Science.gov

Sample records for carolina bay vegetation

  1. Vegetation disturbance and maintenance of diversity in intermittently flooded Carolina Bays in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, L.K.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors manipulated the fire regime and soil disturbance in four grass-dominated Carolina bay wetlands during a prolonged drought period and examined vegetation composition and cover within dominant vegetation types prior to and after treatments. The authors used the seedling emergence technique to determine the role of the seed bank in the recovery process. Burning did not affect richness, evenness, or diversity (all vegetation types combined); however, soil tillage increased diversity, including both evenness and richness. Percent similarity of the vegetation before and after disturbance was greater in the burning treatment than in the tillage treatment, probably due to greater disruption of the rhizomes of the perennial vegetation by tillage. Vegetation types varied in degree of recovery, although dominance was not altered by either treatment. Several native fugitive species increased following disturbance, indicating that species coexistence in these Carolina bay wetlands depends on the life history characteristics of residual vegetation, as well as that of seed bank species.

  2. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  3. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  4. Effect of climate fluctuations on long-term vegetation dynamics in Carolina bay wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, C.L.; De Steven, D.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Carolina bays and similar depression wetlands of the U.S. Southeastern Coastal Plain have hydrologic regimes that are driven primarily by rainfall. Therefore, climate fluctuations such as drought cycles have the potential to shape long-term vegetation dynamics. Models suggest two potential long-term responses to hydrologic fluctuations, either cyclic change maintaining open emergent vegetation, or directional succession toward forest vegetation. In seven Carolina bay wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, we assessed hydrologic variation and vegetation response over a 15-year period spanning two drought and reinundation cycles. Changes in pond stage (water depth) were monitored bi-weekly to monthly each year from 1989?2003. Vegetation composition was sampled in three years (1989, 1993, and 2003) and analyzed in relation to changes in hydrologic conditions. Multi-year droughts occurred prior to the 1989 and 2003 sampling years, whereas 1993 coincided with a wet period. Wetland plant species generally maintained dominance after both wet and dry conditions, but the abundances of different plant growth forms and species indicator categories shifted over the 15-year period. Decreased hydroperiods and water depths during droughts led to increased cover of grass, upland, and woody species, particularly at the shallower wetland margins. Conversely, reinundation and longer hydroperiods resulted in expansion of aquatic and emergent species and reduced the cover of flood-intolerant woody and upland species. These semi-permanent Upper Coastal Plain bays generally exhibited cyclic vegetation dynamics in response to climate fluctuation, with wet periods favoring dominance by herbaceous species. Large basin morphology and deep ponding, paired with surrounding upland forest dominated by flood-intolerant pines, were features contributing to persistence of herbaceous vegetation. Drought cycles may promote directional succession to forest in bays that are smaller

  5. Effects of dominant species on vegetation change in Carolina bay wetlands following a multi-year drought.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhouse, John, M.; De Steven, Diane; Lide, Robert, F.; Sharitz, Rebecca, R.

    2005-05-01

    Wetland vegetation is strongly dependent upon climate-influenced hydrologic conditions, and plant composition responds in generally consistent ways to droughts. However, the extent of species composition change during drought may be influenced by the pre-existing structure of wetland vegetation. We characterized the vegetation of ten herbaceous Carolina bay wetlands on the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain during a period of average rainfall and again near the end of a four-year drought. We hypothesized that, as a group, bays dominated by less robust plant species (characteristic of open-water pond and depression meadow vegetation types) would show greater compositional change than bays dominated by dense, robust-form clonal graminoids (characteristic of grass and sedge marsh vegetation types). Aquatic species decreased during the drought in all wetlands, regardless of vegetation group. Compared to grass/sedge marshes, pond/meadow wetlands acquired more species, particularly non-wetland species, during the drought. Pond/meadow wetlands also had greater increases in the abundances of species that require unflooded conditions to establish. Prior to the drought, all wetlands were ponded almost continuously, but during drought the pond/meadow wetlands had shorter and more variable hydroperiods than the grass/sedge marshes. Thus, vegetation change may be partly confounded with hydrologic conditions that provide greater opportunities for species recruitment in pond/meadow bays. The results suggest that Carolina bay vegetation dynamics may differ as a function of dominant vegetation and climate driven variation in wetland hydrologic condition.

  6. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  7. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  9. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  10. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  11. Ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    Shrub bogs of the Southeast occur in areas of poorly developed internal drainage that typically but not always have highly developed organic or peat soils. Pocosins and Carolina bays are types or subclasses of shrub bogs on the coastal plains of the Carolinas and Georgia. They share roughly the same distribution patterns, soil types, floral and faunal species composition and other community attributes, but differ in geological formation. Carolina bays may contain pocosin as well as other communities, but are defined more by their unique elliptical shape and geomorphometry. The pocosin community is largely defined by its vegetation, a combination of a dense shrub understory and a sparser canopy. The community is part of a complex successional sequence of communities (sedge bogs, savannas, cedar bogs, and bay forests) that may be controlled by such factors as fire, hydroperiod, soil type, and peat depth. Pocosins and Carolina bays harbor a number of animal groups and may be locally important in their ecology. Although few species are endemic to these habitats, they may provide important refuges for a number of species. These communities are simultaneously among the least understood and most rapidly disappearing habitats of the Southeast. Forestry and agricultural clearage are current impacts.

  12. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project: Implementation and Management of a Wetland Mitigation Bank.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher; DeSteven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca; Kilgo, John; Imm, Donald; Kolka, Randy; Blake, John, I.

    2003-01-01

    A wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses associated with future authorized construction and environmental restoration projects in SRS wetlands. The Bank was intended not only to hasten mitigation efforts with respect to regulatory requirements and implementation, but also to provide onsite and fully functional compensation of impacted wetland acreage prior to any impact. Restoration and enhancement of small isolated wetlands, as well as major bottomland wetland systems scattered throughout the nonindustrialized area of SRS were designated for inclusion in the Bank. Based on information and techniques gained from previous research efforts involving Carolina bay wetlands (DOE 1997), a project to restore degraded Carolina bays on SRS has been undertaken to serve as the initial ''deposit'' in The Bank. There are over 300 Carolina bays or bay-like depression wetlands on the SRS, of which an estimated two-thirds were ditched or disturbed prior to federal occupation of the Site (Kirkman et al., 1996). These isolated wetlands range from small ephemeral depressions to large permanent ponds of 10-50 hectares in size. They provide habitat to support a wide range of rare plant species, and many vertebrates (birds, amphibians, bats). Historical impacts to the Carolina bays at SRS were primarily associated with agricultural activities. Bays were often drained tilled and planted to crops. The consequence was a loss in the wetland hydrologic cycle, the native wetland vegetation, and associated wildlife. The purpose of this mitigation and research project is to restore the functions and vegetation typical of intact depression wetlands and, in doing so, to enhance habitat for wetland dependent wildlife on SRS.

  13. Rockyhock and Kimbel Carolina Bays: Extraterrestrial Impact or Terrestrial Genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Branch, B. D.; Barnes, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence for the harsh climate prevalent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are seen in topographical features visible south of the ice sheet margin in the uplands and coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Among the features attributed to ice age climate are numerous elliptical, shallow depressions called collectively Carolina Bays, hypothesized to have been formed by “blow outs” of loose sediment by the strong, sustained winds and arid, cold climate characteristic of glacial epochs (Raisz, 1934, Johnson, 1942 and Kaczorowski, 1977). This view eclipsed the 1933 proposition by Melton and Schriever, and expanded by Prouty (1934, 1953), that extraterrestrial debris produced by an aerial meteorite or comet explosion in the vicinity of the Great Lakes during the late Pleistocene formed the bays. 12,900 years ago, post-LGM warming was interrupted by a return to a glacial climate that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the cooling, known as the Younger Dryas (YD), are the subject of debate. Recently Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed that an impact in the Laurentide ice sheet by a fragmented comet might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis of core samples taken from Rockyhock Bay, in Chowan County, NC, by Whitehead (1980) indicate a pre-YD genesis. However, a number of the bays have been found to contain materiel associated with extraterrestrial impacts including carbon and magnetic spherules, glass-like carbon, charcoal and nanodiamonds (Firestone, et. al. 2007). The discoveries reinvigorated the debate over the bay’s origins. Were the bays created by an impact or were they merely receptacles for impact materiel injected into the environment. If created before the YD, the bays would have experienced episodic post-formation modification due to cold, dry, windy periods alternating with warm, moist and calmer climatic conditions. Carolina Bays would thus

  14. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  15. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  16. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  17. Vegetational analysis with Skylab-3 imagery. [Perquimans County, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Holman, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color infrared photography from Skylab 3 appeared to be superior to ERTS imagery in a vegetational study of northeastern North Carolina. An accuracy of 87% was achieved in delimiting species composition and zonation patterns of three coastal, vegetation classes. A vegetation map of Perquimans County, North Carolina, seemed to have a high degree of correlation with information provided by high altitude U-2 photography. Random verification sites revealed an overall interpretation accuracy above 84%. Comparison of maps drawn utilizing Skylab photography with North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture estimates of crop acreage revealed some marked discrepancies. The chief difference lies in the nonagricultural category in which there is a 30% discrepancy. This fact raised some questions as to the definition of nonagricultural land uses and methods used by the State Dept. of Agriculture to determine actual percentages of crops grown.

  18. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  19. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.)

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Nathan; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lakes Group” which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic – oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. New information Over the 2013−2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens. PMID:27350764

  20. Demographic responses of amphibians to wetland restoration in Carolina bays on the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, Karen E.

    2004-09-30

    This project studied the effects of wetland restoration on amphibian populations. These wetlands were Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site, located near Aiken, S.C. The Savannah River Site is a National Environmental Research Park owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The study sites included three reference bays (functionally intact), three control bays (with active drainage ditches), six treatment bays (restored during 2001), and four bays near two of the treatment bays (in effect creating two metapopulations).

  1. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  2. Remote sensing of stressed vegetation in the Carolina slate belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been used to detect stress in vegetation, but they have not been very successful for identifying which environmental factors cause the vegetation to appear stressed. Controlled comparisons of spectral characteristics of plant communities experiencing known combinations of stresses were designed to examine this problem. Landsat TM, NS-001 TMS, CIR, and AIS imagery was acquired for six stressed areas in the Carolina slate belt. Preliminary results indicated that the areas of stressed vegetation were identifiable, and that the stressed communities appeared to be undergoing early fall leaf senescence. The AIS data seemed to have the greatest potential for identifying differences among plant community spectra, but calibration will be necessary before these differences can be evaluated.

  3. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Czapka, Stephen, J.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2011-07-01

    Abstract - Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on the importance of these wetland systems to birds. We compared breeding and wintering bird communities of upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests with and without Carolina bays. Estimated species richness was greater in pine forests with Carolina bays than without during the winter (31.7 ± 1.3 [mean ± SE] vs. 26.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.027), but not in the breeding season (27.9 ± 2.2 vs. 26.3 ± 2.2; P = 0.644). Total relative abundance did not differ between pine forests with Carolina bays and those without in either the breeding (148.0 ± 16.0 vs. 129.4 ± 10.4 birds/40 ha; P = 0.675) or winter (253.0 ± 36.4 vs. 148.8 ± 15.1 birds/40 ha; P = 0.100) seasons. However, 23 species, 43% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in pine forests with bays during the breeding season, and 20 species, 30% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in such sites during winter. In contrast, only 6 and 1 species were observed only in pine forests without bays during the breeding and winter seasons, respectively, indicating that few species were negatively affected by the presence of bays. Thus, Carolina bays appear to enrich the avifauna of pine forests in the southeastern United States.

  4. Chesapeake Bay: an unprecedented decline in submerged aquatic vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Moore, K.A.

    1983-10-07

    Data on the distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay indicate a significant reduction in all species in all sections of the bay during the last 15 to 20 years. This decline is unprecedented in the bay's recent history. The reduction in one major species, Zostera marina, may be greater than the decline that occurred during the pandemic demise of the 1930's. 19 references, 2 figures.

  5. Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B. . Dept. of Natural Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    The overall goal of this three-year project is to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS Carolina Bays (shallow temporary ponds endemic to the Southeastern US). Previous investigations and ongoing SREL studies have determined the importance of Carolina bay zooplankton (microscopic crustacean herbivores) to the early life stages of amphibians. Our project is testing the hypothesis that phytoplankton are the primary component of zooplankton diets in these bays. Carolina Bays represent critical habitats for a whole class of vertebrates at SRS, the amphibians. Details of phytoplankton dynamics and productivity gained from our project will advance our understanding of ecological energetics within Carolina Bay systems. These results will also help determine the potential impact that these minute, but productive plants can have on SRS biota beyond the bounds of these aquatic ecosystems. Additional implications can be made concerning chemical elemental uptake and transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. 12 figs.

  6. Locations and areas of ponds and Carolina Bays at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, J.D.; Woody, N.D.; Dicks, A.S.; Hollod, G.J.; Schalles, J.; Leversee, G.J.

    1982-05-01

    The Savannah River Plant has 28 ponds and 190 Carolina Bays on its 192,000-acreite. Excluding the Par Pond system, the mean pond area is 17.6 acre, with a range of 0.4 to 202.8 acres. Par Pond is the largest pond, with an area of 2500 acres. The mean Carolina Bay area is 6.6 acres, with a range of less than 0.3 to 124.0 acres. The geographical location of each pond and bay has been digitized and can be graphically displayed by computer. This capability will facilitate identification of wetland areas as required by Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, May 24, 1977).

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  8. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as impact structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this origin for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an impact or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into question whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial impact. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial, and we

  9. Geology of continental shelf, Onslow Bay, North Carolina, as revealed by submarine outcrops ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwelder, B. W.; Macintyre, Ian G.; Pilkey, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Lithologic and stratigraphic data from rocks dredged from the continental shelf off Onslow Bay, North Carolina, provide surface control for seismic studies of the southeastern United States continental margin and help to explain the distribution of potentially economic phosphate-rich sediments on this shelf. Outcropping Miocene rocks in this area indicate that the region has long been a positive geologic feature and has received relatively little Pliocene and Pleistocene sedimentation. -from Authors

  10. Sea Level Rise Modifies Biogeochemical Cycles in Winyah Bay, South Carolina Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, A. T.; Conner, W.; Rhew, R. C.; Suhre, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rising sea level along the relatively flat southeastern US coastal plain significantly changes both vegetation composition and salinity of coastal wetlands, eventually modifying ecosystem functions and biogeochemical processes of these wetlands. We conducted a two-year study to evaluate the dynamics and relationships among aboveground productivity, greenhouse and halocarbon gas emissions, nutrients, and dissolved organic matter of a freshwater forested wetland, a salt-impacted and degraded forested wetland, and a salt marsh in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, representing the salinity gradient and the transition from freshwater forested wetland to salt marsh due to sea level rise. The degraded forested wetland had significantly lower above-ground productivity with annual stem growth of 102 g/m^2/yr and litterfall of 392 g/m^2/yr compared to the freshwater forested wetland (230 and 612 g/m^2/yr, respectively). High methane emission [> 50 mmol/m2/day, n = 4] was only observed in the freshwater-forested wetland but there was a strong smell of sulfide noticed in the salt marsh, suggesting that different redox processes control the decomposition of natural organic matter along the salinity gradient. In addition, the largest CHCl3 [209 × 183 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emission was observed in the degraded forested wetland, but net CH3Cl [257 × 190 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] and CH3Br [28 × 20 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emissions were only observed in the salt marsh, suggesting different mechanisms in response to salt intrusion at that sites. The highest DOC concentration (28 - 42 mg/L) in monthly water samples was found in degraded forest wetland, followed by the freshwater forested wetland (19 - 38 mg/L) and salt marsh (9 - 18 mg/L). Results demonstrate that the salt-impacted degraded wetland has unique biogeochemical cycles that differ from unaltered freshwater forested wetland and salt marsh.

  11. An aerial photographic census of Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Goldsberry, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional 35 mm photography was used to conduct an aerial photographic census of canvasbacks (A. valisineria) throughout Chesapeake Bay (tidal Maryland and Virginia) and coastal North Carolina, Jan. 26-30, 1981. Flock size and sex ratio characteristics were determined from examination of color transparencies of 165 canvasback flocks totaling > 95,000 birds. A sex ratio of 2.91 males/female was determined from 68,769 birds, 80% of the birds in 150 flocks. Sex ratio for the Atlantic Flyway was projected as 2.90 males/female. The greatest number of canvasbacks and the widest range of flock size were recorded in Maryland waters; the fewest canvasbacks and the smallest average flock size in Virginia; and the fewest but on average the largest flocks of canvasbacks in North Carolina. Sex ratio varied latitudinally in the flyway with a tendency for males to occupy more northern and females more southern latitudes in winter. Sex ratio (males/female) was highest in Maryland (3.98), slightly lower in Virginia (3.71), and lowest in North Carolina (1.70). Locally, sex ratio varied with flock size. In Chesapeake Bay, small flocks ( 1000) flocks. By providing large-sample sex ratio information, as well as exact counts of birds, low-level 35-mm aerial photography is the most efficient and accurate means of determining canvasback population status in eastern coastal habitats.

  12. Flock sizes and sex ratios of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; Link, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution, size, and sex ratios of flocks of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) is fundamental to understanding the species' winter ecology and providing guidelines for management. Consequently, in winter 1986-87, we conducted 4 monthly aerial photographic surveys to investigate temporal changes in distribution, size, and sex ratios of canvasback flocks in traditional wintering areas of Chesapeake Bay and coastal North Carolina. Surveys yielded 35mm imagery of 194,664 canvasbacks in 842 flocks. Models revealed monthly patterns of flock size in North Carolina and Virginia, but no pattern of change in Maryland. A stepwise analysis of flock size and sex ratio fit a common positive slope (increasing proportion male) for all state-month datasets, except for North Carolina in February where the slope was larger (P lt 0.001). State and month effects on intercepts were significant (P lt 0.001) and confirmed a previously identified latitudinal gradient in sex ratio in the survey region. There was no relationship between flock purity (% canvasbacks vs. other species) and flock size except in North Carolina in January, February, and March when flock purity was related to flock size. Contrasting characteristics in North Carolina with regard to flock size (larger flocks) and flock purity suggested that proximate factors were reinforcing flocking behavior and possibly species fidelity there. Of possible factors, the need to locate foraging sites within this large, open-water environment was hypothesized to be of primary importance. Comparison of January 1981 and 1987 sex ratios indicated no change in Maryland, but lower (P lt 0.05) canvasback sex ratios (proportion male) in Virginia and North Carolina.

  13. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  14. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Processes in Long Bay of the Carolinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Xu, K.; He, R.; Wren, P. A.; Gong, Y.; Quigley, B.; Tarpley, D.

    2010-12-01

    The coastline along Long Bay of the Carolinas is a fast-growing and heavily-developed area supporting local populations, infrastructure, and a large tourism industry. Myrtle Beach and its adjacent sandy beaches are popular tourist destinations that attract millions of visitors each year, representing one of the state’s most essential natural resources. The economy of this region is closely related to the stability of the sandy beaches, which are vulnerable to coastal erosion during severe storm events. Quantifying the sediment transport processes in the nearshore and inner continental shelf regions is thus critical for both understanding the regional sediment budget and implementing effective coastal management. As a first step toward investigating the sediment transport processes, a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for Long Bay in the Carolinas has been developed. The model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), spans from Cape Fear estuary in NC to Winyah Bay estuary in SC. It considers the delivery of fluvial sediment from the Cape Fear and Pee Dee Rivers, resuspension from seabed, and transport of suspended sediment by ambient currents and waves calculated using Simulating WAve Nearshore model (SWAN). Our model simulations are driven by observed wind fields, which were collected at nearby meteorological stations maintained by National Data Buoy Center as well as at six buoys by the Palmetto Wind Research Project at Coastal Carolina University. Spatially varying sea bed conditions consisting of both hard bottoms and sandy bodies are applied in the calculation. The model is one-way nested inside a large-scale coastal circulation model that covers both the Middle Atlantic Bight and the South Atlantic Bight and provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate circulation open boundary conditions. Modeling results indicate both wind-driven currents and storm-induced waves are capable of resuspending sandy

  15. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  16. Impacts of storms on coastal circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Warner, J. C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the effects of coastal storms on the regional circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina, using a coupled ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)- SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. Meteorological observations during the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (October 2003 April 2004) reveal three dominant types of storms in the region warm fronts, cold fronts, and tropical storms. Each storm has a characteristic progression of wind patterns: (1) Warm fronts start with southwestward winds and change to northeastward after the front passes; (2) Cold fronts begin with northeastward winds and shift to southeastward when the front moves out; and (3) Tropical storms change wind directions from the southwest to the southeast during the storm. It is observed the coastal circulation distinctly responds to such atmospheric disturbances in either a upwelling-favorable condition to the northeastward winds or a downwelling-favorable condition to the southwestward winds. The study domain encompasses 300-km of gently arcing shoreline between Cape Romain to Cape Fear, and approximately 100-km offshore to the shelf edge. The model domain is resolved by a 300×130 mesh at 1-km intervals in the horizontal and twenty terrain-following layers in the vertical. The ROMS model is driven by tides and wind stress, and it includes wave-current interactions via dynamic coupling to the surface wave model SWAN. Salinity and temperature along the open boundaries are included by nudging to climatological values. A time period of six months is simulated from October 2003 to April 2004, concurrent with the observation study. Model results are compared to an extensive set of measurements collected at eight sites in the inner part of Long Bay, and are used to identify varying circulation response to each storm type. In addition, we investigate the significance of the Capes on the development of the alongshore pressure gradients, and examine the importance of wave-current interactions

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  18. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  19. Physiological ecology of SRS Carolina bay phytoplankton communities: Effects of nutrient changes and CO{sub 2} sources

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B.

    1992-11-01

    Impacts of land-use activities on wetland ecosystems are important issues for environmental planners, conservation groups, and government agencies. The progress report of this project at DOE`s Savannah River Site focused on two specific objectives: determination of the effects of nutrient enrichment (fertilizing during wetlands restoration) on phytoplankton communities and comparison of phytoplankton community dynamics during the current extended hydroperiod for Carolina Bays with patterns in previous drier years.

  20. Transgressive Shoreface Architecture Within a Sediment Starved Arcuate Strand: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayes, P. T.; Schwab, W. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Morton, R. A.; Baldwin, W. E.; Denny, J. F.; German, O. Y.; Park, J. Y.

    2002-12-01

    A regional geophysical mapping survey of Long Bay provides a comprehensive image of sea-floor character, bathymetry and shallow subbottom stratigraphy within the shoreface and across the inner shelf along 90 kilometers of the northern South Carolina coast. Chirp subbottom profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry imaged the shallow stratigraphy and the geometry of the Holocene transgressive surface developing within the modern shoreface. Along a 20 km section of central Long Bay, across the shoreface and inner shelf, centered on Myrtle Beach, SC, oceanographic processes are actively eroding older Tertiary- and Cretaceous-age strata exposed at the sea floor. Long beach profiles are interrupted by these outcrops and deviate substantially from typical concave-up geometries. The modern (mobile) sediment lens is restricted to the surf zone. Along an adjacent area, near North Myrtle Beach, the Holocene erosional unconformity surface continues to exhibit an irregular character eroding into older Cretaceous-age deposits. Within the shoreface, however, a relatively continuous cover of modern mobile sand covers the upper- to mid-shoreface. Cretaceous-age strata crop out across the inner shelf and locally within the lower shoreface. Beach profiles are relatively smooth and linear across the mid-shoreface and become disrupted by strata cropping out near the base of the shoreface and inner shelf. Further north, near the North Carolina border, three planar marine unconformities are visible underlying the shoreface and inner shelf and define seaward thinning wedges of Quaternary deposits. Beach profiles in this area exhibit a low slope and generally define a concave-up low slope profile geometry. The modern mobile sediment lens is more continuous in this area and the Holocene erosional surface can be observed to have eroded previous highstand deposits. The detailed resolution of the chirp subbottom data allows the geometry of the developing marine

  1. Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B.

