol ester in chicken embryos during organogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Girbau, M.; Bassas, L.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol esters can affect early embryonic development by causing interference with the normal pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. The present study was designed to: (a) define a time in organogenesis when a vertebrate embryo model, the chicken, was sensitive to the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoil-13-acetate (TPA), and (b) attempt a rescue of the embryos disturbed by TPA with simultaneous addition of insulin. In embryos treated at days 2 and 3 of development, TPA caused dose-dependent mortality. Survivors were biochemically retarded as indicated by their decreased weight, protein, DNA, RNA, total creatine kinase, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol contents. When intermediated doses of TPA were applied together with insulin the embryonic growth disturbance was largely antagonized. These data, generated with an in vivo whole embryo, support the strong link between the mode of action of insulin and signal transduction mechanisms typical of phorbol esters.

  7. Composing a Tumor Specific Bacterial Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Deyneko, Igor V.; Kasnitz, Nadine; Leschner, Sara; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Systemically applied Salmonella enterica spp. have been shown to invade and colonize neoplastic tissues where it retards the growth of many tumors. This offers the possibility to use the bacteria as a vehicle for the tumor specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Specificity of such delivery is solely depending on promoter sequences that control the production of a target molecule. We have established the functional structure of bacterial promoters that are transcriptionally active exclusively in tumor tissues after systemic application. We observed that the specific transcriptional activation is accomplished by a combination of a weak basal promoter and a strong FNR binding site. This represents a minimal set of control elements required for such activation. In natural promoters, additional DNA remodeling elements are found that alter the level of transcription quantitatively. Inefficiency of the basal promoter ensures the absence of transcription outside tumors. As a proof of concept, we compiled an artificial promoter sequence from individual motifs representing FNR and basal promoter and showed specific activation in a tumor microenvironment. Our results open possibilities for the generation of promoters with an adjusted level of expression of target proteins in particular for applications in bacterial tumor therapy. PMID:27171245

  8. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development: Selected Papers from the 1970 Staff Development Conferences of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation (Washington, D.C., 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…

  9. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  10. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. Methods To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. Results A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children’s pajamas in the 1970’s although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. Conclusion This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many

  11. Sex between people with "mental retardation": an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-06-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" [1] morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity" and mental retardation" are analysed briefly, which is challenging given the widely divergent and sometimes rather awkward definitions of these concepts. On the basis of this analysis, it is argued that the liberal principle of mutual consent, if taken as a necessary condition of permissible sex, has unacceptable consequences for people with mental retardation. Many forms of sex between them would be morally impermissible, given the fact that their limited powers of practical reasoning will often make valid consent well-nigh impossible. As an alternative to the liberal principle of permissible sex, conditions are specified that include the additional consent of caretakers. If people with mental retardation do not have the capacities of practical deliberation required for valid consent, care providers with mature reasoning powers should act as their substitutes. Finally, some important implications for the moral education of future care professionals are spelled out.

  12. "Cancer tumor".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  13. Severe growth retardation following limb lengthening: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Price, C. T.; Carantzas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The first limb lengthening was reported by Codivilla in 1905. Common complications reported with this procedure include pain tract infections, angulation deformities, joint contractures, and residual limb length discrepancies. Growth arrest or severe growth retardation in the lengthened bones has rarely been reported. We report a case of a skeletally immature patient with right sided hemihypertrophy who underwent lengthening of the left lower extremity by the method of DeBastiani using Orthofix external fixators. Postoperatively he developed severe growth retardation in the lengthened limb, as evidenced by the Mosely straight line graph, and recurrence of his limb length discrepancy. The reason for this growth retardation remains unknown; however, we hypothesize that premature closure at one or more of the physes occurred because of increased tension across the growth plates. The practice of over-lengthening a congenitally short limb prior to physeal closure should be questioned because resumption of growth after lengthening may be unpredictable. PMID:9129286

  14. WEEE recycling: Pyrolysis of fire retardant model polymers.

    PubMed

    Luda, M P; Euringer, N; Moratti, U; Zanetti, M

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis treatments of model polymers were made with the aim of studying the recycling of wastes from electronic, electric equipment containing brominated flame retardants. Pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and epoxy resins were made both in flow and closed systems. Products of pyrolysis were analysed with FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS and the evolution of bromine was followed with a bromine ion specific electrode. The effect of alkali on pyrolysis was also studied demonstrating, as far epoxy resin is concerned, to be effective on decreasing bromine content in oil and volatile products leading to the recovery of bromine from the residue by washing. The alkali treatment was shown to be less effective in styrenic polymers containing brominated flame retardants.

