Science.gov

Sample records for carrier hull girder

  1. Measuring hull girder deformations on a 9300 TEU containership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Jos; Schiere, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    A 9300 TEU container carrier was equipped in 2006 with instrumentation aimed at wave induced accelerations, and motions. In 2010 the system was extended with strain sensors to include structural loads. Section loads for vertical bending could be readily obtained but the originally intended derivation of horizontal bending and torsion from the measured strains was found to be unreliable. This paper addresses an alternative approach that was adopted in the post processing of results. In particular the concept to use acceleration sensors to capture global hull deformations along the length of the hull, and the use of a data fusion procedure to obtain section loads from combined sensor data and finite element calculations. The approach is illustrated by comparison of actually measured accelerations and local strains with values obtained from the data fusion model. It is concluded that the approach is promising but in need of further validation and development. In particular the number and shapes of the modes used may not have been sufficient to represent the true deflection and thus strain distributions along the high loaded areas.

  2. Effect of corrosion on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu Van, Tuyen; Yang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik's probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

  3. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  4. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs.

  5. Electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fiber mats as carriers for extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Suwantong, Orawan; Panomsuk, Suwannee; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sittisombut, Chavalit; Suksamran, Tittaya; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Electrospinning is a process used to produce ultrafine fibers with diameters in the nanometer range. Electrospun fiber mats have high potentials for biomedical uses, due to their high surface area and ease of drug incorporation into the fibers. They can be used as carriers for drug delivery and can enhance drug release and skin permeability. The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun fiber mats and to incorporate extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen. Antioxidant activity and extract release were determined and compared between the extract incorporated in the electrospun fiber mats and in the cast films. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was selected as the polymer matrix. Extracts in the amount of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w, based on the weight of PVA, were incorporated with 10% w/w PVA to finally obtain electrospun fiber mats and cast films. The extract content was evaluated by antioxidative activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The morphology of the electrospun fiber mats was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the diameters of the fibers were in nanoscales and that no crystal of the extract was found at any concentration of the extract. The extract contents in the electrospun fiber mats prepared at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of the extract were 9.6%, 9.7%, and 10.8% of the initial loading concentration, respectively, whereas, those in the cast films were 23.9%, 14.5%, and 21.0%, respectively. The release of the extract from the electrospun fiber mats prepared at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of the extract at 120 min were 73.2%, 83.6%, and 81.3% w/w, respectively. However, much slower release from the cast films was observed (i.e., 4.3%, 29.1%, and 40.8% w/w, respectively).

  6. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    PubMed Central

    Tepic, Jovan; Doroslovacki, Rade

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012) for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM) and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions. PMID:24741350

  7. Global strength assessment in oblique waves of a large gas carrier ship, based on a non-linear iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnisoru, L.; Modiga, A.; Gasparotti, C.

    2016-08-01

    At the ship's design, the first step of the hull structural assessment is based on the longitudinal strength analysis, with head wave equivalent loads by the ships' classification societies’ rules. This paper presents an enhancement of the longitudinal strength analysis, considering the general case of the oblique quasi-static equivalent waves, based on the own non-linear iterative procedure and in-house program. The numerical approach is developed for the mono-hull ships, without restrictions on 3D-hull offset lines non-linearities, and involves three interlinked iterative cycles on floating, pitch and roll trim equilibrium conditions. Besides the ship-wave equilibrium parameters, the ship's girder wave induced loads are obtained. As numerical study case we have considered a large LPG liquefied petroleum gas carrier. The numerical results of the large LPG are compared with the statistical design values from several ships' classification societies’ rules. This study makes possible to obtain the oblique wave conditions that are inducing the maximum loads into the large LPG ship's girder. The numerical results of this study are pointing out that the non-linear iterative approach is necessary for the computation of the extreme loads induced by the oblique waves, ensuring better accuracy of the large LPG ship's longitudinal strength assessment.

  8. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. A Common Sense Design Manual for Producibility of Hull Foundations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    ship’s hull. These motions can be approximated by considering the ship’s hull girder as a free-free beam with added mass included to represent the...BENDING LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE 1. FLANGE BENDING 2. BEAM BENDING 3. FRAME BENDING VERTICAL Deck Mounted A–Frame/ Truss STANDARD FOUNDATION TYPE 20 C...be carried out. Interference of foundation structure, i.e. legs, diagonals , braces , with adjacent piping systems. Interface of foundations with

  9. Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhuo

    A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder

  10. On the Kinematics of Undulator Girder Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    The theory of rigid body kinematics is used to derive equations that govern the control and measurement of the position and orientation of undulator girders. The equations form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system. The equations are linear for small motion and easily inverted as desired. For reference, some relevant girder geometrical data is also given. Equations 6-8 relate the linear potentiometer readings to the motion of the girder. Equations 9-11 relate the cam shaft angles to the motion of the girder. Both sets are easily inverted to either obtain the girder motion from the angles or readings, or, to find the angles and readings that would give a desired motion. The motion of any point on the girder can be calculated by applying either sets of equations to the two cam-planes and extrapolating in the z coordinate using equation 19. The formulation of the equations is quite general and easily coded via matrix and vector methods. They form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system.

  11. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  12. A hydraulic absorber for wideband vibration reduction in ship hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, W.J.; Lee, Y.J. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    A vibration reduction of ship hulls by an active absorber system is proposed. In the scheme, a tuned mass is moved according to the hull vibration as measured by a multi-mode sensing system in order to generate a suitable active force for vibration reduction of hull girder. In order to supply the large amount of required power, a hydraulic servo system is implemented. Then the dynamic characteristic of the hydraulic system is considered for system design. Based on stochastic theory and optimal theory, the control law of the system is derived in order to approach the optimal level of vibration reduction. A 10-t absorber is applied to a 87,000-t oil tanker to demonstrate the feasibility of this scheme. The results show that the multi-peak values of resonance are suppressed in frequency response. Moreover, the vibration excited by propeller and engine is reduced to an extremely efficient level by this scheme.

  13. 8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost deck-girder span, underside of deck, looking North - Elk River Bridge, Spanning Elk River at Main Street, Elk River, Sherburne County, MN

  14. 24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, deck girders and cross beams, and bracing of east bascule leaf. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING THE 'EYE PLATES,' SOUTH GIRDER, PANEL 1, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST Harms} - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  16. 15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion of pinned connection between channel-span (left) and anchor-span (right) girders; view to southwest. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  18. 16. VIEW OF TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING THE 'EYE PLATES' AND THE ATTACHMENT OF THE SIDEWALK CANTILEVER BRACKETS, NORTH GIRDER, PANEL 5, LOOKING SOUTHEAST Ryan & Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  19. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  20. Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing older (1880's) construction of roof trusses. Compare with earlier views in this series. - Phoenix Iron Company, Girder Shop No. 6, North of French Creek, west of Gay Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  1. Gasohol from almond hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Golden By-Products Inc. has awarded a contract to Bechtel Inc. to study the feasibility of converting almond hulls from California's Central Valley into two million gal/yr of alcohol for use in gasohol.

