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Sample records for carolina cooling reservoir

  1. Thermal and dissolved oxygen characteristics of a South Carolina cooling reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, James L.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured monthly from January 1971 to December 1982 at 1-m depth intervals at 13 stations in Keowee Reservoir in order to characterize spatial and temporal changes associated with operation of the Oconee Nuclear Station. The reservoir water column was i to 4°C warmer in operational than in non-operational years. The thermo-dine was at depths of 5 to 15 m before the operation of Oconee Nuclear Station, but was always below the upper level of the intake (20 m) after the station was in full operation; this suggests that pumping by the Oconee Nuclear Station had depleted all available cool hypolimnetic water to this depth. As a result summer water temperatures at depths greater than 10 m were usually 10°C higher after plant operation began than before. By fall the reservoir was nearly homothemious to a depth of 27 m, where a thermocine developed. Seasonal temperature profiles varied with distance from the plant; a cool water plume was evident in spring and a warm water plume was present in the summer, fall, and winter. A cold water plume also developed in the northern section of the reservoir due to the operation of Jocassee Pumped Storage Station. Increases in the mean water temperature of the reservoir during operational periods were correlated with the generating output of the power plant. The annual heat load to the reservoir increased by one-third after plant operations began. The alteration of the thermal stratification of the receiving water during the summer also caused the dissolved oxygen to mix to greater depths.

  2. Growth, biomass, and fecundity of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in a North Carolina cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, M.R.; Lemly, A.D.; Esch, G.W.

    1987-10-01

    An investigation of differences in growth, maturation, biomass, and fecundity of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in 3 host species was conducted on metapopulations from 3 distinct communities in Belews Lake, North Carolina. The results indicated that host-specific differences in growth and biomass were additive among metapopulations from different localities. However, species-specific differences in maturation and fecundity exhibited differential variation between the sites. These site X host interactions were related to host-specific differences in bioaccumulation of selenium at sites that were exposed to effluent from a coal-fired power plant. Significant (alpha = 0.001) statistical associations were observed between selenium concentration in tapeworm tissue and fecundity measures. The results of this study demonstrate that host suitability is determined by morphological, physiological, and behavioral differences in the host species which affect transmission dynamics and the quality and stability of the enteric environment.

  3. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    SciTech Connect

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  4. Role of fish distribution on estimates of standing crop in a cooling reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barwick, D. Hugh

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of fish standing crop from coves in Keowee Reservoir, South Carolina, were obtained in May and August for 3 consecutive years. Estimates were significantly higher in May than in August for most of the major species of fish collected, suggesting that considerable numbers of fish had migrated from the coves by August. This change in fish distribution may have resulted from the operation of a 2,580-megawatt nuclear power plant which altered reservoir stratification. Because fish distribution is sensitive to conditions of reservoir stratification, and because power plants often alter reservoir stratification, annual cove sampling in August may not be sufficient to produce comparable estimates of fish standing crop on which to assess the impact of power plant operations on fish populations. Comparable estimates of fish standing crop can probably be obtained from cooling reservoirs by collecting annual samples at similar water temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen.

  5. Food and feeding of fish in Hartwell Reservoir tailwater, Georgia-South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barwick, D. Hugh; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1985-01-01

    Food of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), and bluegills (L. macrochirus) was examined to determine whether or not these fish in the Hartwell Reservoir tailwater (Savannah River, Georgia-South Carolina) ate organisms entrained from the reservoir or displaced from the tailwater during water releases associated with the production of hydropower. These fish fed primarily on aquatic insects, crayfish, and terrestrial organisms originating from the tailwater. Major periods of feeding occurred during nongeneration.

  6. Stocking and hooking mortality of planted rainbow trout in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barwick, D. Hugh

    1985-01-01

    Attempts to establish a 'put-grow-and-take' fishery for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina failed despite plantings of 200,000 fish in 1972-1979 because few of the stocked fish survived to legal size. At the same time, a fishery for brown trout (Salmo trutta) was established successfully by planting far fewer fish. Experiments were conducted to determine if stress at stocking and injuries and stress associated with catch and release of fish by shoreline anglers were responsible for the poor survival of rainbow trout. Only 1 of the 606 rainbow trout stocked in floating wire cages anchored in the reservoir died during the first 3 days, and fewer rainbow trout than brown trout died as a result of catch-and-release fishing during the first 11 days after stocking. Thus, these factors were not responsible for the lack of success in establishing a rainbow trout fishery in this reservoir.

  7. Persistence and distribution of PCBs in the sediments of a reservoir (Lake Hartwell, South Carolina)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnivant, F.M. ); Polansky, A.L. ); Elzerman, A.W. )

    1989-12-01

    PCBs are one of the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants occurring in the environment today. Since their release to the environment, PCBs have been found in water, air, soil, sediment, and human samples. Low levels are now identifiable even in remote sites. Once in aquatic systems, PCBs tend to associate with particulate matter which may subsequently settle to the bottom. Thus, lake and river sediments have been found to be a major PCB sink in aquatic systems, as observed for the reservoir system studied here. Lake Hartwell is a PCB-contaminated reservoir located in the upper Savannah River basin in South Carolina and Georgia. It has received the majority of the PCB contamination from Twelve-Mile River, a major tributary at the top of the reservoir located in the northwestern portion of South Carolina in Pickens County. The purpose of this investigation was to provide information on the lake-wide fate and distribution of PCBs and effects of natural and anthropogenic redistribution processes. Although congener-specific data were generated, space for only total PCB concentrations is available here.

  8. Geology of the area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.; Smith, W.A.; Snoke, A.W.; Peck, L.S.; Pitcher, D.M.; Prowell, D.C.; Simpson, D.H.

    1982-08-10

    This study provides geological background information necessary for an evaluation of the earthquake hazard in an area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. This region contains a thick stratified sequence of Proterozoic Z and Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. In the early to middle Paleozoic, this sequence was recrystallized and deformed under metamorphic conditions that ranged from greenschist to amphibolite facies and experienced at least two episodes of folding. The region has been intruded by late kinematic to postkinematic granitoid plutons of Silurian and Carboniferous ages and by numerous northwest trending diabase diks of Late Traissic and Early Jurassic age. The region south of Monticello Reservoir in the Carolina slate belt experienced two episodes of faulting in the late Paleozoic and/or early to middle Mesozoic. The older group of faults trends approximately east, has only small displacements, and is characterized by extensive silicifiction of the fault zones. The younger group of faults trends approximately north has experienced dip slip displacements up to 1700 m and is characterized by carbonate mineralization in the fault zones. Both sets of faults are cut by an undeformed diabase dike of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. The induced seismic activity around Monticello Reservoir is occurring in a heterogeneous quartz monzonite pluton of Carboniferous age. The pluton contains large enclaves of country rock and is cut by numerous, diversely oriented small faults and joint. These local inhomogeneities in the pluton together with an irregular stress field are interpreted to control the diffuse seismic activity around the reservoir. In view of the apparent absence of lengthy faults it is unlikely that a large-magnitude earthquake will occur in response to the stress and pore pressure changes related to the impoundment of Monticello Reservoir.

  9. Synoptic surveys of major reservoirs in South Carolina, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Comprehensive synoptic surveys of ten South Carolina airs (L Lake, Savannah River Site (SRS), Par Pond, SRS, Pond B, SRS, Lake Moultrie, Lake Marion, Lake Murray, Lake Monticello, Lake Robinson, Lake Richard B. Russell, and Lake Greenwood) were performed to characterize and compare these basins with regard to water quality, trophic status, and community structure during September 1988 and September 1989. All of the reservoirs were mesoeutrophic to eutrophic having significantly greater productivity rates than oligotrophic ecosystems. This report presents and discusses the results of these surveys.

  10. Holocene deposits of reservoir-quality sand along the Central South Carolina coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.J.; Hayes, M.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Holocene coastal sand deposits of the central South Carolina coastline were investigated to estimate volumes of reservoir-quality (RQ) sediments. These sand bodies, which vary considerably in size, thickness, shape, and continuity, were deposited in a variety of depositional settings including barrier islands, ebb-tidal deltas, exposed sand flats, tidal sand ridges, and tidal point bars. To identify the RQ sediment for each sand-body type, a conservative mud cutoff value of 15% was chosen. Average thickness values ranged from 6 m for barrier island deposits to 15 m for ebb-tidal deltas. Of the six most significant RQ sand depositional environments on the central portion of the South Carolina coast, ebb-tidal delta complexes accounted for 77% of all RQ sediments. This dominance of the ebb-tidal delta deposits is attributed to the relatively large tidal range in the area (up to 3 m) and to the presence of a number of large, incised alluvial valleys, which are host to estuarine complexes with large tidal prisms. If the Holocene sand deposits along the central 115 km of the South Carolina coast were preserved in the rock record, a total of 1.3 X 10{sup 6} ac-ft of RQ sands would be present, a significant amount considering the short time interval of approximately 5000 yr.

  11. Fish populations associated with habitat-modified piers and natural woody debris in Piedmont Carolina reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barwick, R.D.; Kwak, T.J.; Noble, R.L.; Barwick, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    A primary concern associated with reservoir shoreline residential development is reduction of littoral habitat complexity and diversity. One potential approach to compensate for this is the deployment of artificial-habitat modules under existing piers, but the benefit of this practice has not been demonstrated. To evaluate the effect of pier habitat modifications on fish populations in two Piedmont Carolina reservoirs, we studied 77 piers located on forty-seven, 100-m transects that were modified using plastic "fish hab" modules augmented with brush (brushed habs), hab modules alone (habs), or left unaltered for reference purposes. We sampled fish from all piers and transects during April, July, and October 2001 using a boat-mounted electrofisher. With few exceptions, catch rates were higher at brushed-hab piers and piers with habs than at reference piers during all seasons. Similarly, during spring and summer, fish abundance was generally higher on transects containing natural woody debris, brushed habs, and habs than on reference-developed transects; however, during fall, there were exceptions. Therefore, fish abundance associated with shorelines in these reservoirs appears to be related to the structural complexity of available habitat rather than structure composition. One year after installation, 92% of pier owners responding to a mail survey expressed satisfaction with pier modifications. Supplementing piers with habitat structures is recommended to enhance littoral habitat complexity for fishes in residentially developed reservoirs.

  12. Food of blueback herring and threadfin shad in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Foltz, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis were introduced into Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina, in the early 1970s as prey for large piscivores. To assess the potential for trophic competition between these clupeids, we examined their diets and the extent of diet overlap in May, August, and December 1982 and February 1983. The diet of blueback herring consisted mainly of large species of cladocerans and copepods supplemented in August with Chaoborus punctipennis and young fish. Mean length of the organisms eaten by blueback herring was 1.4 mm. Threadfin shad fed on smaller species of cladocerans and copepods, as well as on rotifers and copepod nauplii. The mean length of the organisms eaten by threadfin shad was 0.4 mm, which differed significantly from the mean length of the zooplankton population in Jocassee Reservoir (0.6 mm). Phytoplankton contributed 24 and 32% of the stomach contents of threadfin shad in August and December. Bosmina longirostris was important in the diet of both species, although blueback herring showed negative selection for it. Diet overlap between the two clupeids was low on all four dates. Although we found no evidence of trophic competition between the two species in Jocassee Reservoir, we do not recommend stocking them together, because both species are voracious planktivores and blueback herring are piscivorous.

  13. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  14. Taste and odor occurrence in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Arrington, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Spartanburg Water are working cooperatively on an ongoing study of Lake Bowen and Reservoir #1 to identify environmental factors that enhance or influence the production of geosmin in the source-water reservoirs. Spartanburg Water is using information from this study to develop management strategies to reduce (short-term solution) and prevent (long-term solution) geosmin occurrence. Spartanburg Water utility treats and distributes drinking water to the Spartanburg area of South Carolina. The drinking water sources for the area are Lake William C. Bowen (Lake Bowen) and Municipal Reservoir #1 (Reservoir #1), located north of Spartanburg. These reservoirs, which were formed by the impoundment of the South Pacolet River, were assessed in 2006 by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) as being fully supportive of all uses based on established criteria. Nonetheless, Spartanburg Water had noted periodic taste and odor problems due to the presence of geosmin, a naturally occurring compound in the source water. Geosmin is not harmful, but its presence in drinking water is aesthetically unpleasant.

  15. Suprapopulation dynamics of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in a North Carolina reservoir: abundance, dispersion, and prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, M.R.; Esch, G.W.

    1987-10-01

    A 2 1/2-year study (September 1980-March 1983) of abundance, dispersion, and prevalence of the pseudophyllidean cestode, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in 3 species of fish (Gambusia affinis, Notropis lutrensis, and Pimephales promelas) was conducted in 3 ecologically distinct areas of a North Carolina cooling pond. Mean infrapopulation density and prevalence differed by site, season, and species and size of hosts. Degree of aggregation and abundance and prevalence of gravid worms differed by species of host. Abundance of gravid worms was significantly lower in metapopulations from localities that received power plant effluents. The differences in infrapopulation density, prevalence, and aggregation appeared to be related to predator-prey interactions, which varied with season and local community structure. Differences in abundance of gravid worms, on the other hand, were probably caused by differential suitability of hosts and by local variation in selenium concentration in the water column. Thus, it appears that both biotic and abiotic components of the host community determined the suprapopulation dynamics of B. acheilognathi in Belews Lake.

  16. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  17. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-04-21

    Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water,formation of hydrates, and fracturing due to thermal stresses. The TOUGH2/EOS7C module for CO2-CH4-H2O mixtures is used as the simulation analysis tool. For verification of EOS7C, the classic Joule-Thomson expansion experiment is modeled for pure CO2 resulting in Joule-Thomson coefficients in agreement with standard references to within 5-7 percent. For demonstration purposes, CO2 injection at constant pressure and with a large pressure drop ({approx}50 bars) is presented in order to show that cooling by more than 20 C can occur by this effect. Two more-realistic constant-rate injection cases show that for typical systems in the Sacramento Valley, California, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is minimal. This simulation study shows that for constant-rate injections into high-permeability reservoirs, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is not expected to create significant problems for CSEGR.

  18. Phytoplankton distribution in three thermally different but edaphically similar reactor cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E W

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure and the physicochemical characteristics of three reactor cooling reservoirs in close proximity and of similar age and bottom type were studied during 1978. The three reservoirs differed in thermal alteration resulting from reactor cooling water as follows: (1) considerable heating with lake-wide temperatures >30/sup 0/C, even in winter; (2) a maximal 5/sup 0/C increase occurring in only one of three major arms of the reservoir; and (3) no thermal effluent received during the study period. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in water quality and phytoplankton community structure were observed; however, water temperature independent of other environmental factors (e.g., light and nutrients) was found to be a relatively unimportant variable for explaining phytoplankton periodicity.

  19. Multi-ring trap as a reservoir of cooled antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Ichioka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Higaki, H.; Komaki, K.; Hori, M.; Oshima, N.; Mohri, A.; Kuroki, K.

    1999-12-10

    For the ASACUSA project, a new charged particle trap was designed and constructed. Like a Penning-Malmberg trap, static electric and static magnetic fields are used. Multi-ring electrode is exploited to generate a harmonic potential on the trap axis. It enables the confinement of a number of antiprotons and electrons for the electron cooling. Upon its design, plasma behavior of trapped particle clouds was taken into consideration. As the first step, trap performances have been checked with electrons. Current status are presented.

  20. Optimal Cooling Load and COP Relationship of a Four-Heat-Reservoir Endoreversible Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingen; Zheng, Tong; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih

    2004-06-01

    On the basis of a four-heat-reservoir endoreversible absorption refrigeration cycle model, another linear heat transfer law [i.e., the heat-flux] is adopted, the fundamental optimal relation between the coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling load, as well as the maximum cooling load and the corresponding COP of the cycle coupled to constant-temperature heat reservoirs are derived by using finite-time thermodynamics or thermodynamic optimization. The optimal distribution of the heat-transfer surface areas is also obtained. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the COP and the cooling load of the cycle are studied by detailed numerical examples. The results obtained herein are of importance to the optimal design and performance improvement of an absorption refrigeration cycle.

  1. Fingerprinting the sources of suspended sediment delivery to a large municipal drinking water reservoir: Falls Lake, Neuse River, North Carolina, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We employ a novel geochemical-fingerprinting approach to estimate the source of suspended sediments collected from tributaries entering Falls Lake, a 50 km2 drinking water reservoir on the Neuse River, North Carolina. Many of the major tributaries to the lake are on North Carolina’s 303(d) list for ...