  15. Eye movements and conservation acceleration in mildly retarded children.

    PubMed

    Boersma, F J; Wilton, K M

    1976-05-01

    Thirty mildly retarded elementary-school children, 15 of whom had received perceptual/attentional training, were tested on four Piagetian conservation tasks (number, length, and continuous quantity solid/liquid) presented on 16 mm movie film with taped instructions. Eye movements were recorded during the response period for each task. Subsequent analyses of eye-movement patterns showed clear differences between the training and control groups. Trained conservers showed more visual exploratory activity and less perceptual centration than control group subjects. Moreover the eye-movement patterns of trained conservers closely approximated those shown by natural (i.e., untrained) retarded conservers in a previous study. The findings were discussed in terms of possible cognitive structural changes resulting from training and possible cognitive structural differences between mildly retarded and nonretarded children.

  16. [A case of Wilm's tumor with full symptomatic WAGR syndrome].

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, D; Daszkiewicz, P

    1995-03-01

    The authors of this paper presented a case of a baby with full-symptomatic WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genital tract malformation and mental retardation) treated in the I Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Pediatrics, Medical Academy Poznań. The etiology of this syndrome was discussed (deletion of the 13th band of the 11th chromosome short arm). The reason for treatment failure was analysed.

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  19. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  20. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  1. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  2. Halogenated flame retardants in bobcats from the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Esmarie; Tan, Hongli; Wu, Yan; Nielsen, Clayton K; Shen, Li; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Da

    2017-02-01

    In response to the restrictions of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in various consumer products, alternative halogenated flame retardants have been subjected to increased use. Compared to aquatic ecosystems, relatively little information is available on the contamination of alternative flame retardants in terrestrial ecosystems, especially with regards to mammalian wildlife. In this study we used a top terrestrial carnivore, the bobcat (Lynx rufus), as a unique biomonitoring species for assessing flame retardant contamination in the Midwestern United States (U.S.) terrestrial ecosystems. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs (including all detectable PBDE congeners) ranged from 8.3 to 1920 ng/g lipid weight (median: 50.3 ng/g lw) in livers from 44 bobcats collected during 2013-2014 in Illinois. Among a variety of alternative flame retardants screened, Dechloranes (including anti- and syn-Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane-602, 603, and 604), tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene (TBCT), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also frequently detected, with median concentrations of 28.7, 5.2, and 11.8 ng/g lw, respectively. Dechlorane analogue compositions in bobcats were different from what has been reported in other studies, suggesting species- or analogue-dependent bioaccumulation, biomagnification, or metabolism of Dechlorane chemicals in different food webs. Our findings, along with previously reported food web models, suggest Dechloranes may possess substantial bioaccumulation and biomagnification potencies in terrestrial mammalian food webs. Thus, attention should be given to these highly bioavailable flame retardants in future environmental biomonitoring and risk assessments in a post-PBDE era.

  3. Induction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) anti-tumor effector T cell responses by bacteria mediated tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Christian; Kasnitz, Nadine; Kocijancic, Dino; Trittel, Stephanie; Riese, Peggy; Guzman, Carlos A; Leschner, Sara; Weiss, Siegfried

    2015-10-15

    Facultative anaerobic bacteria like E. coli can colonize solid tumors often resulting in tumor growth retardation or even clearance. Little mechanistic knowledge is available for this phenomenon which is however crucial for optimization and further implementation in the clinic. Here, we show that intravenous injections with E. coli TOP10 can induce clearance of CT26 tumors in BALB/c mice. Importantly, re-challenging mice which had cleared tumors showed that clearance was due to a specific immune reaction. Accordingly, lymphopenic mice never showed tumor clearance after infection. Depletion experiments revealed that during induction phase, CD8(+) T cells are the sole effectors responsible for tumor clearance while in the memory phase CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells were involved. This was confirmed by adoptive transfer. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells could reject newly set tumors while CD8(+) T cells could even reject established tumors. Detailed analysis of adoptively transferred CD4(+) T cells during tumor challenge revealed expression of granzyme B, FasL, TNF-α and IFN-γ in such T cells that might be involved in the anti-tumor activity. Our findings should pave the way for further optimization steps of this promising therapy.