    1990-08-01

    This three-year collaborative project with Savannah River Ecology Lab (SREL) has an overall goal to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS Carolina Bays. The importance of zooplankton (microscopic crustacean herbivores) to the early life stages of amphibians in these Carolina Bays has been determined by previous investigators and ongoing SREL studies. Our project is testing hypotheses that phytoplankton compose the most important part of zooplankton diets in SRS bays. Considerable progress has been made on each of the YEAR TWO proposal objectives. Proposed work for one of the objectives will not be completed by the end of the project year due to the high work volume required for the stable isotope sampling. All sampling for primary productivity and stable isotope analyses has been completed. However, scheduled samples for the hotter summer temperatures during July were not collected due to the fact that Flamingo, Ellenton, and Rainbow Bays had already dried up. Progress for each of the Proposal Year One objectives is summarized in this report along with summaries for supplemental objectives. Detailed discussions of methodology and results are also found in the report. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  3. Guidance for protecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay from physical disruption

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The document provides guidance for Chesapeake Bay resource managers and others on how existing submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and tidal shallow water habitats with potential for supporting SAV in the Bay can be fully protected, given current human uses of and demands on the Bay. In preparing this guidance document, the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Workgroup of the Chesapeake Bay Program`s Living Resources Subcommittee reviewed, summarized, and compared current state and federal policies and guidelines for protection of or minimizing impacts on SAV. Next, the workgroup identified key management issues facing the protection of existing and future SAV resources. Finally, building on current state and federal guidelines and policies, the workgroup identified guidance to first avoid, then minimize, direct impacts to SAV in the Bay and its tidal tributaries.

  4. Use and applicability of the vegetation component of the national site classification system. [Sumter National Forest, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Existing vegetation on a site in Sumter National Forest, South Carolina was classified using high altitude aerial optical bar color infrared photography in an effort to determine if the National Site Classification (NSC) system could be used in the heterogeneously forested southeastern United States where it had not previously been used. Results show that the revised UNESCO international classification and mapping of vegetation system, as incorporated into the NSCS, is general enough at the higher levels and specific enough at the lower levels to adequately accommodate densely forested, heterogeneous areas as well as the larger, more homogeneous regions of the Pacific Northwest. The major problem is of existing vegetation versus natural vegetation.

  5. Stratigraphic framework and heavy minerals of the continental shelf of Onslow and Long Bays, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Charles W.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Nickerson, John G.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred fourteen vibracores from the Atlantic continental shelf offshore of southeastern North Carolina were opened, described, and processed over several contract years (years 6-9) of the Minerals Management Service-Association of American State Geologists Continental Margins program. Reports for years 9 and 10 of the program compiled the results of the work and assembled the data for release as an interactive CD-ROM report, respectively. The continental shelf of Onslow and Long Bays consists predominantly of outcropping Cretaceous through late Tertiary geologic units. Nearshore these units are covered and incised by late Tertiary and Quaternary units. From oldest to youngest, formally recognized geologic units mapped as part of this study are the Late Cretaceous Peedee Formation-a muddy, fine- to medium-grained quartz sand with trace amounts of glauconite and phosphate; the Paleocene Beaufort Formation-a muddy, fine- to medium-grained glauconitic quartz sand with locally occurring turritelid-mold biosparrudite; the middle Eocene Castle Hayne Formation-a sandy bryozoan biomicrudite and biosparrudite; the Oligocene River Bend Formation-a sandy molluscan-mold biosparrudite; and the Miocene Pungo River Formation-a medium-grained, poorly sorted slightly shelly phosphatic sand. Informal units include a very widespread, unnamed fine- to very fine grained, well-sorted, dolomitic muddy quartz sand that is biostratigraphically equivalent to the Oligocene River Bend Formation; several large valley-fill lithosomes composed of biomicrudite, biomicrite, and biosparrudite of Plio/Pleistocene age; muddy, shelly sands and silty clays of Pliocene, Pleistocene, or mixed Plio/Pleistocene age; and loose, slightly shelly, medium- to coarse-grained sands assigned a Holocene age. Heavy minerals (SG > 2.96) comprise an average of 0.54 wt% (on a bulk-sample basis) of the sediments in 306 samples derived from the 114 vibracores. Heavy-mineral content ranges from 3 in the sediments. The

  6. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-07-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003-April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north. During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north-east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north-east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low-pressure systems

  7. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003–April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north.During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north–east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north–east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low

  8. Systematic vegetation change analysis of mangrove dieoff in Florida Bay and southern Everglades National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.M.; Sargent, F.J.; Sargent, W.B.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a project to link hydrological and ecological relationships of the Florida Everglades watershed and the Florida Bay estuary. The creation of vegetation maps and systematic spatial analysis of vegetation and hydrological features will provide information about the interaction between these two ecosystems. The distribution of mangroves, salt marshes, and related vegetative communities are being mapped using existing aerial photography. Historical photographic records are being used to create geographic information system data layers. Changes in the composition of wetlands and vegetative patterns will be compared over a 45-year period.

  9. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  10. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MONITORING IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FL ERF 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring in Escambia-Pensacola Bay System, FL (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R850).

    Submerg...

  11. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  12. Estimating vegetation coverage in St. Joseph Bay, Florida with an airborne multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J.; Faller, K. H.; Iverson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A four-channel multispectral scanner (MSS) carried aboard an aircraft was used to collect data along several flight paths over St. Joseph Bay, FL. Various classifications of benthic features were defined from the results of ground-truth observations. The classes were statistically correlated with MSS channel signal intensity using multivariate methods. Application of the classification measures to the MSS data set allowed computer construction of a detailed map of benthic features of the bay. Various densities of segrasses, various bottom types, and algal coverage were distinguished from water of various depths. The areal vegetation coverage of St. Joseph Bay was not significantly different from the results of a survey conducted six years previously, suggesting that seagrasses are a very stable feature of the bay bottom.

  13. Chesapeake bay submerged aquatic vegetation habitat requirements and restoration targets: A technical synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Batiuk, R.A.; Orth, R.J.; Moore, K.A.; Dennison, W.C.; Stevenson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay, one of the world's largest estuaries, has experienced deterioration of water quality from nutrient enrichment, resulting in anoxic or hypoxic conditions and declines in living resources. Determination of relationships between water quality and various living resources provides a mechanism of relating anthropogenic inputs to the 'health' of Chesapeake Bay. One of the major factors contributing to the high productivity of Chesapeake Bay has been the historical abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). SAV in Chesapeake Bay include some twenty freshwater and marine species of rooted, flowering plants. SAV provide food for waterfowl and are critical habitat for shellfish and finfish. SAV also affect nutrient cycling, sediment stability, and water turbidity. The primary objective of the SAV Technical Synthesis is to establish the quantitative levels of relevant water quality parameters necessary to support continued survival, propagation, and restoration of SAV.

  14. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. [(sea grasses)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, R. J.; Gordon, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental water penetration film and black and white near infrared film were used to study the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Detailed description of the grass beds was obtained by flying at an altitude of 5,000 feet, at low tide when wind conditions were minimal. Results show that there was a 36% reduction in the amount of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from 1971 to 1974, the greatest losses occurring in the York, Piankatank and Rappahannock rivers (tabulated data is given). Recovery of some grass beds occurs primarily through seedling recruitment and subsequent vegetative growth. Cownose rays are suspected as a main factor for the decimation of some of the grass beds. Maps and photographs of the areas studied are given.

  15. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  16. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  17. Physiological ecology of SRS Carolina bay phytoplankton communities: Effects of nutrient changes and CO{sub 2} sources. Renewal year two report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B.

    1993-12-01

    Impacts of land-use activities on wetland ecosystems, their resiliency, restoration, and related topics continue to be front-page issues for environmental planners, conservation groups, and government agencies. Among the abundant wetland systems within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are unique aquatic environments known as Carolina bays. Carolina bays represent especially critical habitat areas because they are the only naturally occurring aquatic systems above the floodplain in otherwise dry upland areas. Developing a clear understanding of the functional roles of phytoplankton and their responses to water chemistry is essential if natural ecosystem integrity is to be maintained through Carolina bay conservation and restoration efforts. The main objective of this second renewal year project effort was to determine the primary sources of CO{sub 2} for algal photosynthesis and the CO{sub 2} exchange flows between bottom sediments, water column, and the atmosphere. This objective was designed to quantify a portion of the role that these wetlands play in CO{sub 2} cycling through the actions of decomposition, atmospheric diffusion, and algal photosynthesis. An additional objective was to continue to measure the patterns of phytoplankton community dynamics and changes in water chemistry in Flamingo Bay and Lost Lake for comparison with previous years. The continued population sampling and chemical analyses were designed to evaluate effects of potential nutrient increases resulting from fertilizing in Lost Lake restoration efforts.

  18. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  19. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina Bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: Confirmation of novel taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.G.; Shimkets, L.J.; McArthur, J.V.

    1997-04-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhabit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow Bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project`s taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: confirmation of novel taxa.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

    1997-01-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. PMID:9097448

  1. Geologic framework of the long bay inner shelf: implications for coastal evolution in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.; Denny, J.; Baldwin, W.; Schwab, W.; Morton, R.; Gayes, P.; Driscoll, N.

    2007-01-01

    The inner continental shelf off northern South Carolina is a sediment-limited environment characterized by extensive hardground areas, where coastal plain strata and ancient channel-fill deposits are exposed at the sea floor. Holocene sand is concentrated in large shoals associated with active tidal inlets, an isolated shore-detached sand body, and a widespread series of low-relief sand ridges. The regional geologic framework is a strong control on the production, movement and deposition of sediment. High-resolution geologic mapping of the sea floor supports conceptual models indicative of net southwestward sediment transport along the coast.

  2. Morphology and texture of modern sediments on the inner shelf of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, J.F.; Baldwin, W.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidecan-sonar, seismic-reflection, swath bathymetric systems, and bottom sampling, were used to map the geologic framework offshore of the northern South Carolina coast in order to provide a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change. Four general sea floor environments were identified through analysis of sidescan-sonar, swath bathymetry, and surface sediment texture: inlet shoal complexes, shore-detached shoals, hardground, and mixed zones. Inlet shoal complexes generally lie offshore of modern inlet systems, with the exception of a shore-detached shoal lying offshore of Myrtle Beach. The shoals show 1 - 3 m in relief and comprise the largest accumulations of modern sediment within the inner shelf survey area. Surficial sediments within the shoal complexes are characterized by a low-backscatter, moderately sorted fine sand. Hardground areas are characterized by exposures of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata and Pleistocene channel-fill deposits. These areas display little to no bathymetric relief and are characterized by high-backscatter, coarser grained sand. Mixed zones show small-scale spatial variations in bathymetry, surface texture and backscatter. These areas are characterized by a thin layer of modern sediment ( Textural and geomorphic variations suggest a long-term net southerly flow within the study area. The general acoustic and textural character of the inner shelf within Long Bay suggests long-term erosion, reworking and continued modification of inner-shelf deposits by modern nearshore processes.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Perceived Barriers to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Populations, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sarah E.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Leone, Lucia A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is the leading preventable cause of illness and a major contributor to chronic disease. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables can help manage and prevent weight gain and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Low-income communities often lack stores that sell fresh fruit and vegetables and have instead stores that sell foods low in nutritional value. The objective of this study was to understand perceived community-level barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income people. Methods We conducted 8 focus groups involving 68 low-income participants in 2 North Carolina counties, from May 2011 through August 2011. The socioecological model of health guided data analysis, and 2 trained researchers coded transcripts and summarized findings. Four focus groups were conducted in each county; 1 was all male, 5 all female, and 2 mixed sexes. Most participants were black (68%), most were women (69.1%), and most had a high school education or less (61.8%). Almost half received support from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or another government assistance program. Results We identified 6 major community-level barriers to access to fruits and vegetables: cost, transportation, quality, variety, changing food environment, and changing societal norms on food. Conclusion Policymakers should consider supporting programs that decrease the cost and increase the supply of high-quality fruits and vegetables in low-income communities. PMID:23489639

  4. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  5. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  6. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Stressors in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Thom, Ronald; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land use change in Mobile and Baldwin counties on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in Mobile Bay. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for land use scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 land use scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the Bay. Theses results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid with four vertical profiles throughout Mobile Bay. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  8. A COMPARISON OF THE SALINITY REGIME ALONG THE TEXAS COAST WITH TERRESTRIAL VEGETATION GREENNESS AND WATER USE IN THE GALVESTON BAY WATERSHED USING REMOTING SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in vegetation greenness was determined for the Galveston Bay watershed using biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) flown on NOAA satellites. NDVI variability was compared with reg...

  9. Late Holocene saltmarsh accretion among sand ridges, West Bay, southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. C.; Woodson, A. L.; Newbern, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing Late Holocene sea-level rise has inundated a series of low (< 2m above sea level) relict sand ridges on Cedar Island, in southern Pamlico Sound on the central North Carolina coast (35.00°N, 76.34°W). The ridges likely represent shorelines formed during a previous (Pleistocene) sea-level highstand by a combination of longshore transport and eolian dune processes. Saltmarsh peat comprising primarily the remains of the high marsh plant Juncus gerardii has accumulated between the ridges, yielding a continuous record of transgression over at least the last 2,000 years. The protected depositional setting between the ridges, the small tidal amplitude (< 25 cm) in southern Pamlico Sound, and the smoothly varying topography of the underlying sand surface provide the opportunity to acquire basal saltmarsh peat samples from a range of elevations for sea-level reconstruction. We obtained cores of the marsh peat and sand deposits using various techniques (hand auger, Russian and dutch peat corers, vibracore) to generate an overview of the stratigraphy in the study area. We visually logged the cores and analyzed samples for organic carbon content, particle size and magnetic susceptibility. In the marsh peat, plant macrofossils were identified and agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages were counted. Saltmarsh foraminifera species identified in the cores include Trochammina inflata, Ammoastuta inepta, Jadammina macrescens, Tiphotroca comprimata and Milliamina fusca. Radiocarbon dates on plant material provide chronological control. Marsh core elevations were referenced to NAVD88 by total station surveys to the NGS benchmark on Cedar Island. We have acquired marsh cores as deep as 3.25 m below local mean sea level (MSL), but thus far the deepest saltmarsh peat sample found to contain saltmarsh foraminifera is from 2.16 m below MSL. The marsh deposits are laterally consistent in the upper 1.5 m of core transects, but minor downcore variations in organic content

  10. Low prevalence of splenic mycobacteriosis in migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis from North Carolina and Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Matsche, Mark A; Overton, Anthony; Jacobs, John; Rhodes, Matt R; Rosemary, Kevin M

    2010-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a chronic bacterial disease causing an ongoing epizootic in striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Prevalence of disease is high in pre-migratory fish, and multiple species of Mycobacterium spp. have been isolated. However, prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the coastal migratory population is unknown and is of concern to multiple coastal states, as disease-related mortality may impact the long-term health of the population. Histological examinations of spleens collected from fish caught by recreational anglers during the winter fishery in coastal North Carolina (2005-2006, n=249) and during the spring fishery in Chesapeake Bay (2006, n=120) indicated a low prevalence of mycobacteriosis (6.8% of all fish examined) in comparison to smaller, pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish. Genus-level PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed that all bacteria were phylogenetically related, but species is unknown. Location of survey, gender of fish, and total length of fish had no significant effect on prevalence of mycobacteriosis, parasitic granulomas, or the density of splenic granulomas (p > 0.05). These results may indicate that either granulomas resolve after Chesapeake Bay fish enter the coastal migratory population, or that there is disease-related mortality among pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish. PMID:20815326

  11. Low prevalence of splenic mycobacteriosis in migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis from North Carolina and Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Matsche, Mark A; Overton, Anthony; Jacobs, John; Rhodes, Matt R; Rosemary, Kevin M

    2010-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a chronic bacterial disease causing an ongoing epizootic in striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Prevalence of disease is high in pre-migratory fish, and multiple species of Mycobacterium spp. have been isolated. However, prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the coastal migratory population is unknown and is of concern to multiple coastal states, as disease-related mortality may impact the long-term health of the population. Histological examinations of spleens collected from fish caught by recreational anglers during the winter fishery in coastal North Carolina (2005-2006, n=249) and during the spring fishery in Chesapeake Bay (2006, n=120) indicated a low prevalence of mycobacteriosis (6.8% of all fish examined) in comparison to smaller, pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish. Genus-level PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed that all bacteria were phylogenetically related, but species is unknown. Location of survey, gender of fish, and total length of fish had no significant effect on prevalence of mycobacteriosis, parasitic granulomas, or the density of splenic granulomas (p > 0.05). These results may indicate that either granulomas resolve after Chesapeake Bay fish enter the coastal migratory population, or that there is disease-related mortality among pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish.

  12. Predictors of Intention to Eat 2.5 Cups of Vegetables among Ninth-Grade Students Attending Public High Schools in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify beliefs about eating 2.5 cups of vegetables and to assess how well these beliefs predict intention to eat them. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Setting: Two public high schools in 2 counties in eastern North Carolina. Participants: 157 ninth-grade students (mean age = 14.71 years [SD = 0.82]).…

  13. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  14. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P < 0.05) were recorded at bottom covered by the seagrass meadows in both localities and in both sampling months. The relationships between bacteria characteristics and environmental factors (grain size, organic matter, photopigments in sediments), meiofauna and macrofauna densities, as well as macrophyte vegetation characteristics (shoot density, phytobenthos biomass) were tested using PERMANOVA distance-based linear model (DISTLM) procedures and showed that the main factors explaining bacteria characteristics are bottom type (vegetated vs. unvegetated) and meiofauna density. These two factors explained together 48.3% of variability in TBN and 40.5% in BBM, and their impacts did not overlap (as indicated by DISTLM sequential tests) demonstrating the different natures of these relationships. The effects of seagrass were most probably related to the increase of organic matter and providing habitat while higher numbers of meiofauna organisms may have stimulated the bacterial growth by increased grazing. PMID:26178839

  15. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P < 0.05) were recorded at bottom covered by the seagrass meadows in both localities and in both sampling months. The relationships between bacteria characteristics and environmental factors (grain size, organic matter, photopigments in sediments), meiofauna and macrofauna densities, as well as macrophyte vegetation characteristics (shoot density, phytobenthos biomass) were tested using PERMANOVA distance-based linear model (DISTLM) procedures and showed that the main factors explaining bacteria characteristics are bottom type (vegetated vs. unvegetated) and meiofauna density. These two factors explained together 48.3% of variability in TBN and 40.5% in BBM, and their impacts did not overlap (as indicated by DISTLM sequential tests) demonstrating the different natures of these relationships. The effects of seagrass were most probably related to the increase of organic matter and providing habitat while higher numbers of meiofauna organisms may have stimulated the bacterial growth by increased grazing.

  16. A History of Vegetation, Sediment and Nutrient Dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  17. A history of vegetation, sediment and nutrient dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-05-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  18. Emergent coasts of Akimiski Island, James Bay, Northwestern Territories, Canada: geology, geomorphology, and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, I. P.; Glooschenko, W. A.

    1984-02-01

    Akimiski Island contains good examples of emergent coastal landscapes of a cold mesotidal inland sea. The Paleozoic reefal trend of the Attawapiskat Formation dictated the overall shape and the main structure of the island. Differential erosion and deposition by Pleistocene glaciers have fluted the island in a north-south direction. That surface was later modified by emergent landforms developed in the last 3500-4000 yrs. The modern steeper southern area reaches an elevation of 60 m approximately 3 km inland from the southern shoreline, and contains well-developed sandy and gravelly longitudinal beach ridges and spits, now inactive and covered by a lichen-rich taiga (boreal forest). The flatter, northern part of the island shows a wide transition between the primarily erosional, sand-starved, coastal marshland and the inland organic-rich fens. Partially paludified longitudinal and transversal beach ridges subdivide those northern flat wetlands forcing a straight course to the north-flowing streams. The vegetation zonations of the marshes are as varied as the coasts, facing different oceanographic conditions. Longshore and tidal currents affect the western and southern coasts greatly. Tides, waves and sea ice affect the others more. The marshes resemble those of the mainland in having well-defined Puccinellia phryganodes lower marsh, Carex subspathacea upper marsh, and peat-forming coastal fens. Some components of the marshes of the island, such as isolated mounds with vegetation minisequences, incipient permafrost features generated by seasonal frozen ground conditions, and intense grazing by large populations of geese, are typical of cold settings, more commonly found along mainland coasts farther to the north in James Bay and Hudson Bay.

  19. Temperature, oxygen, and vegetation controls on decomposition in a James Bay peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Holmquist, James; MacDonald, Glen; Duan, Dandan; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical composition of a peat core from James Bay Lowland, Canada, was used to assess the extent of peat decomposition and diagenetic alteration. Our goal was to identify environmental controls on peat decomposition, particularly its sensitivity to naturally occurring changes in temperature, oxygen exposure time, and vegetation. All three varied substantially during the last 7000 years, providing a natural experiment for evaluating their effects on decomposition. The bottom 50 cm of the core formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (~7000-4000 years B.P.), when mean annual air temperature was likely 1-2°C warmer than present. A reconstruction of the water table level using testate amoebae indicated oxygen exposure time was highest in the subsequent upper portion of the core between 150 and 225 cm depth (from ~2560 to 4210 years B.P.) and the plant community shifted from mostly Sphagnum to vascular plant dominance. Several independent biochemical indices indicated that decomposition was greatest in this interval. Hydrolysable amino acid yields, hydroxyproline yields, and acid:aldehyde ratios of syringyl lignin phenols were higher, while hydrolysable neutral sugar yields and carbon:nitrogen ratios were lower in this zone of both vascular plant vegetation and elevated oxygen exposure time. Thus, peat formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum did not appear to be more extensively decomposed than peat formed during subsequent cooler periods. Comparison with a core from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia, indicates that oxygen exposure time and vegetation are both important controls on decomposition, while temperature appears to be of secondary importance. The low apparent sensitivity of decomposition to temperature is consistent with recent observations of a positive correlation between peat accumulation rates and mean annual temperature, suggesting that contemporary warming could enhance peatland carbon sequestration, although this could be offset by an

  20. Prototype Application of NASA Missions to Identify Patterns of Wetland Vegetation Development within the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W.; Newcomer, M. E.; Justice, E.; Guild, L. S.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is the largest tidal wetland restoration on the west coast of the United States. Monitoring vegetation development in these emergent habitats with remote sensing can provide restoration managers with an indication of ecological health and progress of development. Remotely sensed imagery was used to monitor vegetation development and to map vegetation patterns and biota changes historically, during, and after salt pond construction for ponds A19, A20, and A21. Percent vegetative cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS, Tasseled Cap Greenness (TCG) and NDVI from Landsat TM, and the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER. Field parameters included in-situ measurements and geographic locations for percent vegetative cover, and site specific species information. Field data were incorporated into GIS, and vegetation was analyzed using spatial statistics methods and a qualitative post-classification comparison technique. NDVI values obtained from the Landsat scenes indicated a net gain of 3.35 acres of vegetation cover from February 2006 (before pond breaching) to August 2009 for pond A21 and 1.33 acres and 3.14 acres for ponds A20 and A19, respectively. Increases in vegetation indicate the marsh has built up to a steady-state condition to provide appropriate habitat for endangered plant and animal species and also indicates the success of restoration practices.

  1. Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B.