  2. Mathematical modeling of the thermal and hydrodynamic structure of the cooling reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saminskiy, G.; Debolskaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrothermal conditions of the cooling reservoir is determined by the heat and mass transfer from the water surface to the atmosphere and the processes of heat transfer directly in the water mass of the reservoir. As the capacity of power plants, the corresponding increase in the volume of heated water and the use of deep lakes and reservoirs as coolers there is a need to develop new, more accurate, and the application of existing methods for the numerical simulation. In calculating the hydrothermal regime it must take into account the effect of wind, density (buoyancy) forces, and other data of the cooling reservoir. In addition to solving practical problems it is important to know not only the magnitude of the average temperature, but also its area and depth distribution. A successful solution can be achieved through mathematical modeling of general systems of equations of transport processes and the correct formulation of the problem, based on appropriate initial data. The purpose of the work is application of software package GETM for simulating the hydrothermal regime of cooling reservoir with an estimate of three-dimensional structure of transfer processes, the effects of wind, the friction of the water surface. Three-dimensional models are rarely applied, especially for far-field problems. If such models are required, experts in the field must develop and apply them. Primary physical processes included are surface heat transfer, short-wave and long-wave radiation and penetration, convective mixing, wind and flow induced mixing, entrainment of ambient water by pumped-storage inflows, inflow density stratification as impacted by temperature and dissolved and suspended solids. The model forcing data consists of the system bathymetry developed into the model grid; the boundary condition flow and temperature; the tributary and flow and temperature; and the system meteorology. Ivankovskoe reservoir belongs to the reservoirs of valley type (Tver region, Russia). It

  3. Cooling phonons with phonons: Acoustic reservoir engineering with silicon-vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepesidis, K. V.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Norambuena, A.; Maze, J. R.; Rabl, P.

    2016-12-01

    We study a setup where a single negatively-charged silicon-vacancy center in diamond is magnetically coupled to a low-frequency mechanical bending mode and via strain to the high-frequency phonon continuum of a semiclamped diamond beam. We show that under appropriate microwave driving conditions, this setup can be used to induce a laser-cooling-like effect for the low-frequency mechanical vibrations, where the high-frequency longitudinal compression modes of the beam serve as an intrinsic low-temperature reservoir. We evaluate the experimental conditions under which cooling close to the quantum ground state can be achieved and describe an extended scheme for the preparation of a stationary entangled state between two mechanical modes. By relying on intrinsic properties of the mechanical beam only, this approach offers an interesting alternative for quantum manipulation schemes of mechanical systems, where otherwise efficient optomechanical interactions are not available.

  4. Thermal ecology of Naegleria fowleri from a power plant cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Huizinga, H.W. ); McLaughlin, G.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The pathogenic, free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis. N. fowleri has been isolated from thermally elevated aquatic environments worldwide, but temperature factors associated with occurrence of the amoeba remain undefined. In this study, a newly created cooling reservoir (Clinton Lake, Illinois) was surveyed for Naegleria spp. before and after thermal additions from a nuclear power plant. Water and sediment samples were collected from heated and unheated arms of the reservoir and analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. and pathogenic N. fowleri. Amoebae were identified by morphology, in vitro cultivation, temperature tolerance, mouse pathogenicity assay, and DNA restriction fragment length analysis. N. fowleri was isolated from the thermally elevated arm but not from the ambient-temperature arm of the reservoir. The probability of isolating thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic N. fowleri increased significantly with temperature. Repetitive DNA restriction fragment profiles of the N. fowleri Clinton Lake isolates and a known N. fowleri strain of human origin were homogeneous.

  5. Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J.; Doswell, A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

  6. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    PubMed

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (Te) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot Te was nearly four times longer than Te for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. Te could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats.

  7. Convective circulation during differential heating and cooling in the Minky Creek embayment of Guntersville Reservoir, data summary for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.S.; James, W.F.; Barko, J.W. |

    1993-06-01

    Convective circulation patterns were examined in the Minky Creek embayment of Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama, during Mid-august to mid-October 1990 and mid-May through mid-November 1991. This report describes the results obtained during 1991. Day time heating produced a warm surface layer at all stations, while the layer was often eliminated during nighttime cooling. For much of the study period, vertical temperature stratifications was minimal except during periods of heating or cooling. During differential heating, shallow regions were aften heated to the bottom while warming was confined to surface layers at deeper locations. During differential cooling water moved from shallow regions as an underflow of cool water and was replace by a return current of warmer surface waters from deeper regions. Wind influence the temperature gradients. These results support the contention that convective circulation can potentially be very important in reservoir embayments.

  8. Adaptation of Phytoplankton-Degrading Microbial Communities to Thermal Reactor Effluent in a New Cooling Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Steven A.; Benner, Ronald; Sobecky, Patricia; Hodson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    In water column and sediment inocula from a nuclear reactor cooling reservoir, natural phytoplankton substrate labeled with 14C was used to determine aerobic and anaerobic mineralization rates for a range of temperatures (25, 40, 55, and 70°C) expected during reactor operation. For experiments that were begun during reactor shutdown, aerobic decomposition occurred at temperatures of <55°C. After 2 months of reactor operation, aerobic rates increased substantially at 55 and 70°C, although maximum rates were observed at temperatures of ≤40°C. The temperature range for which maximum anaerobic mineralization (i.e., the sum of CH4 and CO2) was observed was 25 to 40°C when the reactor was off, expanding to 25 to 55°C during reactor operation. Increased rates at 55°C, but not 70°C, correlated with an increase in the ratio of cumulative methane to carbon dioxide produced over 21 days. When reduced reactor power lowered the maximum temperature of the reservoir to 42°C, aerobic decomposition at 70°C was negligible, but remained substantial at 55°C. Selection for thermophilic decomposers occurred rapidly in this system in both aerobic and anaerobic communities and did not require prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. PMID:16347659

  9. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  10. Limnological Conditions and Occurrence of Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, 2006-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Arrington, Jane M.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Limnological conditions and the occurrence of taste-and-odor compounds were studied in two reservoirs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, from May 2006 to June 2009. Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1 are relatively shallow, meso-eutrophic, warm monomictic, cascading impoundments on the South Pacolet River. Overall, water-quality conditions and phytoplankton community assemblages were similar between the two reservoirs but differed seasonally. Median dissolved geosmin concentrations in the reservoirs ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 microgram per liter. Annual maximum dissolved geosmin concentrations tended to occur between March and May. In this study, peak dissolved geosmin production occurred in April and May 2008, ranging from 0.050 to 0.100 microgram per liter at the deeper reservoir sites. Peak dissolved geosmin production was not concurrent with maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes, which tended to occur in the summer (July to August), but was concurrent with a peak in the fraction of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group. Nonetheless, annual maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes rarely resulted in cyanobacteria dominance of the phytoplankton community. In both reservoirs, elevated dissolved geosmin concentrations were correlated to environmental factors indicative of unstratified conditions and reduced algal productivity, but not to nutrient concentrations or ratios. With respect to potential geosmin sources, elevated geosmin concentrations were correlated to greater fractions of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group and to biovolumes of a specific geosmin-producing cyanobacteria genus (Oscillatoria), but not to actinomycetes concentrations. Conversely, environmental factors that correlated with elevated cyanobacterial biovolumes were indicative of stable water columns (stratified conditions), warm water temperatures, reduced nitrogen concentrations, longer residence times, and high

  11. Water-quality data for selected North Carolina streams and reservoirs in the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Ronald G.; Taylor, John E.; Middleton, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project was developed to assess regional water-quality characteristics in drinking-water supplies and to provide a basis for determining trends in water quality for the Research Triangle area, which is one of the fastest growing areas in North Carolina. The study area is in the upper Neuse River Basin and the upper Cape Fear River Basin in the north-central Piedmont Province of the State. Hydrologic data were collected at 21 reservoir sites and 30 stream sites from October 1988 through September 1992 to define water-quality characteristics. The data collected at these sites include streamflow data and approximately 275 physical properties and chemical characteristics of surface water.

  12. Trophic classification of Tennessee Valley area reservoirs derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. [Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinert, D. L.; Malone, D. L.; Voss, A. W. (Principal Investigator); Scarpace, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT MSS data from four different dates were extracted from computer tapes using a semiautomated digital data handling and analysis system. Reservoirs were extracted from the surrounding land matrix by using a Band 7 density level slice of 3; and descriptive statistics to include mean, variance, and ratio between bands for each of the four bands were calculated. Significant correlations ( 0.80) were identified between the MSS statistics and many trophic indicators from ground truth water quality data collected at 35 reservoirs in the greater Tennessee Valley region. Regression models were developed which gave significant estimates of each reservoir's trophic state as defined by its trophic state index and explained in all four LANDSAT frames at least 85 percent of the variability in the data. To illustrate the spatial variations within reservoirs as well as the relative variations between reservoirs, a table look up elliptical classification was used in conjunction with each reservoir's trophic state index to classify each reservoir on a pixel by pixel basis and produce color coded thematic representations.

  13. Limnological Conditions in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, August to September 2005, May 2006, and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Spartanburg Water System, conducted three spatial surveys of the limnological conditions in Lake William C. Bowen (Lake Bowen) and Municipal Reservoir #1 (Reservoir #1), Spartanburg County, South Carolina, during August to September 2005, May 2006, and October 2006. The surveys were conducted to identify spatial distribution and concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, common trophic state indicators (nutrients, transparency, and chlorophyll a), algal community structure, and stratification of the water column at the time of sampling. Screening tools such as the Carlson trophic state index, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios, and relative thermal resistance to mixing were used to help compare data among sites and among seasons. Water-column samples were collected at two depths at each selected site: a near-surface sample collected above a 1-meter depth and a lake-bottom sample collected at a depth of 2.5 to 7 meters, depending on the depth at the site. The degree of stratification of the water column was demonstrated by temperature-depth profiles and computed relative thermal resistance to mixing. Seasonal occurrence of thermal stratification (August to September 2005; May 2006) and de-stratification (October 2006) was evident in the depth profiles of water temperature in Lake Bowen. The most stable water-column (highest relative thermal resistance to mixing) conditions occurred in Lake Bowen during the August to September 2005 survey. The least stable water-column (destratified) conditions occurred in Lake Bowen during the October 2006 survey and Reservoir #1 during all three surveys. Changes with depth in dissolved oxygen (decreased with depth to near anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion), pH (decreased with depth), and specific conductance (increased with depth) along with thermal stratification indicated Lake Bowen was exhibiting characteristics common to both mesotrophic and eutrophic

  14. Estimation of Nitrogen Loads to Two Impaired Reservoirs in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina Using LOADEST and SPARROW Models, 1997-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointer, B.; Harned, D. A.; Harden, S.

    2010-12-01

    The loading of nutrients into lacustrine ecosystems is an issue that concerns scientists and policy makers due to the potentially negative effect on drinking water sources. In this study, nitrogen loads are estimated for streams entering two central North Carolina lakes: Falls Lake in Durham County and B. Everett Jordan Lake in Chatham County. Both of these lakes have been placed on the North Carolina list of impaired waters due to excessive concentrations of chlorophyll a. Nutrient management rules are being established for both lakes. This study is being conducted collaboratively as part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) nonpoint source 319 program. Water-quality and streamflow data collected from a total of 9 stream sites (4 upstream of Falls Lake; 5 upstream of Jordan Lake) over 11 years (1997-2008) were used to estimate annual nitrogen loads to each lake using the USGS LOADEST (LOAD ESTimation) model (http://water.usgs.gov/software/loadest/). LOADEST is a multiple linear regression model that estimates constituent loads on a site-specific basis. In order to compare local and regional-scale models, nitrogen loads computed with a SPARROW (SPAtially-Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) model (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/sparrow/) for the southeastern United States also were compiled for each lake. SPARROW model predictions for nitrogen loading are based on a single model year of 2002. The SPARROW model relates empirical nutrient data with watershed characteristics, allowing prediction of loads from all drainage basins that flow into each lake. In contrast, the site-specific data needed for LOADEST is limited to a subset of sampled tributaries. Therefore, for comparison’s sake, load estimations reported in this study from the SPARROW model are summed loads from the subset of basins with corresponding LOADEST calculations - 4 of 56 basins for Falls Lake

  15. Development of the fish community in a new cooling reservoir in the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Gladden, J.B. ); Heuer, J.H. )

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we sampled the fish community in a new reservoir during the first three years following impoundment. The rate and order in which species were introduced, and their fate was documented by continuous monitoring. Because the reservoir was located on the Savannah River Site, a restricted area owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), it was never fished. The data collected in this study permitted us to address the following questions concerning the development of the L Lake fish community: (1) What types of changes occurred during community development (2) Was community development a matter of chance or governed by deterministic biological processes (3) How did early colonizing species differ from the species of later developmental stages 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 7471 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Mooresville, North Carolina (Mooresville) and Duke, authorizing Mooresville to operate and maintain expanded...) is located on the Catawba and Wateree Rivers, in nine counties in North Carolina and five counties in South Carolina. Lake Norman is the fifth reservoir in the series of reservoirs used by the project,...

  17. Cooper River Rediversion Project, Lake Moultrie and Santee River, South Carolina. Requirements for Protection of Bushy Park Reservoir. Supplement 2. Appendix A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    to General Design. randums - Requirements for Protection of bushy Park Reservoir DA, South Atlantic Division. Corps of Engineers. 510 Title Building...fol lowing comnts: a. Pages 2 and * paragraphs 6 and . Since It Is probable that hurricane surges woul enter the Bushy Park Reservoir with or without...reduced flows. we should not guarantee protection of the reservoir under hurricane conditions. b P!e second line from bottom. The mileae figures 32.6

  18. Water and bed-material quality of selected streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1988-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oblinger, C.J.; Treece, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project was formed by a consortium of local governments and governmental agencies in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to supplement existing data on conventional pollutants, nutrients, and metals to enable eventual determination of long-term trends; to examine spatial differences among water supplies within the region, especially differences between smaller upland sources, large multipurpose reservoirs, and run-of-river supplies; to provide tributary loading inlake data for predictive modeling of Falls of the Neuse and B. Everett Jordan reservoirs; and to establish a database for synthetic organic compounds. Water-quality sampling began in October 1988 at 35 sites located on area run-of-river and reservoir water supplies and their tributaries. Sampling has continued through 1994. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, pesticides, and semivolatile and volatile organic compounds. Monthly concentration data, high-flow concentration data, and data on daily mean streamflow at most stream sites were used to calculate loadings of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and trace metals to reservoirs. Stream and lake sites were assigned to one of five site categories-- (1) rivers, (2) large multipurpose reservoirs, (3) small water-supply reservoirs, (4) streams below urban areas and wastewater-treatment plants, and (5) headwater streams--according to general site characteristics. Concentrations of nitrogen species, phosphorus species, and selected trace metals were compared by site category using nonparametric analysis of variance techniques and qualitatively (trace metals). Wastewater-treatment plant effluents and urban runoff had a significant impact on water quality compared to reservoirs and headwater streams. Streams draining these areas had more mineralized water than streams draining undeveloped areas. Moreover, median nitrogen and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were significantly

  19. Drowning Deaths in North Carolina. SCHS Studies No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patetta, Michael J.

    North Carolina, with a large number of major rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, and 320 miles of ocean shoreline, has a comparatively high drowning rate. A study was conducted to examine drowning deaths that occurred in North Carolina between 1980 and 1984. Data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. Data from Drowning Abstract…

  20. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, the licensee, doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas Inc., is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  1. The North Carolina Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.; Ternes, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    The North Carolina Field Test will test the effectiveness of two weatherization approaches: the current North Carolina Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program and the North Carolina Field Test Audit. The Field Test Audit will differ from North Carolina's current weatherization program in that it will incorporate new weatherization measures and techniques, a procedure for basing measure selection of the characteristics of the individual house and the cost-effectiveness of the measure, and also emphasize cooling energy savings. The field test will determine the differences of the two weatherization approaches from the viewpoints of energy savings, cost effectiveness, and implementation ease. This Experimental Plan details the steps in performing the field test. The field test will be a group effort by several participating organizations. Pre- and post-weatherization data will be collected over a two-year period (November 1989 through August 1991). The 120 houses included in the test will be divided into a control group and two treatment groups (one for each weatherization procedure) of 40 houses each. Weekly energy use data will be collected for each house representing whole-house electric, space heating and cooling, and water heating energy uses. Corresponding outdoor weather and house indoor temperature data will also be collected. The energy savings of each house will be determined using linear-regression based models. To account for variations between the pre- and post-weatherization periods, house energy savings will be normalized for differences in outdoor weather conditions and indoor temperatures. Differences between the average energy savings of treatment groups will be identified using an analysis of variance approach. Differences between energy savings will be quantified using multiple comparison techniques. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  3. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; García, E; Paniagua, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2009-03-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of (3)H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  4. [Ecological and radio-ecological effects from long-term use of the lake Kyzyl-Tash as a cooling reservoir by the nuclear fuel cycle facility].

    PubMed

    Smagin, A I

    2010-01-01

    This review introduces long-term study findings on ecological and radiation induced regime of the water reservoir - lake Kyzyl-Tash (R-2) - used as a heat sink of nuclear-power reactors in the Southern Urals from 1948 through 2008. It was exhibited that water reservoir exploitation by the nuclear fuel cycle facility "Mayak" PA resulted in hydrological, thermal, hydrochemical and radiological ecosystem regimes changes. The central radioactive substances depot in the water reservoir was determined to be the upper 20-30 cm bed silt layers, contamination density of which in 1980-1990s amounted on average approximately 0.2 PBq/km2 (about 5 kKu/km2). Some regularities of radionuclide distribution in bed sediments and biota were ascertained. Dose estimates from ionizing exposure to fish inhabited the water reservoir were experimentally made. Dose contribution was mainly due to incorporated beta-emitters amounted up to 2-3 Gy/y in 1980s. The leading role in the reservoir life belonged to phytoplankton with its algal nuisance periodicity constituting 5-6 years for blue-green and diatomic algae, and 2-3 years for green algae. During periods of the highest development pressure phytoplankton productive capacity in the reservoir was by an order of magnitude greater compared to control water reservoirs of the region. Combined long-term impact of radiological and chemical factors did not cause irreversible changes either in fish populations or ecological system in general. It can be proved by the fact that during 1970-1980s the water reservoir R-2 was inhabited by such cleanness indicators as crawfish (Astacus leptodactylus) and shellfish (Anodonta cygnea L.). On reducing of thermal and chemical pressure in the end of 1980s some processes observed gave evidence of ecosystem restoration in the lake Kyzyl-Tash. At the present moment the situation of the water reservoir exploiting as a heat sink is stabilized with preserved self-cleaning capacity.