  2. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats, and...

  3. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  4. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  5. 7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF COUNTERWEIGHTS, WITH LOWER BUFFERS, LOOKING WEST FROM WEST CANAL PIER. - East Division Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch Canal at West Division Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northwest. Showing rope connectors and deflector sheaves. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  7. View looking south from sidewalk includes halfthrough west girder on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from sidewalk includes half-through west girder on left and raging river (upstream) on right. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

  8. 3. DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE THAT CARRIES BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE THAT CARRIES BUILDING 92 OVER RAILROAD TRACKS; LOOKING NORTHWEST - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM VALLEY STREET RAMP - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  10. Plate girder section at east end, looking north, central railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plate girder section at east end, looking north, central railroad of New Jersey bridge beyond. - Lehigh Valley Railroad, Delaware River Bridge, Spanning Delaware River, south of Lehigh River, Easton, Northampton County, PA

  11. PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE TWISTED BAR STOCK REINFORCING CAN BE SEEN. - Keggereis Ford Bridge, Spanning West Branch Conococheague Creek at State Route 4006, Willow Hill, Franklin County, PA

  12. 44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility conduit. Structure rests on granite blocks mounted on granite piers. - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  14. 1. Small steel Girder Bridge with wooden railing looking WSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Small steel Girder Bridge with wooden railing looking WSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Greenbrier Road, Between U.S. Route 321 & Greenbrier Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 321. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF GIRDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    321. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF GIRDER SPANS WITH 1990S MODIFICATIONS, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. DETAIL OF A DOUBLE SET OF IBEAM GIRDERS ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF A DOUBLE SET OF I-BEAM GIRDERS ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE BRIDGE. 25 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 59.6X, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER, BEARING SHOE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER, BEARING SHOE, FLOOR BEAM, STRINGER AND LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  18. 14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  19. 16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING SHOE AND LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  20. Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of granite piers at low tide. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at low tide. View Northwest - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  4. Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, bracing, and walkway of west approach span. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, and bracing of bascule leaves. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Ultimate Strength of a Ship’s Hull Girder in Plastic and Buckling Modes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    drawn for deep - web -frame plate panels, of low slenderness ratio, simple supported and edges kept straight. It should be noted, however, that the range...H.-G., "Notes on the Buckling and Post-buckling Behaviour of Deep Web Frames," J. Marine Tech., July 1972. V. 62 [34] Timoshenko, S., "Stability of

  8. A sensitivity study of hull girder wave loads for ship shaped oil production and storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Sogstad, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    For ship type floating production and storage vessels (FPSO) moored at a permanent location, the environmental loads will be different compared to a conventional merchant ship for which wave bending moment and shear forces are calculated by use of empirical formula established by classification societies. The effect on the design loads caused by the differences in the environmental parameters applicable in the design of a FPSO versus a merchant vessel will be considered. The environmental parameters are: long crested compared with short crested waves; equal probability of occurrence of all heading angles compared with the waves always approaching the vessel`s bow; and the design of a FPSO is based on a storm with a return period of 100 years, while a merchant vessel is designed to withstand a storm with 20 years return period. The linear wave theory is not able to distinguish between the sagging and hogging wave induced responses. This will be taken care of by introducing non-linear correction factors. The non-linear response is caused by e.g. slamming, water on deck and bow flare. The study will propose a simplified method to predict wave induced vertical midship bending moments and shear forces in an early design stage for a FPSO.

  9. HULL Users’ Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    conditions and puts the results on logical unit 4. Unit 4 is either a physical tape or a permanent file disk device which will store the data for running HULL...pericdi- cally every 60 central processor minutes to protect against unscheduled machine failures. Thus, unit 4 and unit 9 store a continuous record of...number of time steps from initial conditions DIMEN (2), 3 number of spatial dimensions DT Real time step (seconds) energy last check, current ELC Real

  10. Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassens, J.

    1931-01-01

    This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma.

  11. Creep behavior of precast segmental box girder bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xihua, Dai; Liangfang, Liu; Rong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    The concrete creep effect is more obvious when the box girder is assembled by segment. It is necessary to consider the influence of the loading value of the section at different time and the different age of concrete at different stages. In this paper, ACI209R-92, CEB-FIP MC90 and B3 and other concrete creep models are compared. The results show that the B3 model has many factors to consider and the calculation accuracy is high. Secondly, this paper discusses the influence of the segmental construction technology on the creep calculation, and puts forward the characteristics of the stress analysis of the segmental box girder. Finally, on the basis of the B3 model of concrete creep, the Midas software is used to establish the calculation model of segmental box girder, and the internal force and deformation of the box girder are calculated. The results show that the internal force and deformation of the box girder is too large due to the poor integrity of the segmental assembling process, which will seriously affect the normal service performance.

  12. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

  13. 11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE GIRDER SPAN. (Also includes a Marking Diagram and a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 1, dated April 7, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P-28746. Scale 1/4 inch to one foot. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  14. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded, the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  16. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  17. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  18. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  19. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  20. 24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  3. View of north section of bridge shows east girder as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north section of bridge shows east girder as it attaches to north concrete abutment. Note expansion rocker shoe. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

  4. 9. SEATING OF GIRDER SPAN AT SOUTH ABUTMENT. FABRICATOR'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SEATING OF GIRDER SPAN AT SOUTH ABUTMENT. FABRICATOR'S PLATE READS 'VIRGINIA BRIDGE COMPANY 1950,' ACCOMPANIED BY THE LOGO OF UNITED STATES STEEL. - George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, Spanning York River at U.S. Route 17, Yorktown, York County, VA

  5. 122. Goshen Creek Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct, built in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Goshen Creek Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct, built in 1949, is the only viaduct with solid, stone-faced, concrete reinforced piers. View facing north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. 17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rustic stone facade. View is to east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. 86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built in 1939, has a reinforced concrete deck and piers. It is an example of a major in-line, or straight, viaduct over a deep ravine. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. 5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL LATERAL DIAGONAL TENSION EYEBARS, PAIRS OF EYEBARS RUNNING THE LENGTH OF THE BRIDGE, AND RUNNING SURFACE RAILROAD TIES - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Olmstead Bridge, Spanning Provo River, Provo, Utah County, UT