    1991-08-01

    The overall goal of the this three year project is to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS cardine bays. To summarize specific year three results: Total phytoplankton abundance in Flamingo bay was greatest during early spring 1989, declined during spring and summer, but increased again during early fall. Most of this phytoplankton density was composed of genus Chlamydomonas sp. Ellenton bay demonstrated a similar decline in phytoplankton numbers during midspring 1989, but increased in density during midsummer. As observed in Flamingo bay, much of this variation was due to changes in Chlamydomonas sp. numbers. In Flamingo bay the blue-green alga Anabaena sp. was low in concentration throughout the 1989 flooded season until August, however the diatom Pinnularia sp. displayed a pattern of abundance similar to Chlamydomonas sp. In Ellenton bay Pinnularia sp. peaked during early summer and Anabaena sp. reached highest densities in late spring. For zooplankton in Flamingo bay, the calanoid copepods were higher in early and late spring, similar to the cyclopoid copepods. Cladocera in Ellenton bay were highest in numbers during May 1989, while cladocera in Flamingo bay displayed patterns similar to Flamingo bay cyclopoid copepods. Laboratory experiments exposing Chlamydomonas sp. cultures to known mixtures of {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}C-CO{sub 2} seem to indicate that some isotope preference may exist during photosynthesis, however these results have not been analyzed statistically yet. Phytoplankton samples collected for Flamingo bay indicated that a seasonal change in isotope ratios may be occurring in algae tissues, however further analyses are being conducted to determine whether this may also be due to species shifts. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Hydrology and its effects on distribution of vegetation in Congaree Swamp National Monument, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.G.; Speiran, G.K.; Whetstone, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Congaree Swamp National Monument preserves a large stand of old-growth southern bottomland hardwood forest on the flood plain of the Congaree River. The distribution of vegetation types in the Monument is controlled by duration of saturated soil conditions during the growing season, which is related to duration of saturated soil conditions during the growing season, which is related to duration of inundation by the flooding river. During dry periods upland streams fed by seepage from shallow and deep aquifers supply water to the flood plain, and the potentiometric gradient in the flood plain slopes toward the river. During floods river water flows into the flood plain through breaches in the natural levee, inundating as much as 90% of the Monument an average of once per year. During floods the potentiometric gradient briefly slopes away from the river. The frequency of large floods has decreased slightly since completion of Lake Murray Dam in 1929. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens. PMID:20345293

  4. Miscellaneous pocosin peat deposits of North Carolina: Gull Rock; Van Swamp; Bay City - Gum Swamp. Open-grounds pocos in Hofmann Forest; Angola Swamp; Holly Shelter; Green Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier reports the coastal swamp or pocosin peat deposits of Dismal Swamp, Pamlimarle Peninsula, Croatan Forest, and Light Ground Pocosin were described (Ingram and Otte, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, and 1982). This report describes the remaining coastal swamp or pocosin deposits of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Total peat resources of these remaining deposits are: (1) Gull Rock - 8100 acres, 4.6 million tons, moisture free, (2) Van Swamp - 6600 acres, 5.8 million tons, (3) Bay City - Gum Swamp - 12,3000 acres, 5.9 million tons, (4) Open Grounds - 11,000 acres, 6.3 million tons, (5) Hofmann Forest - 5200 acres, 4.2 million tons, (6) Angola Swamp - 21,900 acres, 15.2 million tons, (7) Holly Shelter - 9200 acres, 6.7 million tons, and (8) Green Swamp - 16,400 acres, 10.3 million tons. A revised estimation of the total peat resources of North Carolina is 700,000 acres (1100 sq mi) of peatland with 500 million tons of peat. Of this total, 290,000 acres (460 sq mi) is underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick with 330 million tons of peat.

  5. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Wind Energy in Long Bay of the Carolinas: Numeric Modeling Estimates for the Year 2009-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Gayes, P. T.; Peng, M.; Ma, Y.; Tarpley, D.; Gregorek, K.; Mynhier, L.

    2010-12-01

    In Long Bay of the Carolinas, wind energy varies greatly in space and time. Natural variations of winds make it challenging to select the best location of wind farms. The Palmetto Wind Research Project is designed to physically measure and numerically model the variations of wind field within Long Bay. Particular focus is on resolving the gradient of the cross-shore wind profile and the areas where the most energetic winds 100 m above sea surface can be found closest to the coast. As a modeling part of this collaborative Project, a three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Version 3.2) was used to investigate the variability of wind field in this area. A 12-month simulation was focused on the period of July 2009 to June 2010. Model initial and boundary conditions were from the final analysis dataset (1 degree resolution, every 6 hours) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Three model domains and twenty-seven vertical grid layers were used. The parent domain (3-km resolution) covered the entire land-sea boundary of Long Bay from Cape Fear, NC to Cape Romain, SC, and two high-resolution (1-km) domains were one-way nested in the parent domain offshore of North Myrtle Beach and Winyah Bay mouth, respectively. Another atmosphere-ocean coupled model also was used to study the air-sea interaction in this area, and the differences between the results from the coupled model and these from WRF alone were relatively small under fare-weather conditions. Under storm conditions, however, the coupled model produced better wind field. Wind speeds at 3m, 10m and 100m above the surface were calculated from the pressure-based three-dimensional WRF grids. The 12-month WRF modeling results were validated by six observational buoys deployed (at 3 m elevation) by this Project as well as three nearby metrological stations (at 10 m elevation) maintained by National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). Modeling results indicate that wind energy increases

  7. Long-term trends in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay, USA, related to water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orth, Robert J.; Williams, Michael R.; Marion, Scott R.; Wilcox, David J.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Moore, Kenneth A.; Kemp, W.M.; Dennison, William C.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Peter Bergstrom,; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay supports a diverse assemblage of marine and freshwater species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) whose broad distributions are generally constrained by salinity. An annual aerial SAV monitoring program and a bi-monthly to monthly water quality monitoring program have been conducted throughout Chesapeake Bay since 1984. We performed an analysis of SAV abundance and up to 22 environmental variables potentially influencing SAV growth and abundance (1984-2006). Historically, SAV abundance has changed dramatically in Chesapeake Bay, and since 1984, when SAV abundance was at historic low levels, SAV has exhibited complex changes including long-term (decadal) increases and decreases, as well as some large, single-year changes. Chesapeake Bay SAV was grouped into three broad-scale community-types based on salinity regime, each with their own distinct group of species, and detailed analyses were conducted on these three community-types as well as on seven distinct case-study areas spanning the three salinity regimes. Different trends in SAVabundance were evident in the different salinity regimes. SAV abundance has (a) continually increased in the low-salinity region; (b) increased initially in the medium-salinity region, followed by fluctuating abundances; and (c) increased initially in the high-salinity region, followed by a subsequent decline. In all areas, consistent negative correlations between measures of SAV abundance and nitrogen loads or concentrations suggest that meadows are responsive to changes in inputs of nitrogen. For smaller case-study areas, different trends in SAV abundance were also noted including correlations to water clarity in high-salinity case-study areas, but nitrogen was highly correlated in all areas. Current maximum SAV coverage for almost all areas remain below restoration targets, indicating that SAV abundance and associated ecosystem services are currently limited by continued poor water quality, and specifically high

  8. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  9. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  11. Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest

  12. Bathymetry and vegetation in isolated marsh and cypress wetlands in the northern Tampa Bay Area, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Herndon, Donald C.

    2005-01-01

    Wetland bathymetry and vegetation mapping are two commonly used lines of evidence for assessing the hydrologic and ecologic status of expansive coastal and riverine wetlands. For small isolated freshwater wetlands, however, bathymetric data coupled with vegetation assessments are generally scarce, despite the prevalence of isolated wetlands in many regions of the United States and the recognized importance of topography as a control on inundation patterns and vegetation distribution. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida, bathymetry was mapped and vegetation was assessed in five marsh and five cypress wetlands. These 10 isolated wetlands were grouped into three categories based on the effects of ground-water withdrawals from regional municipal well fields: natural (no effect), impaired (drier than natural), and augmented (wetlands with artificially augmented water levels). Delineation of the wetland perimeter was a critical component for estimating wetland-surface area and stored water volume. The wetland perimeter was delineated by the presence of Serenoa repens (the 'palmetto fringe') at 9 of the 10 sites. At the 10th site, where the palmetto fringe was absent, hydric-soils indicators were used to delineate the perimeter. Bathymetric data were collected using one or more techniques, depending on the physical characteristics of each wetland. Wetland stage was measured hourly using continuous stage recorders. Wetland vegetation was assessed semiannually for 2 1/2 years in fixed plots located at three distinct elevations. Vegetation assessments were used to determine the community composition and the relative abundance of obligate, facultative wet, and facultative species at each elevation. Bathymetry maps were generated, and stage-area and stage-volume relations were developed for all 10 wetlands. Bathymetric data sets containing a high density of data points collected at frequent and regular spatial intervals provided the most useful stage

  13. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Benthos of Adjacent Mangrove, Seagrass and Non-vegetated Habitats in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    1997-04-01

    Benthic faunal abundances and biomasses in adjacent mangrove, seagrass and non-vegetated mud habitats were compared in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Although all habitats were intertidal, mangroves received the shortest duration of flooding, and non-vegetated mud received the longest. Replicate cores were taken at high tide in each habitat in July, September and December 1988, and in April 1989. Seagrass substrates were low organic content sands, whereas mangrove and non-vegetated substrates were high organic content sandy clays. Over 300 taxa were recorded, most of them relatively rare, and only 32 taxa were considered dominant (averaging ≥636 individuals m -2or five core -1in any habitat at a given time). Seagrass and non-vegetated mud faunas were more diverse than those of mangrove substrates. Total densities were always higher in red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) peat than elsewhere, averaging 22 591 to 52 914 individuals m -2. Densities in mixed seagrasses ranged between 6347 and 23 545 individuals m -2, while those in non-vegetated mud ranged between 3611 and 22 465 individuals m -2. Biomasses, however, were always higher in either seagrasses (15·7-87·4 g wet weight m -2) or non-vegetated mud (11·9-26·2 g m -2) than in mangroves (3·6-8·2 g m -2). Tanaids and annelids were the numerical dominants, reaching maximum densities of 35 127 and 31 388 m -2, respectively, in mangroves. Annelids were also the dominant biomass in most habitats each month. Variation in densities of most of the 32 dominant taxa were related to habitat not time. Each habitat harboured four to eight taxa that were significantly more abundant there than in alternate habitats. Feeding guild analysis indicated few differences among habitats, as surface deposit feeders and carnivores were predominant. Red mangrove appear capable of functioning in a manner similar to intertidal marsh habitats by providing high densities of small prey items for mobile consumers able to exploit the

  15. Close Encounter With a Carolina Bay. Jones Lake State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, J. Christopher; Corbett, Robert J.

    This activity guide, developed to provide hands-on environmental education activities geared to Jones Lake State Park in North Carolina, is targeted for grades 6, 7, and 8 and meets curriculum objectives in the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Three types of activities are included:…

  16. Differences in the Effect of Coal Pile Runoff (Low pH, High Metal Concentrations) Versus Natural Carolina Bay Water (Low pH, Low Metal Concentrations) on Plant Condition and Associated Bacterial Epiphytes of Salvinia minima.

    PubMed

    Lindell, A H; Tuckfield, R C; McArthur, J V

    2016-05-01

    Numerous wetlands and streams have been impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in lowered pH and increased levels of toxic heavy metals. Remediation of these contaminated sites requires knowledge on the response of microbial communities (especially epiphytic) and aquatic plants to these altered environmental conditions. We examined the effect of coal pile runoff waters as an example of AMD in contrast to natural water from Carolina Bays with low pH and levels of metals on Salvinia minima, a non-native, metal accumulating plant and associated epiphytic bacteria. Treatments included water from two Carolina Bays, one AMD basin and Hoagland's Solution at two pH levels (natural and adjusted to 5.0-5.5). Using controlled replicated microcosms (N = 64) we determined that the combination of low pH and high metal concentrations has a significant negative impact (p < 0.05) on plant condition and epiphytes. Solution metal concentrations dropped indicating removal from solution by S. minima in all microcosms. PMID:26908369

  17. Circulation on the Inner-Shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina: Vertical Current Variability and Evidence for Cross-Shelf Variation in Near-Bed Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, B. T.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P. A.; Seim, H.; Warner, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Cross-shelf variations of near-bed currents and variations in vertical flow were investigated on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during the spring and fall of 2001. Current meters sampled near-bed currents at six locations as well as vertical current profiles at three of the sites. The observations showed that the tides accounted for approximately 45-66% of the flow variability. The dominant tidal component, the semi-diurnal constituent M2, exhibited tidal ellipse orientations that are increasingly aligned with the coast closer to the shore. The largest M2 current magnitudes were identified closest to shore and over the top of a sand shoal located 5.5 km offshore of Myrtle Beach. The remaining flow variability was associated with sub-tidal flows which respond to the passage of low-pressure systems across the region. These weather systems were characterized by periods of southwesterly winds in advance of low-pressure centers followed by northeasterly winds as the systems passed over the study area. When strong southwesterly winds persisted, surface flow was oriented approximately in the direction of the wind. At the same time near-bottom flows were also directed to the northeast in the direction of the wind except during periods of stratification when vertical current profiles suggest near-bed onshore flow. The stratified flows were observed mainly during the spring deployment. For periods of strong northeasterly winds, currents were directed alongshore to the southwest and exhibited little variation throughout the water column. These observations are consistent with recent field and modeling studies for the inner-shelf. Comparison of the near-bed flow measurements during the fall deployment revealed a cross-shore gradient in alongshore flow during periods of strong northeasterly winds. During these episodes flows at the offshore measurement stations were oriented in the direction of the wind, while flows closest to shore occurred in the opposite

  18. IMPACTS OF VEGETATION DYNAMICS ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN A BIOLOGICALLY COMPLEX COMMUNITY IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A land-cover (LC) change detection experiment was performed in the biologically complex landscape of the Neuse Rive Basin (NRB), NC using Landsat 5 and 7 imagery collected in May of 1993 and 2000. Methods included pixel-wise Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Mult...

  19. Vegetation changes and their climatic implication for the late Pleistocene at Lake Poukawa, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, M.; Shulmeister, J.; Flenley, J. R.

    2002-07-01

    A detailed vegetation history extending back to the Last Interglacial (Marine Isotope Substage 5e) is presented for Lake Poukawa, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. This history is based on palynological analyses of a 198-m core record, age secured by uranium/thorium (U/Th) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates as well as tephrochronology. Vegetation of the penultimate glacial (Isotope Stage 6) probably consisted of a very sparse shrubby herbland of stunted podocarps ( Phyllocladus sp.), daisies, grasses and sedges. Similar floras existed in each of the succeeding cool periods. Four interglacial/interstadial floras are preserved. The peak of the Last Interglacial (Substage 5e) was dominated by extensive lowland forest of tall forest podocarps ( Podocarpus/Prumnopitys), most probably matai ( Prumnopitys taxifolia) with red beech ( Nothofagus fusca), secondary forest trees ( Coprosma spp., Myrsine spp.) and tree ferns ( Cyathea spp.). In the Poukawa basin itself, a swamp forest of the podocarp ( Dacrycarpus dacrydioides) with the true palm ( Rhopalostylis sapida) expanded. Substage 5e was significantly warmer and/or moister than the present day. Substage 5c/5a was marked by montane forest of red and silver beeches ( N. fusca and N. menziesii), Phyllocladus spp. and secondary trees. A reduced representation of Podocarpus/ Prumnopitys possibly consists of montane podocarp ( Podocarpus hallii). We infer the temperature of Substage 5c/5a to have been 3.5-5 °C lower than the present day. Although Stage 3 flora are superficially similar to those of Substage 5c/5a, the beeches are relatively less dominant. The regional flora during Stage 1 is very similar to those of Substage 5e, but the density is lower with no swamp forest during the present interglaciation. This may represent a change in evapotranspiration balance around Poukawa, but may also be controlled by hydrological conditions within the basin.

  20. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay - A comparison of Landsat MSS to TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS and TM imagery, obtained simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, VA, as analyzed and compares for its ability to detect submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to each image, where the input classification parameters are defined as functions of apparent sensor noise. Class confidence and accuracy were computed for all water areas by comparing the classified images, pixel-by-pixel, to rasterized SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. To illustrate the effect of water depth on classification error, areas of depth greater than 1.9 m were masked, and class confidence and accuracy recalculated. A single-scattering radiative-transfer model is used to illustrate how percent canopy cover and water depth affect the volume reflectance from a water column containing SAV. For a submerged canopy that is morphologically and optically similar to Zostera marina inhabiting Lower Chesapeake Bay, dense canopies may be isolated by masking optically deep water. For less dense canopies, the effect of increasing water depth is to increase the apparent percent crown cover, which may result in classification error.

  1. Chesapeake Bay habitat criteria scores and the distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River and Potomac Estuary, 1983-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, J.M.; Reel, J.T.; Rybicki, N.B.; Ruhl, H.A.; Carter, Virginia

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program has identified habitat requirements for the restoration of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Chesapeake Bay estuary and tidal reaches of contributing river systems conditioned on the salinity regime of a specific location. The tidal Potomac River and Potomac Estuary is an important component of the Chesapeake Bay system to which these requirements can be applied. The SAV habitat requirements are formulated as threshold criteria that certain critical water-quality characteristics must satisfy during the SAV growing season. A multivariate scoring system based on these criteria was developed in order to synopsize water quality conditions during the 1983-1997 SAV growing seasons. Chesapeake Bay habitat criteria scores are displayed relative to annual SAV coverage for each Potomac River and Potomac Estuary segment. It is seen that although there is some correspondence in the inter-annual expansion or contraction of SAV coverage and compliance with Chesapeake Bay SAV habitat criteria, individual criteria provide neither necessary nor sufficient conditions to explain inter-annual dynamics of SAV coverage, especially in the Potomac Estuary.

  2. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  3. Watershed and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation and Seagrasses in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammed; Thom, Ron; Quattrochi, Dale; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellism Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriguez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    vegetation. The impact of land use change on sediment concentrations was evaluated by analyzing the LSPC and EFDC sediment simulations for the four land use scenarios. Such analysis was also performed for storm and non-storm periods. In- situ data of total suspended sediments (TSS) and light attenuation were used to develop a regression model to estimate light attenuation from TSS. This regression model was used to derive marine light attenuation estimates throughout Mobile bay using the EFDC TSS outputs. The changes in sediment concentrations and associated impact on light attenuation in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on seagreasses and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) habitat. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of sediments due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  4. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for wetland

  5. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SALT MARSH VEGETATION AND TIDAL CHANNEL NETWORK FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY (1975-2006). EXAMPLE OF THE MONT-SAINT-MICHEL BAY (FRANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, A. P.; Kellerer, D.; Gluard, L.; Levoy, F.

    2009-12-01

    Coastal landscapes are severely affected by environmental and social pressures. Their long term development is controlled by both physical and anthropogenic factors, which spatial dynamics and interactions may be analysed by Earth Observation data. The Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (Normandy, France) is one of the European coastal systems with a very high tidal range (approximately 15m during spring tides) because of its geological, geomorphological and hydrodynamical contexts at the estuary of the Couesnon, Sée and Sélune rivers. It is also an important touristic place with the location of the Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey, and an invaluable ecosystem of wetlands forming a transition between the sea and the land. Since 2006, engineering works are performed with the objective of restoring the maritime character of the Bay. These works will lead to many changes in the spatial dynamics of the Bay which can be monitored with two indicators: the sediment budget and the wetland vegetation surfaces. In this context, the aim of this paper is to map and monitor the tidal channel network and the extension of the salt marsh vegetation formation in the tidal zone of the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay by using satellite images. The spatial correlation between the network location of the three main rivers and the development of salt marsh is analysed with multitemporal medium (60m) to high spatial resolution (from 10 to 30 m) satellite images over the period 1975-2006. The method uses a classical supervised algorithm based on a maximum likelihood classification of eleven satellites images. The salt-marsh surfaces and the tidal channel network are then integrated in a GIS. Results of extraction are assessed by qualitative (visual interpretation) and quantitative indicators (confusion matrix). The multi-temporal analysis between 1975 and 2006 highlights that in 1975 when the study area is 26000 ha, salt marshes cover 16% (3000ha), the sandflat (slikke) and the water represent respectively 59% and 25

  6. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  7. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  8. Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress and Recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico Using AVIRIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill. PMID:24223872

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  10. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands. PMID:26560310

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands. PMID:26560310

  12. Late-glacial and Holocene record of vegetation and climate from Cynthia Bay, Lake St Clair, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, F. V. L.; Colhoun, E. A.; Barton, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    A Late-glacial-Holocene pollen record was obtained from a 3.96 m sediment core taken from Lake St Clair, central Tasmania. Modern vegetation and pollen analyses formed the basis for interpretation of the vegetation and climate history. Following deglaciation and before ca. 18450 yr BP Podocarpus lawrencei coniferous heath and Astelia-Plantago wet alpine herbfield became established at Lake St Clair. A distinct Poaceae-Plantago peak occurs between 18450 and 11210 yr BP and a mean annual temperature depression from ca. 6.2°C to 3°C below present is inferred for this period. The marked reduction in Podocarpus and strong increase of Poaceae suggests reduced precipitation levels during the period of widespread deglaciation (ca. 18.5-11 kyr BP). The local Late Pleistocene-Holocene non-forest to forest biostratigraphical boundary is dated at 11.2 kyr BP. It is characterised by expansion of the subalpine taxa Athrotaxis/Diselma with Nothofagus gunnii, and by the establishment of Nothofagus cunninghamii with Eucalyptus spp. A Phyllocladus bulge prior to the expansion of Nothofagus cunninghamii, reported at other Tasmanian sites, is not present at Lake St Clair. Nothofagus cunninghamii cool temperate rainforest peaked at 7800 yr BP, probably under wetter climatic conditions than present. The maximum development of rainforest in the early-middle Holocene may indicate that the temperature was slightly warmer than present, but the evidence is not definitive. The expansion of Eucalyptus spp. and Poaceae after 6000 yr BP may be partly a disclimax effect as a result of Aboriginal burning, but appears also to reflect reduced precipitation. The changes in vegetation and inferred climate can be explained by major changes in synoptic patterns of southern Australia and the adjacent southwest Pacific.

  13. A comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery generated simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, Virginia, are assessed in the ability to detect submerged aquatic, bottom-adhering plant canopies (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm is applied to both image types and the resulting classifications compared to SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. Class confidence and accuracy are first computed for all water areas and then only shallow areas where water depth is less than 6 feet. In both the TM and MSS imagery, masking water areas deeper than 6 ft. resulted in greater classification accuracy at confidence levels greater than 50%. Both systems perform poorly in detecting SAV with crown cover densities less than 70%. On the basis of the spectral resolution, radiometric sensitivity, and location of visible bands, TM imagery does not offer a significant advantage over MSS data for detecting SAV in Lower Chesapeake Bay. However, because the TM imagery represents a higher spatial resolution, smaller SAV canopies may be detected than is possible with MSS data.

  14. Flow, sedimentation, and biomass production on a vegetated salt marsh in South Carolina: toward a predictive model of marsh morphologic and ecologic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Mudd, S. M.; Morris, J. T.; Furbish, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    A 1-D model for exploring the interaction between hydrodynamics, sedimentation, and plant community evolution on a salt marsh populated by Spartina alterniflora is developed. In the model tidally induced flows over marsh platforms are affected by S. alterniflora through drag forces. In general macrophyte characteristics are determined by a wide range of processes; here, based on field studies at North Inlet estuary, South Carolina, the biomass of the S. alterniflora on the marsh platform is simply related to their time of submergence under tidally induced flows. Additionally, field data collected at North Inlet are used to relate biomass to plant area per unit volume, stem diameter, and an empirical drag coefficient. Sedimentation is also related to biomass, through either organogenic deposition or trapping of suspended sediment particles. The morphologic evolution of simulated marshes is explored by varying the sedimentation process and the rate of sea level rise. Different sedimentation processes result in marshes with different morphologies. An organogenic marsh is predicted to evolve under a regime of steady sea level rise into a platform with a relatively flat surface, whereas a marsh developed primarily through a trapping mechanism is predicted to have a surface that slopes gently away from the salt marsh creek. As predicted by 0-D modeling studies, sea level rise may be accommodated up to a certain critical sea level rise rate, after which the salt marsh platform will drown. Marshes that accrete through sediment trapping adjust to changes in sea level more rapidly than marshes that accrete through organogenic deposition.