  5. Authorized and Operating Purposes of Corps of Engineers Reservoirs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Puerto Rico CERRILLOS DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-9O PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-92 South Carolina HARTWELL DAM AND LAKE Savannah E...LAKE Missouri Kansas City E-12 POMONA LAKE Kansas Kansas City E-12 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 PRADO DAM (SANTA ANA...PROJECT Florida Jacksonville E-92 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 RODMAN LOCK AND DAM (CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL Florida

  6. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  7. 76 FR 68512 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License... cooling systems for light- water nuclear power reactors,'' paragraph (a)(1)(i) provides requirements...

  8. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Robert Parler, Jr. 1979 Cal Smoak: archeological investigations along the Edisto River in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Occasional Paper of the...Slate Belt west of the Deep River - Wadeboro Triassic Basin , North Carolina. Southestem Geology 6(3):117-138. Cook, Thomas G. 1976 Broadpoint: culture...Archeology of the John H. Kerr Reservoir basin , Roanoke River , Virginia - North Carolina. River Basin Survey Papes Number 25, Bureau of American Ethnology

  9. Primary production and biovolume of various phototrophic plankton size fractions in three southeastern United States reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1981-04-01

    Plankton size classes of < 3 ..mu..m consisting largely of unicellular cyanobacteria accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary production and generally represented < 5% of the total phototrophic plankton biovolume in three South Carolina reservoirs.

  10. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

    1998-12-15

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

  11. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  12. Peltier cooling of fermionic quantum gases.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Ch; Georges, A; Kollath, C

    2014-11-14

    We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.

  13. Peltier Cooling of Fermionic Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Ch.; Georges, A.; Kollath, C.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.

  14. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  15. Carolina Counselor 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary M., Comp.; Rotter, Joseph C., Comp.

    This publication contains eight research papers presented and discussed at the April 1977 second annual Carolina Counselors' Spring Symposium. They cover a wide range of topics: (1) self-concept as it relates to adjustment in the blind; (2) open-space school and its guidance strategies; (3) death education and counseling; (4) the locus of control…

  16. South Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with South Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the…

  17. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  18. Thermodynamic limits of dynamic cooling.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Janzing, Dominik; Mahler, Guenter

    2011-10-01

    We study dynamic cooling, where an externally driven two-level system is cooled via reservoir, a quantum system with initial canonical equilibrium state. We obtain explicitly the minimal possible temperature T(min)>0 reachable for the two-level system. The minimization goes over all unitary dynamic processes operating on the system and reservoir and over the reservoir energy spectrum. The minimal work needed to reach T(min) grows as 1/T(min). This work cost can be significantly reduced, though, if one is satisfied by temperatures slightly above T(min). Our results on T(min)>0 prove unattainability of the absolute zero temperature without ambiguities that surround its derivation from the entropic version of the third law. We also study cooling via a reservoir consisting of N≫1 identical spins. Here we show that T(min)∝1/N and find the maximal cooling compatible with the minimal work determined by the free energy. Finally we discuss cooling by reservoir with an initially microcanonic state and show that although a purely microcanonic state can yield the zero temperature, the unattainability is recovered when taking into account imperfections in preparing the microcanonic state.

  19. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  3. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  4. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  5. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  6. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    SciTech Connect

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  7. Thermoelectric Devices Cool, Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc., based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, licensed thermoelectric technology from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This has allowed the company to develop cutting edge, thin-film thermoelectric coolers that effective remove heat generated by increasingly powerful and tightly packed microchip components. These solid-state coolers are ideal solutions for applications like microprocessors, laser diodes, LEDs, and even potentially for cooling the human body. Nextreme s NASA technology has also enabled the invention of thermoelectric generators capable of powering technologies like medical implants and wireless sensor networks.

  8. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  9. 75 FR 61959 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... preference customers in Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The rate schedules... hereinafter called the Customer) in North Carolina and South Carolina to whom power may be transmitted and... hereinafter called the Customer) in North Carolina and South Carolina to whom power may be...

  10. Cool & Connected

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cool & Connected planning assistance program helps communities develop strategies and an action plan for using broadband to promote environmentally and economically sustainable community development.

  11. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  12. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  13. Toxicology of selenium in a freshwater reservoir: implications for environmental hazard evaluation and safety.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A D

    1985-12-01

    A study was conducted to document patterns of accumulation and toxicity of selenium to organisms in a power plant cooling reservoir in North Carolina. Selenium entered the reservoir by way of effluent from the coal ash disposal basin, which contained 100-200 micrograms Se/liter. Concentrations of selenium in the lake water averaged 10 micrograms/liter, but were accumulated from 519 times (periphyton) to 3975 times (visceral tissue, largemouth bass) in the biota. The pattern and degree of accumulation was essentially complete within 2 years after the initial operation of the power plant, and persisted throughout the remainder of the study: fishes greater than insects greater than annelids greater than molluscs greater than crustaceans greater than plankton greater than periphyton. The plantonic and detrital food pathways exposed fishes to potential dietary concentrations of selenium that were some 770 and 519-1395 times the waterborne exposure, respectively. Of the 20 species of fish originally present in the reservoir, 16 were entirely eliminated, 2 were rendered sterile but persisted as adults, 1 was eliminated but managed to recolonize from a relatively uncontaminated headwater area as sterile adults, and 1 was unaffected. Two nonnative fish species were accidentally introduced and established reproducing populations. Abundance and diversity of biota other than fishes was not affected. Relative to control habitats, the contaminated reservoir had concentrations of waterborne selenium that were 20-30 times background levels; the flora and fauna contained about 10-15 times background. The results show that selenium can accumulate and be biologically magnified to toxic levels in a reservoir even though waterborne concentrations are in the low microgram per liter range. This study also provides data which indicate that current toxicological information is neither accurate when used to predict the relative sensitivity of individual fish species to selenium, nor is it

  14. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  15. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    PubMed

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column

  16. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  17. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Career Education Curriculum Materials: (Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The guide, which represents part of the product of the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational/Technical Education, presents descriptive and bibliographic information about career education curriculum materials submitted by representatives of Georgia, Mississippi, and North and South Carolina to the Research and Curriculum Unit…

  19. Electron Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Timothy J. P.

    1991-08-01

    Electron cooling is a method of reducing the 6 -dimensional phase space volume of a stored ion beam. The technique was invented by Budker and first developed by him and his colleagues at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk. Further studies of electron cooling were subsequently performed at CERN and Fermilab. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) an electron cooling system was designed, built, and commissioned in 1988. This was the highest energy system built to date (270 keV for cooling 500 MeV protons) and the first such system to be used as an instrument for performing nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This dissertation summarizes the design principles; measurements of the longitudinal drag rate (cooling force), equilibrium cooled beam properties and effective longitudinal electron beam temperature. These measurements are compared with theory and with the measured performance of other cooling systems. In addition the feasibility of extending this technology to energies an order of magnitude higher are discussed.

  20. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  1. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  2. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  3. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  4. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  5. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  6. Occupational injury in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dawn N; Higgins, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    In 2008,161 North Carolina workers died from work-related injuries, 3,324 were hospitalized, and 119,000 reported work-related injuries. Workers' compensation costs in the state exceeded $1.3 billion in 2007. Concerted efforts by the private and public sectors will be needed to reach goals to reduce the incidence of occupational injuries.

  7. Improvement in Ge Detector Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    lifetime and integrity, improve performance, and resolve the need to procure and handle liquid nitrogen (LN2). Both cryocoolers offer advantages over...place, the 22-liter reservoir of LN2 provides up to 7 days of cooling to the detector with no risk of a partial thermal cycle or warm -up. The detector... warmed for repairs. Moreover, the interchangeability of dipsticks and Cryo-Cycle™ coolers allows independent replacement of either of the two most

  8. Liquid cooled brassiere and method of diagnosing malignant tumors therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.; Williams, B. A.; Tickner, E. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device for enhancing the detection of malignant tissue in the breasts of a woman was described. A brassiere-like garment which is fitted with a pair of liquid-perfused cooling panels which completely and compliantly cover the breasts and upper torso was studied. The garment is connected by plastic tubing to a liquid cooling system comprising a fluid pump, a solenoid control valve for controlling the flow of fluid to either the cooling unit or the heating unit, a fluid reservoir, a temperature sensor in the reservoir, and a restrictor valve to control the pressure in the garment inlet cooling line.

  9. South Carolina Course Alignment Project Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Education and Economic Development Act of 2005 (EEDA), South Carolina has embarked on an exciting initiative called the South Carolina Course Alignment Project. In partnership with the South Carolina Department of Education and the South Carolina Technical College System, the project is led by the South Carolina Commission on…

  10. Evaluation of In-Reservoir Cofferdam on Richard B. Russell Reservoir and Hydropower Releases. Hybrid Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    9 Meteorology . . . ............... . . . .. 9 Lake Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . .* .0 . . 9 Inflow Quantity and Temperature...1,026,200 acre-ft and will extend up the Savannah River to the vicinity of the Hartwell Dam. Depth of the reservoir at maximum power pool will be 165.0 ft...alternatives ! 6 J . >. NORTH CAROLINA 4 *GRUIENVILLE 1HARTWELL DAM RICHARD S0 RUSSELL SITE *COLUMBIA *ATLANTA RICH ICLARKS HILL DAM AUGUSTA . GEORGIA

  11. Peat deposits of the Carolina Bays of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    Of the approximately 500 Carolina Bays larger than 100 acres (3,000 ft. long) in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 96 contained at least 1 ft of peat. The 96 bays have a total of 35,000 acres of peatland containing 15 millions tons of moisture-free peat. Of these 96 bays, 43 have peat greater than 4 ft thick totaling 8,000 acres with 8 million tons of peat. The largest single deposit of peat greater than 4 ft thick contains 1.1 million tons in a 1,000 acre area. Two main types of peat are present: (1) a black, fine-grained, highly decomposed peat, and (2) a brownish, decomposed somewhat fibrous peat usually found at the base of the thicker peats. An average peat has 84% moisture, 6% ash, 0.2% sulfur, and a heating value of 10,000 Btu/lb.

  12. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  13. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, Robert J; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2012-06-12

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  14. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, Robert J; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2012-06-26

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  15. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  16. Cooling vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, J.; Kane, J.; Coverdale, J.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensive vest of heat-sealable urethane material, when strapped to person's body, presents significant uncomplicated cooling system for environments where heavy accumulation of metabolic heat exists. Garment is applicable to occupations where physical exertion is required under heavy protective clothing.

  17. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  18. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1992. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, H.C.; Rinehardt, J.F.; Eddins, W.H.; Barker, R.G.

    1993-03-31

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for North Carolina consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and ground-water levels. The report contains discharge records for 163 gaging stations and stage and contents for 56 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 38 gaging stations and 3 miscellaneous sites; continuous daily tide stage for 16 sites; and water levels for 66 observation wells.

  19. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  20. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  1. Cooling technique

    DOEpatents

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  2. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Health and safety on North Carolina farms.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Many rural areas in North Carolina do not receive the professional health care they deserve. North Carolina Farm Bureau recognized this unfilled need and implemented its Healthy Living for a Lifetime program in 2010. This initiative is one way to help improve the health of the state's 52,000 family farmers.

  4. 40 CFR 81.426 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Carolina. 81.426 Section 81.426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.426 South Carolina. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  5. 40 CFR 81.422 - North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Carolina. 81.422 Section 81.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.422 North Carolina. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  6. Title V in South Carolina -- An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Nelson L.

    Since South Carolina's Title V Community and Resource Development (CRD) project is limited to one small rural county (Williamsburg) affording careful documentation, this paper explicates South Carolina's CRD process via a social action model. This project, then, is described in terms of the following model components: (1) community initiative…

  7. Meeting the Challenge in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwick, Joseph T.

    2004-01-01

    If the nation's economy over the past 10 years can be described as a roller coaster, North Carolina was riding in the first car. The 1990s offered the promise of North Carolina's moving to the forefront of the nation's prosperity, since it outranked most states on many positive indices and outranked other southern states on most of them. North…

  8. North Carolina's Rivers/Trails System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kay

    1980-01-01

    Two recreation and conservation programs in North Carolina are discussed and qualifications for inclusion in the state's trail or river systems are listed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  9. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  10. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1995. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.; George, E.D.; Breton, P.L.

    1996-06-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 81 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 125 wells.

  11. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1993. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, R.W.; Smith, D.G.; Ragland, B.C.

    1994-04-13

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 82 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 41 wells.

  12. Simulation of cooling-water discharges from power plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Buchak, E M; Edinger, J E; Kolluru, V S

    2001-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the temperature distribution in a cooling lake or reservoir is often required for feasibility studies of engineering options that increase the cooling capacity of the waterbody. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and temperature model has been developed and applied to several cooling lakes in the south-eastern United States. In this paper, the details of the modeling system are presented, along with the application to the Flint Creek Lake.

  13. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  14. Cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, L.

    1984-02-21

    A cooling device is claimed for coal dust comprising a housing, a motor-driven conveyor system therein to transport the coal dust over coolable trays in the housing and conveyor-wheel arms of spiral curvature for moving the coal dust from one or more inlets to one or more outlets via a series of communicating passages in the trays over which the conveyor-wheel arms pass under actuation of a hydraulic motor mounted above the housing and driving a vertical shaft, to which the conveyor-wheel arms are attached, extending centrally downwardly through the housing.

  15. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  16. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2003. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 213 gaging stations; stage for 61 gaging stations; and continuous precipitation at 118 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  17. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The Russell gold deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Cunningham, C.G.; Logan, M.A.V.; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gold deposits have been mined in the Carolina slate belt from the early 1800s to recent times, with most of the production from large mines in South Carolina. The Russell mine, one of the larger producers in North Carolina, is located in the central Uwharrie Mountains, and produced over 470 kg of gold. Ore grades averaged about 3.4 grams per tonne (g/ t), with higher-grade zones reported. The Russell deposit is interpreted to be a sediment-hosted, gold-rich, base-metal poor, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in which gold was remobilized, in part, during Ordovician metamorphism. The ore was deposited syngenetically with laminated siltstones of the late Proterozoic Tillery Formation that have been metamorphosed to a lower greenschist facies. The Tillery Formation regionally overlies subaerial to shallow marine rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Uwharrie Formation and underlies the marine volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cid Formation. Recent mapping has shown that a rhyolitic dome near the Russell mine was extruded during the deposition of the lower part of the Tillery Formation, at about the same time as ore deposition. Relict mafic, rock fragments present in the ore zones suggest contemporaneous bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) volcanism. The maximum formation age of the Russell deposit is younger than 558 Ma, which is similar to that of the larger, well known Brewer, Haile, and Ridgeway deposits of South Carolina. Gold was mined from at least six zones that are parallel to the regional metamorphic foliation. These strongly deformed zones consist of northeast-trending folds, high-angle reverse faults, and asymmetric doubly plunging folds overturned to the southeast. The dominant structure at the mine is an asymmetric doubly plunging anticline with the axis trending N 45?? E, probably related to late Ordovician (456 ?? 2 Ma) regional metamorphism and deformation. Two stages of pyrite growth are recognized. Stage 1, primary, spongy pyrite, is

  20. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  1. Pegmatite geology of the Shelby district, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1957-01-01

    The Shelby district is divided into a northwestern and a southeastern province. The rocks in the southeastern province include various units in the Battleground schist formation and the Yorkville granodiorite. Those in the northwestern province include the Carolina gneiss, with its Shelby gneiss member, and the Toluca quartz monzonite. The Cherryville quartz monzonite forms a batholith that is just west of the boundary between the two provinces. Pegmatites related to both the Toluca and the Cherryville quartz monzonites lie in the Carolina gneiss and many dikes of pegmatite that are related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite are in the tin-spodumene belt that lies along the boundary between provinces. The rocks of the southeastern province have been bent into steep isoclinal folds; those of the northwestern province were bent into open folds and gently-dipping isoclinal folds. The rocks to the southeast have been metamorphosed in the epidote-amphibolite facies whereas the rocks to the northwest represent the amphibolite or granulite facies. The pegmatites related to the Toluca quartz monzonite form sills, dikes, and concordant lenses in the Carolina gneiss, as well as dikes in the Toluca quartz monzonite. The bodies are unzoned and consist mainly of gneissic microcline-plagioclase-quartz pegmatite. The pegmatites related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite form dikes and disconformable lenses in the Carolina gneiss and the Toluca quartz monzonite. These pegmatites range widely in composition and many are zoned. The dikes west of the Cherryville batholith are rich in muscovite and plagioclase and may contain no microcline or only a moderate amount of microcline. Quartz cores and microcline-rich intermediate zones are common. Similar pegmatite forms dikes along the west edge of the tin-spodumene belt. The tin-spodumene belt containes albite-microcline-spodumene-quartz pegmatite. These dikes of albitic pegmatite are largest and most nearly parallel to one another

  2. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  3. SHINING ROCK WILDERNESS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1984-01-01

    The Shining Rock Wilderness, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Haywood County, North Carolina, is underlain by complexly folded mica gneiss and schist of Precambrian age. A mineral-resource survey determined that two commodities, quartz as a source of silica (SiO//2) and gneiss and schist suitable for common building stone and crushed rock, are present in large quantities. Demonstrated resources of silica occur at Shining Rock Mountain and small amounts of sheet muscovite (mica) and scrap mica are present at about 10 localities. Until deep drilling is done to test the results of the seismic studies, no estimate of the potential for gas can be made, but the presence of gas cannot be totally discounted.