  9. 15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & CANTILEVER BRACKETS, SHOWING THE DETERIORATING ORIGINAL CONCRETE SIDEWALK AND ITS STEEL REINFORCEMENT, PANEL 1, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  10. 33. Photographic copy of Main Roof Girder Details (Ammann and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of Main Roof Girder Details (Ammann and Whitney and The Ballinger Company, April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation, Terminal E, Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviaiton. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west from beneath state route 18 bridge (which lies along previous alignment of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  12. 1. LOOKING NORTHEAST, SOUTH SIDE OF PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTHEAST, SOUTH SIDE OF PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE WHICH CARRIED THE INTERURBAN LINE ACROSS THE FOX RIVER. NOTE THE STEEL-FRAME SUPPORTS FOR THE CATENARY. - Illinois Traction System, Fox River Bridge, Spanning Fox River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  13. 5. LOOKING NORTH AT FIXED PLATE GIRDER SPAN ON WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING NORTH AT FIXED PLATE GIRDER SPAN ON WESTERN APPROACH. STONE PIER AT CENTER OF FRAME DATES TO PREVIOUS SWING BRIDGE ON THIS SITE. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Detail, view, underside of halfthrough girder span over entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, view, underside of half-through girder span over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle. Note that abutment is slightly skewed. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  15. Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss skewed connection atop skewed concrete pier, Bridge No. 1348, Second Potomac and C&O Canal Crossing, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  16. 13. DETAIL OF GIRDER AND PIER CAP OF PIER 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF GIRDER AND PIER CAP OF PIER 3, SHOWING CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING SHOE. NOTE CONCRETE SHOE PEDESTAL, EXTENDED IN 1965 TO COMPENSATE FOR PIER SETTLEMENT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  17. Closeup view of subarray driver module, mounted on girder at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closeup view of sub-array driver module, mounted on girder at back of array - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  18. 245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rusticated stone. It is the only structure on the parkway with stone faced arched piers. The view is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls.

  20. A convex hull inclusion test.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T; Cowles, J

    1987-02-01

    A new characterization of the interior of the convex hull of a finite point set is given. An inclusion test based on this characterization is, on average, almost linear in the number of points times the dimensionality.

  1. Experimental Program for the Determination of Hull Structural Damping Coefficients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    experimental conditions must be recorded and presented as part of the data. Completeness requires that all factors related to the data must be measured...carrier, and a Ŕ,000 ton container ship). - 17. Ley Weds I. Distribution Steemen, Damping Document is available to the Hull vibrations public through the...Vibration ............................... 18 2.1.1.2 Forced Vibration Steady State ............... 19 2.1.1.3 Transient or Non- Harmonic Vibration

  2. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  3. Condition Assessment of Corrosion-damaged Bridge Girders Strengthened with Post-tensioned Composite Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yail J.; Kang, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jong-Sup; Jung, Woo-Tai

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the condition evaluation of bridge girders upgraded using post-tensioned near-surface-mounted (NSM) carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips subjected to corrosion damage. Computational models are developed to predict the behavior of the girders over a 100-year service period. Dynamic analysis exhibits that damage localization takes place, in conjunction with various mode shapes. As the extent of damage rises, the effectiveness of the NSM CFRP increases and the flexural stiffness of the girders decreases.

  4. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-05-21

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  5. Criteria for Hull-Machinery Rigidity Compatibility,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    articulated double-reduction gear design permits a * greater variety of arrangements with essentially the same rotating parts by rolling the pinion and...Additional intercostal girders are to be fitted within the double bottom to ensure the satisfactory distribution of the weight and the rigidity of the...and 124 arranged to distribute the loads effectively into the adjacent structure. Extra intercostal girders, effect- ively attached, are to be fitted

  6. 13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. (Also includes a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 3, dated April 5, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P28746. Various scales. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  8. Instrumentation and monitoring of segmental post-tensioned girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Roberto; Escobar, J. Alberto; Guerrero, Hector

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the failure of prefabricated segmental girders during their construction, and in order to evaluate the structural safety of the superstructures of three bridges, different activities of instrumentation, monitoring and mathematical modelling were performed. This paper presents the first stage of a study describing the tasks of instrumentation and monitoring of stresses in an isolated precast post-tensioned beam during the process of application of the tension loading, and before being placed in its final position. The main goal of this task was to confirm the transmission and distribution of stresses at segmental joints. Also, ambient vibration tests were carried out in different phases of tensioning, as well as in the final position of the girder. Recorded stories of accelerations are presented and fundamental periods of vibrating of the isolated girder are derived. The results of the measurements will be used for the calibration of mathematical models and simulation of different scenarios of loads and thus assess the structural safety of the different sections of the superstructures of the three bridges in question.

  9. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following: (1...

  10. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the hull...

  11. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the vessel must be afloat and ready for the following tests and inspections of the hull structure and its...

  12. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. ...

  13. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  14. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  15. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  16. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  17. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen

    2017-01-01

    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  18. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  19. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  20. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  1. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  3. Hydrodynamic Hull Damping (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Administration Mr. Alexander Malakhoff Mr. Thomas W. Allen Director, Structural Integrity Engineering Officer (N7) Subgroup ( SEA 55Y) MR" Sealift Command...1990 SSC-352 Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank by J. G. Kaufman and M. Prager 1990 SSC-353 Analysis of Wave Characteristics in Extreme Seas by...SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE is constituted to prosecute a research program to Improve the hull structures of ships and other marine structures by an

  4. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

  5. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of this...

  6. Hull Form Design and Optimization Tool Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Combatants • Unconventional Surface Combatants • Twin - Screw , Open-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single- Screw , Closed-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single...Waterplane Area Twin Hull TriSWACH – Trimaran Small Waterplane Area Center Hull UI – User Interface UNREP – Underway Replenishment Naval Surface...resistance prediction tool for SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) ships. An example of a SWATH ship is shown in Figure 11. The input files

  7. Multi-Hull Flow Visualization: An Investigation of Flow Visualization Techniques for Trimaran Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    flow on the surface of the hulls is boiled linseed oil mixed with artist’s paint. Particle Image Velocimetry is the recommended method for...hulls is boiled linseed oil mixed with artist’s paint. Particle Image Velocimetry is the recommended method for visualizing flow around the hulls...3 Artists’ Paint and Linseed Oil Mixture

  8. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  9. STUDY ON PRACTICAL USE OF DETECTION METHOD OF IMPACT FORCE USING BRIDGE GIRDER STRENGTH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, Norikazu; Sakamoto, Yasuhiko; Ikoma, Noboru

    When information of motor vehicle collision to a steel bridge girder of railway overbridge was received, the accident situation and degree of damage of the girder should be confirmed. However, there is a problem that a train service might be delayed due to time-consuming safety confirmation. Therefore, only to detect impact force inducing deformation, damage and movement of bridge girder, resulting into delay of train service, the strength of bridge girder and harmful impact force were calculated. Simultaneously, a system to detect the harmful impact force was developed and a tolerance for the detection was determined. From the above results, the method to detect the harmful impact force was developed and put into practical use.