  15. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  16. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  17. Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2005-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most devastating and rapidly fatal cancers, yet little is known about the primary cause and prevention of this disease. We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the association between vegetables and fruits and pancreatic cancer. Between 1995 and 1999, 532 cases and 1,701 age- and sex-matched controls completed direct interviews using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. No proxy interviews were conducted. We observed inverse associations between consumption of total and specific vegetables and fruits and the risk of pancreatic cancer. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the highest versus the lowest quartile of total vegetable intake was 0.45 (0.32-0.62), trend P < 0.0001; and for total fruits and fruit juice was 0.72 (0.54-0.98), trend P = 0.06. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus the lowest quartile of specific vegetables and fruits were: 0.63 (0.47-0.83) for dark leafy vegetables, 0.76 (0.56-1.0) for cruciferous vegetables, 0.59 (0.43-0.81) for yellow vegetables, 0.56 (0.41-0.76) for carrots, 0.51 (0.38-0.70) for beans, 0.46 (0.33-0.63) for onions and garlic, and 0.78 (0.58-1.0) for citrus fruits and juice. Compared with less than five servings per day of total vegetables and fruits combined, the risk of pancreatic cancer was 0.49 (0.36-0.68) for more than nine servings per day. These results suggest that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption, already recommended for the prevention of several other chronic diseases, may impart some protection against developing pancreatic cancer.

  18. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Hudson Bay and James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data ...

  19. Trends in the distribution, abundance, and habitat quality of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries: 1971 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Batiuk, R.A.; Nowak, J.F.

    1994-05-01

    This report builds on two decades of aerial and ground surveys of SAV distribution and abundance data along with the development of SAV habitat requirements, establishment of SAV restoration goals and targets, compilation of historical water quality data, and implementation of a coordinated baywide monitoring program. The objectives of this report are to: describe trends in SAV distribution and abundance in Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries from 1971 to 1991; relate SAV distribution overtime with tiered distribution restoration goals and targets; compare trends in SAV distribution and abundance with corresponding trends in water quality; and correlate SAV distribution with river flow.

  20. Food habits of diving ducks in the Carolinas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits analyses were conducted on 264 diving ducks (7 species) from North and South Carolina during the 1970'S. The Baltic clam (Macoma balthica) was the predominant food among canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from the Pamlico River area, whereas sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) predominated in birds from impoundments in North and South Carolina. Shoalgrass (Halodule beaudettei) formed 100% of the gullet food and 99% of the gizzard food in redheads (Aythya americana) from Pamlico Sound. Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in North Carolina had fed predominantly on mollusks (Mulinia lateralis and Rangia cuneata), whereas widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) was the predominant food in birds from South Carolina. In North Carolina, ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) fed mainly on vegetation, and greater scaup (Aythya marila), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) fed mainly on Mulinia lateralis. Food habits data from this study when compared with historical food habits of these species indicate that most diving duck species were feeding more on invertebrates and less on submerged aquatic vegetation than in the past. North and South Carolina have a diverse food supply and appear to offer waterfowl adequate wintering habitat based on these food habits studies. Present trends in wintering habitat, however, could adversely affect diving duck populations in the future.

  1. Brief statement on the hydrology of the Sampit River area near Georgetown, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Carolina Refining and Distributing Company is planning to locate an oil-refining plant near Georgetown, South Carolina. To aid in the preparation of an environmental impact statement, a description of the stratigraphy, ground-water resources, and an assessment of possible seismic activity that may occur in the Winyah Bay vicinity has been prepared. Additional data will be required to quantitatively evaluate the impact of an oil spill on the shallow aquifer in the area. (USGS)

  2. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... have a significantly adverse effect on the purposes of a publicly owned park, forest, or recreation area and may condition permit approval on a requirement of visual screening, vegetative or otherwise... publication of the notice to that effect in the Federal Register. (1) North Carolina Mining Act of 1971,...

  3. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... have a significantly adverse effect on the purposes of a publicly owned park, forest, or recreation area and may condition permit approval on a requirement of visual screening, vegetative or otherwise... publication of the notice to that effect in the Federal Register. (1) North Carolina Mining Act of 1971,...

  4. Applications of ERTS data to coastal wetland ecology with special reference to plant community mapping and typing and impact of man. [Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. P.; Mcginness, J.

    1974-01-01

    Complete seasonal ERTS-1 coverage of Atlantic coastal wetlands from Delaware Bay to Georgia provides a basis for assessment of temporal data for wetland mapping, evaluation, and monitoring. Both MSS imagery and digital data have proved useful for gross wetland species delineation and determination of the upper wetland boundary. Tidal effects and (band to band or seasonal) spectral reflectance differences make it possible to type vegetatively coastal wetlands in salinity related categories. Management areas, spoil disposal sites, drainage ditches, lagoon-type developments and highway construction can be detected indicating a monitoring potential for the future. A northern test site (Maryland-Virginia) and a southern test site (Georgia-South Carolina), representing a range of coastal marshes from saline to fresh, were chosen for intensive study. Wetland maps were produced at various scales using both ERTS imagery (bands 5 and 7) and digital data (bands 4, 5 and 7).

  5. Resources of South Carolina Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.; And Others

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education and the Postsecondary Planning Commission conducted this study of the library resources and needs of South Carolina postsecondary institutions as part of its goal to improve the quality of South Carolina state higher education programs. Questionnaires sent to college libraries were designed to test…

  6. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing Collaborative Instruction in an…

  7. South Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with South Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  8. North Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with North Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  9. North Carolina Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen; And Others

    Interviews with 725 North Carolina farm operators revealed: the extent of economic, social, and emotional stresses on farm families; perceptions of the future of agriculture; the degree of reliance on off-farm income; financial management practices; and programs needed from the Agricultural Extension Service. Almost 66% viewed their future in…

  10. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1999-01-01

    This 1999 issue of the "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "The Unmade Analogy: Alcohol and Abortion" (Richard W. Leeman); "Say, You Want a Revolution" (Roy Schwartzman and Constance Y. Green); "Exploring the Relationship between Perceived Narrativity and Persuasiveness" (Richard Olsen and Rodney A. Reynolds); "In…

  11. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina - The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Contributing authors: Schwab, W. C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.A.; Driscoll, N.W.; Baldwin, W.E.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Denny, J.F.; Harris, M.S.; Katuna, M.P.; Putney, T.R.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.; Wright, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multidisciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. Shoreline behavior along the coast of Long Bay is dictated by waves, tidal currents, and sediment supply that act within the overall constraints of the regional geologic setting. Beaches are thin ribbons of sand that sit on top of layered sedimentary rocks, which have been deeply eroded by rivers and coastal processes over millions of years. Offshore of the beaches, these sedimentary rocks are exposed as hardgrounds over large expanses of shallow seafloor and are locally overlain by a discontinuous veneer of sandy sediment generally less than 1 m thick. Rates of shoreline retreat largely depend on the geologic framework of the shoreface that is being excavated by ocean processes. Mainland-attached beaches have remained relatively stable, whereas barrier islands have experienced large shifts in shoreline position. In this sediment-limited region, erosion of the shoreface and inner shelf probably contributes a significant amount of new material to the beach system. Oceanographic studies and numerical modeling show that sediment transport varies along the coast, depending on the type and travel path of storms that impact Long Bay, but the long-term net transport direction is generally from north to south. Changes in storm activity that might accompany climate change, coupled with anticipated increases in sea-level rise, are expected to strongly affect low-lying, heavily developed areas of the coast.

  12. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, ...

  13. Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires

  14. Vegetation of the Savannah River Site: Major community types

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, S.W.; McLeod, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The eight major plant community types of the Savannah River Site (SRS) are distributed along topographic and moisture gradients and strongly controlled by local management practices. Communities range from sandhill communities in the xeric uplands to bottomland or swamp forests in low-lying areas subject to periodic flooding. The variety of community types and extensive land area (78,000 ha) of the SRS provides habitat for a diversity of plant species. As a National Environmental Research Park, the SRS provides an area for study of man-altered systems in relation to natural systems. A site-wide Set-Aside Areas program designates specific parcels of land representing different community types on the SRS. These areas conserve habitat for plants and wildlife, including some endangered, threatened and rare species. This document provides descriptions, including community characteristics and species composition, for the eight major vegetation communities of the SRS (old field, sandhill, upland hardwood, pinelands, bottomland, swamp, Carolina bay and fresh water). Species lists of tree, shrub, vine, herbaceous, and lower plant species of the SRS, by community type, were compiled from existing literature, herbarium information, and solicited additions from researchers familiar with SRS vegetation; these are provided in appendices. 130 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Transgressive shoreline deposits seaward of coastal ponds along northeastern South Carolina coastline.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, E.; Harris, M. S.; Pender, R.; Ball, M.

    2007-12-01

    The arcuate Long Bay coastline of northeastern South Carolina is dominated by the 75 km long Grand Strand, which is the result of landward retreat of the shoreline intersecting the paleo Myrtle Beach barrier system. As the shoreline transgresses, three stages of development have been recognized in this large coastal embayment: (1) coastal barrier island landforms north and south of the central Grand Strand that are migrating across an irregular Pleistocene paleolandscape and have not intersected emergent Quaternary paralic terraces; (2) an intermediate stage where the transgressing shoreline has created shore parallel coastal lakes and vegetated wetlands between the transgressive sediment mass and the emergent terraces; and (3) coastal segments where the transgressive shoreline is actively eroding into the emergent Pleistocene core. This study uses ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vibracore data to study the intermediate stage lake coastline. The GPR data reveals landward dipping reflectors infilling uneven topography and channels formed in the low between the irregular paleo barrier high and retreating shoreline. Study of the transgressive architecture and intersection with paleo- shoreface is important for understanding future shoreline retreat and for understanding potential storm records preserved in the infill.

  16. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  17. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  18. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay     View Larger Image ... winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra ...

  19. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  20. Prevalence of the invasive Rhizocephalan parasite Loxothylacus panopaei in Eurypanopeus depressus in South Carolina and genetic relationships of the parasite in North and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Freshwater, D Wilson; Burge, Erin J

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei is a parasitic castrator of xanthid crabs that has invaded the U.S. Atlantic coast. It was transported to the Chesapeake Bay in the mid-1960s with mud crabs associated with Gulf coast oysters and has since spread north to Long Island Sound, New York, and south to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Here we report parasite prevalence at 3 South Carolina sites--2 from which the parasite had not been previously reported--and examine the genetic relationships of North and South Carolina L. panopaei populations relative to Gulf of Mexico and other Atlantic coast parasite populations. Total L. panopaei prevalence was 24.2% among all 3 sites, with monthly prevalence as high as 51.6% at Waties Island, South Carolina. Sequence analyses of North and South Carolina specimens revealed the presence of 4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes--3 commonly found in other invasive populations and 1 new haplotype found in a single specimen from the Rachel Carson Reserve in Carteret County, North Carolina--and indicate that the Carolina populations are a result of range expansion from the original Atlantic coast invasion.

  1. Prevalence of the invasive Rhizocephalan parasite Loxothylacus panopaei in Eurypanopeus depressus in South Carolina and genetic relationships of the parasite in North and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Freshwater, D Wilson; Burge, Erin J

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei is a parasitic castrator of xanthid crabs that has invaded the U.S. Atlantic coast. It was transported to the Chesapeake Bay in the mid-1960s with mud crabs associated with Gulf coast oysters and has since spread north to Long Island Sound, New York, and south to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Here we report parasite prevalence at 3 South Carolina sites--2 from which the parasite had not been previously reported--and examine the genetic relationships of North and South Carolina L. panopaei populations relative to Gulf of Mexico and other Atlantic coast parasite populations. Total L. panopaei prevalence was 24.2% among all 3 sites, with monthly prevalence as high as 51.6% at Waties Island, South Carolina. Sequence analyses of North and South Carolina specimens revealed the presence of 4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes--3 commonly found in other invasive populations and 1 new haplotype found in a single specimen from the Rachel Carson Reserve in Carteret County, North Carolina--and indicate that the Carolina populations are a result of range expansion from the original Atlantic coast invasion. PMID:24588508

  2. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    PubMed

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  3. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  4. Carolina View. Volume III, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Char, Ed.; Welsh, Michael, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Developments on college campuses, and specifically at the University of South Carolina (USC), are presented in 15 articles and 3 book reviews. Titles and authors are as follows: "Assessing the Papal Visit" (Jerome N. Vereb); "How Long Does It Take to Graduate from Carolina" (Michael F. Welsh, Mark G. Shanley, Charles H. Witten); "Are the Concerns…

  5. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  6. 'Carolina' session growth, reproduction, and biomass of hydrilla in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, S.M.; Davis, G.J.; Pesacreta, G.

    1984-06-01

    Certain morphological and physiological characteristics are associated with the phenomenal ability of hydrilla to invade an aquatic system, overtop more desirable native rooted aquatic species, and form very dense monospecific mats. One of these adaptations is the formation of tubers which are vegetative propagules formed at the ends of positively geotropic rhizomes (Van, Haller, and Garrard 1978). Tubers develop in the hydrosoil and thus are very resistant to all control methods. Also, hydrilla's ability to become established and photosynthesize under low light intensities is unequaled by any other submersed rooted aquatic macrophyte (Van, Haller, and Bowes 1976). Hydrilla growing in lakes in Umstead State Park in North Carolina was first identified by William Haller in 1981 and had apparently been established in the area for several years. Since its initial identification, hydrilla has been found in 18 other water bodies, all in Wake Country. Hydrilla has the potential to become a very serious problem as there are presently no effective means of halting its spreading or eradicating it after infestation occurs. For effective management in North Carolina, knowledge of the growth, reproduction, and biomass of hydrilla in North Carolina is needed. This research addresses these questions.

  7. HABITAT ASSESSMENT MODELS FOR BAY SCALLOP, ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) inhabit shallow subtidal habitats along the Atlantic coast of the United States and require settlement substrates, such as submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), for their early juvenile stages. The short lifespan of bay scallops (1-2 yr) coupled...

  8. Seismicity in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake in South Carolina, and in the southeastern US, occurred in the Coastal Plain province, probably northwest of Charleston, in 1886. Locations for aftershocks associated with this earthquake, estimated using intensities based on newspaper accounts, defined a northwest trending zone about 250 km long that was at least 100 km wide in the Coastal Plain but widened to a northeast trending zone in the Piedmont. The subsequent historical and instrumentally recorded seismicity in South Carolina images the 1886 aftershock zone. Instrumentally recorded seismicity in the Coastal Plain province occurs in 3 seismic zones or clusters: Middleton Place-Summervile (MPSSZ), Adams Run (ARC), and Bowman (BSZ). Approximately 68% of the Coastal Plain earthquakes occur in the MPSSZ, a north trending zone about 22 km long and 12 km wide, lying about 20 km northwest of Charleston. The hypocenters of MPSSZ earthquakes range in depth from near the surface to almost 12 km. Thrust, strike-slip, and some normal faulting are indicated by the fault plane solutions for Coastal Plain earthquakes. The maximum horizontal compressive stress, inferred from the P-axes of the fault plane solutions, is oriented NE-SW in the shallow crust (<9 km deep) but appears to be diffusely E-W between 9 to 12 km deep. -from Author

  9. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    SciTech Connect

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  10. Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine and marine environments of the United States' eastern seaboard provide the setting for a variety of natural and human activities associated with the flow of water. This set of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer images from October 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North Carolina and southern Virginia. On the right-hand side of the images, a thin line of land provides a tenuous separation between the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and the Atlantic Ocean. The wetland communities of this area are vital to productive fisheries and water quality.

    The top image covers an area of about 350 kilometers x 260 kilometers and is a true-color view from MISR's 46-degree backward-looking camera. Looking away from the Sun suppresses glint from the reflective water surface and enables mapping the color of suspended sediments and plant life near the coast. Out in the open sea, the dark blue waters indicate the Gulf Stream. As it flows toward the northeast, this ocean current presses close to Cape Hatteras (the pointed cape in the lower portion of the images), and brings warm, nutrient-poor waters northward from equatorial latitudes. North Carolina's Outer Banks are often subjected to powerful currents and storms which cause erosion along the east-facing shorelines. In an effort to save the historic Cape Hatteras lighthouse from the encroaching sea, it was jacked out of the ground and moved about 350 meters in 1999.

    The bottom image was created with red band data from the 46-degree backward, 70-degree forward, and 26-degree forward cameras displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The color variations in this multi-angle composite indicate different angular (rather than spectral) signatures. Here, the increased reflection of land vegetation at the angle viewing away from the Sun causes a reddish tint. Water, on the other hand, appears

  11. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  12. South Carolina Guide for Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Occupational Education.

    This guide is intended for teachers conducting industrial technology education (TE) courses in South Carolina. Presented first is introductory information about the mission, clusters and units, and recommended educational format of TE in South Carolina. Discussed in the seven sections are various aspects of South Carolina's modular delivery system…

  13. Earthquake history of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    An estimated $23 million damage was caused by one of the great earthquakes in United States history in 1886. Charleston, S.C, and nearby cities suffered most of the damage, although points as far as 160 km away were strongly shaken. Many of the 20 earthquakes of intensity V or greater (Modified Mercalli scale) that centered within South Carolina occurred near Charleston. A 1924 shock in the western part of the State was felt over 145,000 km2. Several earthquakes outside the State borders were felt strongly in South Carolina

  14. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  15. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  16. Schools & Taxes in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Betsy; And Others

    This report is one of a series on education finance undertaken to document existing disparities in expenditures for education, to analyze the sources of the disparities, and to describe and evaluate the gains and losses that would occur in differing types of school districts under alternative fiscal policies. This study shows that North Carolina's…

  17. The North Carolina PEPSE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; Campbell, Melinda; Johnson, Dennis; McKethan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    North Carolina high school physical education teachers and teacher educators have collaborated to implement the Physical Education Partnership for Sport Education (PEPSE), which recreates the learning environment with a focus on curricular revision and assessment. This article describes current conditions, the PEPSE project's solution, how the…

  18. Resources of North Carolina Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Robert B., Ed.

    The conclusion of the survey is that North Carolina libraries do not have sufficient resources, physical facilities or staff to provide adequate library service for the state. The survey covers the present and potential roles of the State Library, the State Department of Archives and History, public libraries, university libraries, senior and…

  19. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  20. South Carolina TEC Student Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. A., Ed.; Kiser, J. A., Ed.

    This student code has statewide application to South Carolina Technical Colleges and Technical Education Centers (TEC). Provisions are divided into eight articles: (1) General Provisions, including the purpose of a student code, the precept of internal solution of problems, and definitions; (2) Student Rights, including Bill of Rights protections;…

  1. Chesapeake Bay plankton and fish abundance enhanced by Hurricane Isabel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. R.; Boicourt, W. C.; Kimmel, D. G.; Miller, W. D.; Adolf, J. E.; Bichy, J.; Harding, L. W., Jr.; Houde, E. D.; Jung, S.; Zhang, X.

    Hurricane Isabel made landfall east of Cape Lookout, North Carolina, as a Category 2 (Safford-Simpson scale) hurricane on 18 September 2003. The storm's center tracked to the northwest, passing west of Chesapeake Bay (Figure 1) in the early morning of 19 September. Hurricane Isabel brought the highest storm surge and winds to the region since the Chesapeake-Potomac hurricane of 1933 and Hurricane Hazel in 1954 (http://www.erh. noaa.gov/er/akq/wx_events/hur/isabel_2003. htm). Storm surge was variable in the region, reaching a high of 2.7 m on the western side of the bay where the heaviest rainfall occurred. The highest sustained wind in the bay region reached 30.8 m s-1 at Gloucester Point,Virginia, with gusts to 40.7 m s-1.

  2. Documentation of Data Collection in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and Virginia, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, scientists from Elizabeth City State University, North Carolina Estuarine Research Reserve, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water-quality data at nine sites in and around Currituck Sound. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at five tributary sites--the Northwest River near Moyock, Tull Creek near Currituck, and Intracoastal Waterway near Coinjock in North Carolina, and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal near Princess Anne, and the North Landing River near Creeds in Virginia. In addition, data were collected at one site at the mouth of Currituck Sound (Currituck Sound at Point Harbor, North Carolina). Only water-quality data were collected at three sites in Currituck Sound and Back Bay-Currituck Sound near Jarvisburg, and Upper Currituck Sound near Corolla in North Carolina, and Back Bay near Back Bay in Virginia. The hydrologic data included water elevation and velocity, and discharge. The water-quality data included discrete samples and continuous measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a. The hydrologic and water-quality data collected for this study were quality assured by the U.S. Geological Survey and stored in the National Water Information System database. The data collected for this project are being used to develop an unsteady multidimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model of Currituck Sound by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The purpose of this model is to provide the basis for planning and the development of best-management practices and restoration projects for Currituck Sound and its tributaries.

  3. South Carolina Course Alignment Project Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Education and Economic Development Act of 2005 (EEDA), South Carolina has embarked on an exciting initiative called the South Carolina Course Alignment Project. In partnership with the South Carolina Department of Education and the South Carolina Technical College System, the project is led by the South Carolina Commission on…

  4. SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are an important resources for aquatic life and
    wildfowl in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay region. SAV habitat is threatened in part by nitrogen loadings from human activities. Monitoring and assessing this resource using field bas...

  5. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  6. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  7. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  8. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  9. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  10. Mapping diverse vegetation with multichannel radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Ocampo, A.; Sharitz, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne-SAR, SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat TM images of the Savannah River Plant, a gently sloping area of South Carolina covered with diverse vegetation, are presented and briefly characterized. Preliminary results indicate that multiple-polarization images constructed from the airborne-SAR data give some indication of forest density and understory growth but do not permit discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forests. Heat-tolerant vegetation growing on sand bars in streams bearing thermal effluents from nuclear reactors on the site is found to have a distinguishing polarization signature.

  11. State of the Chesapeake Bay: second annual monitoring report, compendium. Report for January 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.P.; Krome, E.C.

    1987-04-01

    The report is a summary of information collected at stations around the Chesapeake Bay. It is designed to be a more detailed/technical companion to the State Of The Bay Summary Report. It reports the results of the monitoring of the Chesapeake Bay in terms of its physical and chemical makeup (sediments, the distribution of toxics), the living resources, (plankton, benthos, submerged aquatic vegetation, birds), and the Patuxent River, as a case history.

  12. The North Carolina Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.; Ternes, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    The North Carolina Field Test will test the effectiveness of two weatherization approaches: the current North Carolina Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program and the North Carolina Field Test Audit. The Field Test Audit will differ from North Carolina's current weatherization program in that it will incorporate new weatherization measures and techniques, a procedure for basing measure selection of the characteristics of the individual house and the cost-effectiveness of the measure, and also emphasize cooling energy savings. The field test will determine the differences of the two weatherization approaches from the viewpoints of energy savings, cost effectiveness, and implementation ease. This Experimental Plan details the steps in performing the field test. The field test will be a group effort by several participating organizations. Pre- and post-weatherization data will be collected over a two-year period (November 1989 through August 1991). The 120 houses included in the test will be divided into a control group and two treatment groups (one for each weatherization procedure) of 40 houses each. Weekly energy use data will be collected for each house representing whole-house electric, space heating and cooling, and water heating energy uses. Corresponding outdoor weather and house indoor temperature data will also be collected. The energy savings of each house will be determined using linear-regression based models. To account for variations between the pre- and post-weatherization periods, house energy savings will be normalized for differences in outdoor weather conditions and indoor temperatures. Differences between the average energy savings of treatment groups will be identified using an analysis of variance approach. Differences between energy savings will be quantified using multiple comparison techniques. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. 75 FR 16097 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the Saluda Hydroelectric... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice...

  14. 75 FR 43964 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of... Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the.... Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access...