  4. North Carolina Drug Education School Evaluation Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sewhan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework, measurement properties, predictive power, and reliability and validity of the Drug Education School Evaluation Instrument (DESEI), used to determine the effectiveness of the North Carolina Drug Education Schools. The DESEI is included. (BH)

  5. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheville Mountain AHEC (MAHEC) Library and Knowledge Services 121 Hendersonville Rd. Asheville, NC ...

  6. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  7. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  8. The North Carolina Clean Smokestacks Act.

    PubMed

    Ross, William G

    2011-01-01

    The story of North Carolina's Clean Smokestacks Act is a story about the link between the environment and health. It is a story about the good things that can happen when a state looks at health care policy through the lens of environmental health. For North Carolina, those good things are cleaner air and better health, for people and the environment, from Clingman's Dome to Jockey's Ridge.

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  10. Heat Extraction Project, geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the SGP Heat Extraction Project is to provide a means for estimating the thermal behavior of geothermal fluids produced from fractured hydrothermal resources. The methods are based on estimated thermal properties of the reservoir components, reservoir management planning of production and reinjection, and the mixing of reservoir fluids: geothermal, resource fluid cooled by drawdown and infiltrating groundwater, and reinjected recharge heated by sweep flow through the reservoir formation. Several reports and publications, listed in Appendix A, describe the development of the analytical methods which were part of five Engineer and PhD dissertations, and the results from many applications of the methods to achieve the project objectives. The Heat Extraction Project is to evaluate the thermal properties of fractured geothermal resource and forecasted effects of reinjection recharge into operating reservoirs.

  11. Interaction of cold-water aquifers with exploited reservoirs of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred; Lippmann, Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoirs tend to exhibit good hydraulic communication with adjacent cool groundwater aquifers. Under natural state conditions the hot fluids mix with the surrounding colder waters along the margins of the geothermal system, or discharge to shallow levels by flowing up fault L. In response to exploitation reservoir pressures decrease, leading to changes in the fluid flow pattern in the system and to groundwater influx. The various Cerro Prieto reservoirs have responded differently to production, showing localized near-well or generalized boiling, depending on their access to cool-water recharge. Significant cooling by dilution with groundwater has only been observed in wells located near the edges of the field. In general, entry of cool water at Cerro Prieto is beneficial because it tends to maintain reservoir pressures, restrict boiling, and lengthen the life and productivity of wells.

  12. 75 FR 43964 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of... Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission or FERC's) regulations, 18...

  13. The Ethnic History of South Carolina. American History, South Carolina History. Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide for eighth grade teachers was the product of a Title IX ethnic studies project. The guide was designed to supplement the regular South Carolina state history textbooks and place in a more positive frame of reference the ethnic contributions that specific ethnic groups have made to South Carolina history. Written by teachers, the guide…

  14. Strengthening the Rural Carolinas: A Conceptual Framework for the Program for the Rural Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    The Duke Endowment's Program for the Rural Carolinas is a 5-year effort to assist the revitalization of rural communities. Guiding principles of the program are that the rural Carolinas matter, this generation of workers matters, effective community development involves the entire community, solutions must be locally determined, healthy…

  15. 76 FR 28023 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Carolinas, LLC (Duke), licensee for the Catawba-Wateree Hydroelectric Project No. 2232, and... South Carolina Electric & Gas Company (SCE&G), licensee for the Saluda Hydroelectric Project No. 516... of NMFS and Duke, the Commission's non-federal representative for the Catawba-Wateree Project,...

  16. Who Do Students with Mild Disabilities Nominate as Cool in Inclusive General Education Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Acker, Richard V.; Pearl, Ruth; Thompson, Jana H.; Fedora, Pledger

    2006-01-01

    Examined the nominations that elementary students with mild disabilities made for peers they perceived as cool. The total sample was comprised of 948 students (496 girls, 452 boys) from the metropolitan Chicago area and North Carolina and included 107 (11.3%) students with mild disabilities. Overall, students with mild disabilities nominated…

  17. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  18. Hydrology of major estuaries and sounds of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giese, G.L.; Wilder, Hugh B.; Parker, Garald G.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrology-related problems associated with North Carolina 's major estuaries and sounds include contamination of some estuaries with municipal and industrial wastes and drainage from adjacent, intensively farmed areas, and nuisance-level algal blooms. In addition, there is excessive shoaling in some navigation channels, salt-water intrusion into usually fresh estuarine reaches, too high or too-low salinities in nursery areas for various estuarine species, and flood damage due to hurricanes. The Cape Fear River is the only major North Carolina estuary having a direct connection to the sea. Short-term flow throughout most of its length is dominated by ocean tides. Freshwater entering the major estuaries is, where not contaminated, of acceptable quality for drinking with minimum treatment. However, iron concentrations in excess of 0.3 milligrams per liter sometimes occur and water draining from swampy areas along the Coastal Plain is often highly colored, but these problems may be remedied with proper treatment. Nuisance-level algal blooms have been a recurring problem on the lower estuarine reaches of the Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Chowan Rivers where nutrients (compounds of phosphorous and nitrogen) are abundant. The most destructive blooms tend to occur in the summer months during periods of low freshwater discharge and relatively high water temperatures. Saltwater intrusion occurs from time to time in all major estuaries except the Roanoke River, where releases from Roanoke Rapids Lake and other reservoirs during otherwise low-flow periods effectively block saline water from the estuary. New shoaling materials found in the lower channelized reaches of the Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers are primarily derived, not from upstream sources, but from nearby shore erosion, from slumping of material adjacent to the dredged channels, from old spoil areas, or from ocean-derived sediments carried upstream by near-bottom density currents.

  19. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  20. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, P.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Introductions of black basses Micropterus spp. beyond their native ranges have led to hybridization within the genus. In the southeastern USA, the potential for hybridization appears high because species introductions have been common in reservoirs. We determined the extent of hybridization between smallmouth bass M. dolomieu and spotted bass M. punctulatus in reservoirs in which introductions of either species into the native range of the other species had occurred. Three allozyme loci were used to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. Significant hybridization occurred in two of three reservoirs where introductions had been reported. In Lake Chatuge, Georgia-North Carolina, where the Alabama subspecies of spotted bass M.p. henshalli was introduced, 77 of 276 fish had hybrid genotypes, and only 2 fish had genotypes of the native smallmouth bass. In Thurlow Reservoir, Alabama, where smallmouth bass were introduced and Alabama spotted bass were native, 3 of 17 fish had hybrid genotypes. Only I fish with a possible hybrid genotype was identified in two reservoirs containing native smallmouth bass and northern spotted bass M.p. punctulatus.

  1. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  3. 78 FR 44186 - North Carolina Disaster # NC-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Orange Contiguous Counties: North Carolina:...

  4. The Consequences of the University of North Carolina's Consent Decree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentler, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses components of the University of North Carolina's consent decree, and holds that the "remedies" proposed therein actually will prevent the achievement of equal educational opportunity in North Carolina. (GC)

  5. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  6. The Effects of Character Education in South Carolina's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the use of Character Education in South Carolina's public high schools. Every high school in South Carolina is given a yearly survey from the South Carolina Department of Education that deals with both character education and violence in the school. This quantitative study used public accessed data,…

  7. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; encourage cooperation among libraries of all types;…

  8. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: (1) Provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; (2) Provide statewide programs to support local library services; (3) Serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; (4) Encourage cooperation among libraries…

  9. Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina: an obesity prevention movement.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David

    2014-01-01

    Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina was established in response to the state's rapidly worsening obesity epidemic. Since its inception in 2002, the Eat Smart, Move More North Carolina movement has grown to include more than 90 member organizations and has developed and disseminated North Carolina's plan to address obesity for 2007-2012 and 2013-2020.

  10. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  11. Leith Creek, Scotland County, North Carolina, Detailed Project Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    Service Raleigh, \\. C. 27(11 310 New Bern Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 Mr. Dan Blue Water Resources Planning Department of Transportation Department...rxecutive Coordinator Conservation Council of North Carolina Suite 410, Professional BuildirZ Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 Dear Mr. Diehl:S In

  12. The Nature Conservancy--Saving North Carolina's Natural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annand, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the North Carolina branch of The Nature Conservancy and its efforts to preserve natural areas Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina Damping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  13. North Carolina Mathematics Standard Course of Study. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    North Carolina has had a Standard Course of Study since 1988. The most recent revisions of the state mathematics curriculum occurred in 1989 (K-8) and 1992 (9-12). The intent of the North Carolina Mathematics Standard Course Study is to establish competency goals and objectives for the teaching and learning of mathematics in North Carolina. The…

  14. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This information sampler was compiled to assist students in their study of North Carolina. Every year North Carolina students must complete a special project on their state. The sampler was designed to introduce students to the people, places, and events that have shaped North Carolina's history. Topics in the sampler include state symbols,…

  15. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This student sampler has been compiled to assist North Carolina students (4th and 8th grade) in their study of North Carolina. It is designed to introduce them to the people, places and events that have shaped North Carolina history. Topics include state symbols, descriptions of the state flag, and seal, the lyrics to the state song, and the…

  16. Canadian-trained nurses in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pink, George H; Hall, Linda McGillis; Leatt, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about nurses who leave Canada to work in the US. The main purpose of this study is to gain some insight into the emigration component of nursing supply and demand by comparing characteristics of nurses who left Canada to nurses who stayed. Specifically, Canadian-trained RNs who work in the state of North Carolina are compared to RNs who work in Canada. Results show that there are 40% more Canadian-trained RNs in North Carolina than there are in Prince Edward Island. A higher percentage of Canadian-trained RNs in North Carolina are male, under 40 years of age, have baccalaureate training and graduated less than 10 years ago. Canadian-trained nurses in both countries have very low rates of unemployment. The loss of Canadian-trained RNs to the US is a significant problem, and there is an urgent need to obtain a better understanding of why nurses leave the country.

  17. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina: The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multi-disciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. The main objective was to understand the geologic and oceanographic processes that control sediment movement along the region's shoreline and thereby improve projections of coastal change. The study used high-resolution remote sensing and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework and assess historic shoreline change. Based on these findings, oceanographic-process studies and numerical modeling were carried out to determine the rates and directions of sediment transport along South Carolina's Grand Strand.

  18. Rockyhock and Kimbel Carolina Bays: Extraterrestrial Impact or Terrestrial Genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Branch, B. D.; Barnes, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence for the harsh climate prevalent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are seen in topographical features visible south of the ice sheet margin in the uplands and coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Among the features attributed to ice age climate are numerous elliptical, shallow depressions called collectively Carolina Bays, hypothesized to have been formed by “blow outs” of loose sediment by the strong, sustained winds and arid, cold climate characteristic of glacial epochs (Raisz, 1934, Johnson, 1942 and Kaczorowski, 1977). This view eclipsed the 1933 proposition by Melton and Schriever, and expanded by Prouty (1934, 1953), that extraterrestrial debris produced by an aerial meteorite or comet explosion in the vicinity of the Great Lakes during the late Pleistocene formed the bays. 12,900 years ago, post-LGM warming was interrupted by a return to a glacial climate that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the cooling, known as the Younger Dryas (YD), are the subject of debate. Recently Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed that an impact in the Laurentide ice sheet by a fragmented comet might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis of core samples taken from Rockyhock Bay, in Chowan County, NC, by Whitehead (1980) indicate a pre-YD genesis. However, a number of the bays have been found to contain materiel associated with extraterrestrial impacts including carbon and magnetic spherules, glass-like carbon, charcoal and nanodiamonds (Firestone, et. al. 2007). The discoveries reinvigorated the debate over the bay’s origins. Were the bays created by an impact or were they merely receptacles for impact materiel injected into the environment. If created before the YD, the bays would have experienced episodic post-formation modification due to cold, dry, windy periods alternating with warm, moist and calmer climatic conditions. Carolina Bays would thus

  19. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  20. Pleistocene plants from North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Edward Wilber

    1926-01-01

    The field work upon which this report is based was done in 1906 and 1907 as a part of the cooperative study of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, under the direction of the late William Bullock Clark. Associated with the writer in this work were L. W. Stephenson, B. L. Miller, Jr., and J. E. Pogue. Preliminary accounts of the plants collected were published in 1907 and 1909. As has been frequently emphasized, the study of the Pleistocene floras in this country is in an exceedingly backward state as measured by the volume and precision of our knowledge of Pleistocene floras in Europe. Researches in Pleistocene geology in North America have been confined almost entirely to glaciology, and the problem of the correlation of the glacial deposits with those outside the glaciated area has not been solved, nor is there any general agreement regarding the genesis of the Pleistocene deposits south of the terminal moraines. The present account of what is known of the Pleistocene flora of North Carolina and the conclusions that may be legitimately derived from it is offered in the hope that it may stimulate an interest in a neglected field of research and form a small part of the evidence upon which to base future more comprehensive conclusions and generalizations. A word of explanation regarding the illustrations is required. Nearly all of them have been made from leaves preserved as carbonaceous films in the peaty clays. These specimens were carefully washed out, and blue prints were made directly from them. Outlines and as much of the venation as could be seen were inked on the blue prints, which were then bleached. This procedure made it possible to handle a much larger amount of material and prevented any possible damage to the exceedingly fragile specimens, which were mounted on cards or between glass. The accompanying drawings were made from tracings of the original nature prints.

  1. PREFACE: Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avignone, Frank; Creswick, Richard; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Purohit, Milind

    2009-07-01

    The Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics, 2008 (CISNP'08) was organized and held at the University of South Carolina by the Department of Physics in May 2008, to celebrate the 75th birthdays of Professors Frank Avignone (South Carolina) and Ettore Fiorini (Milan) and to commemorate the 75th birthday of the late Peter Rosen (DOE). Although much of the work done by these luminaries has been in non-accelerator areas such as double beta-decay, the meeting covered many topics in neutrino physics as well, including neutrino oscillations, supernova explosions, neutrino nucleosynthesis, axions, dark matter, dark energy, and cosmology. Talks included presentations of recent theoretical progress, experimental results, detector technology advances and a few reminiscences. This is the second such symposium held at Carolina, the first was held in 2000. We were fortunate to have attracted many top speakers who gave scintillating presentations, most of which have been put in writing and are presented in this volume. Many thanks go to various people involved in this conference, including of course Drs Avignone, Fiorini and Rosen whose efforts over the years provided us with the opportunity, and all the speakers, many of whom took time out of their very busy schedules to come to Columbia and give talks and then to write them up. Thanks also to our Department Chairman, Professor Chaden Djalali, and to our support staff which included Mr Robert Sproul, Ms Mary Papp, Ms Beth Powell and Mr R Simmons. Finally, we must thank our funding agencies which are the South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, The Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the University of South Carolina. The Editorial Team: Frank Avignone (USC) Richard Creswick (USC) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) Milind Purohit (USC, Chief Editor) CISNP Scientific Advisory Committee: Wick Haxton (Seattle) Barry Holstein (Amherst) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) CISNP Organizing Committee: Richard Creswick (USC) Chaden Djalali (USC

  2. ADVANCING REACTIVE TRACER METHODS FOR MONITORING THERMAL DRAWDOWN IN GEOTHERMAL ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; George D. Redden; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-10-01

    Reactive tracers have long been considered a possible means of measuring thermal drawdown in a geothermal system, before significant cooling occurs at the extraction well. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the proposed method to evaluate reservoir cooling and demonstrate that while the sensitivity of the method as generally proposed is low, it may be practical under certain conditions.