  4. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    in excessive amounts mediate the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, and this may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed in influenza virus infection of various types. In this article, the types of protection of carnosine in its bioavailable non-hydrolyzed forms in formulations are considered against reactive oxygen radical species-dependent injury, peroxynitrite damage, and other types of viral injuries in which impaired immune responses to viral pathogens are usually involved. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) shows the pharmacological intracellular correction of NO release, which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied non-hydrolyzed formulated species of carnosine include at least the direct interaction with NO, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine), could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The formulations of non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (γ-glutamyl-carnosine) products, manufactured at the cGMP-certified facility and patented by the authors, have promise in the control and prevention of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, cough, and cold.

  5. Retardation effects in induced atomic dipole-dipole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. D.; McGuirk, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    We present mean-field calculations of azimuthally averaged retarded dipole-dipole interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate induced by a laser, at both long and short wavelengths. Our calculations demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions become significantly stronger at shorter wavelengths, by as much as 30-fold, due to retardation effects. This enhancement, along with the inclusion of the dynamic polarizability, indicate a method of inducing long-range interatomic interactions in neutral atom condensates at significantly lower intensities than previously realized.

  6. Environmental impact of flame retardants (persistence and biodegradability).

    PubMed

    Segev, Osnat; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-02-01

    Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  7. Fire-Retardant Decorative Inks For Aircraft Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes testing of commercial and experimental fire retardants for incorporation into acrylic printing inks used on aircraft-interior sandwich panels. Films of acrylic ink containing fire-retardant additives prepared by casting on glass plates. Solvent evaporated in vacuum, cast films cured at 80 to 100 degree C for 30 minutes in air-circulating oven. Thermochemical properties of films examined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of inks cast on sheets of polyvinylfloride (PVF), and their limiting oxygen indices and smoke evolution measured.

  8. The Retarding Potential Analyzer for Dynamics Explorer-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Power, R. A.; Lippincott, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. R.; Holt, B. J.; Harmon, L. H.; Sanatani, S.

    1981-01-01

    The Retarding Potential Analyzer for Dynamics Explorer B measures the bulk ion velocity in the direction of the spacecraft motion, the constituent ion concentrations and the ion temperature along the satellite path. These parameters are derived from a least squares fit to the ion number flux versus energy curve obtained by sweeping or stepping the voltage applied to the internal retarding grids of the RPA. In addition, the spectral characteristics of irregularities in the total ion concentration are determined by high time resolution measurements and by use of a comb filter. These data are obtained from a separate wide aperture-sensor.

  9. Medicaid-financed residential care for persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lakin, K C; Hall, M J

    1990-12-01

    Two sources of Medicaid support for persons with mental retardation and related conditions (MR/RC) are examined, the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (ICF/MR) program and the home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver. Results indicate that Medicaid support through the ICF/MR program has shown little recent growth in terms of number of persons served, although expenditures continue to increase. Medicaid's HCBS waiver is being used increasingly by States to support residential placement because of its greater flexibility and more individualized approach relative to ICF/MR care. Use of Medicaid to finance care for persons with MR/RC varies considerably across States.

  10. Fragile X mental retardation protein and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Abrar; Li, Xuekun; Jin, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells, which can self-renew and produce different cell types, are regulated by both extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors. Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the functional loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein that forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, the role of Fmrp in stem cell biology has been explored in both Drosophila and the mouse. In this chapter, we discuss the role of FMRP in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells.

  11. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  12. miR-150 inhibits proliferation and tumorigenicity via retarding G1/S phase transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyong; Liu, Fumei; Lin, Bihua; Luo, Haiqing; Liu, Meilian; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Caihong; Li, Ronggang; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Keyuan; Ren, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by a pathological manifestation of uncontrolled proliferation, which results in tumor formation. Therefore, it is necessary to improve understanding of the underlying mechanism of cell cycle control. Here, we report that miR-150 is downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cells. Upregulation of miR-150 suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell proliferation and induces G1/S arrest in vitro, and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, silencing miR-150 yields the opposite effect. Our results further demonstrate that miR-150 retards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation and G1/S transition via targeting multiple cell cycle-related genes, including CCND1, CCND2, CDK2 and CCNE2. Therefore, our results uncover a novel mechanistic understanding of miR-150-mediated tumor suppression in NPC, which will facilitate the development of effective cancer therapies against nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:28350089

  13. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  14. Educating Students with Mental Retardation in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; McLeskey, James; Hoppey, David; Rentz, Tarcha

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence and federal mandates support the notion that students with mental retardation (MR) should spend some or much of the school day in general education classrooms. This study investigated trends in state-level rates for placing students in different educational settings between 1989-90 and 1999-2000. The research utilized…

  15. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  16. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  17. Programs and Services Received by Older Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A national sample of 370 older persons with mental retardation in 235 facilities (foster care, small group homes, large private facilities, and state-operated facilities) was surveyed. Information is presented on resident characteristics, day program participation, services received, and differences in programs and services by facility type. The…

  18. South Asian Indian Cultural Orientations toward Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The findings of a portion of a 2-year ethnographic study involving North Indian Hindu immigrants living in the mid-Western United States is discussed. These findings illuminate the ways in which participants think and talk about mental retardation, how this linguistic information was obtained, and the cultural context within which participants…

  19. Housekeeping Management Assistant Manual for Training of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.

    Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…

  20. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  1. Standards for Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…

  2. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  3. A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI.

    DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…

  4. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  5. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  6. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  7. Fire-and smoke-retardant polyesters and elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.; Mosesman, M.

    1978-01-01

    Test results indicate that most effective fire-and smoke-retardant fillers are inorganic hydrates and carbonates that release water and/or carbon dioxide. Most effective filler tested was hydrated sodium silicate. Effectiveness is due to high water content and formation of viscous molten glass when heated. Glass tends to inhibit polymer combustion and to promote formation of char residue.

  8. Saran film is fire-retardant in oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, J. T.; Herrera, W. R.

    1968-01-01

    Saran was tested for flammability as a wrapping on TFE-insulated electrical wire bundles in oxygen gas at pressures of 7.5 psia and 14.7 psia. It was found to be fire retardant or self-extinguishing in most instances.

  9. Teaching Mild to Moderately Retarded Students with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Robert

    The paper reviews the literature on use of computers with retarded students in three chapters dealing respectively with the historical context, current issues, and future directions. The chapter on the historical context reviews research on the efficacy of teaching machines with this population. Research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted…

  10. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  11. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  12. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  13. Substituting Traditional Antipsychotics with Risperidone for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…

  14. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  15. Teaching the Severely Mentally Retarded and Elderly to Stand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David; And Others

    The study explored behavioral procedures for developing the skill of standing from a chair for a severely mentally retarded 11-year-old nonambulatory girl and an 86-year-old man residing in a nursing home for the elderly. Functional assessment and programing determined the specific instructional needs of each S. A changing criterion design was…

  16. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  17. Arts and Crafts for Use with Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Toni, Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Mentally retarded children of any age. SUBJECT MATTER: Arts and crafts. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into sections according to the material to be used. Section headings are: Paper, Fabrics, Wood, Metal, Nature, Miscellaneous, and Painting. Each section is laid out in three parallel columns, one each…

  18. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  19. EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED PROJECT, ORANGE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALDEN, ROYCE B.

    PREPARED BY TEACHERS OF THE RETARDED, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES AN ELEMENTARY ACTIVITY UNIT ON HOME AND COMMUNITY LIVING AND A SECONDARY UNIT ON THE CITRUS INDUSTRY. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE LISTED. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES ON CLASS UNITS, STUDENT PLACEMENT, AND TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ARE INCLUDED. (MY)

  20. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  1. Preliminary Study of Imipramine in Profoundly Retarded Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of imipramine were assessed in 10 profoundly retarded subjects (aged 8-25 years) who exhibited either depressionlike symptoms or acting out behaviors. Results of observation, interval sampling, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist indicated behavioral deterioration on irritability, lethargy/social withdrawal, and hyperactivity…

  2. Administrative Issues in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.

    Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…

  3. The Memory-Metamemory Connection in Retarded and Nonretarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukose, Sara

    Twenty mildly mentally retarded students were matched with two groups of normal students, one of the same chronological age (CA) and one of the same mental age (MA), to examine the influence of age indices and metamemory on memory behavior in terms of recall accuracy and recall time. This was achieved using a metamemory instrument which was…

  4. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  5. Motivation, Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…

  6. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…

  7. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  8. Teaching and Training Relevant Community Skills to Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the major developments in teaching and training relevant community skills to mentally retarded persons. The following adaptive skills are discussed: (1) toilet use and bed wetting; (2) eating, dressing, and personal hygiene; (3) community survival; and (4) vocational and social skills. (BJV)

  9. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  10. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  11. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  12. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  13. Cognitive Patterns of "Retarded" and Below-Average Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che K.

    1980-01-01

    The cognitive patterns of 58 "retarded" and 38 below-average readers were compared with controls, according to Luria's simultaneous and successive modes of information processing. Factor Analysis showed different cognitive patterns for disabled and nondisabled readers. Reading skills, rather than cognitive ability, were shown to be…

  14. Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants and Their Textile Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we discuss the new challenge phosphorus containing flame retardant compounds and the properties for covalently bonded cotton’s surface. We showed the design, synthesis, and characterization of (2-methyl-oxiranylmethyl)-phosphonic acid dimethyl ester and [2-(dimethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)...