  15. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  16. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  17. North Carolina School Nurse Leadership Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttu, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing that school nurse leaders are essential to the development of school nurses, the North Carolina School Nurse Leadership Institute was developed to enable school nurse leaders to update and advance their leadership skills. The Institute was a collaborative endeavor between the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services,…

  18. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  19. North Carolina Medical Technology Manpower Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, R. Carole; And Others

    A survey of the medical technology profession in North Carolina was undertaken in 1981 by the North Carolina Area Health Education Center to promote statewide planning. One survey focus was institutional characteristics, including: current staff level, budget vacancies, qualifications to fill vacancies, number of resignations in the last year, and…

  20. Mentoring North Carolina Novice Teachers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This introductory-level training program is designed to develop in classroom teachers the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for functioning as successful mentors to novice North Carolina teachers. This includes background and perspectives for mentoring in North Carolina; Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC)…

  1. Meeting the Challenge in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwick, Joseph T.

    2004-01-01

    If the nation's economy over the past 10 years can be described as a roller coaster, North Carolina was riding in the first car. The 1990s offered the promise of North Carolina's moving to the forefront of the nation's prosperity, since it outranked most states on many positive indices and outranked other southern states on most of them. North…

  2. Teenage Pregnancy in South Carolina: Everybody's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

    This publication examines in detail the problem of teenage pregnancy in South Carolina. Following the executive summary and a listing of eight recommendations based on the report, chapter 1 presents tables of selected vital statistics related to teen pregnancy in South Carolina. All statistics are shown by county and by Department of Health and…

  3. Title V in South Carolina -- An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Nelson L.

    Since South Carolina's Title V Community and Resource Development (CRD) project is limited to one small rural county (Williamsburg) affording careful documentation, this paper explicates South Carolina's CRD process via a social action model. This project, then, is described in terms of the following model components: (1) community initiative…

  4. Colon Cancer Screening in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death both in North Carolina and in the United States. The goal of CRC screening is early detection and prevention. This commentary reviews the evidence for screening, discusses current screening options, and explores which options are best suited for use in North Carolina. PMID:27154885

  5. North Carolina state revamps geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North Carolina State University's Department of Marine Sciences and Engineering and the Department of Geosciences have been combined to form the Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, according to university chancellor Joab L. Thomas. The new department is headed by Jay Langfelder, former head of the marine sciences and engineering department.Langfelder said that the new department will be able to provide a stronger program for students. The marine science and engineering department has traditionally been graduate and research oriented, while undergraduate studies were emphasized in the other department, he said. ‘The combination should help both programs.’

  6. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  7. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  8. The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) has increased its population size in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland and Virginia) to approximately 4,500 since 1962 when five swans were released in the Bay. The Bay population of mute swans now represents 30% of the total Atlantic Flyway population (12,600) and has had a phenomenal increase of 1,200% from 1986 to 1999. Unlike the tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan is a year-long resident, and, therefore, reports of conflicts with nesting native waterbirds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have raised concerns among resource managers. Populations of black skimmers (Rynchops niger) and least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on beaches and oyster shell bars have been eliminated by molting mute swans. Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) constituted 56% and eel grass (Zostera marina) constituted 43% of the gullet food of mute swans. Other SAV and invertebrates (including bryozoans, shrimp, and amphipods) formed a much smaller amount of the food percentage (1%). Invertebrates are believed to have been selected accidently within the vegetation eaten by the swans. Corn (Zea mays) fed to swans by Bay residents during the winter probably supplement limited vegetative food resources in late winter. A program to control swan numbers by the addling of eggs and the killing of adult swans has been a contentious issue with some residents of the Bay area. A management plan is being prepared by a diverse group of citizens appointed by the Governor to advise the Maryland Department of Natural Resources on viable and optimum options to manage mute swans in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay. Hopefully, the implementation of the plan will alleviate the existing conflicts to the

  9. Rural Adults’ Perspectives on School Food in a North Carolina County

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Linden M.; Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi; Noar, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To address alarming rates of youth obesity, multiple stakeholder perspectives must be understood and considered when developing nutrition interventions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine adults’ perceptions of school food in rural North Carolina and their opinions about potential changes to encourage students to eat more fruits and vegetables in school meals. Methods We conducted semistructured key informant interviews by telephone from February through March 2013 to determine adult opinions regarding elementary school food and child health. Participants included parents, teachers, school administrators, and a cafeteria staff member. Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed using Dedoose qualitative analysis software. Results Four themes emerged from key informant interviews regarding school meals and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption: 1) schools are an appropriate place for nutritious food, 2) current school food is bland and unappealing, 3) school cafeterias can use simple strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and 4) federal school meal guidelines are perceived as barriers to increased fruit and vegetable intake during school meals. Conclusion Study findings suggest that training and support for cafeteria staff on healthy food preparation and presentation are critical and that there should be a “meeting in the middle” between child appeal and health. Nutritious and appealing school food options may have the potential to greatly increase fruit and vegetable consumption in rural elementary schools in North Carolina. PMID:25906435

  10. The Russell gold deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Cunningham, C.G.; Logan, M.A.V.; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gold deposits have been mined in the Carolina slate belt from the early 1800s to recent times, with most of the production from large mines in South Carolina. The Russell mine, one of the larger producers in North Carolina, is located in the central Uwharrie Mountains, and produced over 470 kg of gold. Ore grades averaged about 3.4 grams per tonne (g/ t), with higher-grade zones reported. The Russell deposit is interpreted to be a sediment-hosted, gold-rich, base-metal poor, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in which gold was remobilized, in part, during Ordovician metamorphism. The ore was deposited syngenetically with laminated siltstones of the late Proterozoic Tillery Formation that have been metamorphosed to a lower greenschist facies. The Tillery Formation regionally overlies subaerial to shallow marine rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Uwharrie Formation and underlies the marine volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cid Formation. Recent mapping has shown that a rhyolitic dome near the Russell mine was extruded during the deposition of the lower part of the Tillery Formation, at about the same time as ore deposition. Relict mafic, rock fragments present in the ore zones suggest contemporaneous bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) volcanism. The maximum formation age of the Russell deposit is younger than 558 Ma, which is similar to that of the larger, well known Brewer, Haile, and Ridgeway deposits of South Carolina. Gold was mined from at least six zones that are parallel to the regional metamorphic foliation. These strongly deformed zones consist of northeast-trending folds, high-angle reverse faults, and asymmetric doubly plunging folds overturned to the southeast. The dominant structure at the mine is an asymmetric doubly plunging anticline with the axis trending N 45?? E, probably related to late Ordovician (456 ?? 2 Ma) regional metamorphism and deformation. Two stages of pyrite growth are recognized. Stage 1, primary, spongy pyrite, is

  11. 76 FR 77021 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency... Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are... Hearing,'' was published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2011 (76 FR 53967). No comments or...

  12. Understanding food webs in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keough, J.R.; Haramis, G.M.; Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to predictive modeling and to management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are 'bottom up' (i.e., approaches involve the control of nutrient inputs in attempts to manage plankton productivity) and 'top down' (i.e., approaches involve controls on harvest of fisheries and wildlife in attempts to manage vertebrate populations). Both approaches are limited by a lack of understanding of trophic connections between nutrient inputs, primary producers, and higher trophic level consumers. This project is aimed at identifying trophic structure for the submersed aquatic vegetation habitat of the Chesapeake Bay. We are employing analysis of stable isotope ratios of plant and animal tissues to identify trophic levels and traditional food habits analysis to identify the foods of a number of species of waterfowl.

  13. Suitability of seagrasses and submerged aquatic vegetation as indicators of eutrophication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rooted submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) encompasses a large diversity of species that range from obligate halophytes such as, seagrasses, to euryhaline species and freshwater obligates. All seagrass and SAV provide key biological functions within the enclosed bays, estuaries, a...

  14. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  15. Characterization of marine debris in North Carolina salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Viehman, Shay; Vander Pluym, Jenny L; Schellinger, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Marine debris composition, density, abundance, and accumulation were evaluated in salt marshes in Carteret County, North Carolina seasonally between 2007 and 2009. We assessed relationships between human use patterns and debris type. Wave effects on marine debris density were examined using a GIS-based forecasting tool. We assessed the influence of site wave exposure, period, and height on debris quantity. Presence and abundance of debris were related to wave exposure, vegetation type and proximity of the strata to human population and human use patterns. Plastic pieces accounted for the majority of all debris. Small debris (0-5 cm) was primarily composed of foam pieces and was frequently affiliated with natural wrack. Large debris (>100 cm) was encountered in all marsh habitat types surveyed and was primarily composed of anthropogenic wood and derelict fishing gear. Marsh cleanup efforts should be targeted to specific habitat types or debris types to minimize further damage to sensitive habitats.

  16. SHINING ROCK WILDERNESS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1984-01-01

    The Shining Rock Wilderness, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Haywood County, North Carolina, is underlain by complexly folded mica gneiss and schist of Precambrian age. A mineral-resource survey determined that two commodities, quartz as a source of silica (SiO//2) and gneiss and schist suitable for common building stone and crushed rock, are present in large quantities. Demonstrated resources of silica occur at Shining Rock Mountain and small amounts of sheet muscovite (mica) and scrap mica are present at about 10 localities. Until deep drilling is done to test the results of the seismic studies, no estimate of the potential for gas can be made, but the presence of gas cannot be totally discounted.

  17. Food habits and distribution of wintering canvasbacks, Aythya valisineria, on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were the predominant food items of 323 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected throughout Chesapeake Bay during 1970-1979. Natural vegetation constituted 4% of the food volume. Widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) and redhead grass (Potamogeton perfoliatus) constituted the greatest percent volume and frequency of occurrence among the plant species, whereas wild celery (Vallisneria americana) constituted only a trace of the food volume. These results contrast with historical records of food habits of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay. Canvasback population estimates during the 1970?s were examined to detect annual and seasonal changes in distribution. Linear regression analyses of winter canvasback populations in the bay showed a significant decline in the upper-bay and middle-bay populations, but no significant changes in the lower-bay and Potomac River populations. The changes in winter distribution and abundance of the canvasback appear related to changes in natural food availability, which is the result of altered environmental conditions.

  18. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  19. Parental attendance and brood success in American Oystercatchers in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.

  20. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheboro Randolph Hospital Medical Library 364 White Oak Street Asheboro, NC 27204-1048 ...

  1. Chloritoid-sillimanite assemblage from North Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of sillimanite and Fe-rich chloritoid in apparent equilibrium in a quartzite near Charlotte, North Carolina, is reported. The implications for the kyanite-andalusite-sillimanite triple point are discussed.-J.A.Z.

  2. A healthier economy for North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Hood, John

    2012-01-01

    There is solid empirical evidence for a positive relationship between economic development and health outcomes. A successful strategy for promoting economic growth in North Carolina would include reforms of the state's education, infrastructure, tax, and regulatory policies.

  3. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  4. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-92-017) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  5. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-97-020) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  6. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  7. Biological inventory of the proposed site of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, L.J.

    1981-10-01

    Continued inventories of biota at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) site have resulted in the identification of indicator species (Representative Important Species) in addition to adding to our long-term data base on biota of the site. A large number of plant, insect, miscellaneous invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species occur on the DWPF site. Of these, there are no nationally Threatened or Endangered species. Three plant species considered Threatened by the State of South Carolina occur on the DWPF site, and one of these, the spathulate seed box is known on the SRP only from Sun Bay, the Carolina bay located directly on the DWPF site. Mitigation attempts to relocate species are discussed. Monitoring will continue. (PSB)

  8. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  9. 75 FR 19964 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Public Meeting on Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Public.... Enter the docket number (e.g., P-516) excluding the last three digits in the docket number field...

  10. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  12. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  14. Toxic substances in submerged aquatic vegetation beds. Rept. for Dec 87-Jun 88

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, J.C.; Stevenson, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread decline of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) in the Chesapeake Bay has been well documented. In order to better understand the relative importance of toxic contaminants on SAV occurrence, the authors collected sediments from SAV beds in Chesapeake Bay for the analysis of herbicides, pesticides and trace metals. The central question of the research was whether the input of toxics to Chesapeake Bay sediments may have been a causative factor in SAV loss. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in vegetated and unvegetated sites was the basis for the study.

  15. Paleoseismic investigations in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Talwani, P.; Rajendran, C.P. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade paleoseismological investigations have been carried out in South Carolina by USC, USGS, and EBASCO. The results of these have led to the detection of over 50 paleoliquefaction features. These are concentrated in the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake, in the Myrtle Beach-Georgetown area (about 100 km NE of Charleston) and in the Bluffton Hilton Head area (about 100 SW of Charleston). At each location several liquefaction features have been discovered and dated. Radiocarbon dates suggest the occurrence of at least 6 and possibly 7 events in the SC Coastal Plain during the Holocene. In the Bluffton area several locations were associated with events dated at 600, 1,200, 2,200, 3,200, and 5,000 YBP. The 600, 1,200, 3,200, and 5,000 YBP dates were also observed at Charleston. In the northern sites several features dated at 600, 1,200, and 1,800 YBP. The 1,800 YBP event was observed only at the northern site and the 2,200 YBP event only at the southern site. These observations suggest that two sources other than Charleston may have been active in the Holocene, one located 100 km to the NE and another 100 km SW of Charleston.

  16. Experimental enhancement of pickleweed, Suisun Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Tsao, Danika C.; Yee, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    As mitigation for habitat impacted by the expansion of a pier on Suisun Bay, California, two vehicle parking lots (0.36 ha and 0.13 ha) were restored by being excavated, graded, and contoured using dredged sediments to the topography or elevation of nearby wetlands. We asked if pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica L, [Amaranthaceae]) colonization could be enhanced by experimental manipulation on these new wetlands. Pickleweed dominates ecologically important communities at adjacent San Francisco Bay, but is not typically dominant at Suisun Bay probably because of widely fluctuating water salinity and is outcompeted by other brackish water plants. Experimental treatments (1.0-m2 plots) included mulching with pickleweed cuttings in either the fall or the spring, tilling in the fall, or applying organic enrichments in the fall. Control plots received no treatment. Pickleweed colonization was most enhanced at treatment plots that were mulched with pickleweed in the fall. Since exotic vegetation can colonize bare sites within the early phases of restoration and reduce habitat quality, we concluded that mulching was most effective in the fall by reducing invasive plant cover while facilitating native plant colonization.

  17. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, Raymond G.; Pyke, Christopher R.; Adams, Mary Beth; Breitburg, Denise; Hershner, Carl; Kemp, Michael; Howarth, Robert; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Paolisso, Michael; Secor, David; Sellner, Kevin; Wardrop, Denice; Wood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for CO 2 emissions indicate that by the end of the 21 st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historical conditions, including increases in CO 2 concentrations, sea level, and water temperature of 50-160%, 0.7-1.6 m, and 2-6 °C, respectively. Also likely are increases in precipitation amount (very likely in the winter and spring), precipitation intensity, intensity of tropical and extratropical cyclones (though their frequency may decrease), and sea-level variability. The greatest uncertainty is associated with changes in annual streamflow, though it is likely that winter and spring flows will increase. Climate change alone will cause the Bay to function very differently in the future. Likely changes include: (1) an increase in coastal flooding and submergence of estuarine wetlands; (2) an increase in salinity variability on many time scales; (3) an increase in harmful algae; (4) an increase in hypoxia; (5) a reduction of eelgrass, the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay; and (6) altered interactions among trophic levels, with subtropical fish and shellfish species ultimately being favored in the Bay. The magnitude of these changes is sensitive to the CO 2 emission trajectory, so that actions taken now to reduce CO 2 emissions will reduce climate impacts on the Bay. Research needs include improved precipitation and streamflow projections for the Bay watershed and whole-system monitoring, modeling, and process studies that can capture the likely non-linear responses of the Chesapeake Bay system to climate variability, climate change, and their interaction with other anthropogenic stressors.

  18. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Pyke, C.; Adams, M.; Breitburg, D.; Hershner, C.; Kemp, M.; Howarth, R.; Mulholland, M.; Paolisso, M.; Secor, D.; Sellner, K.; Wardrop, D.; Wood, R.

    2008-12-01

    We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for carbon dioxide emissions indicate that by the end of the 21st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historic conditions, including increases in carbon dioxide concentrations, sea level, and water temperature of 50-160 percent, 0.7-1.6 m, and 2-6 K, respectively. Also likely are increases in precipitation amount (particularly in the winter and spring), precipitation intensity, intensity of tropical and extratropical cyclones (though their frequency may decrease), and sea-level variability. The greatest uncertainty is associated with changes in annual streamflow, though it is likely that winter and spring flows will increase. Climate change alone will cause the Bay to function very differently in the future. Likely changes include: (1) an increase in coastal flooding and submergence of estuarine wetlands; (2) an increase in salinity variability on many time scales; (3) an increase in harmful algae; (4) an increase in hypoxia; (5) a reduction of eelgrass, the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay; and (6) altered interactions among trophic levels, with warm-water fish and shellfish species ultimately being favored in the Bay. The magnitude of these changes is sensitive to the carbon dioxide emission trajectory, so that actions taken now to reduce carbon dioxide emissions will reduce climate impacts on the Bay. Research needs include improved precipitation and streamflow projections for the Bay watershed and whole-system monitoring and modeling (supplemented by process studies) that can capture the likely non-linear responses of the Chesapeake Bay system to climate variability and change.

  19. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  20. Fall food habits of ducks near Santee Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGilvrey, F.B.

    1966-01-01

    During the 1961 waterfowl hunting season, 360 stomachs of 10 duck species were collected from hunters near the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Marion, South Carolina. Based on percentage of total volume, 20 of the most important foods are listed. The six most important duck species in the kill were: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wood duck (Aix sponsa), widgeon (Mareca americam), pintail (Anas acuta) , black duck ( Anas rubripes) , and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis). Six plant species made up 5 percent or more of the total volume of food items found in the stomachs of all ducks. Only seeds of oaks (Quercus sp.), corn, sweet gum (Liquidambar Styraciflua), and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) were consumed. Some seed, but mostly the vegetative portions of hydrochloa (Hydrochloa carolinensis) and only the vegetative portions of southern rice cutgrass (Leersia hexandra) were taken. The more important game ducks concentrated on the refuge farmlands when water levels were below 72 feet mean sea level (msl). When levels reached 75 feet msl, natural foods became available, ducks dispersed from refuge areas, and hunting success increased greatly.

  1. Investigations on classification categories for wetlands of Chesapeake Bay using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensors to determine the characteristics of the wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding areas is discussed. The objectives of the program are stated as follows: (1) to use data and remote sensing techniques developed from studies of Rhode River, West River, and South River salt marshes to develop a wetland classification scheme useful in other regions of the Chesapeake Bay and to evaluate the classification system with respect to vegetation types, marsh physiography, man-induced perturbation, and salinity; and (2) to develop a program using remote sensing techniques, for the extension of the classification to Chesapeake Bay salt marshes and to coordinate this program with the goals of the Chesapeake Research Consortium and the states of Maryland and Virginia. Maps of the Chesapeake Bay areas are developed from aerial photographs to display the wetland structure and vegetation.

  2. 10. CONCRETE BRIDGE, REINFORCED BEAM TYPE ON CONCRETE, SOUTH CAROLINA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONCRETE BRIDGE, REINFORCED BEAM TYPE ON CONCRETE, SOUTH CAROLINA STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA (photocopy of drawing) - Salkehatchie Bridge, State Route No. 64 spanning Salkehatchie River, Barnwell, Barnwell County, SC

  3. Weapons bay acoustic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L. L.; Shimovetz, R. M.

    1994-09-01

    An aircraft weapons bay exposed to freestream flow experiences an intense aeroacoustic environment in and around the bay. Experience has taught that the intensity of this environment can be severe enough to result in damage to a store, its internal equipment, or the structure of the weapons bay itself. To ensure that stores and sensitive internal equipment can withstand this hazardous environment and successfully complete the mission, they must be qualified to the most severe sound pressure levels anticipated for the mission. If the qualification test levels are too high, the store and its internal equipment will be over designed, resulting in unnecessary costs and possible performance penalties. If the qualification levels are below those experienced in flight, the store or its internal equipment may catastrophically fail during performance of the mission. Thus, it is desirable that the expected levels in weapons bays be accurately predicted. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and the future of weapons bay acoustic environments. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and

  4. Storm tide simulation in the Chesapeake Bay using an unstructured grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian; Wang, Harry; Sisson, Mac; Gong, Wenping

    2006-06-01

    Hurricane Isabel made landfall near Drum Inlet, North Carolina on September 18, 2003 (UTC 17:00). Although it was classified as only a Category 2 storm (Saffir-Simpson scale), Hurricane Isabel had a significant impact on the Chesapeake Bay with a 1.5-2.0 m storm surge (above mean sea level), and was dubbed the "100-year storm". A high-resolution unstructured grid model (UnTRIM) was applied to simulate storm tide in the Chesapeake Bay. The application of an unstructured grid in the Bay offers the greatest flexibilities in representing complex estuarine geometry near the coast and encompassing a large modeling domain necessary for storm surge simulation. The resulting mesh has a total of 239,541 surface elements. The model was forced by 9 tidal harmonic constituents at the open boundary and a wind field generated by a parametric wind model. A hindcast simulation of Hurricane Isabel captures both peak storm tide and surge evolution in various sites of the Bay. Model diagnostic studies indicate that the high surge occurring in the upper Bay regions was mainly caused by the forced southerly wind, whereas the offshore surge and both the northeasterly and southeasterly winds influenced the lower Bay region more significantly.

  5. Comments on recent canvasback habitat trends and threats on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the last 22 years, the North American winter population of canvasbacks has fluctuated from 481,000 in 1955 to 179,000 in 1972. The Chesapeake Bay population has averaged 33 percent of the North American population and 64 percent of the Atlantic Flyway population. In Maryland, significant annual fluctuations have been recorded between the eastern and western shore of Chesapeake Bay. In 1968, 11 percent of the Bay canvasbacks were on the western shore, whereas in 1971, 87 percent of the birds wintered in this area. This increase in 1971 is believed to be in response to large populations of small Rangia cuneata clams. I n recent years, mortality of small clams and reduced spawning have resulted in a larger size class for Rangia making them less desirable as a waterfowl food. Canvasback populations in 1975 and 1976 were more dispersed in Chesapeake Bay when the predominant food of canvasbacks was Macoma balthica. In the last 5 years, the number of canvasbacks wintering in Chesapeake Bay has declined slightly, while the North American and Atlantic Flyway populations have increased. Increases have been noted in New Jersey and North Carolina. This trend may indicate that the quality of canvasback habitat in Chesapeake Bay is declining at a faster rate than other areas along the Atlantic coast.

  6. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  7. Pleistocene plants from North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Edward Wilber

    1926-01-01

    The field work upon which this report is based was done in 1906 and 1907 as a part of the cooperative study of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, under the direction of the late William Bullock Clark. Associated with the writer in this work were L. W. Stephenson, B. L. Miller, Jr., and J. E. Pogue. Preliminary accounts of the plants collected were published in 1907 and 1909. As has been frequently emphasized, the study of the Pleistocene floras in this country is in an exceedingly backward state as measured by the volume and precision of our knowledge of Pleistocene floras in Europe. Researches in Pleistocene geology in North America have been confined almost entirely to glaciology, and the problem of the correlation of the glacial deposits with those outside the glaciated area has not been solved, nor is there any general agreement regarding the genesis of the Pleistocene deposits south of the terminal moraines. The present account of what is known of the Pleistocene flora of North Carolina and the conclusions that may be legitimately derived from it is offered in the hope that it may stimulate an interest in a neglected field of research and form a small part of the evidence upon which to base future more comprehensive conclusions and generalizations. A word of explanation regarding the illustrations is required. Nearly all of them have been made from leaves preserved as carbonaceous films in the peaty clays. These specimens were carefully washed out, and blue prints were made directly from them. Outlines and as much of the venation as could be seen were inked on the blue prints, which were then bleached. This procedure made it possible to handle a much larger amount of material and prevented any possible damage to the exceedingly fragile specimens, which were mounted on cards or between glass. The accompanying drawings were made from tracings of the original nature prints.