  10. Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng

    2007-04-01

    We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.

  11. Development of Embedded EM Sensors for Estimating Tensile Forces of PSC Girder Bridges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-08-30

    The tensile force of pre-stressed concrete (PSC) girders is the most important factor for managing the stability of PSC bridges. The tensile force is induced using pre-stressing (PS) tendons of a PSC girder. Because the PS tendons are located inside of the PSC girder, the tensile force cannot be measured after construction using conventional NDT (non-destructive testing) methods. To monitor the induced tensile force of a PSC girder, an embedded EM (elasto-magnetic) sensor was proposed in this study. The PS tendons are made of carbon steel, a ferromagnetic material. The magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic specimen are changed according to the induced magnetic field, temperature, and induced stress. Thus, the tensile force of PS tendons can be estimated by measuring their magnetic properties. The EM sensor can measure the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials in the form of a B (magnetic density)-H (magnetic force) loop. To measure the B-H loop of a PS tendon in a PSC girder, the EM sensor should be embedded into the PSC girder. The proposed embedded EM sensor can be embedded into a PSC girder as a sheath joint by designing screw threads to connect with the sheath. To confirm the proposed embedded EM sensors, the experimental study was performed using a down-scaled PSC girder model. Two specimens were constructed with embedded EM sensors, and three sensors were installed in each specimen. The embedded EM sensor could measure the B-H loop of PS tendons even if it was located inside concrete, and the area of the B-H loop was proportionally decreased according to the increase in tensile force. According to the results, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of unrevealed PS tendons.

  12. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or... structure and its appurtenances, including the following: (1) Inspection of all accessible parts of the...

  13. John Hull and the Money Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  14. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  15. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  16. John Hull and the Money Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  17. Hull-form optimization of a container ship based on bell-shaped modification function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hee Jong

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a hydrodynamic hull-form optimization algorithm for a container ship was presented in terms of the minimum wave-making resistance. Bell-shaped modification functions were developed to modify the original hull-form and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was used as an optimizer. The wave-making resistance as an objective function was obtained by the Rankine source panel method in which non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship were fully taken into account. Numerical computation was performed to investigate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed hull-form modification algorithm for the container carrier. The computational results were validated by comparing them with the experimental data.

  18. Evaluation of corn fiber, cottonseed hulls, oat hulls and soybean hulls as roughage sources for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J T; Faulkner, D B; Garleb, K A; Barclay, R A; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1987-07-01

    An in situ trial (randomized complete block design) using cows, and a site and extent of digestion trial (Latin square design) using sheep were conducted to study the potential of corn fiber (CF), cottonseed hulls (CSH), oat hulls (OH) and soybean hulls (SH) as roughage sources for ruminants. Two feedlot trials with steers and one with lambs (completely randomized design with factorial arrangements of treatments) were conducted to study the potential of CF and SH as energy supplements relative to corn. In situ rate of ruminal dry matter (DM) disappearance (3 to 36 h) and extent of DM disappearance (36 h) indicated that CF and SH were more fermentable in the rumen compared with OH or CSH, with SH being the most fermentable. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were above 70% for sheep fed CF and SH diets, and were 50% or less for sheep fed OH and CSH diets. A ranking of by-products in terms of nutritive value followed the trend: CF greater than SH greater than OH greater than CSH. Lamb feedlot trial data showed that CF was of similar nutritive value to corn and of higher nutritive value than SH at the 50% level of supplementation. Corn-fed lambs responded better than CF- or SH-fed lambs at the 70% level of supplementation. Data from steer feedlot trials showed that CF was of similar quality to corn and of higher quality than SH. Dramatic differences exist in by-product feed utilization by ruminants. All by-products tested appeared to have some usefulness as dietary components.

  19. Design Optimization and Structural Performance Evaluation of Plate Girder Bridge Constructed Using a Turn-Over Process

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Gi-Ha; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay

    2017-01-01

    A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the “preflex” method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO) wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper. PMID:28772644

  20. Design Optimization and Structural Performance Evaluation of Plate Girder Bridge Constructed Using a Turn-Over Process.

    PubMed

    Eom, Gi-Ha; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay

    2017-03-13

    A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the "preflex" method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO) wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  1. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  2. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  3. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  4. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  5. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  6. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  7. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

  8. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to...

  9. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 115.655 Section 115.655... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.655 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer...

  10. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a hull...

  11. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 176.655 Section 176.655... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.655 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE...

  12. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b...

  13. Bridge maintenance to enhance corrosion resistance and performance of steel girder bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran Yanez, Luis M.

    The integrity and efficiency of any national highway system relies on the condition of the various components. Bridges are fundamental elements of a highway system, representing an important investment and a strategic link that facilitates the transport of persons and goods. The cost to rehabilitate or replace a highway bridge represents an important expenditure to the owner, who needs to evaluate the correct time to assume that cost. Among the several factors that affect the condition of steel highway bridges, corrosion is identified as the main problem. In the USA corrosion is the primary cause of structurally deficient steel bridges. The benefit of regular high-pressure superstructure washing and spot painting were evaluated as effective maintenance activities to reduce the corrosion process. The effectiveness of steel girder washing was assessed by developing models of corrosion deterioration of composite steel girders and analyzing steel coupons at the laboratory under atmospheric corrosion for two alternatives: when high-pressure washing was performed and when washing was not considered. The effectiveness of spot painting was assessed by analyzing the corrosion on steel coupons, with small damages, unprotected and protected by spot painting. A parametric analysis of corroded steel girder bridges was considered. The emphasis was focused on the parametric analyses of corroded steel girder bridges under two alternatives: (a) when steel bridge girder washing is performed according to a particular frequency, and (b) when no bridge washing is performed to the girders. The reduction of structural capacity was observed for both alternatives along the structure service life, estimated at 100 years. An economic analysis, using the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis method, demonstrated that it is more cost-effective to perform steel girder washing as a scheduled maintenance activity in contrast to the no washing alternative.