  15. The Concept of Death in Preoperational Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen preoperational retarded boys and girls were interviewed for their concepts of death. Subjects did not have realistic concepts of when they would die, or of the permanence of death, but did have knowledge of how things die. Types of replies subjects made were significantly related to subjects' cognitive level. (Author/RH)

  16. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, A.F.; Yourstone, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity form naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  17. Program Budgeting and the Mentally Retarded. Perspective Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.

    Reported are 1973 conference proceedings of the National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded (MR), which address the economics of service delivery to mentally handicapped children and adults. Conference speakers included a state legislator, a state budget official, an economist, and state and local officials.…

  18. Incidental Teaching of Mentally Retarded Students within a Token System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabry, Bernard D; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Six mentally retarded students (12-22 years old) were taught to name sight words during token-exchange periods of a token-reinforcement system. Sequential teaching of new sets of sight words via a multiple-baseline design evaluated the procedure. Five of the 6 students acquired sight-word vocabularies. Data support the educational use of…

  19. Attention and Concentration in Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Thomas W.

    Evaluated was the effectiveness of the TAC (Training in Attention and Concentration) Program with seven trainable retarded persons, 8- to 20-years-old. Pre- and posttest data were obtained on the Maze-trial test, a picture discrimination test, buttons test, and object sort test. The TAC Program consisted of 10 structured lessons on such tasks as…

  20. Features of Autism in Rett Syndrome and Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Rebecca H.; Charman, Tony; Hastings, Richard P.; Reilly, Sheena; Cass, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    The Autism Behavior Checklist measured autistic symptoms in 15 girls (ages 11-16) with Rett Syndrome (RS) and 14 with severe mental retardation. Girls with RS scored higher on the Sensory and Relating subscales. There were no differences on the Body and Object Use, Language, and Social and Self-Help subscales. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. New Neighbors: The Retarded Citizen in Quest of a Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherington, Carolyn, Ed.; Dybwad, Gunnar, Ed.

    The philosophical and practical aspects of the retarded citizen's need for a home in the community are discussed in 14 author contributed chapters dealing with people and communities, rights and independence, home and community, services and communities, and action and advocacy. Chapters cover the following topics: "Community Life and Individual…

  2. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  3. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  4. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  5. Novelty and Familiarity as Redundant Cues in Retardate Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.

    1976-01-01

    Forty retarded children, a Low Mental Age (MA) Group (mean MA 3-3 years) and a High MA Group (mean MA 5-7 years) were trained on 120 different two-choice visual discrimination problems. Initial performance differences were interpreted as a differential preference for novel and familiar stimuli. (JH)

  6. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  7. Services and Provisions for Persons with Mental Retardation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Lennar

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)

  8. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of the flame retardant TBPH or ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as flame retardants in consumer products has been scrutinized increasingly due to their environmental persistence and potential toxicity; however, alternative replacement flame retardants may have similar drawbacks. The alternative brominated flame retardant bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is a component of several commercial flame retardants, including Firemaster® 550, Firemaster® BZ-54 and DP-45. Here we investigate the bioaccumulation, bioenergetics and other adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) predicted for dietary exposure to a carrier control, two levels of TBPH, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153, a well-studied compound acting as a positive control for some aspects of the study). The TBPH concentrations chosen were at or well above the environmental concentrations documented in the literature, but similar to those causing toxicity in a previous study. Our experimental model is a small estuarine fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), exposed as individually tagged fish held in small groups (2 male, 2 female) in replicate tanks and fed contaminated food from day 0-28, followed by uncontaminated food from day 29-42. Throughout the experiment, individual growth was measured weekly, and at various time points, fish from replicate tanks were sacrificed, measured and dissected. To support putative AOPs, samples were obtained for analysis of hormone levels and transcriptomic responses

  9. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  10. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  11. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  12. PBDE FLAME RETARDANTS: TOXICOLOGY, HEALTH EFFECTS, AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been routinely added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Global production of PBDEs has reached 67,000 metric tons per year. Recently concer...

  13. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…

  14. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  15. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  16. Mainstreaming: Educable Mentally Retarded Children in Regular Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jack W.

    Described in the monograph are mainstreaming programs for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in six variously sized school districts within five states. It is noted that mainstreaming is based on the principle of educating most children in the regular classroom and providing special education on the basis of learning needs rather than…

  17. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  18. Recreation's Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L., Ed.

    The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…

  19. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  20. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…