  8. How field monitoring of green infrastructure stormwater practices has led to changes in North Carolina's Stormwater BMP design manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, W. F.; Winston, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Green Infrastructure stormwater management is comprised of many biologically-based stormwater treatment practices. Two of which, bioretention and level spreader- vegetative filter strips, have been extensively studied at over 10 different field locations across North Carolina by NC State University. The result of this research has been dramatic changes to the state of North Carolina's stormwater BMP Design Manual, which now allows a greater amount of flexibility for the design of each practice than most other design manuals. The purpose of this presentation is to present a summary of research conducted in North Carolina and associate that research with specific changes made in the state's design guidance for both bioretention (Table 1) and level spreader- vegetated filter strip systems (Table 2). Among the changes are type of vegetation, ratio of hydraulic loading, underdrainage configuration, and fill media selection. References (in print) associated with the tables are listed below: Hathaway, J.M. and W.F. Hunt. 2008. Field Evaluation of Level Spreaders in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(4):538-542. Hunt, W.F., A.R. Jarrett, J.T. Smith, L.J. Sharkey. 2006. Evaluating Bioretention Hydrology and Nutrient Removal at Three Field Sites in North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 132 (6): 600-608. Hunt, W.F., J.M. Hathaway, R.J. Winston, and S.J. Jadlocki. 2010. Runoff Volume Reduction by a Level Spreader - Vegetated Filter Strip System in Suburban Charlotte, NC. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 15(6): 399-503. Jones, M.P. and W.F. Hunt. 2009. Bioretention Impact on Runoff Temperature in Trout Sensitive Waters. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 135(8): 577-585. Li, H., L.J. Sharkey, W.F. Hunt, A.P. Davis. 2009. Mitigation of Impervious Surface Hydrology using Bioretention in North Carolina and Maryland. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(4): 407-415. Line, D.E. and W.F. Hunt. 2009

  9. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Carolina Federal program. 933.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.700 North Carolina Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  10. Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina: an obesity prevention movement.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David

    2014-01-01

    Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina was established in response to the state's rapidly worsening obesity epidemic. Since its inception in 2002, the Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina movement has grown to include more than 90 member organizations and has developed and disseminated North Carolina's plan to address obesity for 2007-2012 and 2013-2020.

  11. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This student sampler has been compiled to assist North Carolina students (4th and 8th grade) in their study of North Carolina. It is designed to introduce them to the people, places and events that have shaped North Carolina history. Topics include state symbols, descriptions of the state flag, and seal, the lyrics to the state song, and the…

  12. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  13. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This information sampler was compiled to assist students in their study of North Carolina. Every year North Carolina students must complete a special project on their state. The sampler was designed to introduce students to the people, places, and events that have shaped North Carolina's history. Topics in the sampler include state symbols,…

  14. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; encourage cooperation among libraries of all types;…

  15. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: (1) Provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; (2) Provide statewide programs to support local library services; (3) Serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; (4) Encourage cooperation among libraries…

  16. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina: The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W. A., (Edited By)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multi-disciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. The main objective was to understand the geologic and oceanographic processes that control sediment movement along the region's shoreline and thereby improve projections of coastal change. The study used high-resolution remote sensing and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework and assess historic shoreline change. Based on these findings, oceanographic-process studies and numerical modeling were carried out to determine the rates and directions of sediment transport along South Carolina's Grand Strand.

  17. Food habits of mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a year long resident and therefore has raised concerns among research managers over reports of conflicts with nesting native water birds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food-habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Analyses of the gullet and gizzard of mute swans indicate that widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were the most important food items to mute swans during the winter and spring. Other organisms were eaten by mute swans, but represent small percentages of food. Corn (Zea mays) fed to the swans by Bay residents in late winter probably supplements their limited vegetative food resources at that time of year.

  18. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-01-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them. PMID:12749683

  19. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  20. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  1. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  2. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0284; License Nos. DPR-71 and DPR-62; Docket Nos. 50-325 and 50-324] In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I Carolina Power &...

  3. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  4. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.

    2001-01-01

    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort.

  5. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  6. North Carolina Child Health Report Card, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Child Advocacy Inst., Raleigh.

    This sixth annual report card is produced to heighten awareness of the health of the children of North Carolina by summarizing important child health indicators. The report is intended to assist health administrators, legislators, and family advocates in their efforts to improve the health and safety of children statewide. Data are presented for…

  7. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Rhetoric in the Second Sophistic, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods: Implications for Pedagogy" (Omar J. Swartz and Chris Bachelder); "Thou Art Damned: Cursing as a Rhetorical Strategy of the Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials" (Colleen E. Kelley);…

  8. [A Profile of Union County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Now almost totally dependent on textile production, heavily forested Union County, South Carolina, was primarily agricultural until the 20th century. By 1970, 65% of the population depended on manufacturing and only 4% of the workers on farming. From 1920 to 1970 the population was characterized by a rural-to-urban shift and by outmigration,…

  9. Renewables and restructuring in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, C.; Shirley, L.

    1999-07-01

    North Carolina is one of 33 states that are evaluating whether and how to restructure their electric utility industries. In most states where restructuring has either already been passed or is being considered, there has been considerable effort on the part of advocacy organizations to implement new policies to support renewable energy growth. It remains unclear, however, when the North Carolina electric industry will be restructured and whether the state will move ahead on its own or wait for a federal mandate. This paper presents the experience and lessons learned to date from efforts to incorporate renewable energy into the proposed restructured electric market structure in North Carolina. This paper focuses on the work of the North Carolina Solar Energy Association, the state's leading renewable energy advocacy organization. Discussion includes the history and status of renewable energy in the state. The paper outlines and discusses NCSEA's proposed policies for a restructured market. These are: (1) opening the market to retail competition so that customers will have a choice of renewable energy providers, (2) mandating fuel mix and emissions disclosure, (3) creating a renewable portfolio standard of 20% renewables by 2010, and (4) establishing a public benefits fund of 2.5 mills/kWh to support both renewable energy and energy efficiency investments. These policy recommendations are based on the long standing recommendation of NCSEA and the NC Energy Policy Council that the state should receive 20% of its energy from renewables by 2010.

  10. Providing Internet Access for North Carolina's Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Because North Carolina's telecommunications services have been unable to provide cost-effective, statewide dial-access service to public libraries, the state library has had to identify a suitable alternative for public library network access. This article outlines the state library's efforts to provide access to the Internet and to electronic…

  11. Developmental Education in North Carolina Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Muschkin, Clara; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the empirical literature on remediation in community colleges by using policy variation across North Carolina's community colleges to examine how remediation affects various outcomes for traditional-age college students. We find that being required to take a remedial course (as we define it in this article) either in…

  12. Facilities Guidelines. North Carolina Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    In July 1987, the North Carolina General Assembly enacted legislation to provide funds for public school construction to assist county governments in meeting their capital building needs and to provide additional funds for selected counties with the most critical school facility needs. This document, in accordance with the legislation's direction,…

  13. Juvenile Justice and North Carolina Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Janet

    1984-01-01

    Discusses North Carolina's Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) laws that are relevant to colleges (especially public) and elementary and secondary schools generally, and then applies ABC laws to typical circumstances of alcohol use on campuses. Examines civil liability for use of alcohol on campuses. (MLF)

  14. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for trade and industrial education teachers are administered semiannually by the Office of Vocational Education. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational administrators, State Department of Education personnel, and other interested parties with…

  15. School Choice and the North Carolina Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, David

    2006-01-01

    There continues to be a significant debate as to the most effective means of providing North Carolina's children with the best possible education. The one point upon which a great majority agree is that, despite substantial increases in funding, public education is not meeting the needs of a large proportion of the state's students. This paper…

  16. AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA COASTAL FRONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of coastal frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement sites near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...

  17. The South Carolina Framework for Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Ray

    This document is a South Carolina curriculum model that identifies four broad areas of study. These components, which should be present in all music education courses, are: (1) aesthetic perception and concept development; (2) creative expression and skills development; (3) music heritage, both historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic valuing,…

  18. Connecting with Rice: Carolina Lowcountry and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Collins, Larianne; Wise, Susan S.; Caughman, Monti

    2012-01-01

    Though lasting less than 200 years, large-scale rice production in South Carolina and Georgia "probably represented the most significant utilization of the tidewater zone for crop agriculture ever attained in the United States." Rice is a specialty crop where successful cultivation relied heavily upon "adaptation" to nature via imported…

  19. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  20. The Conservation of North Carolina's Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    This is a course designed specifically for use in eastern North Carolina or a similar geographic region but this does not preclude the use of its concepts and basic structure for other geographic regions. Plans and activities are student-centered and many are problem-solving oriented and, therefore, may be modified without disrupting the…

  1. North Carolina Child Health Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaglione, Tom; Weisner, Kristie

    This seventh annual report card is produced to heighten awareness of the health of the children of North Carolina by summarizing important child health indicators. The report is intended to assist health administrators, legislators, and family advocates in their efforts to improve the health and safety of children statewide. Data are presented for…

  2. North Carolina Environmental Internship Program 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnin, William

    The North Carolina Environmental Internship Program allows students to work for the State in various environmental agencies during the summer months. The program has been conducted during the summers of 1970 and 1971 thus far, and 41 college students have participated. This report summarizes the history and accomplishments of these students in the…

  3. South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

  4. North Carolina Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in foods and nutrition for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline, including…

  5. An Outline of North Carolina History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterly, John W., Jr.; Williford, Jo Ann

    Designed for teachers and researchers, this comprehensive outline of the history of North Carolina traces the state's history from its earliest Indian occupants to political events occurring during the 1960's. Over 40 chapters are included in the outline. In general, topics deal with expansion and settlement, agriculture and industry,…

  6. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the status of South Carolina children on a state-wide and county basis. The statistical portrait is based on 32 indicators of well-being, grouped into 6 categories: (1) family (family characteristics, child neglect/abuse); (2) economic status (poverty, mean family income); (3) health (prenatal care,…

  7. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  8. The South Carolina Technical College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Edward F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the development of the South Carolina Technical College System in the 1960s to help draw industry to the state. Describes the System's Innovative Technical Training initiative to infuse high technology into curricula, the Access and Equity Program, tech prep and school-to-work initiatives, and distance learning. (10 citations) (AJL)

  9. [A Profile of Williamsburg County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Williamsburg County, South Carolina, is an almost entirely rural area near the coast. Although nearly 50% of the population is under 21, there has been a sharp decline in population since its high in 1950. The outmigration, prounounced for black youth, is caused by a lack of industrial opportunities, although there is slow, steady industrial…

  10. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  11. A Profile of Ashe County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, James O., Jr.; And Others

    From 1950 to 1970, the shift from agriculture to industry dominated Ashe County, North Carolina, isolated on the Blue Ridge by rugged terrain and severe weather. Rural farm population declined by 2/3 but rural non-farm population tripled. Many new industries helped shift the bulk of the work force to industry. In 1950, 45% of the work force farmed…

  12. South Carolina Guide for Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pough, Carmen; Evans, Hattie

    South Carolina's Guide to Child Development addresses three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The first unit of the guide, Child Development I, concerns the processes of understanding prenatal development, caring for an infant, providing care for children between 1 and 6 years of age, and delivering care for the…

  13. North Carolina School Law: The Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Anne M.

    This book outlines the legal aspects of the principal's role in North Carolina and is intended to be used as an instructive and advisory aid when formulating school policy. The principal's legal status, including a definition of authority and employment rights, is discussed. The author delineates the principal's responsibilities for student…

  14. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  15. Crustal models for the Melville Bay and Northern Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbernd, Tabea; Jokat, Wilfried; Heyde, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    The Baffin Bay between Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada) opened during the separation of Greenland and Canada in the Palaeocene and Eocene. The Melville Bay is situated in its northeastern part. The crustal composition of Northern and Southern Baffin Bay has been studied in detail: Southern Baffin Bay is underlain by oceanic crust with volcanic margins, while the margins of northern Baffin Bay are characterized by serpentinized mantle material. In contrast, the nature of crust in the deep, central Baffin Bay and the Melville Bay was still unclear due to a lack of deep seismic sounding lines. In 2010 a joint geophysical experiment in the Greenlandic part of Baffin Bay acquired seismic, magnetic and gravity data. We present three velocity and density models derived from seismic refraction and gravity data. Two of the three profiles are located within the Melville Bay and extend in a SW - NE direction from the deep sea area of central Baffin Bay to the shelf area of the Melville Bay. The third profile crosses the northern profile in the Melville Bay and extends in a N - S direction into the Northern Baffin Bay. The profiles in the Melville Bay can be divided in three crustal sections. The deep-sea area reveals a 3.5 - 7 km thick, 2-layered oceanic crust with increasing thickness towards the shelf and up to 6 km thick sediments. The crust is underlain by serpentinized upper mantle with velocities of 7.6 - 7.8 kms-1. A transition zone, which is affected by volcanism, connects the oceanic crust with stretched continental crust underneath the Melville Bay. Basement highs and deep sediment basins characterize the stretched and rifted continental crust. The Melville Bay Graben, the deepest rift basin in the Melville Bay, contains up to 10 km thick, possibly metamorphosed sediments with unusually high velocities of up to 4.9 kms1. Well-constrained reflections of the crust-mantle boundary can be found in many seismic sections indicating a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 26

  16. Old-growth definition for evergreen bay forests and related seral communities. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McKevlin, M.R.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes old-growth conditions in an evergreen bay forest stand. Bay forests occur throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. However, they are considered rare and are present across the landscape in a patchwork mosaic with other forest types in various stages of succession. Bay forests can be found associated with pocosins. Carolina bays and sandhill seeps, stream heads, and stream margins. The dominant species include loblolly-bay, sweetbay, and redbay, hence the name evergreen bay forest. However, several other swamp species associates are common, as well as many highly flammable shrub species. This forest type is subject to infrequent, high intensity, widespread disturbances such as fire. Fire is necessary to the nutrient cycling of this forest type and in conjunction with hydrology, controls succession. These stands are frequently inundated by surface water, resulting in the development of histic soils low in fertility. Alteration of the hydrology by man and catastrophic wildfire are considered to be the greatest threats to the existence of bay forests.

  17. A STAGE-BASED POPULATION MODEL FOR BAY SCALLOPS (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF HABITAT ATLERATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) inhabit shallow subtidal habitats along the Atlantic coast of the United States and require settlement substrates, such as submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), for their early juvenile stages. The short lifespan of bay scallops (1-2 yr) coupled...

  18. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  19. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  20. Wetland restoration and birds: lessons from Florida, San Francisco Bay, and Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Frederick, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Many wetland restoration projects are underway across the North American landscape, ranging from small, community - based projects of less than 1 ha, to thousands of ha, as in San Francisco Bay or the Everglades. The goals of small projects are generally focused on replanting and sustaining native wetland vegetation, while larger projects often incorporate populations of birds and other vertebrates as part of the criteria for 'success.' Here, I use examples from a number of larger restoration projects from Florida, San Francisco Bay, and Chesapeake Bay, to illustrate several major challenges in planning and implementing those parts of the projects that include waterbirds. These include: (1) setting species priorities at the onset of the project, (2) negotiating among various stakeholders the goals that support wetland ecosystem structural elements (i.e. species and communities) versus those more functionally driven, (3) monitoring reproductive and survival parameters, as well as abundance, to avoid 'sink' situations, and (4) rationalizing control measures for opportunistic species that are not part of the restoration plan. Such projects often provide an ideal setting for the application of adaptive management, but long-term data management and oversight are required to ensure that project 'success' (or failure) is not short-term only.

  1. Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  3. Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, C.; Bounds, D.L.; Ruby, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce competition from less desirable plant species. We compared vegetative response to two fire rotations, annual burns and 3-year burns, and two control sites, Control 1 and Control 2. We tested the effects of fire within six tidal marsh wetlands at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay Wildlife Management Area in Maryland. We examined changes in total live biomass (all species), total stem density, litter, and changes in live biomass and stem density of four dominant wetland plant species (11 variables). Our results suggest that annual prescribed fires will decrease the accumulation of litter, increase the biomass and stem densities of some wetland plants generally considered less desirable for wildlife, and have little or no effect on other wetland plants previously thought to benefit from fire. ?? 2011 US Government.

  4. Observations of wind-generated shoreface currents off Duck, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Wright, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    Wind, wave and currents measurements at 9 and 14 meter water depths on the shoreface off U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck, North Carolina are presented. Coastal setup accompanied by southerly-setting alongshore currents and seaward cross-shore currents is developed during Northeasterly storms. Coastal setdown, with reversal currents, is generated by Southerly or southwesterly strong winds. However, while the current speed during Northeasterly storms is strongly correlated with the wind stress, this relationship does not hold during Southwesterly storms. This is attributable to the fact that downwelling-favorable Northeasterlies enhance the coastal jet and act to reinforce the coastal plume that often issues from the Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Magnitude and extent of sediment toxicity in selected estuaries of South Carolina and Georgia. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.R.; Scott, G.I.; Kucklick, J.; Fulton, M.; Thompson, B.

    1998-04-01

    Surficial sediment samples were collected from 162 locations within five estuaries -- Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, Leadenwah Creek, Savannah River, and St. Simons Sound -- in coastal South Carolina and Georgia in a survey of sediment toxicity performed in 1993 and 1994. All samples were tested for toxicity with a battery of complimentary laboratory bioassays. The laboratory bioassays consisted of amphipod survival tests in solid-phase sediments, microbial bioluminescence (Microtox{trademark}) tests of organic solvent extracts, and sea urchin fertilization and embryo development tests of porewaters. Some samples also were tested in copepod reproduction and cytochrome P-450 RGS bioassays. Chemical analyses for a suite of trace metals, organic compounds, and sedimentological factors were performed with portions of most samples.

  6. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Second quarterly report (year 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Dr., A. D.; Tisdale, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Knight, Richard A.; Olsen, N. K.; Vigerstad, Dr., T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The objectives of this program are to assess the magnitude of the resources and locate areas of highest potential for peat deposits in South Carolina. The energy potential of these peat resources is also being evaluated. This report presents the results of progress made during the last quarter in: assessing data and prioritizing peat areas to be surveyed; procurement of equipment and supplies; and preliminary peat resource assessment. A summary of the results of all new field surveys conducted during the quarter is included. Approximate locations of potential major peat deposits have been identified. Preliminary sampling studies indicate that Pigeon Bay may have the thickest and best quality peat in Berkeley County. Probes indicate peats up to 12 feet thick are located near the Black River in Georgetown County. Samples from areas designated as organic soils by the USDA were analyzed for moisture, organic, and ash content. (DMC)

  7. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  8. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  9. Silica Content of a Mesohaline Tidal Marsh in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, A. R.; Hackney, C. T.

    1999-10-01

    Studies of silicon (Si) cycling in estuarine systems have primarily focused on terrestrial inputs, benthic fluxes and uptake and recycling of Si by diatoms. However, intertidal marsh vegetation, which often covers a large area and contributes a high biomass to estuarine systems, also contains Si. Silica contents of two marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, were measured in a mesohaline tidal marsh in the Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina. Plant silica contents in the two species were significantly different in three age categories with new culms having the lowest and dead culms having the highest silica content. Mean silica contents in S. alterniflora were 4·1, 5·2 and 7·8 mg g -1dry biomass in new, mature and dead culms, respectively. Mean silica contents in J. roemerianus were 0·67, 4·2 and 9·2 mg -1dry biomass in new, mature and dead culms, respectively. Porewater dissolved silicic acid (DSi) was measured at three depths (0-10, 11-20 and 21-30 cm) and was lowest in the upper 10 cm. Mean porewater DSi concentrations were 198 μM from January to May and 295 μM from June to September. Sediment biogenic silica content (BSi) was 0·76 and 1·0% in J. roemerianus and S. alterniflora vegetative zones, respectively. Biomass estimates were used to obtain an estimate of the amorphous silica inventory of the marsh. Vascular plants and sediments contained approximately 7·1 g SiO 2 m -2and 82·0 g SiO 2 m -2, respectively. These data indicate that intertidal marshes may be an important reservoir of Si in estuarine systems.

  10. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  11. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  12. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  13. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  14. Chesapeake bay nonpoint source programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current programs to ameliorate nonpoint sources of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay that have been developed by the four jurisdictions in cooperation with other agencies, the achievements to date in terms of pollutant removal, and recommendations for future directions of the Bay Program over the next several years.

  15. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  16. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  17. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  18. A HYBRID HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR MAPPING EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN YAQUINA BAY ESTUARY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    False-color infrared aerial photography of the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon was acquired at extreme low tides and digitally orthorectified with a ground pixel resolution of 20 cm to provide data for intertidal vegetation mapping. Submerged, semi-exposed and exposed eelgrass mead...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  1. Surficial geologic map of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Crider, E. Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle is located in southeastern North Carolina between Fayetteville and Wilmington. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, although steep slopes occur locally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly over 210 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from slightly less than 10 ft above sea level along the Black River (east of Rowan in the southeastern corner of the map) to slightly over 220 ft in the northwestern corner northeast of Hope Mills. The principal streams in the area are the Cape Fear, Black, South, and Lumber Rivers, which on average flow from northwest to southeast across the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, Interstate Route 40, U.S. Route 117, U.S. Route 301, U.S. Route 421, and U.S. Route 701, and the principal east-west roads are N.C. State Route 241 and N.C. State Route 41. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The largest communities in and adjacent to the area are Elizabethtown, Hope Mills, Clinton, Warsaw, and Lumberton. The map lies entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. Outstanding features of this area are the large number of sand-rimmed Carolina bays, five of which contain enough water to constitute natural lakes: Bay Tree Lake, Salter Lake, Little Singletary Lake, Singletary Lake, and White Lake. These are associated with widespread windblown sand deposits on which are grown abundant crops of blueberries. The extent and distribution of these deposits have been estimated based on a combination of augerhole, outcrop, and light-detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The geology of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle was originally mapped on 32 7.5-minute quadrangles at 1:24,000 scale and then compiled on this 1:100,000-scale base. The base-map topographic contours on this compilation are shown in meters; the cross sections, structure contours, and well and corehole basement elevations have been

  2. SODAR DATA FROM OYSTER BAY AT WINYAH BAY NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E.; Gayes, P.

    2013-04-29

    The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler-shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet - Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.

  3. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  4. Assessment of scour-critical data collected at selected bridges and culverts in South Carolina, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurley, N.M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data at bridges and culverts were collected at 3,506 stream crossings in South Carolina during 1990-92. The data include general information unique to the structure; structural data; and hydraulic, geomorphic, and vegetation information. The data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey South Carolina District Bridge-Scour Data Base. Observed- and potential-scour indexes were computed from the applicable data variables. Sites with observed-scour indexes exceeding ten and (or) potential-scour indexes exceeding 20 are considered to have significant scour-related problems. Of the 3,506 sites inspected, 257 sites had an observed-scour index exceeding ten, 214 sites had a potential-scour index exceeding 20, and 85 sites had observed- and potential-scour indexes exceeding both threshold values.

  5. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S190A, S190B, and S192 photographs and imagery were studied, using standard air-photo interpretation techniques supplemented by color additive viewing and density slicing. The EREP data were found to have potential usefulness for natural resource inventory work, water quality monitoring, and land use mapping for specific problems at scales up to 1:30,000. Distinctions between forest types in North Carolina are limited to conifers, mixed conifer-hardwoods, and hardwoods. Geologic interpretation was limited to detection of lineaments; lithologic differentiation and soil group mapping have proved infeasible in North Carolina except for differentiation of wetland soils in the coastal plain. Imagery from the S192 multispectral scanner has proved to be capable of useful discriminations for vegetation and crop analysis.

  6. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons... Commerce will conduct a fireworks display to celebrate Labor Day. The celebration will take place next to... associated with the Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, the Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie...