  14. Improvements to the AFWL HULL Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Entered) ~n RPORTDOCUENTAION AGEREAD DESTRUCtIONS REOT OUMNATO PG BEFORE COMPLETDMG FrORN 1, REPOR7,-NU 1BER GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 . RECIPIENTS CA...ALOG NUMBER / N& 535F LLA~--O 6 4. TITLE d Su.btitle) 5. TYPE 9,F RMORT 6 PERIOD0 COVE.RED, I R1PROVEMENTS TO THlE AFWL HULL CODE 21 aAgust97o- 3 P rod 97...HYDROCODE ..................................... 10 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF FCT IN HULL .......................... 13 3.1 HULL PHASES

  15. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis. PMID:25180203

  16. Acoustic emission monitoring of multicell reinforced concrete box girders subjected to torsion.

    PubMed

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.

  17. Hull's Diploma in Teaching of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styler, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A diploma in the Teaching of Adults for part-time students was introduced in the University of Hull in 1966 as a fully recognized university diploma. Article discusses the three major parts of the course, examinations, and requirements. (RB)

  18. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  19. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  20. Neural networks for convex hull computation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y; Zhang, J S; Xu, Z B

    1997-01-01

    Computing convex hull is one of the central problems in various applications of computational geometry. In this paper, a convex hull computing neural network (CHCNN) is developed to solve the related problems in the N-dimensional spaces. The algorithm is based on a two-layered neural network, topologically similar to ART, with a newly developed adaptive training strategy called excited learning. The CHCNN provides a parallel online and real-time processing of data which, after training, yields two closely related approximations, one from within and one from outside, of the desired convex hull. It is shown that accuracy of the approximate convex hulls obtained is around O[K(-1)(N-1/)], where K is the number of neurons in the output layer of the CHCNN. When K is taken to be sufficiently large, the CHCNN can generate any accurate approximate convex hull. We also show that an upper bound exists such that the CHCNN will yield the precise convex hull when K is larger than or equal to this bound. A series of simulations and applications is provided to demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  1. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  2. Application and characterization of intracore grating sensors in a CFRP prestressed concrete girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavie, A. Tino; Maaskant, Robert; Ohn, Myo M.; Rizkalla, Sami; Measures, Raymond M.

    1994-05-01

    Intracore Bragg grating sensors have been bonded on to the CFRP tendons of a prestressed concrete girder. The sensors survived both the installation procedure and casting of the concrete beam. Sensor performance is characterized in terms of maximum tensile strength and fatigue behavior. The fiber sensors survived strains of greater than 8000 (mu) (epsilon) and showed no change in either center wavelength or spectral content for 2000 (mu) (epsilon) over 320,000 cycles. The intracore grating sensor was used in a static loading test of the girder to failure and showed excellent stability and durability in comparison with the conventional technology.

  3. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  4. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely... hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60 months (5 years). (d) At least 60 days...

  5. 19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE OF HULL, APPARENTLY ADDED TO PREVENT HOGGING. - Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  7. 50. Roanoke River Bridge. This 1,028 six span, steel girder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Roanoke River Bridge. This 1,028 six span, steel girder bridge, built in 1963, is the longest of its type on the parkway. this view is of its west elevation. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. A new solution of measuring thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-08-01

    This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges.

  9. The shear-lag effect of thin-walled box girder under vertical earthquake excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zhipeng; Li, Yaozhuang; Guo, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The variation method based on the energy variation principle is proved to be accurate and valid for analyzing the shear lag effect of box girder under static and dynamic load. Meanwhile, dynamic problems gradually become the key factors in engineering practice. Therefore, a method for calculating the shear lag effect in thin-walled box girder under vertical seismic excitation is proposed by applying Hamilton Principle in this paper. The Timoshenko shear deformation is taken into account. And a new definition of shear lag ratio for box girder is given. What's more, some conclusions are drawn by analysis of numerical example. The results show that small amplitude of earthquake ground motion can generate high stress and obvious shear lag, especially in the region of resonance. And the influence of rotary inertia cannot be ignored for analyzing the shear lag effect. With the increase of span to width ratio, shear lag effect becomes smaller and smaller. These research conclusions will be useful for the engineering practice and enrich the theoretical studies of box girders.

  10. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  12. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  13. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  14. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  15. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  16. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements of... for the purposes of sale, must identify that boat with two hull identification numbers that meet the...

  17. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements of... for the purposes of sale, must identify that boat with two hull identification numbers that meet the...

  18. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  1. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  2. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  3. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  9. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  10. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  11. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  12. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...

  13. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  14. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general average...

  15. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the emergency...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 71.50-29 Section 71.50-29... CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-29 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  17. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery...

  18. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull...

  19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  20. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  1. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength. ...

  2. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  3. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength. ...

  4. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength. ...

  5. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  6. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength. ...

  7. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  8. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  9. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  10. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  11. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  13. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  14. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  15. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  16. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength....

  17. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  18. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND..., running rigging, blocks, fittings, and sails; (4) Inspection of all railings and bulwarks and...

  19. Convex Hull Aided Registration Method (CHARM).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yitian; Ai, Danni; Liu, Yonghuai; Wang, Ge; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-08-31

    Non-rigid registration finds many applications such as photogrammetry, motion tracking, model retrieval, and object recognition. In this paper we propose a novel convex hull aided registration method (CHARM) to match two point sets subject to a non-rigid transformation. Firstly, two convex hulls are extracted from the source and target respectively. Then, all points of the point sets are projected onto the reference plane through each triangular facet of the hulls. From these projections, invariant features are extracted and matched optimally. The matched feature point pairs are mapped back onto the triangular facets of the convex hulls to remove outliers that are outside any relevant triangular facet. The rigid transformation from the source to the target is robustly estimated by the random sample consensus (RANSAC) scheme through minimizing the distance between the matched feature point pairs. Finally, these feature points are utilized as the control points to achieve nonrigid deformation in the form of thin-plate spline of the entire source point set towards the target one. The experimental results based on both synthetic and real data show that the proposed algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art ones with respect to sampling, rotational angle, and data noise. In addition, the proposed CHARM algorithm also shows higher computational efficiency compared to these methods.

  20. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  1. Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza

    The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel

  2. Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, O. Fatih

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.