  3. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2002. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 211 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 20 gaging stations; water quality for 52 gaging stations and 7 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 30 sites; and continuous precipitation at 109 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. Additional water data were collected at 85 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  4. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2004. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 217 gaging stations; stage and contents for 58 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 22 gaging stations; elevations for 9 stations; water quality for 39 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 35 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 161 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 38 wells, continuous water quality for 7 sites and continuous precipitation at 7 sites. Additional water data were collected at 51 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  5. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2005. Volume 1: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.A.; Robinson, J.B.; Barker, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 215 gaging stations; stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 25 gaging stations; elevations for 10 stations; water quality for 35 gaging stations and continuous water quality for 19 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 180 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 36 wells, continuous water quality for 3 sites and continuous precipitation at 4 sites. Additional water data were collected at 53 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  6. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2001. Volume 1B: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, B.C.; Barker, R.G.; Robinson, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water-quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground water levels and water-quality of ground-water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 209 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 52 gaging stations; water quality for 101 gaging stations and 91 miscellaneous sites; continuous daily tide stage at 4 sites; and continuous precipitation at 98 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 136 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 68 wells. Additional water data were collected at 84 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  7. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  8. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  9. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  10. Thermoelastic properties of the Rotokawa Andesite: A geothermal reservoir constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siratovich, P. A.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Cole, J. W.; Kennedy, B. M.; Villeneuve, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the thermal properties of geothermal reservoir rocks is essential to constraining important engineering concerns such as wellbore stability, reservoir forecasting and stimulation procedures. The thermo-mechanical evolution of geological material is also important to assess when considering natural processes such as magmatic dyke propagation, contact metamorphism and magma/lava emplacement and cooling effects. To better constrain these properties in the geothermal reservoir, thermal measurements were carried out on core samples from production wells drilled in the Rotokawa Andesite geothermal reservoir, located in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Linear thermal expansion testing, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry were used, employing experimental heating rates of 2, 5 and 20 °C/min. Thermal property analyses can elucidate whether thermal expansion values measured under varied heating (and cooling) rates are rate dependent and if thermo-chemical reactions influence the resultant expansivity. Measured thermal expansion coefficients of the Rotokawa Andesite are shown not to be heating rate dependent. We have also found that significant thermochemical reactions occur during heating above 500 °C resulting in non-reversible changes to the thermomechanical properties. The combined thermogravimetric, calorimetric and thermomechanical analysis allows insight to the reactions occurring and how the thermomechanical properties are affected at high temperature. We incorporated results of tensile strength testing on the Rotokawa Andesite to apply our thermal property measurements to a one-dimensional thermal stress model. The developed model provides a failure criterion for the Rotokawa Andesite under thermal stress. The importance of this study is to further understand the critical heating and cooling rates at which thermal stress may cause cracking within the Rotokawa reservoir. Thermal cracking in the reservoir can be

  11. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  12. Geysers reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Pruess, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting several research projects related to issues of interest to The Geysers operators, including those that deal with understanding the nature of vapor-dominated systems, measuring or inferring reservoir processes and parameters, and studying the effects of liquid injection. All of these topics are directly or indirectly relevant to the development of reservoir strategies aimed at stabilizing or increasing production rates of non-corrosive steam, low in non-condensable gases. Three reservoir engineering studies are described in some detail, that is: (a) Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs; (b) Numerical modeling studies of Geysers injection experiments; and (c) Development of a dual-porosity model to calculate mass flow between rock matrix blocks and neighboring fractures.

  13. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are maintained in unknown reservoir species; spillover into human populations results in occasional human cases or epidemics. We attempted to narrow the list of possibilities regarding the identity of those reservoir species. We made a series of explicit assumptions about the reservoir: it is a mammal; it supports persistent, largely asymptomatic filovirus infections; its range subsumes that of its associated filovirus; it has coevolved with the virus; it is of small body size; and it is not a species that is commensal with humans. Under these assumptions, we developed priority lists of mammal clades that coincide distributionally with filovirus outbreak distributions and compared these lists with those mammal taxa that have been tested for filovirus infection in previous epidemiologic studies. Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. PMID:15663841

  14. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  15. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  16. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    compound growth rate of 0.94% as compared to a predicted compound growth rate of 0.875% for North Carolina and 0.69% for South Carolina. Projected Series E...utilization rates , food habits, age and growth , and relative abundance of selected streams and rivers. Their findings indicate the potential damage...by the nearly level topography, moderate soil infiltration rates , and seasonal high water tables. All major tributaries are broad, heavily timbered

  17. Reservoir-Engineered Entanglement in Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2013-06-01

    We show how strong steady-state entanglement can be achieved in a three-mode optomechanical system (or other parametrically coupled bosonic system) by effectively laser cooling a delocalized Bogoliubov mode. This approach allows one to surpass the bound on the maximum stationary intracavity entanglement possible with a coherent two-mode squeezing interaction. In particular, we find that optimizing the relative ratio of optomechanical couplings, rather than simply increasing their magnitudes, is essential for achieving strong entanglement. Unlike typical dissipative entanglement schemes, our results cannot be described by treating the effects of the entangling reservoir via a Linblad master equation.

  18. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  19. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  20. The drought of 1998-2002 in North Carolina - precipitation and hydrologic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis

    2005-01-01

    Drought conditions prevailed across much of North Carolina during 1998-2002, resulting in widespread record-low streamflow and ground-water levels in many areas. During this 4-year period, the drought was continuous in areas of western North Carolina, although eastern areas of the State had some periods of relief from tropical storms in 1998 and 1999. The occurrence of dry winters in 2001 and 2002 along with a dry spring in 2002, exacerbated drought conditions across the State and resulted in substantial declines in streamflow and ground-water levels during the summer of 2002. The drought caused widespread hardship and economic losses across North Carolina. During the latter months of 2002, more than 200 municipalities that included most major cities operated under some form of voluntary, mandatory, or emergency water conservation. Reservoirs across North Carolina were at record or near record-low levels, including some of the largest ones used for multiple purposes (flood control, low-flow augmentation, and(or) recreation), and required continuous and careful operation to balance the upstream and downstream needs of users. Precipitation deficits during the 1998-2002 drought for some locations in North Carolina were among the largest documented since the beginning of systematic collection of weather data. The largest deficits occurred primarily in the western Piedmont and were as much as 60 to 70 inches in some locations during the 4-year period. Cumulative monthly precipitation departures for the period May 1998 through September 2002 at 13 selected precipitation sites across the State ranged from 5.3 inches below normal in Greenville (eastern North Carolina) to 66.7 inches below normal in Hickory (western North Carolina). During the 12-month period October 2002 through September 2003, precipitation departures at 7 of the 13 sites were more than 20 inches above normal, primarily in the western Piedmont. Precipitation data for the period of record were examined for

  1. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  2. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C.

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of "The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "'Bridges of Understanding': UNESCO's Creation of a Fantasy for the American Public" (Michael H. Eaves and Charles F. Beadle, Jr.); "Developing a Communication Cooperative: A Student, Faculty, and Organizational Learning…

  3. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, John T., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This 1995 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Contrast and Complement in Presidential Campaign Communication: Adjusting the Vice Presidential Role in the Clinton-Gore Campaign" (Rob L. Wiley); "Film Critic as Rhetor: Crafting a Fitting Response to Racial Images in 'Places…

  4. Connecting with Rice: Carolina Lowcountry and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Collins, Larianne; Wise, Susan S.; Caughman, Monti

    2012-01-01

    Though lasting less than 200 years, large-scale rice production in South Carolina and Georgia "probably represented the most significant utilization of the tidewater zone for crop agriculture ever attained in the United States." Rice is a specialty crop where successful cultivation relied heavily upon "adaptation" to nature via…

  5. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Spanish Intensive Courses: The South Carolina Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David P.

    The Spanish Intensive Courses sequence at the University of South Carolina, first offered in fall 1982, has become well received and highly visible in the university. The sequence has grown to three courses in fall 1983, all exceeding minimum enrollment requirements despite selective admission criteria. The success of the sequence has inspired the…

  7. AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA COASTAL FRONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of coastal frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement sites near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...

  8. South Carolina Guide for Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.; Martin, B. T.

    This document contains teacher's materials for industrial technology education courses in four instructional clusters (communication technology; construction technology; manufacturing technology; and energy, power, and transportation technology) taught in grades 7-10 in South Carolina. Introductory materials state the mission and goals of…

  9. North Carolina Library Association 1997 Biennial Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Libraries, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides summaries of the presentations at the North Carolina Library Association's Biennial Conference, "Choose Quality, Choose Libraries," (Raleigh, NC, October 8-10, 1997). Some of the topics covered include library instruction, Internet access to public documents, outsourcing technical services, copyrights and the Internet, the…

  10. The Conservation of North Carolina's Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    This is a course designed specifically for use in eastern North Carolina or a similar geographic region but this does not preclude the use of its concepts and basic structure for other geographic regions. Plans and activities are student-centered and many are problem-solving oriented and, therefore, may be modified without disrupting the…

  11. North Carolina Arts Council: Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Arts Council, Raleigh.

    The mission of the North Carolina Arts Council is to enrich cultural life and to nurture and support excellence in the arts. The professional staff provides services to artists, art organizations, and supporters of the arts. The council offers grant assistance for specific activities by funding programs designed to support particular groups of…

  12. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for trade and industrial education teachers are administered semiannually by the Office of Vocational Education. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational administrators, State Department of Education personnel, and other interested parties with…

  13. Certification Manual. North Carolina Professional School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This manual explains the policies and procedures which guide the process of certification of teachers, special service personnel, and administrators in North Carolina. Key terminology is defined, regulations are clarified, exceptions to rules are noted as applicable, program areas are described, and appropriate forms for use in the application…

  14. North Carolina Child Health Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaglione, Tom; Weisner, Kristie

    This seventh annual report card is produced to heighten awareness of the health of the children of North Carolina by summarizing important child health indicators. The report is intended to assist health administrators, legislators, and family advocates in their efforts to improve the health and safety of children statewide. Data are presented for…

  15. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  16. Tanning facility regulations - the South Carolina experience

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the regulation of the tanning industry in South Carolina. Statistics on facility types, registration, inspections, and violations are provided and discussed. Violations include non-equipment violations, equipment violations, and vendor violations. Complaints filed against facilities and problems in the regulatory process are also described. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. [A Profile of Williamsburg County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Williamsburg County, South Carolina, is an almost entirely rural area near the coast. Although nearly 50% of the population is under 21, there has been a sharp decline in population since its high in 1950. The outmigration, prounounced for black youth, is caused by a lack of industrial opportunities, although there is slow, steady industrial…

  18. North Carolina: A Leader in Industrial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Door, 1970

    1970-01-01

    New companies and those opening additional operations in North Carolina have worked closely with the state's Industrial Services Division, Department of Community Colleges, in order to assure an adequate supply of trained manpower. Manpower training courses are cooperatively developed and carried out through the state's 54 technical institutes and…

  19. North Carolina Marine Education Manual: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are appendices to a series of four manuals of marine education activiLies produced by North Carolina teachers and college faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Information on relevant films, periodicals, federal and state resources, games, and marine careers is provided. Also included are directions for…

  20. Licensed Optometrists in South Carolina 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of South Carolina. The surveys was conducted in 1972 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 96…

  1. North Carolina Child Health Report Card, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Child Advocacy Inst., Raleigh.

    This sixth annual report card is produced to heighten awareness of the health of the children of North Carolina by summarizing important child health indicators. The report is intended to assist health administrators, legislators, and family advocates in their efforts to improve the health and safety of children statewide. Data are presented for…

  2. RCP Local School Projects in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports of projects and programs operating in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document highlights major curriculum-change programs in South Carolina which were initiated in 1966. The 4 projects reported are "Curriculum Study in Berkeley County," which had as its purpose the identification and…

  3. RCP Local School Projects in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports prepared in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document discusses 4 major educational programs conducted in North Carolina since 1965. "The Story of Merger and Educational Change in Moore County" is a report relating to school redistricting; "The Mathematics Project in Greensboro"…

  4. School Choice and the North Carolina Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, David

    2006-01-01

    There continues to be a significant debate as to the most effective means of providing North Carolina's children with the best possible education. The one point upon which a great majority agree is that, despite substantial increases in funding, public education is not meeting the needs of a large proportion of the state's students. This paper…

  5. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  6. North Carolina Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in foods and nutrition for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline, including…

  7. The South Carolina Framework for Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Ray

    This document is a South Carolina curriculum model that identifies four broad areas of study. These components, which should be present in all music education courses, are: (1) aesthetic perception and concept development; (2) creative expression and skills development; (3) music heritage, both historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic valuing,…

  8. South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

  9. North Carolina as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An unusually clear, northwestward view of central North Carolina show the farms and timber of the inner coastal plain. The city of Fayettville, and Fort Bragg to the west, is prominent at lower left center. The Research Triangle of Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill can be seen at upper right, upstream from Jordan Lake and Harris Lake on the New Hope River.

  10. North Carolina Outdoor Education Association Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Journal of Outdoor Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Gives the Association's constitution which covers membership, executive board, elections, terms of office, duties of officers, committees, parliamentary authority, amendments, and quorum. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. South Carolina Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on South Carolina state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. North Carolina Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on North Carolina state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  13. Juvenile Justice and North Carolina Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Janet

    1984-01-01

    Discusses North Carolina's Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) laws that are relevant to colleges (especially public) and elementary and secondary schools generally, and then applies ABC laws to typical circumstances of alcohol use on campuses. Examines civil liability for use of alcohol on campuses. (MLF)

  14. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Rhetoric in the Second Sophistic, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods: Implications for Pedagogy" (Omar J. Swartz and Chris Bachelder); "Thou Art Damned: Cursing as a Rhetorical Strategy of the Accusers in the Salem Witch…

  15. Block Scheduling in North Carolina High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Innovation and Development Services.

    Since 1989, North Carolina has implemented several statewide initiatives to establish high expectations for all students. State educators have also paid increasing attention to the flexible use of time as a resource for expanding student learning. Block scheduling is a reorganization of school time that is increasingly being adopted by North…

  16. A Profile of Ashe County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, James O., Jr.; And Others

    From 1950 to 1970, the shift from agriculture to industry dominated Ashe County, North Carolina, isolated on the Blue Ridge by rugged terrain and severe weather. Rural farm population declined by 2/3 but rural non-farm population tripled. Many new industries helped shift the bulk of the work force to industry. In 1950, 45% of the work force farmed…

  17. North Carolina Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in clothing and textiles for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline,…

  18. Water resource data for North Carolina, water year 1993. Volume 1. Surface-water records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.G.; George, E.D.; Rinehardt, J.F.; Eddins, W.H.

    1994-03-25

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. The report contains discharge records for 159 gaging stations and stage and contents for 56 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 54 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites; and continuous daily tide stage for 10 sites. Additional water data were collected at 69 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements in the report.

  19. Turbopump thermodynamic cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, T. C.; Mckee, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    System for cooling turbopumps used in cryogenic fluid storage facilities is described. Technique uses thermodynamic propellant vent to intercept pump heat at desired conditions. Cooling system uses hydrogen from outside source or residual hydrogen from cryogenic storage tank.

  20. Cooling Water Intakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Industries use large volumes of water for cooling. The water intakes pull large numbers of fish and other organisms into the cooling systems. EPA issues regulations on intake structures in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  1. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  2. Metamaterial enhances natural cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-03-01

    A new metamaterial film that uses passive radiative cooling to dissipate heat from an object and provides cooling without a power input has been developed by a team at the University of Colorado Boulder in the US.

  3. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  4. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  5. Cooling of Stored Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.

    1986-06-10

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  6. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  7. Optoelectronic Reservoir Computing

    PubMed Central

    Paquot, Y.; Duport, F.; Smerieri, A.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Haelterman, M.; Massar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced, highly efficient bio-inspired approach for processing time dependent data. The basic scheme of reservoir computing consists of a non linear recurrent dynamical system coupled to a single input layer and a single output layer. Within these constraints many implementations are possible. Here we report an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing based on a recently proposed architecture consisting of a single non linear node and a delay line. Our implementation is sufficiently fast for real time information processing. We illustrate its performance on tasks of practical importance such as nonlinear channel equalization and speech recognition, and obtain results comparable to state of the art digital implementations. PMID:22371825

  8. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  9. Archaeological investigations in the Watauga Reservoir, Carter and Johnson Counties, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, C.C. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of a 41 m lake drawdown, archaeological investigations were conducted in the Watauga Reservoir in 1983-1984 to identify prehistoric archaeological sites, to test some of these sites to recover datable remains, and to document reservoir inundation and drawdown impacts on archaeological sites. Reservoir inundation and drawdown impacts were severe on many sites, with erosion, deflation and movement of artifacts noted on sites with slopes steeper than 5/sup 0/. One-hundred and twelve sites and six single artifact loci were exposed in the upper half of the reservoir, and 10 sites were tested. Three features, and their associated artifacts were radiocarbon dated. Diagnostic lithic and ceramic artifacts representing the Paleoindian (10,000 to 8000 B.C.) through Late Prehistoric/Protohistoric (A.D. 1500 to 1600) periods were recovered. Lithic tools were primarily produced from locally available quartzite and chalcedony lithic resources, and projectile point morphologies were generally comparable to previously defined types from East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia and Western North Carolina. Ceramic artifacts were primaily tempered with either quartz, grit, sand, limestone or soapstone aplastic inclusions, and were also generally comparable to previously defined types from the tri-state area. However, greater variability was noted in temper/surface treatment combinations for ceramic artifacts from the Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric periods. The results of the Watauga Project provide a basis for future research in the area, particularly on problems of prehistoric cultural interaction in the adjoining portions of North Carolina and Virginia.

  10. Optomechanical entanglement via reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingdan

    2014-03-01

    A mechanical resonator could serve as an ideal system for transferring quantum states and mediating interactions between very different kinds of photons. To this end, recent experiments have realized three-mode optomechanical systems, where a single mechanical resonator simultaneously interacts with both an optical and a microwave cavity. In this talk I will discuss different strategies which use reservoir engineering in such a system as a powerful tool to generate robust, stationary entanglement between the two cavity fields. By manipulating the mechanical resonator to effectively cool delocalized Bogoliubov modes, we find that large intracavity entanglement can be achieved, at a level which is well above the maximum achievable via a coherent two-mode interaction. We have also analyzed the entanglement of the output fields of the two cavities. While there are significant differences from the intra-cavity fields, we again find that with proper parameter choices, large amounts of entanglement can be achieved. While the emphasis is on optomechanics, our results can also be applied directly to other 3-mode bosonic systems (e.g., as could be realized with superconducting microwave circuits).