  7. Reverberations on the watery element: A significant, tsunamigenic historical earthquake offshore the Carolina coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Munsey, Jeffrey; Ward, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate an early nineteenth‐century earthquake that has been previously cataloged but not previously investigated in detail or recognized as a significant event. The earthquake struck at approximately 4:30 a.m. LT on 8 January 1817 and was widely felt throughout the southeastern and mid‐Atlantic United States. Around 11:00 a.m. the same day, an eyewitness described a 12‐inch tide that rose abruptly and agitated boats on the Delaware River near Philadelphia. We show that the timing of this tide is consistent with the predicted travel time for a tsunami generated by an offshore earthquake 6–7 hours earlier. By combining constraints provided by the shaking intensity distribution and the tsunami observation, we conclude that the 1817 earthquake had a magnitude of low‐ to mid‐M 7 and a location 800–1000 km offshore of South Carolina. Our results suggest that poorly understood offshore source zones might represent a previously unrecognized hazard to the southern and mid‐Atlantic coast. Both observational and modeling results indicate that potential tsunami hazard within Delaware Bay merits consideration: the simple geometry of the bay appears to catch and focus tsunami waves. Our preferred location for the 1817 earthquake is along a diffuse northeast‐trending zone defined by instrumentally recorded and historical earthquakes. The seismotectonic framework for this region remains enigmatic.

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  13. Non-Starchy Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... the non-starchy vegetables . Starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn and peas are included in the " Grains and ... or Chinese spinach Artichoke Artichoke hearts Asparagus Baby corn Bamboo shoots Beans (green, wax, Italian) Bean sprouts ...

  14. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  15. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  16. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  17. Multiple deformation at the western edge of the Carolina slate belt, north-central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, J.P.; Shell, G.S.; Wilkins, J.K. ); Samson, S.; Wortman, G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    In north-central North Carolina, volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Carolina slate belt are separated from gneisses of the Milton belt to the west by a wide, ENE-trending, polygenetic structural zone. Within a portion of this zone, the Country Line Creek complex (CLCC) forms the western edge of the slate belt. Rocks of the CLCC span a wide age range and include mafic and granitoid gneisses with subordinate pelitic schist, granitoid pegmatite, and a concordant sheet-like intrusion, the Yanceyville metagranite. The complex is heterogeneously deformed and metamorphosed. Along the SE margin of the structural zone, steeply-dipping, strongly foliated biotite granitoid and mafic gneisses of the complex appear to be intruded by the Roxboro metagranite of the Carolina slate belt. To the NW, in more interior portions of the zone, the CLCC is affected by multiphase foliations and folds that record a dextral oblique normal shear event. Here, the Yanceyville metagranite is affected by a strong foliation that is folded. A preliminary new date on the Roxboro pluton of ca. 545 Ma, indicates a Late Precambrian or older timing of deformation along the SE margin of the zone. In contrast, a preliminary, ca. 340 Ma, age on the Yanceyville metagranite indicates multiple stage Late Paleozoic deformation for interior portions of the zone. Regional structural and isotopic data hint that the Precambrian deformation may record initial interactions between the Milton and Carolina slate belts. Subsequently, this contact was reactivated during Alleghanian orogenesis.

  18. 75 FR 51949 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina and South Carolina...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... SIPs. 74 FR 21550. On November 12, 2009, and April 5, 2010, North Carolina submitted all components of... Determination for the Purpose of Stopping Sanctions Clock AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Letter to Governor Regarding Completeness and Stopping of Sanctions Clock. SUMMARY: EPA is...

  19. Horizon nomenclature for quartzipsamments in the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills, South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quartzipsamments comprise about 189,600 hectare (9.5 percent) of the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills region (MLRA 137). Official Series Descriptions typically have A - C (Lakeland Series; Typic subgroup) or A - E - E and Bt (Alpin Series; Lamellic subgroup) horizon designation. Horizon colors, alon...

  20. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  1. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  2. 2014-15 North Carolina Wheat Survey Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An informal survey of North Carolina wheat growers was conducted in 2014- 15. The survey asked how many acres of which wheat varieties they planted in 2014. A major reason for gathering this information was to estimate the percentage of wheat acres in North Carolina that are moderately resistant (MR...

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  4. South Carolina Higher Education Assessment (SCHEA) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Reid

    A consortium of South Carolina colleges and universities developed assessment programs which would fully satisfy state and accreditation assessment mandates and increase program quality and institutional effectiveness. A South Carolina Higher Education Assessment Network was established with a Coordinating Center at Winthrop College to provide…

  5. U. of North Carolina Chooses Slow and Steady Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    After watching the University of Phoenix become a national leader in online education, officials of the University of North Carolina system thought they could do it, too. Unlike Phoenix, which is a for-profit institution, the North Carolina system benefits from having a strong traditional reputation that comes with being a state university.…

  6. 76 FR 10352 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on February 10, 2011, Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC filed to supplement its filing, in the above captioned...

  7. 75 FR 55594 - North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an emergency for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-3314-EM), dated September 1, 2010, and...: I have determined that the emergency conditions in certain areas of the State of North...

  8. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers with…

  9. 78 FR 67382 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-4153-DR), dated October 29... declare that such a major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In order to provide Federal... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T....

  10. 76 FR 61726 - North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-3327-EM), dated August 25, 2011, and...

  11. An Ethnic Studies Guide and Resources Mannual for the Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The manual contains ethnic studies units on the Indians of North Carolina and information for developing materials on other ethnic groups in North Carolina. Intended for intermediate grade students and teachers, the guide contains three major sections: background information, student manual, and information on ethnic groups other than American…

  12. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit One: Coastal Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are teaching materials designed to supplement North Carolina's course of study plans in earth science for the intermediate grades and junior high schools. This manual is one of a collection produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Included are 27 activities and…

  13. Publishing Trends within State Government: The Situation in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristin E.

    2004-01-01

    The State Library of North Carolina is responsible for ensuring public access to North Carolina state government publications and maintaining a permanent state documents depository collections. Over the last 7 years, state agencies have increasingly disseminated information in digital formats via the Internet, posing challenges for the State…

  14. College Degrees in South Carolina: An Employer's Guide, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Guide provides basic information to South Carolina employers regarding the nature of college degrees. It covers South Carolina law regarding the use of degrees, how to accurately describe degree needs when advertising for a position, how to evaluate a job applicant's claim of a degree, the growing problem of diploma mill degrees, and related…

  15. Business/Education Partnerships in South Carolina. Model Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Public Accountability.

    This document contains reports from school districts in South Carolina on the status of their successful partnerships between schools and businesses. They are examples of what is happening in South Carolina today and what could happen between other businesses and schools as new alliances are formed. These accounts describe new ideas for…

  16. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    This report summarizes the activities of the South Carolina State Library for 1999-2000. The current strategic plan contains five strategic goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South…

  17. Community College Laws of North Carolina, 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This publication contains the laws governing the community college system of North Carolina (Chapter 115D of the General Statutes of North Carolina, and other relevant statutes in Chapters 115, 115B, and 116). Chapter 115D contains provisions applying to state administration, local administration, financial support, budgeting, accounting, and…

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1991: North Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikich, S.W.; Carpenter, P.A.; Wiener, L.S.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel minerals produced in North Carolina decreased 6.2% from that of 1990. The value dropped from $589.7 million in 1990 to $552.9 million in 1991, largely as a result of the recession that has impacted the Nation in recent years. Decreases in the sales of the State's leading mineral commodity, crushed stone, as well as clays, feldspar, gemstones, scrap mica, olivine, construction sand and gravel, and pyrophyllite, more than offset small to moderate increases in the sales of lithium minerals, peat, phosphate rock, and industrial sand and gravel. Tables and statistical data are included in the annual report.

  19. Optics professional development in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Pamela O.; Hilliard-Clark, Joyce; Bowles, Tuere

    2010-08-01

    Using the Photonics Leaders (PL2) program model of recruitment and retention, photonics content, parental engagement, internship, and a hybrid virtual format, the session's goal is to inform outreach coordinators and scientists of strategies used to develop teachers' awareness and skills in teaching Optics to ethnically diverse students who lack traditional experiences in the discipline. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) funded program highlights initial findings of a pilot study with middle and high school teachers from The Science House at North Carolina State University sharing lessons learned and future scale-up plans.

  20. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  1. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  2. 75 FR 30451 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Combined License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Combined License Application; Notice of Intent To Conduct a Supplemental Scoping Process for the Supplement to the... document corrects a notice appearing in the Federal Register on May 24, 2010 (75 FR 28822), that...

  3. 75 FR 2580 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-North Carolina State Ports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Railroad Co.'s (MHSF) lease with the North Carolina State Ports Authority (SPA) and to operate approximately 0.87 miles of SPA's rail lines as follows: (1) From milepost 0.0 to milepost 0.87 at Gallants... railroad tracks owned or leased by SPA (or previously owned or leased by North Carolina Ports...

  4. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced

  5. Environmental assessment of Mangrove communities in Tarut Bay, Eastern Arabian Peninsula, based on multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ali, A. M.; Del Campo, A. G.; Rocha, C.

    2015-04-01

    Tarut Bay contains some of the most important mangrove forests in the Arabian Gulf countries, which are facing significant anthropogenic pressures. A multidisciplinary approach based on remote sensing, fieldwork, and chemical analysis was adopted in order to identify the pressures facing the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay and subsequently evaluate its current environmental condition. The analysis focused on the 2011 to 2014 timeframe in particular. The results indicate that the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay cover currently around 11.32 square km. Two major mangrove cover changes were identified in the area during the studied period, with a net loss of around 0.675 square km happening in the interim. The analysis adopted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to evaluate the temporal change in vegetation concentration. Moreover, the study evaluated the overall pollution condition of 19 mangrove communities in Tarut Bay to be medium based on the Pollution Load Index (PLI). Nevertheless, some of the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay are very healthy while others are very polluted and require immediate action to improve their pollution status. The findings of this work led to recommending mangrove improvement measures to address further deterioration and disappearance of mangrove communities, including the re-opening of natural inlets and avoiding residential developments on the mangrove coast.

  6. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  7. Estimated depth to water, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  8. Unsaturated zone characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  9. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  10. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  11. Bathymetry, substrate and circulation in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Curran, Chris; Smith, Collin; Schwartz, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore bathymetry, substrate type, and circulation patterns in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington, were mapped using two acoustic sonar systems, video and direct sampling of seafloor sediments. The goal of the project was to characterize nearshore habitat and conditions influencing eelgrass (Z. marina) where extensive loss has occurred since 1995. A principal hypothesis for the loss of eelgrass is a recent decrease in light availability for eelgrass growth due to increase in turbidity associated with either an increase in fine sedimentation or biological productivity within the bay. To explore sources for this fine sediment and turbidity, a dual-frequency Biosonics sonar operating at 200 and 430 kHz was used to map seafloor depth, morphology and vegetation along 69 linear kilometers of the bay. The higher frequency 430 kHz system also provided information on particulate concentrations in the water column. A boat-mounted 600 kHz RDI Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used to map current velocity and direction and water column backscatter intensity along another 29 km, with select measurements made to characterize variations in circulation with tides. An underwater video camera was deployed to ground-truth acoustic data. Seventy one sediment samples were collected to quantify sediment grain size distributions across Westcott Bay. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size at the Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team sediment laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif. These data reveal that the seafloor near the entrance to Westcott Bay is rocky with a complex morphology and covered with dense and diverse benthic vegetation. Current velocities were also measured to be highest at the entrance and along a deep channel extending 1 km into the bay. The substrate is increasingly comprised of finer sediments with distance into Westcott Bay where current velocities are lower. This report describes the data collected and preliminary findings of USGS Cruise B-6

  12. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  13. Marine debris impacts to a tidal fringing-marsh in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Uhrin, Amy V; Schellinger, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated injuries to Spartina alterniflora by debris items common to North Carolina coastal waters as a function of debris type (wire blue crab pots, vehicle tires, and anthropogenic wood) and deployment duration, and monitored S. alterniflora recovery following debris removal. Injuries sustained by S. alterniflora and subsequent recovery, varied considerably between debris types. Differences were likely due to dissimilarities in the structure and composition of debris. Tires caused an immediate (within 3 weeks) and long-term impact to S. alterniflora; tire footprints remained devoid of vegetation 14 months post-removal. Conversely, crab pot impacts were not as abrupt and recovery was short-term (<10 months). We suggest that removal programs specifically target habitats that are susceptible to negative impacts (e.g., salt marsh) and prone to debris accumulation. Management would benefit from the inclusion of habitat information in removal databases.

  14. Complex Genetic Effects on Early Vegetative Development Shape Resource Allocation Differences Between Arabidopsis lyrata Populations

    PubMed Central

    Remington, David L.; Leinonen, Päivi H.; Leppälä, Johanna; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-01-01

    Costs of reproduction due to resource allocation trade-offs have long been recognized as key forces in life history evolution, but little is known about their functional or genetic basis. Arabidopsis lyrata, a perennial relative of the annual model plant A. thaliana with a wide climatic distribution, has populations that are strongly diverged in resource allocation. In this study, we evaluated the genetic and functional basis for variation in resource allocation in a reciprocal transplant experiment, using four A. lyrata populations and F2 progeny from a cross between North Carolina (NC) and Norway parents, which had the most divergent resource allocation patterns. Local alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a North Carolina field site increased reproductive output while reducing vegetative growth. These QTL had little overlap with flowering date QTL. Structural equation models incorporating QTL genotypes and traits indicated that resource allocation differences result primarily from QTL effects on early vegetative growth patterns, with cascading effects on later vegetative and reproductive development. At a Norway field site, North Carolina alleles at some of the same QTL regions reduced survival and reproductive output components, but these effects were not associated with resource allocation trade-offs in the Norway environment. Our results indicate that resource allocation in perennial plants may involve important adaptive mechanisms largely independent of flowering time. Moreover, the contributions of resource allocation QTL to local adaptation appear to result from their effects on developmental timing and its interaction with environmental constraints, and not from simple models of reproductive costs. PMID:23979581

  15. OVERFLOW ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA AND NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Davis, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    The Overflow Roadless Area in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia and North Carolina is underlain by complexly folded schist and gneiss of Proterozoic age. A mineral-resource survey found little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Minor isolated localities of mica pegmatite and amethyst gemstone occur in the area. Gneiss and schist suitable for rock aggregate are present in large quantities, but similar rocks abound outside the area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth beneath the overthrust of the Blue Ridge. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the natural gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  16. Water resources of northeast North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilder, Hugh B.; Robison, Tully M.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    Several water-related problems are associated with economic development of northeast North Carolina. The solution to these problems depends in part on adequate knowledge of the hydrology of this 8,930 square mile coastal area. Average annual precipitation on the area is about 50 inches. Of this amount, about 34 inches returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, about 15 inches leaves the area as runoff, and about one inch leaves through ground-water outflow. No large stream originates within the area, but major streams entering from the north and west bring in three times as much streamflow as originates within the study area. The flat, low-lying terrane does not offer opportunities for extensive development of surface-water supplies through the use of reservoirs. Much of the surface water is contaminated by saltwater from the ocean. Ground water occurs in three major aquifers, all of which contain both freshwater and saltwater.

  17. Evidence of uplift near Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, S.

    1989-01-01

    In spite of extensive research, the causal structure of the 1886 magnitude 7 earthquake near Charleston, South Carolina, has not been identified. In this study I analyzed digital surface topography and river morphology in light of earlier studies using seismic reflection, seismic refraction, earthquake seismology, and gravity and magnetic surveys. This analysis revealed an area approximately 400 km2 northwest of Charleston that may have been repeatedly uplifted by earthquakes. Geologic and seismic reflection data confirm alteration of formations at depth. Deformation of the surface is supported by observations on aerial and LANDSAT photographs. Therefore, the structure on which the 1886 earthquake occurred may be within the uplifted area defined in this report. -Author

  18. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  19. A predictive model for floating leaf vegetation in the St. Louis River Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 2014, USEPA staff was asked by MPCA to develop a predictive model for floating leaf vegetation (FLV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). The existing model (Host et al. 2012) greatly overpredicts FLV in St. Louis Bay probably because it was based on a limited number of...

  20. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  3. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports... Coast Guard is establishing temporary security zones on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta...; Increase of Security Zones under 33 CFR 165.1183 from 100 to 500 yards; San Francisco Bay, Delta...

  4. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  5. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  6. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  7. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  8. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  9. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  10. Temporal changes of populations and trophic relationships of wintering diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Kidwell, David M.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Population and trophic relationships among diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay are diverse and complex as they include five species of bay ducks (Aythya spp.), nine species of seaducks (Tribe Mergini), and the Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Here we considered the relationships between population changes and diet over the past half century to assess the importance of prey changes to wintering waterfowl in the Bay. Food habits of 643 diving ducks collected from Chesapeake Bay during 1999-2006 were determined by analyses of their gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard contents and compared to historical data (1885-1979) of 1,541 diving ducks. Aerial waterfowl surveys, in general, suggest that six species of seaducks were more commonly located in the meso- to polyhaline areas of the Bay, whereas five species of bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks were in the oligo- to mesohaline areas. Seaducks fed on a molluscan diet of Hooked Mussel (Ischadium recurvum), Amethyst Gemclam (Gemma gemma), and Dwarf Surfclarn (Mulinia lateralis). Bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks fed more on Baltic Macoma (Macoma balthica), the adventive Atlantic Rangia (Rangia cuneata), and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Mergansers were found over the widest salinity range in the Bay, probably because of their piscivorous diet. Each diving duck species appears to fill a unique foraging niche, although there is much overlap of selected prey. When current food habits are compared to historic data, only the Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) has had major diet changes, although SAV now accounts for less food volume for all diving duck species, except the Redhead (Aythya americana). Understanding the trophic-habitat relationships of diving ducks in coastal wintering areas will give managers a better understanding of the ecological effects of future environmental changes. Intensive restoration efforts on SAV and oyster beds should greatly benefit diving duck populations.

  11. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  12. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  13. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  14. Acid rain said to threaten Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-29

    A report on April 25, 1988 by the Environmental Defense Fund blames acid rain for pollution of Chesapeake Bay. The nitrates in the rain are reported to account for 25% of the nitrogen load of the bay. This increases the acidity of the bay, thereby acting as a fertilizer to promote algal growth. It is postulated that acid rain contributes as much nitrogen to the bay as point sources, which include raw sewage and industrial plants.

  15. 103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Elevation view of concrete slab bridge built in 1937. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. 105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. View showing the access road from the parkway. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. 104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Detail of the stepped wing wall. Looking southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. 78 FR 64232 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., Watauga, and Yancey Counties and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians for Public Assistance. All counties and Indian Tribes within the State of North Carolina are eligible to apply for assistance under...

  19. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  20. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Sheffield, Steven R.; Kilgo, John C.; Bunch, Mary S.

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  1. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  2. 75 FR 11582 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... and Flooding. Incident Period: 12/18/2009 through 12/25/2009. DATES: Effective Date: 03/02/2010... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of NORTH CAROLINA, dated...

  3. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jennifer L.; Scanlin, Dennis; Quinlan, Paul

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  4. 75 FR 65695 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... of North Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/2010. ] Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Straight-line Winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through...

  5. 75 FR 68848 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... of North Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Straight-line Winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through...

  6. 75 FR 65389 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/ 2010. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, and straight-line winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through 10/01/2010....

  7. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  8. Groundwater flow, variability, and transport pathways in the Mar Negro of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) is a semi-enclosed ecosystem along the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. Agriculture, including vegetable, row crop, tree fruit, pasture, and poultry, is an important land use within the watershed. To better understand the potential impact of ...

  9. Ecological data collected in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ecological investigations were conducted in 23 reaches of 16 streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages study unit in North and South Carolina during 1996-98. Habitat characteristics, such as stream width and depth, bank composition, bank vegetative cover, stream shading by overhanging vegetation, and streambed composition were recorded. Algal and benthic invertebrate communities were sampled using quantitative and qualitative techniques. These data will provide information needed to: (1) support findings of the effects of human landuse activities on water quality by augmenting or enhancing physical and chemical water-quality data, (2) provide a basic overview of aquatic community structure in selected stream reaches in the study unit, and (3) provide a means for comparing aquatic communities in subsequent years of the assessment program.

  10. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  11. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  12. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  13. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  14. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  15. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  16. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Bay. 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay. The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101...

  18. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  19. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... passage. (c) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge at Mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall operate as...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  2. University of North Carolina's experience with state medical assistance teams.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Jeff; Murtaugh, Lisa; Hoffman, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Events in the last several years have shown a clear need for better preparation regarding disaster management. In an effort to improve this preparation, North Carolina implemented state medical assistant teams to provide alternative care facilities, decontamination facilities, and shelter assistance during times of disaster. This article explores these teams from the perspective of the University of North Carolina, which serves as a lead agency for one of these teams. Key components of the team, training provided, and lessons learned will be discussed.

  3. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  4. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  5. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  6. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  7. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  8. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  9. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  10. Northward extension of Carolina slate belt stratigraphy and structure, South-Central Virginia: Results from geologic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Peper, J.D.; Burton, W.C.; Horton, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping in south-central Virginia demonstrates that the stratigraphy and structure of the Carolina slate belt extend northward across a steep thermal gradient into upper amphibolite-facies correlative gneiss and schist. The Neoproterozoic greenschist-facies Hyco, Aaron, and Virgilina Formations were traced northward from their type localities near Virgilina, Virginia, along a simple, upright, northeast-trending isoclinal syncline. This syncline is called the Dryburg syncline and is a northern extension of the more complex Virgilina synclinorium. Progressively higher-grade equivalents of the Hyco and Aaron Formations were mapped northward along the axial trace of the refolded and westwardly-overturned Dryburg syncline through the Keysville and Green Bay 7.5-minute quadrangles, and across the northern end of the Carolina slate belt as interpreted on previous geologic maps. Hyco rocks, including felsic metatuff, metawacke, and amphibolite, become gneisses upgrade with areas of local anatexis and the segregation of granitic melt into leucosomes with biotite selvages. Phyllite of the Aaron Formation becomes garnet-bearing mica schist. Aaron Formation rocks disconformably overlie the primarily felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Hyco Formation as evidenced by repeated truncation of internal contacts within the Hyco on both limbs of the Dryburg syncline at the Aaron-Hyco contact. East-northeast-trending isograds, defined successively by the first appearance of garnet, then kyanite ?? staurolite in sufficiently aluminous rocks, are superposed on the stratigraphic units and synclinal structure at moderate to high angles to strike. The textural distinction between gneisses and identifiable sedimentary structures occurs near the kyanite ?? staurolite-in isograd. Development of the steep thermal gradient and regional penetrative fabric is interpreted to result from emplacement of the Goochland terrane adjacent to the northern end of the slate belt during

  11. Metamorphosed melange in the central Piedmont of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mittwede, S.K.; Maybin, A.H. III )

    1989-09-01

    The Enoree melange is exposed in the central Piedmont of South Carolina near the boundary between the Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The melange is composed of ultramafic and mafic blocks in a highly deformed matrix of biotite-feldspar-quartz gneiss which has a composition consistent with a felsic-to-intermediate volcanic precursor. The mafic and ultramafic blocks are separated chemically and petrographically into four compositional groups: metagabbro-clinopyroxenite, websterite, orthopyroxenite, and metasomatized (steatitized) orthopyroxenite. Based on their chemistry and mineralogy, the blocks are clearly exotic relative to their metavolcaniclastic( ) matrix and likely originated as parts of a plutonic suite from the basal or forward part of the Carolina arc terrane. If the Piedmont terrane-Carolina terrane boundary is a continent-arc suture, then the Enoree melange probably formed in the accretionary prism at this convergent margin. The matrix gneisses are interpreted as reworked volcanic debris shed by the Carolina arc terrane edifice and accumulated as graywacke in the accretionary deposits. West-vergent structures in the matrix suggest that the melange was emplaced to its present tectonostratigraphic position either during docking of the Carolina terrane or during widespread Alleghenian thrusting.