  3. Development of a baseline model for a steel girder bridge using remote sensing and load tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Chen, Shen-En; Scott, Jeremy; Schmieder, Marcus; Liu, Wanqiu; Hauser, Edd

    2011-04-01

    A new skewed two span continuous steel girder bridge was constructed and opened to traffic recently. This bridge uses high performance steel (HPS 100W) in the flanges of the negative moment region over the intermediate pier. For construction verification and long-term structural health monitoring purposes, a finite element (FE) model was developed for the bridge superstructure. Various field tests were performed to verify the model: 1) LiDAR scan, 2) static truck load tests, and 3) Laser doppler vibrometer testing. LiDAR scanner was introduced to gain geometrical information of the bridge in the real world. It was also used to measure girder deflections during load tests. The fundamental frequency of the bridge vibration was obtained by using a Laser doppler vibrometer. Both dynamic and static measurements are then used to update the FE model. This valid bridge superstructure FE model was provided to local DOT bridge engineers with the completion of this study.

  4. Prestress-force monitoring of PSC girder bridges using wireless impedance sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Lee, So-Young; Hong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a technique using wireless impedance sensor node and interface washer is proposed to monitor prestressforce in PSC girder bridges. In order to achieve the goal, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, a wireless impedance sensor node is designed for automated and cost-efficient prestress-force monitoring. Secondly, an impedance-based algorithm is embedded in the wireless impedance sensor node for autonomous prestress-force monitoring. Thirdly, a prestress-force monitoring technique using an interface washer is proposed to overcome limitations of the wireless impedance sensor node such as measureable frequency ranges with narrow band. Finally, the feasibility and applicability of the proposed technique are evaluated in a lab-scaled PSC girder model for which several prestress-loss scenarios are experimentally monitored by the wireless impedance sensor node.

  5. Energy dissipation and absorption capacity influence on experimental modal parameters of a PC girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Vera, O. S.; Kim, C. W.; Oshima, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This experimental investigation focuses on collecting vibration data after different loading scenarios in a PC girder while measuring the performance at the same time. The vibration data is used for modal analysis and since several samples were taken in each scenario with different impact hammer tips, a comparison of the outcomes is also possible. The performance is based on recorded displacements along the bottom surface of the girder, information that makes possible the calculation of energy absorbed before cracking and the energy dissipation that takes place after cracking. Furthermore, two major damage events, a tendon breakage and cracking, were induced and monitored respectively. This study also clarified the influence of change in energy on changes in modal parameters.

  6. Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov. (Polycladida, Acotylea, Platyhelminthes): A possible case of transoceanic dispersal on a ship's hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.; Gollasch, S.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1993, the car carrier “Faust” entered Bremerhaven after a voyage from the North-American Atlantic coast to Europe. In a dockyard, five living specimens of the order Polycladida were collected from the hull of the ship. This could be a possible case of trans-atlantic dispersal of plathelminths living as fouling organisms of ships. The specimens found represent a new species of the genus Cryptostylochus Faubel, 1983, Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov.

  7. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure-Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Cristian Boffo et al.

    2004-07-07

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  8. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure - Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C

    2004-07-16

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  9. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  10. Convex hull test for ordered categorical data.

    PubMed

    Berger, V W; Permutt, T; Ivanova, A

    1998-12-01

    When testing for stochastic order in ordered 2 x J contingency tables, it is common to select the cutoff required to declare significance so as to ensure that the size of the test is exactly alpha conditionally on the margins. It is valid, however, to use the margins to select not only the cutoff but also the form of the test. Linear rank tests, which are locally most powerful and frequently used in practice, suffer from the drawback that they may have power as low as zero to detect some alternatives of interest when the margins satisfy certain conditions. The Smirnov and convex hull tests are shown, through exact conditional power calculations and simulations, to avoid this drawback. The convex hull test is also admissible and palindromic invariant and minimizes the required significance level to have limiting power of one as the alternative moves away from the null in any direction.

  11. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

  12. Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Charles Kennan

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially

  13. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...pure yaw angles of 0 ◦, 10 ◦ and 18 ◦. The model is used to develop equations for sway-force and yaw-moment coefficients which relate to the hull- form

  14. Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

    Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general

  15. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings internally during the... representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual hull condition...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings internally during the hull condition... focus on areas at higher risk of damage or corrosion and must include a representative sampling of hull...

  17. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

  18. Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... available for a limited number of diseases, including cystic fibrosis , fragile X syndrome , sickle cell disease , and Tay– ... are already pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have ...

  19. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1924-01-01

    This report describes the new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airship, which was used in the investigation of the navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose. It presents the general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned, and an attempt has been made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics without reference to some of the modern highly developed conceptions, which may not yet be thoroughly known to readers uninitiated into modern aerodynamics, and which may, perhaps, for all time remain restricted to a small number of specialists.

  20. Monitoring cracks and prestress-loss in PSC girder bridges using vibration-based damage detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Ryu, Yeon-Sun; Lee, Jung-Mi

    2007-04-01

    In this study, a vibration-based method to simultaneously predict prestress-loss and flexural crack in PSC girder bridges is presented. Prestress-loss and flexural crack are two typical, but quite different in nature, types of damage which can be occurred in PSC girder bridges. The following approaches are implemented to achieve the objective. Firstly, two vibration-based damage detection techniques which can predict prestress-loss and flexural crack are described. The techniques are prestress-loss prediction model and mode-shape-based crack detection method. In order to verify the feasibility and practicality of the techniques, two different lab tests are performed. A free-free beam with external unbonded tendons is used to verify the feasibility of the prestress-loss prediction model. In additional, a PSC girder with an internal unbonded tendon is used to evaluate the practicality of the prestress-loss prediction model and the mode-shape- based crack detection method.

  1. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull identification numbers required. (a) A manufacturer must identify each boat produced or imported with primary and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification numbers...

  2. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull identification numbers required. (a) A manufacturer must identify each boat produced or imported with primary and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification numbers...

  3. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull identification numbers required. (a) A manufacturer must identify each boat produced or imported with primary and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification numbers...

  4. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the product...

  5. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the product...

  6. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the product...

  7. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the product...

  8. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  9. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  10. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  11. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  12. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  13. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. ...

  14. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  15. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... saddle reaction shall be used in the tank design calculations required by § 151.15-2(b)(3). (i... maximum hull and tank bending moments and tank saddle reactions. (ii) All independent tank...

  16. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  17. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this...

  18. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings above...

  19. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. ...

  20. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  1. Processed oat hulls as potential dietary fiber sources in rats.