  11. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  12. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  13. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  14. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  15. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  16. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  17. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  18. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  19. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  20. 77 FR 14857 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ..., Federal Highway Administration, 310 New Bern Avenue, Suite 410, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27601-1418... South Wilmington Street, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27601. A final decision regarding section 404...

  1. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  2. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  3. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  4. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  5. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  6. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  7. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  8. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  9. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  10. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  11. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

    2004-10-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

  12. Comparative analysis of threshold rainfall-runoff response of small catchments in North Carolina's Piedmont region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. L.; Kuntukova, K.; Fu, C.; Dreps, C.; Sun, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent catchment hydrologic studies have focused on examination of a threshold rainfall-runoff response of hillslopes and small catchments. This threshold response, where runoff generated by a catchment shows a strong nonlinear change as a function of a combined metric of antecedent storage and storm size is of particular interest as it has been proposed as a common or shared behavior. In this study, we analyzed rainfall-runoff data and a series of antecedent storage metrics from five catchments (10-30 ha in size) in North Carolina's Piedmont region for evidence of threshold response. Although located within five miles of each other, the five catchments represent two groupings of catchments with strongly contrasting terrain characteristics, defined here by differences in soils, topography and drainage density. Despite these differences, results showed that each catchment exhibits a clear threshold rainfall-runoff response. Using these experimental results, we have begun to examine whether distributed hydrologic models can capture this shared behavior across sites. The threshold response quantified here and by similar studies offers an interesting summary of catchment response under changing combinations of storm size and antecedent moisture conditions, both variables possibly affected by climate change. In the case of the Triangle area of the Piedmont region of North Carolina, a region that is undergoing increasingly rapid urbanization, these catchments also represent landscape critical to the long term sustainable development of the Falls Lake reservoir, the drinking water source for over half a million people.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

    2007-08-01

    Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region.

  14. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  16. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Regtien, J.M.M. Por, G.J.A.; Stiphout, M.T. van; Vlugt, F.F. van der

    1995-12-31

    Shell`s new Modular Reservoir Simulator (MoReS) has been equipped with a comprehensive and versatile user interface called FrontEnd. Apart from providing a user-friendly environment for interactive reservoir simulation, FrontEnd serves a software platform for other dynamic simulation and reservoir-engineering applications. It offers to all supported applications a common user interface, enables the re-use of code and reduces overall maintenance and support costs associated with the embedded applications. Because of its features, FrontEnd facilitates the transfer of research results in the form of operational software to end users. When coupled with MoReS, FrontEnd can be used for pre- and post-processing and interactive simulation. The pre-processing options allow data to be inputted by means of various OSF/Motif widgets containing a spreadsheet, text editors, dialogues and graphical input. The display of the input data as well as the post-processing of all simulation results is made possible by a variety of user-defined plot of tabular (e.g. timestep summary) and array (simulation grid) data. During a simulation user-defined plots can be displayed and edited, allowing a close inspection of the results as they are being calculated. FrontEnd has been equipped with a powerful input command language, which gives the batch user as much flexibility and control over the input as the interactive user.

  17. Horizon nomenclature for quartzipsamments in the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills, South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quartzipsamments comprise about 189,600 hectare (9.5 percent) of the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills region (MLRA 137). Official Series Descriptions typically have A - C (Lakeland Series; Typic subgroup) or A - E - E and Bt (Alpin Series; Lamellic subgroup) horizon designation. Horizon colors, alon...

  18. Multiple deformation at the western edge of the Carolina slate belt, north-central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, J.P.; Shell, G.S.; Wilkins, J.K. ); Samson, S.; Wortman, G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    In north-central North Carolina, volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Carolina slate belt are separated from gneisses of the Milton belt to the west by a wide, ENE-trending, polygenetic structural zone. Within a portion of this zone, the Country Line Creek complex (CLCC) forms the western edge of the slate belt. Rocks of the CLCC span a wide age range and include mafic and granitoid gneisses with subordinate pelitic schist, granitoid pegmatite, and a concordant sheet-like intrusion, the Yanceyville metagranite. The complex is heterogeneously deformed and metamorphosed. Along the SE margin of the structural zone, steeply-dipping, strongly foliated biotite granitoid and mafic gneisses of the complex appear to be intruded by the Roxboro metagranite of the Carolina slate belt. To the NW, in more interior portions of the zone, the CLCC is affected by multiphase foliations and folds that record a dextral oblique normal shear event. Here, the Yanceyville metagranite is affected by a strong foliation that is folded. A preliminary new date on the Roxboro pluton of ca. 545 Ma, indicates a Late Precambrian or older timing of deformation along the SE margin of the zone. In contrast, a preliminary, ca. 340 Ma, age on the Yanceyville metagranite indicates multiple stage Late Paleozoic deformation for interior portions of the zone. Regional structural and isotopic data hint that the Precambrian deformation may record initial interactions between the Milton and Carolina slate belts. Subsequently, this contact was reactivated during Alleghanian orogenesis.

  19. Physical Fitness among North Carolina Youth: Report to the 1993 General Assembly of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Legislative Research Commission, Raleigh.

    This study, authorized by the General Assembly of North Carolina, investigated current indicators of the state of youth physical fitness and the availability and utilization of programs to improve fitness. The study gathered testimony from physical fitness experts, educators, administrators, and medical personnel. The study found that youth are in…

  20. Elastocaloric cooling: Stretch to actively cool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect can be exploited in solid-state cooling technologies as an alternative to conventional vapour compression. Now, an elastocaloric device based on the concept of active regeneration achieves a temperature lift of 15.3 K and efficiencies competitive with other caloric-based approaches.

  1. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 933.700 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.700... mining operations in North Carolina which have been adopted under the Surface Mining Control...

  2. North Carolina Libraries, Volume 44, Number 1, Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Richard, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The community college library is the focus of this issue of "North Carolina Libraries." Articles addressing this theme include: (1) "Learning Resources Concept Position Paper," by the North Carolina Community College Learning Resources Association; (2) "An Opportunity and a Challenge," by Mertys W. Bell, which offers…

  3. North Carolina tomorrow: building communities for tomorrow's jobs.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Joe; Huskins, Betty R

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Tomorrow initiative develops the North Carolina Strategy for Economic Development based on economic development planning best practices, which can serve as a blueprint for creating an economically sustainable economy. It is made possible through government agency and private sector collaboration. Thought leaders from all sectors, including health care, are involved at the regional level.

  4. North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, North Carolina, under the leadership of Governor Mike Easley and the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission, has worked to improve understanding of a critical factor in student learning and teacher retention: the conditions under which teachers work. In 2006, 66 percent (more than 75,000) school-based licensed…

  5. U. of North Carolina Chooses Slow and Steady Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    After watching the University of Phoenix become a national leader in online education, officials of the University of North Carolina system thought they could do it, too. Unlike Phoenix, which is a for-profit institution, the North Carolina system benefits from having a strong traditional reputation that comes with being a state university.…

  6. Writing Assessment in South Carolina: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Vana Hutto

    1984-01-01

    The history of direct writing assessment and scoring procedures in South Carolina are discussed. The South Carolina Basic Skills Assessment Program Writing Committee developed writing objectives for students. Holistic and analytic scoring procedures were used. Information on instructional improvement and student deficiencies was distributed to…

  7. SC State Profile. South Carolina: High School Assessment Program (HSAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about South Carolina's High School Assessment Program. The purpose of the test is to: (1) Demonstrate students' achievement based on selected South Carolina academic standards; (2) Provide data to state policymakers on student attainment of state education goals to inform educational policy decisions; and (3) Meet a…

  8. Standards Feedback Report. South Carolina Course Alignment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC), provides a final list of recommended college readiness reference standards to be used as part of the South Carolina Course Alignment Project (SCCAP). The purpose of these standards is to serve as a common reference point…

  9. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    This report summarizes the activities of the South Carolina State Library for 1999-2000. The current strategic plan contains five strategic goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South…

  10. State of the State: Educational Performance in North Carolina, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This is one of several reports used to monitor the public-school system in North Carolina. This report has three purposes: (1) to assist policymakers in gauging the status and progress of student achievement in the state; (2) to compare student achievement in North Carolina with student achievement nationwide; and (3) to inform the public of the…

  11. Business/Education Partnerships in South Carolina. Model Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Public Accountability.

    This document contains reports from school districts in South Carolina on the status of their successful partnerships between schools and businesses. They are examples of what is happening in South Carolina today and what could happen between other businesses and schools as new alliances are formed. These accounts describe new ideas for…

  12. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013....

  13. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Carolina laws and regulations provide, where applicable, for more stringent environmental control and... screening measures are either not feasible or not desirable. (2) North Carolina mining laws and regulations... mining law and regulations cited in paragraph (f) of this section apply to coal mining operations...

  14. 30 CFR 933.700 - North Carolina Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carolina laws and regulations provide, where applicable, for more stringent environmental control and... screening measures are either not feasible or not desirable. (2) North Carolina mining laws and regulations... mining law and regulations cited in paragraph (f) of this section apply to coal mining operations...

  15. 76 FR 10352 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on February 10, 2011, Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC filed to supplement its filing, in the above captioned...

  16. Aspirations, Expectations, and Attitudes of South Carolina High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Virlyn A.

    Forty-two representative South Carolina high schools were surveyed via similar, group administered questionnaires in 1966-67 (5,400 sophomore students) and again in 1969-69 (4,376 senior students) to determine: (1) the aspirations and expectations of South Carolina youth with regard to occupation, education, marriage and family size, future…

  17. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  18. Perceptions of Innovations: An Examination of South Carolina Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of South Carolina public school superintendents regarding individual and organizational attitudes toward innovation. Specific characteristics of South Carolina public school superintendents and public school districts, including enrollment, poverty level, school report card grades, age,…

  19. Community College Laws of North Carolina, 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This publication contains the laws governing the community college system of North Carolina (Chapter 115D of the General Statutes of North Carolina, and other relevant statutes in Chapters 115, 115B, and 116). Chapter 115D contains provisions applying to state administration, local administration, financial support, budgeting, accounting, and…

  20. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers…

  1. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit One: Coastal Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are teaching materials designed to supplement North Carolina's course of study plans in earth science for the intermediate grades and junior high schools. This manual is one of a collection produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Included are 27…

  2. Publishing Trends within State Government: The Situation in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristin E.

    2004-01-01

    The State Library of North Carolina is responsible for ensuring public access to North Carolina state government publications and maintaining a permanent state documents depository collections. Over the last 7 years, state agencies have increasingly disseminated information in digital formats via the Internet, posing challenges for the State…

  3. An Ethnic Studies Guide and Resources Mannual for the Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The manual contains ethnic studies units on the Indians of North Carolina and information for developing materials on other ethnic groups in North Carolina. Intended for intermediate grade students and teachers, the guide contains three major sections: background information, student manual, and information on ethnic groups other than American…

  4. Teacher Education USA: Western Carolina University Centennial in National Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Three events in U.S. teacher education are discussed: the founding of the first state supported normal school in Massachusetts in 1839, the founding of Western Carolina University in 1889 (Cullowee, North Carolina), and the announcement by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in 1989 of guidelines for national…

  5. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  6. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  7. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  8. Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  9. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  10. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  11. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  12. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  13. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2016-07-12

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  14. Bacterial community structure in cooling water and biofilm in an industrial recirculating cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Min; Xiao, Huijie; Wu, Wei; Xie, Meijuan; Sun, Mengjia; Zhu, Chenglin; Li, Pengfu

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fouling is a serious problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. The bacterial communities that cause it have not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the community structure of free-living bacteria and particle-attached bacteria in cooling water, and bacteria in biofilm collected from the wall of the water reservoir in an industrial recirculating cooling water system by construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, clones of all three libraries were clustered into 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thirteen OTUs displaying 91-96% sequence similarity to a type strain might be novel bacterial species. Noted differences in community structure were observed among the three libraries. The relative species richness of the free-living bacteria in cooling water was much lower than that of particle-attached bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. The majority of the free-living bacterial community (99.0%) was Betaproteobacteria. The predominant bacteria in the particle-attached bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (20.5%), Betaproteobacteria (27.8%) and Planctomycetes (42.0%), while those in the biofilm bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (47.9%), Betaproteobacteria (11.7%), Acidobacteria (13.1%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11.3%). To control microbial fouling in industrial recirculating cooling water systems, additional physiological and ecological studies of these species will be essential.

  15. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  16. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  17. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  18. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  19. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  20. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

  1. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  2. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1991: North Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikich, S.W.; Carpenter, P.A.; Wiener, L.S.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel minerals produced in North Carolina decreased 6.2% from that of 1990. The value dropped from $589.7 million in 1990 to $552.9 million in 1991, largely as a result of the recession that has impacted the Nation in recent years. Decreases in the sales of the State's leading mineral commodity, crushed stone, as well as clays, feldspar, gemstones, scrap mica, olivine, construction sand and gravel, and pyrophyllite, more than offset small to moderate increases in the sales of lithium minerals, peat, phosphate rock, and industrial sand and gravel. Tables and statistical data are included in the annual report.

  4. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are the owners of Brunswick... and an ISFSI located in Brunswick County, North Carolina. The facility operating licenses authorize CP... facility operating licenses for Brunswick, to the extent held by CP&L. The proposed indirect transfer...

  5. 75 FR 30451 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Combined License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Combined License Application; Notice of Intent To Conduct a Supplemental Scoping Process for the Supplement to...

  6. Higher Education in South Carolina: An Agenda for the Future. Report to the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    Higher education in South Carolina was evaluated, with attention to college missions, financial resources for colleges, and the role of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education. The development of higher education during the last 30 years and the state's role in organizing and managing the higher education enterprise are described. The…

  7. 75 FR 21368 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Acting for Itself and as an Agent for South Carolina Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Acting for Itself and as an Agent for South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper) Notice of Availability of the Draft...

  8. An Archeological Survey of Two Proposed Reservoir Areas, Rocky River Basin, North Carolina,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    difficult. For that reason the discussions that follow, especially the overviews of Chapters 1 and 2, may speak of the "study area," which refers to the...Piedmont presents a single ceramic tradition, one generally ascribed to the several Siouan- speaking groups occupying the region in historic times. In...areas, while the Scotch-Irish and Germans came largely from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. Generally speaking , the

  9. Leadership Characteristics and Practices in South Carolina Charter Schools. REL 2017-188

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudo, Zena H.; Partridge, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Charter school stakeholders in South Carolina, including officials at the South Carolina Department of Education, personnel at the Public Charter School Alliance of South Carolina, and leaders of South Carolina charter schools, expressed interest in understanding the leadership characteristics and practices of charter school leaders across the…

  10. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  11. 33 CFR 165.T05-0741 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. 165.T05-0741 Section 165.T05-0741 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T05-0741 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. (a... Carolina Beach, North Carolina (34°03′21″ N, 077°53′58″ W). (b) Regulations. The general safety...

  12. 76 FR 72885 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: South Carolina; Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Carolina that is within the bi-state Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, North Carolina-South Carolina 1997 8... bi-state Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area is hereinafter referred to as the ``bi-state Charlotte Area.'' In addition, South Carolina's SIP revisions include...

  13. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  14. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE PAGES

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  15. Inert and Reacting Tracers for Reservoir Sizing in Fractured, Hot Dry Rock Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Robinson, B.A.; Ferguson, J.H.

    1986-01-21

    Flow characterization and volumetric sizing techniques using tracers in fractured hot dry rock reservoirs are discussed. Statistical methods for analyzing the residence time distribution (RTD) are presented. Tracer modal volumes and RTD shape are correlated with reservoir performance parameters such as active heat transfer area and dispersion levels. Chemically reactive tracers are proposed for mapping advance rates of cooled regions in HDR reservoirs, providing early warning of thermal drawdown. Important reaction rate parameters are identified for screening potential tracers. Current laboratory research and field work is reviewed.

  16. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  17. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  18. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  19. Unsaturated zone characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  20. Estimated depth to water, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  1. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  2. Characteristics of drowning deaths in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Patetta, M J; Biddinger, P W

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 1,052 unintentional drowning deaths in North Carolina during the period from 1980 through 1984 was carried out, with emphasis on the victims' activity and alcohol consumption, and the settings of the accidents. The data suggest that many drownings are preventable, and reinforce the etiologic importance of ethanol consumption in such deaths. The overall drowning rate for North Carolina residents during the period covered by the study was 3.2 per 100,000 persons. Nonwhite males had the highest rate, 8.8 per 100,000 population. The next highest rate was for white males, 4.7 per 100,000. Swimming and wading, involved in 41 percent of the drowning deaths, was the most frequently associated activity. Fishing was involved in 15 percent of the deaths, and motor vehicle accidents with 8 percent. Most occurred in freshwater settings, notably lakes and ponds, 39 percent, and rivers and creeks, 29 percent. Of the 752 victims 15 years and older tested for blood ethanol, 53 percent had positive tests and 38 percent had blood alcohol concentrations of 100 milligrams per deciliter or greater. Significant percentages of victims 15 years and older with blood alcohol concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per deciliter were found in all settings and activity groups.