  12. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  13. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  14. Carbon accumulation in Bay of Fundy salt marshes: Implications for restoration of reclaimed marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Richard F.; Chmura, Gail L.; Beecher, C. Beth

    2001-12-01

    Transformation of agricultural land to natural terrestrial vegetation has been suggested as a means to increase soil carbon storage. However, the capacity for carbon storage in terrestrial soils is limited as compared to soils of tidal salt marshes, the original vegetation of many coastal agricultural lands. In a number of countries, tidal salt marshes have been "reclaimed," that is drained and diked to prevent tidal flooding and create suitable conditions for dry land agriculture. In this study we examine spatial and temporal patterns of carbon accumulation in tidal salt marshes of the Bay of Fundy and estimate the carbon storage potential of the bay's extensive area of reclaimed marsh. Rates of carbon accumulation vary from the upper to the outer Bay, over which there is a gradient of decreasing tidal range and suspended sediment supply. In the outer bay, high-marsh densities are highest (0.042 ± 0.009 g C cm-3), but carbon accumulation rates over the past 30 years are lowest (76 g C m-2 yr-1). The reverse pattern occurs in the upper bay where carbon densities in the high-marsh environment are lowest (0.036 ± 0.002 g C cm-3), but carbon accumulation rates over the past 30 years may be as high (184 g C m-2 yr-1). Compared to other ecosystems, the rates of carbon accumulation presented in this study were similar over timescales of years to centuries. Increases in relative sea level (over time) and suspended sediment supply (across the bay) positively affect the marsh soil accumulation rate and the rate of carbon sequestration. Parameters such as %C are not useful predictors of a marsh's potential for carbon sequestration. Soil carbon densities of functioning marshes and reclaimed marsh soils are similar, but marsh soils have a storage capacity that increases with rising sea level, while agricultural soils, such as those in reclaimed marshes, have a fixed (or possibly decreasing in reclaimed marshes) volume over time.

  15. Beach cusp destruction, formation, and evolution during and subsequent to an extratropical storm, Duck, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Miller, S.M.O.; Torzynski, C.A.; Kochel, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Many studies have debated whether beach cusps are erosional or depositional features. The April 12-14, 1988, extratropical storm provided an opportunity to view the direct effects of one of the largest storms of the past decade upon beach sedimentology and morphology on barrier islands near Duck, North Carolina. Prior to the storm, the beach at Duck was characterized by a well-defined pattern of beach cusps with horn-to-horn spacings averaging 35 m. Storm-induced alterations were dominated by an initial period of beach erosion that remobilized the upper 30 to 50 cm of beach sediment, followed by aggradation. Net aggradation was most prominent along the middle beachface and within the pre-storm cusp bays. These morphologic adjustments resulted in the destruction of cusps, which were replaced with a post-storm planar beachface composed of horizontally bedded fine- to coarse-grained sediments. Within 24 hrs of storm subsidence, new beach cusps formed sequentially along the coast in the direction of longshore transport. Initial cusp formation resulted from beach erosion and the creation of bays in the planar storm-beach surface at positions of preferential post-storm runup. The initial cusp horns were composed of truncated horizontal beds of the planar beach accreted during the storm. After their formation, the cusps sequentially migrated downdrift. Migrating horns were composed of a coarse-grained sediment wedge that thickened toward horn crests, suggesting formation by deposition. It is concluded from these observations that beach cusps are both erosional and depositional in nature.

  16. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologic events in Apalachicola Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahsin, Subrina; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Singh, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact from these extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide range of hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000 to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover, while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  17. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  18. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  19. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  20. State of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiernan, G.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The US EPA undertook a six year study of the Chesapeake Bay-the US's largest estuary, as an example of the plight of estuarine and coastal waters where population growth and development, alteration of habitats, and discharge of pollutants have resulted in degrading environmental quality and productivity. This article discusses some of the results of the EPA's study.

  1. Mapping the Anapa bay bar geosystems on the basis of satellite remote sensing and ground data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, Valentina I.; Tutubalina, Olga V.; Krylenko, Vyacheslav V.; Krylenko, Marina V.; Chalova, Ekaterina R.

    2015-06-01

    Our study is focused on the Anapa Bay Bar, a 43-km long body of sand on the Black Sea coast, which stretches from the Russian town of Anapa to the Zhelezny Rog Cape on the Taman' peninsula. It is a major recreational resource and a host to unique ecosystems of beaches and partially vegetated sand dunes. Due to large recreational pressure, it is important to identify features of the bay bar that have to be preserved in order to keep this resource sustainable. We have conducted landscape and morphological mapping with WorldView-2 images. Methods included field research, analysis of multitemporal stereopairs and automated image interpretation to create maps of key areas of the Anapa Bay Bar. In our paper we showcase the map for a section of the Anapa Bay Bar created through visual image interpretation. It presents all morphological elements such as beaches, sand dunes, sand ridges and lowlands adjoining lagoons. Each element has its specific vegetation and sustainability against recreational pressure. We also present results of automated image analysis of seasonal dynamics of the beach and dunes on the basis of multitemporal imagery.

  2. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  3. Micropetrographic characteristics of peats from modern coal-forming environments in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia and Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Corvinus, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp, over 400,000 acres, is a swamp-marsh complex dominated by Taxodium-swamp vegetaion on its west side and Nymphaea-marsh vegetation onits east side. The Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps primarily support a pocosin-bay vegetation. The Taxodium-dominated peats of the Okefenokee are more similar botanically to the Albemarle-Pamlico bay peats than are the Okefenokee Nymphaea-dominated peats. Some petrographic characteristics are common to all three peat types. The majority of cell walls in the peat exhibit colors (yellow to orange to red) which they did not display in their living state. This is believed to be from impregnation by the various cell fillings present in the peats. Unoxidized fragmented (granular) material in all three peat types usually occurs in larger amounts than oxidized (darkened) material. In Taxodium-dominated and bay peats the fragmented matrix is also usually more prevalent than the preserved material (intact cell walls and cell fillings). On the other hand, preserved material is most common in Nymphaea-dominated peats. It is believed that the majority of fragmented material is derived from the surface litter and that swamp vegetation contributes more surface litter than does marsh vegetation.

  4. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. Methods We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. Results North Carolina’s 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0–8.0), adolescent girls’ HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%–62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%–83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. Conclusions This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. PMID:24333357

  5. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  6. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Vegetation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  8. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  9. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  10. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  11. Inner shelf circulation patterns driven by synoptic weather systems on the South Carolina Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.

    2015-12-01

    The meteorological forcing on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (USA) has been analyzed using wind records extending over a period of 10 years. This analysis identified three synoptic systems classified as cold fronts, warm fronts and tropical storms. The typical temporal evolution of each system has been fully characterized statistically; the associated temporal evolution of the offshore, directional, spectral wave conditions have also been identified for the duration of each event. These typical wind and wave conditions are used to numerically investigate the response of the inner shelf. In addition, the influence of the curved coastline is examined. The numerical experiments were carried out using the ROMS and SWAN models of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the results are presented. The results to-date suggest that, within the inner shelf a variability in the alongshore pressure gradient that is related to the alongshore variability of the relative angle between the wind forcing and the coastline. This coastline variability seems to affect the relative importance of the cross-shore / alongshore forcings creating different vertical structures of current at locations with different relative angle between wind forcing and coastline. Finally, the inclusion of the waves enhances the spatial differences observed for each case. These differences are explained in terms of momentum balance analysis.

  12. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  13. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  14. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  16. Quaternary eolian dunes in the Savannah River valley, Jasper County, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Schultz, Arthur P.; González, Wilma Alemán; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Doar, William R.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Mahan, Shannon A.; McGeehin, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Sand hills in the Savannah River valley in Jasper County (South Carolina, USA) are interpreted as the remnants of parabolic eolian dunes composed of sand derived from the Savannah River and stabilized by vegetation under prevailing climate conditions. Optically stimulated luminescence ages reveal that most of the dunes were active ca. 40 to 19 ka ago, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM) through early deglaciation. Modern surface winds are not sufficient for sustained eolian sand transport. When the dunes were active, winds blew at velocities of at least 4 m/s from west to east, and some vegetation was present. The ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P:PE) was less than the modern ratio of 1.23 and may have been < 0.30, caused by stronger winds (which would have resulted in greater evaporation) and/or reduced precipitation. The Savannah River dunes are part of a larger assemblage of eolian dunes that were active in the eastern United States during and immediately after the LGM, suggesting that eolian sediment behavior in this region has been controlled by regional forcing mechanisms during the Quaternary.

  17. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  18. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  19. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  20. Recent estuarine deposits, Chesapeake Bay and Apalachicola Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Estuarine facies are not easily discernible in the ancient record, because they represent a transition stage between fluvial and marine deposits. Modern estuarine sediments, nevertheless, are widespread because of the ongoing marine transgression. This widespread occurrence indicates that, during a highstand, estuaries are important centers for deposition of sediments shed from the continents. Sedimentologic studies have been made of 2 major estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (the largest US estuary) and Apalachicola Bay (estuary of the largest river in Florida). A detailed sediment budget for the Chesapeake, using radiotracers, clay mineralogy, magnetic stratigraphy, and other methods, demonstrates that the estuary is filling rapidly with sediment. Its remaining sedimentologic lifetime can be measured in centuries. Most of this filling has come at the expense of shoreline erosion. The rate of sedimentation, as measured by C-14, Pb-210, and Cs-137, has accelerated sharply over the past 2 centuries, from a few millimeters per year to present rates of a few centimeters per year. Sediment trapping effectiveness of the Chesapeake is nearly 100%. For Apalachicola Bay, the filling rate has been slower, although it appears to be nearly as efficient in retaining sediment. It has undergone a comparable change in sedimentation rates and sources over the past few centuries, as shown by magnetic stratigraphy and clay mineralogy. Given favorable conditions, such estuaries might be expected to contribute relatively thin but areally extensive bodies of fine-grained sediment to the rock record.

  1. 77 FR 14857 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ..., North Carolina, to I-485 near the Charlotte-Douglas International Airport in Mecklenburg County, North... following highway project in the State of North Carolina: The Gaston East-West Connector, a 22-mile...

  2. 78 FR 48669 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... construct and operate: (1) A new compressor station near Moore, in Spartanburg County, South Carolina; (2... Carolina; (3) rearrange the existing Moore Purchase meter and regulation station; and (4) Moore Wye...

  3. 77 FR 10491 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    .... d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for...

  4. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  5. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation...

  6. Vegetation Types in Coastal Louisiana in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mouton, Edmond; Linscombe, Jeb; Hartley, Steve B.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Fur and Refuge Division jointly completed an aerial survey to collect data on 2007 vegetation types in coastal Louisiana. The current map presents the data collected in this effort. The 2007 aerial survey was conducted by using techniques developed over the last thirty years while conducting similar vegetation surveys. Transects flown were oriented in a north-south direction and spaced 1.87 mi (3 km) apart and covered coastal marshes from the Texas State line to the Mississippi State line and from the northern extent of fresh marshes to the southern end of saline (saltwater) marshes on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico or of coastal bays. Navigation along these transects and to each sampling site was accomplished by using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and geographic information system (GIS) software. As the surveyors reached each sampling station, observed areas of marsh were assigned as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline (saltwater) types, and dominant plant species were listed and ranked according to abundance. Delineations of marsh boundaries usually followed natural levees, bayous, or other features that impede or restrict water flow.

  7. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  8. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  10. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  11. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. PMID:10706528

  12. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state.

  13. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  14. La Crosse Encephalitis: A Persistent Arboviral Threat in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant cause of economic, social, and health burdens in North Carolina. Although recently overshadowed by emerging threats such as chikungunya virus and Zika virus, La Crosse virus and other endemic arboviruses remain persistent environmental health hazards. Indeed, La Crosse virus, West Nile virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis virus accounted for more than 98% of the reported human arboviral diseases acquired in North Carolina in the past decade. Arbovirus infection is increasingly prevalent in Western North Carolina, with La Crosse encephalitis being endemic in this area. While infections are often asymptomatic and seldom fatal, the long-term neurologic sequelae of La Crosse encephalitis represent a significant burden. PMID:27621342

  15. Functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Nachappa, Punya; Braman, S K; Guillebeau, L P; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    The functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was determined on adult twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), and fourth instars of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in single-prey and two-prey systems. In the laboratory, M. carolina carolina demonstrated a type II functional response for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in both single- and two-prey systems. Search efficiency of M. carolina declined for both prey as the initial number of prey increased. Of the total prey consumed, M. carolina carolina killed significantly more S. frugiperda than P. bicincta in the single-prey system (8.0 and 4.5, respectively) and the two-prey system (5.0 and 2.0, respectively). Estimates of attack coefficient, a, were not significantly different for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in the single-prey (0.07 and 0.02) and two-prey systems (0.04 and 0.06), respectively. The handling time, T(h), was significantly greater for P. bicincta (5.02 and 10.64 h) than for S. frugiperda (2.66 and 4.41 h) in single- and two-prey systems, respectively. Estimations of attack coefficient and handling time in the single-prey system were used to predict prey preference of M. carolina carolina. No strong prey switching response was observed. M. carolina carolina showed no preference for either prey. However, in the presence of S. frugiperda, the functional response of the predator for P. bicincta was reduced. M. carolina carolina is a potential predator of one or more turfgrass pests and should be considered in conservation efforts.

  16. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  17. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  18. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  19. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  20. 78 FR 25069 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application Accepted for..., 2012 and March 19, 2013. d. Applicant: South Carolina Electric & Gas Company. e. Name of Project... Contact: Mr. Tommy Boozer, Manager, Lake Management Programs, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company,...

  1. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  2. Making Teacher Incentives Work: Lessons from North Carolina's Teacher Bonus Program. Education Outlook. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Thomas; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina has operated one of the country's largest pay-for-performance teacher-bonus programs since the late 1990s. New research shows that a North Carolina-style incentive-pay program has the potential to improve student learning by encouraging teachers to exert more effort on the job. The North Carolina model avoids three pitfalls…

  3. 75 FR 21389 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Carolina Coastal Railway... January 14, 2010, Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), has agreed to amend an existing overhead trackage... segment of the CSXT trackage rights line. See Carolina Coastal Ry.-- Lease and Operation...

  4. An Analysis of Diversity Inclusion in North Carolina Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chastity K.; Alston, Antoine J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge the perceptions of North Carolina secondary agricultural educators regarding the benefits and barriers to diversity inclusion in North Carolina secondary agricultural education programs. Additionally, the perceived solutions to increasing diversity inclusion in North Carolina secondary agricultural education…

  5. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  6. A Narrative History of the North Carolina Association of Community College Trustees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggs, Jon L.; Wiggs, Caroline M.

    The North Carolina Association of Community College Trustees (NCACCT) is a private nonprofit corporation founded to assist in furthering the aims, goals and development of North Carolina's community colleges. The Associations' stated purpose is to "improve and expand the opportunities and resources available to the people of North Carolina for…

  7. Listening to the Experts: A Report on the 2004 South Carolina Working Conditions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Under the leadership of State Superintendent of Education Inez Tenenbaum, with the support of the South Carolina Department of Education's Division of Teaching Quality (DTQ) and the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement (CERRA), South Carolina became only the second state in the nation to study teacher…

  8. Evaluating bio-optical models to determine chlorophyll a from hyper spectral data in the turbid coastal waters of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, J. B.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people visit the beaches of South Carolina every year and the increasing utilization of the coastal waters is leading to the deterioration of water quality and the marine ecosystem. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). This was evident during recent summer seasons particularly in the shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina, an open coast embayment on the South Atlantic Bight. These aspects threaten human and marine life. The early detection of HABs in the coastal waters requires more efficient and accurate monitoring tools. Remote sensing provides synoptic view of the entire Long Bay waters at high temporal coverage and allows resource managers to effectively map and monitor algal bloom development, near real time. Various remote sensing (RS) algorithms have been developed but were mostly calibrated to low resolution global data and or other specific sites. In the summer of 2013, a suite of measurements and water samples were collected from 15 locations along the nearshore waters of Long Bay using the Grice Laboratory R/V. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of 10 bio-optical blue-green and NIR-red based RS models applied to GER 1500 hyper spectral reflectance data to predict chlorophyll a, a proxy for phytoplankton density, in the Long Bay waters of SC. Efficiency of the algorithms performance in the study site were tested through a least squares regression and residual analysis. Results show that among the selected suite of algorithms the blue green models by Darecki and Stramski (2004) produced R2 of 0.68 with RMSE=0.39μg/l, Oc4v4 model by O'Reilly et al. (2000) gave R2 of 0.62 with RMSE=0.73ug/l, and the Oc2v4 also by O'Reilly et al (2000) gave R2 of 0.69 with RMSE=0.65. Among the NIR-red models, Moses et al (2009) two-band algorithm produced R2 of 0.75 and RMSE=1.79, and the three-band version generated R2 of 0.81 and RMSE=2.25ug

  9. Land use, land cover, and drainage on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula, Eastern North Carolina, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A land use, land cover, and drainage map of the 2,000-square-mile Albermarle-Pamlico peninsula of eastern North Carolina has been prepared, at a scale of 1:125,000, as part of a larger study of the effects of large-scale land clearing on regional hydrology. The peninsula includes the most extensive area of wetland in North Carolina and one of the largest in the country. In recent years the pace of land clearing on the peninsula has accelerated as land is being converted from forest, swamp, and brushland to agricultural use. Conversion of swamps to intensive farming operations requires profound changes in the landscape. Vegetation is uprooted and burned and ditches and canals are dug to remove excess water. What is the impact of these changes on ground-water supplies and on the streams and surrounding coastal waters which receive the runoff This map will aid in answering these and similar questions that have arisen about the patterns of land use and the artificial drainage system that removes excess water from the land. By showing both land use and drainage, this map can be used to identify those areas where water-related problems may occur and help assess the nature and causes of these problems. The map covers the entire area east of the Suffolk Scarp, an area of about 2,000 square miles, for the year 1974 using data from 1974-76. Land use and land cover were compiled and modified from the U.S. Geological Survey 's Rocky Mount and Manteo LUDA maps. Additional information came from U.S. Geological Survey orthophotoquads, Landsat imagery, and field checking. Drainage was mapped from orthophotoquads, some field inspection, and 7-1/2 minute topographic quadrangle maps.

  10. Synthesis of U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem and Implications for Environment Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Scott

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to present a synthesis of the USGS Chesapeake Bay science related to the 2001?06 goals and provide implications for environmental management. The report provides USGS findings that address the science needs of the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) restoration goals and includes summaries of 1. land-use change; 2. water quality in the watershed, including nutrients, sediment, and contaminants; 3. long-term changes in climate and estuarine water quality; 4. estuary habitats, focusing on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and tidal wetlands; and 5. factors affecting fish and waterbird populations.

  11. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  12. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  13. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  16. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking northwest - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  17. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  18. Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, north side of the bascule trusswork - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  19. 328. Caltrans, Photographer March 19, 1936 "WEST BAY". VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    328. Caltrans, Photographer March 19, 1936 "WEST BAY". VIEW OF DECK TRUSS, SUSPENSION BRIDGE, AND SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 6-2075 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking southeast, north side of structure - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  1. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  2. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  3. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  4. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed through the implementation of conservation practices. These conservation practices reduce soil erosion...

  5. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  7. Vegetation biomass change of the Bosoh Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, K.; Asaka, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Kondoh, T.; Tahara, T.

    Since the 2001 eruption, the volcanic fumes from the Oyama of Miyakejima Island, located approximately 200 km southwest from the mainland of Japan, have affected the vegetation health and biomass of the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we evaluated the potential for measuring/mapping relative forest damage/recovery in forests in the Bosoh Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using LANDSAT Enhanced Thematic Mapper data and ASTER Level-1B data. The simple ratio which is derived from the near-infrared and red reflective response was found to correlate well with ground-based measurements of forest damage caused by continuous SO2 contained in the volcanic fumes. Accumulated data by the synchronized field campaign observation of the Japanese cedar field spectra and by satellite analysis indicates the following interesting features: (1) regional differences of SO2 levels in the forestal area can be estimated by the simple spectrum ratio of the near-infrared and red bands of multispectral satellite data; (2) time-series images using the simple ratios indicated the location of still damaged and recovered forests between the 2001 eruption and 2003; (3) if the vegetations under study are homogeneous single-species with a similar leaf area index and a similar age, the simple ratio was useful to evaluate vegetation damage or recovery among individual forests throughout many of the forests in the Bosoh Peninsula; (4) the damage level of the Tokyo Bay side was found to be consistently higher than the Pacific Ocean side of the peninsula. This obvious difference is likely caused, not only by SO2 from Miyakejima Island, but also by long term and chronic discharged gas from heavy industrial complexes.

  8. Joint NASA/EPA AVIRIS Analysis in the Chesapeake Bay Region: Plans and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee; Stokely, Peter; Lobitz, Brad; Shelton, Gary

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center is performing an AVIRIS demonstration project in conjunction with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 3). NASA and EPA scientists have jointly defined a Study Area in eastern Virginia to include portions of the Chesapeake Bay, southern Delmarva Peninsula, and the mouths of the York and James Rivers. Several environmental issues have been identified for study. These include, by priority: 1) water constituent analysis in the Chesapeake Bay, 2) mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay, 3) detection of vegetation stress related to Superfund sites at the Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, and 4) wetland species analysis in the York River vicinity. In support of this project, three lines of AVIRIS data were collected during the Wallops Island deployment on 17 August 1997. The remote sensing payload included AVIRIS, MODIS Airborne Simulator and an RC-10 color infrared film camera. The AVIRIS data were delivered to Ames from the JPL AVIRIS Data Facility, on 29 September 1997. Quicklook images indicate nominal data acquisition, and at the current time an atmospheric correction is being applied. Water constituent analysis of the Bay is our highest priority based on EPA interest and available collateral data, both from the surface and from other remote sensing instruments. Constituents of interest include suspended sediments, chlorophyll-a and accessory pigments, Analysis steps will include: verification of data quality, location of study sites in imagery, incorporation of relevant field data from EPA and other Chesapeake Bay cooperators, processing of imagery to show phenomenon of interest, verification of results with cooperators. By 1st quarter CY98 we plan to circulate initial results to NASA and EPA management for review. In the longer term we will finalize documentation, prepare results for publication, and complete any needed technology transfer to EPA remote sensing personnel.

  9. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N. )

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT[sup 18]O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T[sub e]), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO[sub 2]/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO[sub 2]/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  10. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N.

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT{sup 18}O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T{sub e}), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO{sub 2}/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO{sub 2}/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  11. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km(2) in 1981 to 485.0 km(2) in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km(2) in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km(2) in 1981 to 366.5 km(2) in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km(2). Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km(2) in 1981 to 146.2 km(2) in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km(2) in 1981 to 485.0 km(2) in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km(2) in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km(2) in 1981 to 366.5 km(2) in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km(2). Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km(2) in 1981 to 146.2 km(2) in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies.

  15. Plants that Bite Back. Carolina Beach State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Phoebe

    This learning packet, one in a series of eight, was developed by the Carolina Beach State Park in North Carolina for the middle grades to teach about carnivorous plants. Loose-leaf pages are presented in 10 sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Carolina Beach State Park, the park's activity packet,…

  16. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  17. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  18. Vegetable Soup Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Mary; Shepard, Ray

    Vegetable Soup is a new children's television series whose purpose is to counter the negative and destructive effects of racial isolation. This manual gives detailed instructions for discussion of activities that are presented during the television series such as: crafts, games, recipes, language activities, and children's questions. A list of…

  19. Source and profile of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Shi-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Changes in cell density and cyst flux of Alexandrium tamarense, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin contents in shellfishes, and environmental parameters were measured in two stations in Daya Bay, South China Sea from March 2005 to July 2006. Vegetative cells of A. tamarense occurred sporadically; however, they presented abundantly during the winter months. Meanwhile, cyst flux reached its maximum level just following the peak abundance of motile cells. The PSP contents in shellfish were generally low, but higher in winter with the maximum of 14,015 μg STX equiv./kg. The majority of toxins were found in digestive glands, with a maximum of 66,227 μg STX equiv./kg. There were significant positive relationships between toxin level and vegetative cell density and cyst flux. This indicates that vegetative cells and cysts of Alexandrium significantly influenced PSP level, and could be an important source of PSP toxins in shellfish during winter.

  20. Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Pediatric Nurse Practitioners in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzemer, William L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey support the statement that pediatricians have a negative attitude toward the pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) in South Carolina, generally due to the physicians' feelings that the PNP is not competent at child illness management. Implications for pediatric residencies are discussed. (LBH)