    PubMed

    López-Guisa, J M; Harned, M C; Dubielzig, R; Rao, S C; Marlett, J A

    1988-08-01

    Processed oat hull products were evaluated as potential dietary fiber sources. Three levels, 5, 10 and 15%, of processed oat hulls, bleached oat hulls or oat hulls coated with starch, were added to purified diets and fed to groups of rats for 6 wk. Control diets consisted of 5, 10 or 15% alpha-cellulose or commercial nonpurified diet. None of the oat hull products at the three levels tested had any negative effect on rat growth. Fresh and dry fecal weights increased linearly as the concentration of dietary fiber increased and were highly correlated with fiber intake (r = 0.95). Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in all diets was low and apparent calcium absorption was not consistently affected by any diet. None of the oat hull test diets lowered plasma or hepatic cholesterol levels, a finding consistent with the failure to detect mixed-linkage beta-glucans in any of the processed oat hull products. Detailed analysis of the processed oat hull fibers also indicated that they were greater than 95% insoluble fiber and high in cellulose and xylans. Light-microscopy histology of kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon was normal. The extent of hepatocellular destruction produced by the cholesterol (1%) and cholic acid (0.2%) added to the diet to induce hypocholesterolemia was independent of the kind and amount of dietary fiber.

  2. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  3. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

  4. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  5. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  6. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  7. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  8. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  9. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Stiffeners on Shear-resistant Plate-girder Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L

    1942-01-01

    The results of 60 different tests on 2 aluminum alloy 17S-T plate girders are presented to show the influence of size and spacing of stiffeners upon the buckling characteristics of shear-resistant webs within the elastic range. It is demonstrated that stiffeners increase the stability of a web by retarding the formation subdivided panels. An empirical method of proportioning stiffeners is proposed which recognizes both of these stiffener functions, and comparisons are made with design procedures based upon theoretical considerations of the buckling problem. Also, some experimental data are provided to show the effect of stiffener size and spacing upon ultimate web strengths.

  10. Effect of the hull fraction on the beta-glucan contents of barley and oat grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hull fraction of barley and oat grains affects the beta-glucan (BG) content in whole grains. To evaluate the impact of the hull fraction on BG content in various genetic backgrounds and growth conditions, BG contents were analyzed in five hulled barley lines, seven hulled oat lines, and one F2 ...

  11. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings internally during the hull condition... focus on areas at higher risk of damage or corrosion and must include a representative sampling of hull...

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings internally during the hull condition... focus on areas at higher risk of damage or corrosion and must include a representative sampling of hull...

  13. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings internally during the... representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual hull condition...

  14. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  15. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  16. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  17. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  18. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  19. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  20. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  1. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  2. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  3. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  4. 46 CFR 115.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.630 The Alternative Hull... hull examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI) who will oversee the survey...

  5. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying Certain Dangerous Bulk Cargoes § 32.63-5 Barge hull classifications—B...

  6. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, R

    1924-01-01

    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  7. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10...

  8. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10...

  9. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    PubMed

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  10. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-07-07

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators' safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system.

  11. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators’ safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710

  12. On displacement-based plastic design of parallel chord vierendeel girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorian, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The paper introduces the principles of displacement-based plastic design (DBPD) and its applications to the efficient design of parallel chord steel vierendeel girders under normal nodal forces. A simplifying assumption has been made that the mathematical model is composed of imaginary, pin connected modules that fit within the bays of the prototype. The use of this modeling concept in conjunction with the applications of the uniform strength theory leads to the development of an algorithm that is ideally suited for manual, minimum weight design of steel vierendeel girders under any distribution of vertical nodal forces. The resulting solutions are exact and unique and lend themselves well to DBPD and minimum weight treatment. In DBPD which is akin to performance control, member strengths and stiffnesses are assigned rather than tested. Several generic examples have been provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed design procedures. The numerical results of these examples have been verified through long hand and computer methods of analysis. An extensive proof of the proposed method of approach has been provided in the "Appendix".

  13. Notes on aerodynamic forces on airship hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuckerman, L B

    1923-01-01

    For a first approximation the air flow around the airship hull is assumed to obey the laws of perfect (i.e. free from viscosity) incompressible fluid. The flow is further assumed to be free from vortices (or rotational motion of the fluid). These assumptions lead to very great simplifications of the formulae used but necessarily imply an imperfect picture of the actual conditions. The value of the results depends therefore upon the magnitude of the forces produced by the disturbances in the flow caused by viscosity with the consequent production of vortices in the fluid. If these are small in comparison with the forces due to the assumed irrotational perfect fluid flow the results will give a good picture of the actual conditions of an airship in flight.

  14. The Lashley-Hull debate revisited.

    PubMed

    Bruce, D

    1998-02-01

    N. Weidman (1994) claimed that "Karl Lashley and Clark Hull had a long and unresolved controversy about the structure and function of the brain, its relationship to the mind, and the use of machine metaphors to explain intelligence" (p. 162). The record contained in published articles and unpublished correspondence indicates otherwise. The clash was explicitly about continuity versus noncontinuity in discrimination learning, stimulus generalization, and the development of quantitative and mathematical psychological theory and its relation to neurophysiological data. Weidman also contended that the subtext of the debate was whether heredity or environment was more important in determining intelligence and behavior. This is doubtful. It is more probable that the debate stemmed from Lashley's career-long opposition to connectionism.

  15. In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Smart Underwater Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Blazed Array” Sonar H. Johannsson, MIT SN‘s 4-18 ordered! 1. “Non-complex” area 2. “Complex” area In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1...Global SLAM (iSAM) Sonar imagery and SLAM, mesh, path planning In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its...Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its Components The task forms a rich and important robotics problem that spans

  16. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  17. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. 4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART IN THE ESSEX SHIPBUILDING MUSEUM SHIPYARD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  20. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  1. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  2. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  3. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  4. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  5. Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern Profile, Bow Profile, Loose Plate - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  7. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2015-09-01

    High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  9. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2015-05-01

    High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  10. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  11. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  12. Analytical Calculations of Fatigue Loading of Submarine Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    INTRODUCTION 7 2 . CURRENT RELEVANCE 11 3. SIMPLE STRUCTURES 11 4. YIELDING, BUCKLING AND SUBMARINE DESIGN 12 5. ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS OF SUBMARINE HULLS 17...CONCLUSION 58 8. REFERENCES 59 APPENDIX I - Von Sanden and Gunther (Ignoring End Pressure) 65 APPENDIX 2 - Von Sanden and Gunther (Including End Pressure) 67...transitions), at hull penetrations, and at other structural discontinuities such as bulkhead locations. I S ,- (a) German Type XXJ U-boat (b) British Oberon

  13. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  14. MODHLL: A Program for Modifying Computer Representations of Ship Hulls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    18 A.4.2 Changes which Affect z’(x) ....... ......................... 18 A.5 Printing Hull Characteristics...23 A.8.2 Changing the Data Point Errors. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... ... .. 23 A.8,3 .Cha.tgthe Stifness Weights ...hull Bi (z): the ith B-spline basis function of order 4 B,k(z): the ith B-spline basis function of order k ci: weights used in Gaussian quadrature D

  15. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  16. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    PubMed

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  17. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  18. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type), bulb shape (bulb height and size); and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type). WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  19. A compilation of research on self-consolidating concrete for prestressed bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Eduardo S.