  3. Fractured petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

    2000-01-10

    Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

  4. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  5. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  6. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  7. The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: a North Carolina example.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Schwartz, Grace; Romanski, Autumn; Smith, S Daniel

    2012-11-06

    The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of coal combustion residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites and the impact on associated waterways in North Carolina, compared to a reference lake. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements in over 300 samples from CCR effluents, surface water from lakes and rivers at different downstream and upstream points, and pore water extracted from lake sediments. The data show that CCR effluents contain high levels of contaminants that in several cases exceed the U.S. EPA guidelines for drinking water and ecological effects. This investigation demonstrates the quality of receiving waters in North Carolina depends on (1) the ratio between effluent flux and freshwater resource volumes and (2) recycling of trace elements through adsorption on suspended particles and release to deep surface water or pore water in bottom sediments during periods of thermal water stratification and anoxic conditions. The impact of CCRs is long-term, which influences contaminant accumulation and the health of aquatic life in water associated with coal-fired power plants.

  8. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  9. Waveguide cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  10. Waveguide cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  11. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  12. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  13. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  14. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  15. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  16. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  17. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  18. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  19. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  20. Fundamental limits for cooling of linear quantum refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Nahuel; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    We study the asymptotic dynamics of arbitrary linear quantum open systems that are periodically driven while coupled with generic bosonic reservoirs. We obtain exact results for the heat flowing from each reservoir, and these results are valid beyond the weak-coupling or Markovian approximations. We prove the validity of the dynamical third law of thermodynamics (Nernst unattainability principle), showing that the ultimate limit for cooling is imposed by a fundamental heating mechanism that dominates at low temperatures, namely the nonresonant creation of excitation pairs in the reservoirs induced by the driving field. This quantum effect, which is missed in the weak-coupling approximation, restores the unattainability principle, the validity of which was recently challenged.

  1. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  2. Fundamental limits for cooling of linear quantum refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Nahuel; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    We study the asymptotic dynamics of arbitrary linear quantum open systems that are periodically driven while coupled with generic bosonic reservoirs. We obtain exact results for the heat flowing from each reservoir, and these results are valid beyond the weak-coupling or Markovian approximations. We prove the validity of the dynamical third law of thermodynamics (Nernst unattainability principle), showing that the ultimate limit for cooling is imposed by a fundamental heating mechanism that dominates at low temperatures, namely the nonresonant creation of excitation pairs in the reservoirs induced by the driving field. This quantum effect, which is missed in the weak-coupling approximation, restores the unattainability principle, the validity of which was recently challenged.

  3. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  4. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    PubMed

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.

  5. Intracytoplasmic inclusions in circulating leukocytes from an eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) with iridoviral infection.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Fry, Michael M; Irizarry, Armando R; Craig, Linden; Johnson, April J; Jones, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A free-ranging adult female eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) was presented to the University of Tennessee in October 2003 because of suspected trauma and blindness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, clear ocular and nasal discharges, and white oral and laryngeal plaques. Intracytoplasmic inclusions within heterophils and large mononuclear leukocytes were observed on routine blood smear examination. Postmortem findings included necrosis of epithelial and parenchymal cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the leukocyte inclusions consisted of variably electron-dense granular material and viral particles consistent with the Iridoviridae family of viruses. The virus shared 100% sequence identity to a 420-base pair sequence of frog virus 3 (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) as determined by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing targeting a portion of the Ranavirus major capsid protein gene.

  6. Comparison of recreation use values among alternative reservoir water level management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordell, H. Ken; Bergstrom, John C.

    1993-02-01

    Throughout the United States, reservoirs are managed for multiple uses, including hydropower, stream flow regulation, flood control, and recreation. Water level drawdowns for hydropower, stream flow regulation, and flood control often reduce the suitability of reservoirs for water-based recreation. The gain in aggregate economic use value of outdoor recreation under three alternative water level management scenarios was measured for four reservoirs in western North Carolina as part of an interagency policy analysis. Use values were estimated using a contingent valuation survey and expert panel data. The basic question addressed by this study was whether the value recreational users place on higher water levels held longer into the summer and fall is significantly greater than the value of using these reservoirs as they were managed at the time of this study. Maintaining high water levels for longer periods during the summer and fall was found to result in considerable gains in estimated recreational benefits. While not a primary objective of this study, having these estimates provided us an opportunity to compare increased recreational benefits with the value the Tennessee Valley Authority estimated for the reduced production of electricity that would result if the lakes were managed to hold reservoir levels higher, longer into the year.

  7. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  8. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  9. Cooling the dark energy camera instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.L.; Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Kuhlmann, S.; Onal, Birce; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    DECam, camera for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is undergoing general design and component testing. For an overview see DePoy, et al in these proceedings. For a description of the imager, see Cease, et al in these proceedings. The CCD instrument will be mounted at the prime focus of the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The instrument temperature will be 173K with a heat load of 113W. In similar applications, cooling CCD instruments at the prime focus has been accomplished by three general methods. Liquid nitrogen reservoirs have been constructed to operate in any orientation, pulse tube cryocoolers have been used when tilt angles are limited and Joule-Thompson or Stirling cryocoolers have been used with smaller heat loads. Gifford-MacMahon cooling has been used at the Cassegrain but not at the prime focus. For DES, the combined requirements of high heat load, temperature stability, low vibration, operation in any orientation, liquid nitrogen cost and limited space available led to the design of a pumped, closed loop, circulating nitrogen system. At zenith the instrument will be twelve meters above the pump/cryocooler station. This cooling system expected to have a 10,000 hour maintenance interval. This paper will describe the engineering basis including the thermal model, unbalanced forces, cooldown time, the single and two-phase flow model.

  10. Cool Flame Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  11. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  13. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  14. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  15. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  16. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  17. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  18. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  19. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .

  1. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  2. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  3. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  4. OVERFLOW ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA AND NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Davis, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    The Overflow Roadless Area in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia and North Carolina is underlain by complexly folded schist and gneiss of Proterozoic age. A mineral-resource survey found little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Minor isolated localities of mica pegmatite and amethyst gemstone occur in the area. Gneiss and schist suitable for rock aggregate are present in large quantities, but similar rocks abound outside the area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth beneath the overthrust of the Blue Ridge. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the natural gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  5. Evidence of uplift near Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, S.

    1989-01-01

    In spite of extensive research, the causal structure of the 1886 magnitude 7 earthquake near Charleston, South Carolina, has not been identified. In this study I analyzed digital surface topography and river morphology in light of earlier studies using seismic reflection, seismic refraction, earthquake seismology, and gravity and magnetic surveys. This analysis revealed an area approximately 400 km2 northwest of Charleston that may have been repeatedly uplifted by earthquakes. Geologic and seismic reflection data confirm alteration of formations at depth. Deformation of the surface is supported by observations on aerial and LANDSAT photographs. Therefore, the structure on which the 1886 earthquake occurred may be within the uplifted area defined in this report. -Author

  6. Heat Illness among North Carolina Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Summers, Phillip; Talton, Jennifer W.; Chen, Haiying; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heat exposure is an important hazard for workers in manual occupations, including farmworkers. This analysis delineates the prevalence of heat illness among farmworkers, and the factors associated with heat illness. Methods North Carolina Latino male farmworkers completed interviews in August, 2013. They reported on heat exposure and behaviors over the previous 3 months while working both outdoors and indoors. Results A third (35.6%) of the participants reported heat illness while working outside, and 13.9% while working inside. Factors associated with heat illness while working outside included working in wet clothes and shoes, harvesting and topping tobacco, and spending after-work time in an extremely hot house. Conclusions Policy addressing heat illness is needed, as is more detailed research on occupational heat exposure that uses common measures. PMID:26641825

  7. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  8. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cold reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, K. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; Shen, X.; Xiang, S. J.

    2013-02-01

    Phase difference between pressure wave and mass flow is decisive to the cooling capacity of regenerative cryocoolers. Unlike the direct phase shifting using a piston or displacer in conventional Stirling or GM cryocoolers, the pulse tube cyocooler (PTC) indirectly adjusts the cold phase due to the absence of moving parts at the cold end. The present paper proposed and validated theoretically and experimentally a novel configuration of PTC, termed cold reservoir PTC, in which a reservoir together with an adjustable orifice is connected to the cold end of the pulse tube. The impedance from the additional orifice to the cold end helps to increase the mass flow in phase with the pressure wave at the cold end. Theoretical analyses with the linear model for the orifice and double-inlet PTCs indicate that the cooling performance can be improved by introducing the cold reservoir. The preliminary experiments with a home-made single-stage GM PTC further validated the results on the premise of minor opening of the cold-end orifice.

  9. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  10. Professionals: Their Availability in North Carolina Communities. Progress Report 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, M. Mohan; And Others

    Leaders in 446 communities throughout North Carolina answered questionnaires designed to determine the perceived need for trained personnel in their communities. The leaders described the availability of 33 professional/occupational categories as "serious shortage", "minor shortage", "sufficient",…

  11. The South Carolina Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Carolina Cancer Disparities Research Center (PIs: Ford and Salley) Implications of DNA Glycation Affecting Correlation of Racial Disparities...Student SC State University Mentor: Dr. Dave Turner Research Project: Implications of DNA Glycation Affecting Correlation of Racial Disparities in

  12. 103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Elevation view of concrete slab bridge built in 1937. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. 104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. Detail of the stepped wing wall. Looking southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. North Carolina Route 1130 grade separation structure at Air Bellows Gap. View showing the access road from the parkway. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  16. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  17. 75 FR 68848 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Straight-line Winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through 10/01/2010....

  18. 75 FR 65389 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/ 2010. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, and straight-line winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through 10/01/2010....

  19. 75 FR 65695 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... of North Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/2010. ] Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Straight-line Winds associated with remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole. Incident Period: 09/27/2010 through...

  20. 76 FR 37805 - Progress Energy Carolinas; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Energy Carolinas (Progress Energy), licensee for the Yadkin-PeeDee Hydroelectric Project No. 2206... representatives of NMFS and Progress Energy, the Commission's non-Federal representative for the...

  1. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jennifer L.; Scanlin, Dennis; Quinlan, Paul

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  2. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Sheffield, Steven R.; Kilgo, John C.; Bunch, Mary S.

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  3. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  4. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOEpatents

    Mark, Graham A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  5. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  6. Cooling in a compound bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

  7. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  8. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  9. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  10. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  11. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  12. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  13. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

    2003-05-12

    Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

  14. Survey of veterinarians' perceptions of borreliosis in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the practices and perceptions of veterinarians in North Carolina regarding borreliosis in dogs in various geographic regions of the state. DESIGN--Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE--Data from 208 completed surveys. PROCEDURES--Surveys were distributed to veterinary clinics throughout North Carolina. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize perceptions pertaining to borreliosis among dogs in North Carolina. RESULts--A significantly higher proportion of responding veterinarians believed that borreliosis was endemic in the coastal (67.2%) and Piedmont (60.9%) areas of North Carolina, compared with more western regions (37.5%). The 3 variables found to be significantly different between the northern and southern regions of the state were the estimated number of borreliosis cases diagnosed by each responding veterinary clinic during the past year, the perception of borreliosis endemicity, and the perceptions related to the likelihood of a dog acquiring borreliosis in the state. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Veterinarians' perception of the risk of borreliosis in North Carolina was consistent with recent scientific reports pertaining to geographic expansion of borreliosis in the state. As knowledge of the epidemiological features of borreliosis in North Carolina continues to evolve, veterinarians should promote routine screening of dogs for Borrelia burgdorferi exposure as a simple, inexpensive form of surveillance that can be used to better educate their clients on the threat of transmission of borreliosis in this transitional geographic region.

  15. Metamorphosed melange in the central Piedmont of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mittwede, S.K.; Maybin, A.H. III )

    1989-09-01

    The Enoree melange is exposed in the central Piedmont of South Carolina near the boundary between the Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The melange is composed of ultramafic and mafic blocks in a highly deformed matrix of biotite-feldspar-quartz gneiss which has a composition consistent with a felsic-to-intermediate volcanic precursor. The mafic and ultramafic blocks are separated chemically and petrographically into four compositional groups: metagabbro-clinopyroxenite, websterite, orthopyroxenite, and metasomatized (steatitized) orthopyroxenite. Based on their chemistry and mineralogy, the blocks are clearly exotic relative to their metavolcaniclastic( ) matrix and likely originated as parts of a plutonic suite from the basal or forward part of the Carolina arc terrane. If the Piedmont terrane-Carolina terrane boundary is a continent-arc suture, then the Enoree melange probably formed in the accretionary prism at this convergent margin. The matrix gneisses are interpreted as reworked volcanic debris shed by the Carolina arc terrane edifice and accumulated as graywacke in the accretionary deposits. West-vergent structures in the matrix suggest that the melange was emplaced to its present tectonostratigraphic position either during docking of the Carolina terrane or during widespread Alleghenian thrusting.

  16. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  17. 75 FR 2580 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-North Carolina State Ports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Railroad Co.'s (MHSF) lease with the North Carolina State Ports Authority (SPA) and to operate... pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35339, must be filed with the Surface Transportation...

  18. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  19. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  20. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  1. Analysis of Salinity Intrusion in the Waccamaw River and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 1995-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    Six reservoirs in North Carolina discharge into the Pee Dee River, which flows 160 miles through South Carolina to the coastal communities near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. During the Southeast's record-breaking drought from 1998 to 2003, salinity intrusions inundated a coastal municipal freshwater intake, limiting water supplies. To evaluate the effects of regulated flows of the Pee Dee River on salinity intrusion in the Waccamaw River and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and a consortium of stakeholders entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to apply data-mining techniques to the long-term time series to analyze and simulate salinity dynamics near the freshwater intakes along the Grand Strand of South Carolina. Salinity intrusion in tidal rivers results from the interaction of three principal forces?streamflow, mean tidal water levels, and tidal range. To analyze, model, and simulate hydrodynamic behaviors at critical coastal gages, data-mining techniques were applied to over 20 years of hourly streamflow, coastal water-quality, and water-level data. Artificial neural network models were trained to learn the variable interactions that cause salinity intrusions. Streamflow data from the 18,300-square-mile basin were input to the model as time-delayed variables and accumulated tributary inflows. Tidal inputs to the models were obtained by decomposing tidal water-level data into a 'periodic' signal of tidal range and a 'chaotic' signal of mean water levels. The artificial neural network models were able to convincingly reproduce historical behaviors and generate alternative scenarios of interest. To make the models directly available to all stakeholders along the Pee Dee and Waccamaw Rivers and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, an easy-to-use decision support system (DSS) was developed as a spreadsheet application that integrates the historical database, artificial neural network models

  2. Mountain Island Lake, North Carolina; analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Sarver, Kathleen M.; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Mountain Island Lake is an impoundment of the Catawba River in North Carolina and supplies drinking water to more than 600,000 people in Charlotte, Gastonia, Mount Holly, and several other communities. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Utilities, conducted an investigation of the reservoir to characterize hydrologic and water-quality conditions and to develop and apply a simulation model to predict the response of the reservoir to changes in constituent loadings or the flow regime. During 1996-97, flows into Mountain Island Lake were dominated by releases from Cowans Ford Dam on Lake Norman, with more than 85 percent of the total inflow to the reservoir coming from Lake Norman. Riverbend Steam Station discharges accounted for about 12 percent of the inflows to the reservoir, and inflows from tributary streams contributed less than 1.5 percent of the total inflows. Releases through Mountain Island Dam accounted for about 81 percent of outflows from the reservoir, while Riverbend Steam Station withdrawals, which were equal to discharge from the facility, constituted about 13 percent of the reservoir withdrawals. About 5.5 percent of the withdrawals from the reservoir were for water supply. Strong thermal stratification was seldom observed in Mountain Island Lake during April 1996-September 1997. As a result, dissolved-oxygen concentrations were only infrequently less than 4 milligrams per liter, and seldom less than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the entire reservoir, including the coves. The Riverbend Steam Station thermal discharge had a pronounced effect on surface-water temperatures near the outfall. McDowell Creek, which drains to McDowell Creek cove, receives treated wastewater from a large municipal facility and has exhibited signs of poor water-quality conditions in the past. During April 1996-September 1997, concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a were higher in McDowell Creek cove

  3. Curved film cooling admission tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

  4. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Bertsch, Oran Leroy; Lowe, Perry Eugene

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  5. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  6. Effects of reservoir squeezing on quantum systems and work extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. L.; Wang, Tao; Yi, X. X.

    2012-11-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine cycle in which the working substance contacts with squeezed reservoirs during the two quantum isochoric processes. We consider two working substances: (1) a qubit and (2) two coupled qubits. Due to the effects of squeezing, the working substance can be heated to a higher effective temperature, which leads to many interesting features different from the ordinary ones, such as (1) for the qubit as working substance, if we choose the squeezed parameters properly, the positive work can be exported even when THcool reservoirs, respectively; (2) the efficiency can be higher than classical Carnot efficiency. These results do not violate the second law of thermodynamics and it can be understood as quantum fuel is more efficient than the classical one.

  7. Effects of reservoir squeezing on quantum systems and work extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, X L; Wang, Tao; Yi, X X

    2012-11-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine cycle in which the working substance contacts with squeezed reservoirs during the two quantum isochoric processes. We consider two working substances: (1) a qubit and (2) two coupled qubits. Due to the effects of squeezing, the working substance can be heated to a higher effective temperature, which leads to many interesting features different from the ordinary ones, such as (1) for the qubit as working substance, if we choose the squeezed parameters properly, the positive work can be exported even when T(H) cool reservoirs, respectively; (2) the efficiency can be higher than classical Carnot efficiency. These results do not violate the second law of thermodynamics and it can be understood as quantum fuel is more efficient than the classical one.

  8. Temperature gradient driven lasing and stimulated cooling.

    PubMed

    Sandner, K; Ritsch, H

    2012-11-09

    A laser can be understood as a thermodynamic engine converting heat to a coherent single mode field close to Carnot efficiency. To achieve lasing, spectral shaping of the excitation light is used to generate a higher effective temperature on the pump than on the gain transition. Here, using a toy model of a quantum well structure with two suitably designed tunnel-coupled wells kept at different temperatures, we predict that lasing can also occur on an actual spatial temperature gradient between the pump and gain regions. Gain and narrow band laser emission require a sufficiently large temperature gradient and resonator quality. Lasing appears concurrent with amplified heat flow between the reservoirs and points to a new form of stimulated solid state cooling. In addition, such a mechanism could reduce intrinsic heating and thus extend the operating regime of quantum cascade lasers by substituting phonon emission driven injection by a phonon absorption step.

  9. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  10. Transpiration Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

    1997-01-01

    The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

  11. Designing Cool Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA SBIR contract served as the beginning for the development of Daat Research Corporation's Coolit software. Coolit is a unique computational fluid dynamics (CFD) application aimed at thermal and cooling design problems. Coolit can generate 3-D representations of the thermofluid environment and "sketch" the component on the computer. The software modeling reduces time and effort in prototype building and testing.

  12. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  13. Brain cooling therapy.

    PubMed

    Gancia, P; Pomero, G

    2010-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (whole body or selective head cooling) is becoming standard of care for brain injury in infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Brain cooling reduces the rate of apoptosis and early necrosis, reduces cerebral metabolic rate and the release of nitric oxide and free radicals. Animal models of perinatal brain injury show histological and functional improvement due to of early hypothermia. The brain protection depends on the temperature and time delay between insult and beginning of treatment (more effective with cooling to 33 +/- 0.5 degrees C, and less than 6 hours after hypoxic-ischemic insult). Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews in human neonates show reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, with more favourable effects in the less severe forms of HIE. The authors describe their experience in 53 term newborns with moderate-severe HIE treated with whole body cooling between 2001 and 2009, and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and general movements (GMs) assessment. The creation of a network connecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with the level I-II hospitals of the reference area, as part of regional network, is of paramount importance to enroll potential candidates and to start therapeutic hypothermia within optimal time window.

  14. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  15. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  16. Stability of cooled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, J.; Carli, C.; Chanel, M.; Madsen, N.; Maury, S.; Möhl, D.; Tranquille, G.

    2000-02-01

    Because of their high density together with extremely small spreads in betatron frequency and momentum, cooled beams are very vulnerable to incoherent and coherent space-charge effects and instabilities. Moreover, the cooling system itself, i.e. the electron beam in the case of e-cooling, presents large linear and non-linear "impedances" to the circulating ion beam, in addition to the usual beam-environment coupling impedances of the storage ring. Beam blow-up and losses, attributed to such effects, have been observed in virtually all the existing electron cooling rings. The adverse effects seem to be more pronounced in those rings, like CELSIUS, that are equipped with a cooler capable of reaching the presently highest energy (100-300 keV electrons corresponding to 180-560 MeV protons). The stability conditions will be revisited with emphasis on the experience gained at LEAR. It will be argued that for all present coolers, three conditions are necessary (although probably not sufficient) for the stability of intense cold beams: (i) operation below transition energy, (ii) active damping to counteract coherent instability, and (iii) careful control of the e-beam neutralisation. An extrapolation to the future "medium energy coolers", planned to work for (anti)protons of several GeV, will also be attempted.

  17. Elementary stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  18. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  19. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  20. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  1. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  2. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  3. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  4. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexationmore » model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.« less

  5. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexation model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.

  6. Hydrology and water quality of Little Cross Creek, Cumberland County, North Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, Mary J.; Middleton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Little Cross Creek is a small stream located in Cumberland County, North Carolina, in the Sand Hills area of the Coastal Plain Province. From August 1996 through August 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey collected streamflow, water-quality, and time-of-travel data at 10 sites in Little Cross Creek Basin to assess ambient conditions and compute loads of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon. Streamflows in the Little Cross Creek Basin responded to climatic factors and to human activities such as water withdrawals and controlled releases from impoundments. Peak streamflows were observed during the passages of Hurricane Fran in September 1996 and Hurricane Josephine in October 1996. Streamflows generally were lowest during the summer and early fall of 1997, reflecting drought conditions associated with a prevailing El Nino. At most sites, average streamflow per unit drainage area, or yield, was higher than yields reported previously for the Sand Hills. High yields may have resulted from unidentified inputs of water to the study basins or from underestimation of the contributing drainage area. Bonnie Doone Lake, Kornbow Lake, Mintz Pond, and Glenville Lake, four impoundments of Little Cross Creek, notably influence hydrology and water quality in the basin. Streamflow records indicate that these impoundments dampen peak stormflows and delay the downstream release of stormwater. Time of travel also is affected by seasonal stratification in the reservoirs. In general, sites downstream from reservoirs have lower concentrations of suspended sediment, turbidity, and total phosphorus than sites upstream from reservoirs or sites that receive stormwater runoff. Few water-quality problems were observed in the Little Cross Creek Basin for the constituents that were sampled. However, fecal coliform bacteria commonly exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters at two of the seven monitored sites during the study. Relatively high concentrations

  7. Isotopic changes in the fluids of the Cerro Prieto {Beta} Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Mahendra; Quijano, Luis; Gutierrez, Hector; Iglesias, Eduardo; Truesdell, Alfred

    1996-01-24

    Monitoring changes with time of the isotopes of water (18O and D) in wellhead fluids is an effective way of indicating reservoir changes and processes. Because 18O concentrations in water are altered by high-temperature exchange with rock oxygen and because both 18O and D are fractionated in vapor-liquid separation processes at the surface (separators and cooling towers), these isotopes are excellent indicators of inflow and distribution of fluids from outside the reservoir, either natural or injected. Studies of the isotopic compositions of fluids from the Cerro Prieto field in Baja California, Mexico show that pressure drawdown in the major β (beta) reservoir has caused intense boiling followed by inflow of water from outside the reservoir. A method of field exploitation based on this behavior is discussed.

  8. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. Methods We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. Results North Carolina’s 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0–8.0), adolescent girls’ HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%–62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%–83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. Conclusions This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. PMID:24333357

  9. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  10. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  11. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  12. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  13. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  14. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoirs required. 393.50 Section 393.50... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, must meet the reservoir requirements of FMVSS No....

  15. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  16. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  17. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  18. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  19. Human rabies--South Carolina, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-08-16

    On December 3, 2011, a South Carolina woman visited a local emergency department (ED) with an overnight history of shortness of breath, diaphoresis, chills, and intermittent paresthesia. The patient was transferred to a referral hospital, where she became comatose and developed multiorgan failure. The patient did not report a history of an animal bite. However, family members subsequently revealed that bats had been observed in the patient's home during the previous summer. Family members also reported that the patient had sought information on bat removal from a local county service, but was not advised of the risk for rabies associated with bat exposures and was not referred for public health consultation. CDC confirmed infection with a rabies virus variant associated with Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) on December 14, after which the patient received hospice care. She died on December 19. This report summarizes the patient's clinical course and the associated public health investigation. This case highlights the importance of strong partnerships among public health officials and diverse non-health-care partners to ensure appropriate referral of persons exposed to bats in their homes for prompt and appropriate risk assessment, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations, and information on safe, effective, and humane bat exclusion methods.

  20. 78 FR 48669 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... construct and operate: (1) A new compressor station near Moore, in Spartanburg County, South Carolina; (2... Carolina; (3) rearrange the existing Moore Purchase meter and regulation station; and (4) Moore Wye...

  1. 78 FR 19994 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: New Source Review-Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Acid Rain, respectively. However, these regulations are not part of South Carolina's federally approved... South Carolina's State Regulations 61-62.60, 62.61, 62.63 and 62.72 regarding NSPS, NESHAP and Acid...

  2. 75 FR 62154 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed... request of the Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated...

  3. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  4. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation...

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  6. 78 FR 28747 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; State Implementation Plan Miscellaneous Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct Final... Carolina State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted on February 3, 2010, through the North...

  7. 76 FR 28016 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... 29, 2011. d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Pee Dee River in Stanly County, North Carolina. g. Filed Pursuant...

  8. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  9. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice. PMID:28163450

  10. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  11. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems.

  12. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina - The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Contributing authors: Schwab, W. C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.A.; Driscoll, N.W.; Baldwin, W.E.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Denny, J.F.; Harris, M.S.; Katuna, M.P.; Putney, T.R.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.; Wright, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multidisciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. Shoreline behavior along the coast of Long Bay is dictated by waves, tidal currents, and sediment supply that act within the overall constraints of the regional geologic setting. Beaches are thin ribbons of sand that sit on top of layered sedimentary rocks, which have been deeply eroded by rivers and coastal processes over millions of years. Offshore of the beaches, these sedimentary rocks are exposed as hardgrounds over large expanses of shallow seafloor and are locally overlain by a discontinuous veneer of sandy sediment generally less than 1 m thick. Rates of shoreline retreat largely depend on the geologic framework of the shoreface that is being excavated by ocean processes. Mainland-attached beaches have remained relatively stable, whereas barrier islands have experienced large shifts in shoreline position. In this sediment-limited region, erosion of the shoreface and inner shelf probably contributes a significant amount of new material to the beach system. Oceanographic studies and numerical modeling show that sediment transport varies along the coast, depending on the type and travel path of storms that impact Long Bay, but the long-term net transport direction is generally from north to south. Changes in storm activity that might accompany climate change, coupled with anticipated increases in sea-level rise, are expected to strongly affect low-lying, heavily developed areas of the coast.

  13. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  14. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  15. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  16. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  17. Cooling our tomorrows economically

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, J.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that summer cooling poses unprecedented problems in the years ahead for architects, engineers, manufacturers, contractors and users. True, millions of tons of fine volcanic ash from the Philippines' Mt. Pinatubo and soot from Kuwait's burned oil wells now encircle the globe, creating temporary shade. The eruption also sent up related weights of sulfur dioxide (convertible to stratospheric sulfate aerosols) for further shading. Together, they may briefly counteract global warming, but rising greenhouse gases guarantee the latter will return with renewed force. Greenhouse gas production continues, making global warming certain, even if all CFCs are phased out, for they are minor greenhouse problems. Cooling loads will increase faster than rising temperatures as populations increase and move south, and as comfort and clean air standards rise. In addition, the fear of skin cancer, cataracts and related retinal and immune system damage may shortly keep more people indoors in summer, thereby raising internal loads.

  18. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  19. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  20. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  1. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  2. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  3. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, V.; Wang, Z.; Ray, A.; Sridhar, I.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (ΔT) by ~20 °C and ~28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink.

  4. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  5. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  6. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  7. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  8. Frequency Comb Cooling Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE...Aug-2011 18-May-2012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final report on frequency comb cooling project The views, opinions and/or... frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected average powers above 10 kW. We

  9. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  10. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  11. Heating, Cooling, Ventilating Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    conditioners. Heaters. Blowers. Fire tube boilers. Water tube boilers. Electrostatic precipitators. Superheaters. Air handling systems, Work units. Abstract...install tubes. .................... . Analyze boiler water samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Boiler, Water Tube Assist boiler inspector in...ANO INSTALL COOLING (CHILLEC WATER ) OR HEATING COIL CI1-99 TO% All HANDLING SYSTEM). No REPERENCE WOaRK UNIT DESCRIPTION NOUNS UNITS ViB I PwV-S-Rl

  12. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    report on our measurement of the Hg gj factor. This was an important step in the project because of the necessity of "mixing" the Zeeman 201Hg th 201...reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. in April, concentrates on detailed measurements made of systematic effects in this system. Two key features are: (1) an...stored ion frequency standard systematic effects since laser cooling is easier to achieve than in Hg . 2. "Strongly coupled" liquid and solid plasmas

  13. Laser Cooling of Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    state coolers such as thermoelectric (Peltier) devices. Several studies have shown that ytterbium- or thulium -doped solids should be capable of providing...that there is an advantage of pumping with lower energy photons. This increased effi- ciency was part of the motivation for investigating thulium ...the quantum efficiency. For pure thulium -doped material, non-radiative decay can over- whelm anti-Stokes cooling, depending on the properties of the

  14. Influence of Wave Refraction on Coastal Geomorphology-Bull Island to Isle of Palms, South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    coast from Bull Island to the Isle of Palms . REFRAC, a computerized wave-refracti program developed for this study, generates refraction diagrams...Geomorphology Bull Island to Isle of Palms , South Carolina Cary Fico Coastal Research Division Department of Geology Uo 0O University of South Carolina Columnbia...South Carolina 29208 80 :i1 13 U23 INFLUENCE OF WAVE REFRACTION ON COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY -- BULL ISLAND TO ISLE OF PALMS , SOUTH CAROLINA by Cary Fico

  15. Floodflow characteristics of Filbin Creek for pre- and post-construction conditions, 1986, at North Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A study to determine the effect of the construction of a shopping and business center, and of the construction and improvement of several highways on floodflow in the Filbin Creek drainage basin near North Charleston, South Carolina was performed. Discharge hydrographs were synthesized using computerized U.S. Soil Conservation Service unit hydrograph methods and routed using reservoir, step backwater, and culvert flow programs. Construction of the shopping and business center, according to plans of July 1986, will raise the water surface elevations upstream of Interstate Highway 26 by about 2.0 ft for runoff from 100-yr rainfall. Structures at Seaboard Railroad downstream of U.S. Highway 52, U.S. Highway 52, and Virginia Avenue would cause about 2.0, 2.6, and 4.1 ft of backwater, respectively. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.

  17. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

  18. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  19. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  20. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  1. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow, western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapour. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapour zone has formed. ?? 1984.

  2. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  3. Lamination cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  4. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  5. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  6. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  7. 77 FR 64904 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Carolina Beach..., at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement...

  8. 76 FR 34105 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, et al. (the licensee), is the holder of Facility Operating License... Carolina Power & Light Company an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 26.205(c) and (d) for...

  9. 78 FR 23847 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; North Carolina Cut, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; North Carolina Cut... operation of the S.R. 74 Bridge, at AIWW mile 283.1, over the North Carolina Cut, at Wrightsville Beach, NC... demand during the rest of the day. The S.R. 74 Bridge, at AIWW mile 283.1, over the North Carolina...

  10. An Analysis of Diversity Inclusion in North Carolina Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chastity K.; Alston, Antoine J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge the perceptions of North Carolina secondary agricultural educators regarding the benefits and barriers to diversity inclusion in North Carolina secondary agricultural education programs. Additionally, the perceived solutions to increasing diversity inclusion in North Carolina secondary agricultural education…

  11. Review of "How School Choice Can Create Jobs for South Carolina"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Joydeep

    2010-01-01

    The South Carolina Policy Council Education Foundation report, "How School Choice Can Create Jobs for South Carolina," argues that school choice, in the form of vouchers to attend private schools, would create significant job opportunities in five poor, rural counties of South Carolina. The report, however, relies almost exclusively on…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  13. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  14. High School Renewal in South Carolina: An Angry Response to Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Anna T.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1998-01-01

    Feeling angry and abandoned over losing a cooperative training center, South Carolina high school educators began a series of "what next?" conversations. Following two information-sharing conferences, 17 high schools and the University of South Carolina formed a school-university partnership called the South Carolina High School Renewal…

  15. Listening to the Experts: A Report on the 2004 South Carolina Working Conditions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Under the leadership of State Superintendent of Education Inez Tenenbaum, with the support of the South Carolina Department of Education's Division of Teaching Quality (DTQ) and the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement (CERRA), South Carolina became only the second state in the nation to study teacher…

  16. Understanding the North Carolina End-of-Course Tests. Assessment Brief. Volume 9, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The North Carolina End of Course (EOC) tests were initiated in response to legislation passed by the North Carolina General Assembly--the North Carolina Elementary and Secondary Reform Act of 1984. This act mandates the implementation of the Basic Education Program through the establishment of a core curriculum for all students for each content…

  17. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  18. 77 FR 62454 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Portion of York County, South Carolina Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... August 31, 2007, and April 29, 2010, to address the reasonable further progress (RFP) plan requirements... vehicle emissions budgets (MVEB) for volatile organic compounds (VOC) that were included in South Carolina... Carolina SIP, submitted by the State of South Carolina through SC DHEC, on August 31, 2007, and April...

  19. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  20. Vegetational analysis with Skylab-3 imagery. [Perquimans County, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Holman, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color infrared photography from Skylab 3 appeared to be superior to ERTS imagery in a vegetational study of northeastern North Carolina. An accuracy of 87% was achieved in delimiting species composition and zonation patterns of three coastal, vegetation classes. A vegetation map of Perquimans County, North Carolina, seemed to have a high degree of correlation with information provided by high altitude U-2 photography. Random verification sites revealed an overall interpretation accuracy above 84%. Comparison of maps drawn utilizing Skylab photography with North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture estimates of crop acreage revealed some marked discrepancies. The chief difference lies in the nonagricultural category in which there is a 30% discrepancy. This fact raised some questions as to the definition of nonagricultural land uses and methods used by the State Dept. of Agriculture to determine actual percentages of crops grown.