    This thesis is composed of three research papers, for each paper a separate chapter is used, which investigates various aspects for the production of SCC utilizing materials available in the state of Wisconsin. Chapter one provides a summary of the current state-of-the-art and practice of technical documentation and specifications related to material properties and test methods for prestressed SCC bridge girders. Chapter two provides an experimental program designed to investigate the effect of material constituents on performance of SCC mixtures. From this experimental program specific mixture parameters were recommended for the application of SCC in Wisconsin DOT projects. Finally, chapter three consisted in monitoring samples of five SCC mixtures batched at three different precast plants from Wisconsin. Creep and shrinkage readings were taken for a period of 112 days to investigate the effect of specific mixture parameters of selected mixtures with performance desired by the Wisconsin DOT and precast plants. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Investigations of dynamic behavior of composite bridges with open web girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartopol'tsev, Andrei; Kartopol'tsev, Vladimir; Kolmakov, Boris

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents investigation of the dynamic behavior of composite bridges with open web girders. The bridge span is made of reinforced concrete layers with a metal pan underneath. The dynamic tests of the bridge structure are carried out using the multichannel vibrodiagnostic test kit for measuring the eigenfrequency. The software application LIRA is used to develop the finite element model (FEM) of the bridge after its mathematical simulation. The FE model is subjected to loads identical to the experimental ones, and the dynamic behavior of the bridge is simulated to measure the multimode eigenfrequences. A careful comparison between the calculations and experimental results shows good agreement for the investigated parameters of the bridge structure.

  1. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  2. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  3. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  4. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  5. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  6. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  7. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  8. Hydrogen carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  9. Effects of Masonex and forms of cottonseed hulls on dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernlund, S D; Harris, B; Van Horn, H H; Wilcox, C J

    1980-12-01

    Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows were in a 5 X 3 factorial partially balanced incomplete block design with three missing categories to study effects of different forms of cottonseed hulls and liquid supplements on milk production and composition. Roughages were regular cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat, pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls, and pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat. Liquid supplements were 8% Maxonex2 (hemicellulose extract) and 8% cane molasses. Control had no supplement. All rations were adjusted to contain 30% cottonseed hulls. Roughages with added fat gave total rations of 2.5% added fat (air dry). Least square means for daily intake of dry matter, milk yield, and fat percent were regular cottonseed hulls 21.6 kg, 20.3 kg, 3.37%; pelleted cottonseed hulls 20.3 kg, 21.4 kg, 3.06%; pelleted cottonseed hulls plus fat 20.1 kg, 21.1 kg, 2.51%; pelleted undelinted cottonseed plus fat 19.4 kg, 20.9 kg, 2.73%. Pelleted cottonseed hulls increased milk yield, decreased dry matter intake and milk fat percent, but did not affect milk fat yields. Rations with pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls resulted in higher milk fat percent and body weight than pelleted cottonseed hulls. Added fat decreased milk fat percent and yield because of high degree and unsaturation. Liquid treatments produced no detectable effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or fat percent.

  10. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  11. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2011-11-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  12. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  14. Regional differences in rice hulls supply for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural by-products are becoming an attractive substrate for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regional differences in the rice hulls using Escherichia coli KO11 for bioethanol production. The rice hulls coded Edirne were obtained from Thrace Region, and the rice hulls coded Izmir were obtained from Aegean Region in Turkey. Rice hulls were treated by dilute acid before using them as substrates. The cells were incubated on an orbital shaker at 160 rpm under 30 °C during 96 h of the fermentation period. It was found that the maximum yield of ethanol from sugar (0.44 g ethanol/g reducing sugar) was obtained with the substrate C/N ratio of 29.16 in Izmir medium. The main difference was the dominant carbon source available as a substrate. It was detected that glucose concentration was about 2.5 times higher in Izmir medium, whereas xylose concentration was about two times higher in Edirne medium. The different results obtained with rice hulls from different origins could depend on the type of paddy as well as different cultivation conditions. These findings provide a valuable indicator for identifying suitable agricultural waste materials to be used as substrates for bioethanol production.

  15. Computational study on turbulent flows around modern tanker hull forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wu-Joan; Kim, Do-Hyun; van, Suak-Ho

    2002-02-01

    To enhance the applicability of CFD techniques to the hull form design of modern commercial ships, an efficient and robust numerical method for turbulent flow calculation is developed. The preprocessor is composed of hull form presentation, surface mesh generation, and field grid generation. The finite-volume method is utilised to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three k- turbulence models, i.e., the standard k- model (SKE), the RNG-based k- model (RNG), and the realisable k- model (RKE), are evaluated to investigate the difference caused by the turbulence model. The developed numerical method is applied to two practical VLCC hull forms with the same forebody and the slightly different afterbodies in order to find out whether CFD can capture the difference of stern flow due to hull form variation. It is found that RKE successfully predict the strength and location of bilge vortex, while SKE and RNG fail. However, all three models can provide the right information on the nominal wake difference between two hull forms. Copyright

  16. Partwise cross-parameterization via nonregular convex hull domains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huai-Yu; Pan, Chunhong; Zha, Hongbin; Yang, Qing; Ma, Songde

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel partwise framework for cross-parameterization between 3D mesh models. Unlike most existing methods that use regular parameterization domains, our framework uses nonregular approximation domains to build the cross-parameterization. Once the nonregular approximation domains are constructed for 3D models, different (and complex) input shapes are transformed into similar (and simple) shapes, thus facilitating the cross-parameterization process. Specifically, a novel nonregular domain, the convex hull, is adopted to build shape correspondence. We first construct convex hulls for each part of the segmented model, and then adopt our convex-hull cross-parameterization method to generate compatible meshes. Our method exploits properties of the convex hull, e.g., good approximation ability and linear convex representation for interior vertices. After building an initial cross-parameterization via convex-hull domains, we use compatible remeshing algorithms to achieve an accurate approximation of the target geometry and to ensure a complete surface matching. Experimental results show that the compatible meshes constructed are well suited for shape blending and other geometric applications.

  17. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    PubMed

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P.pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  18. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings... include a representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual...

  19. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings... include a representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual...

  20. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  1. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  2. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  3. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means a...

  4. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means a...

  5. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  6. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  7. Distribution of total aflatoxins in milled fractions of hulled rice.

    PubMed

    Castells, Miren; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2007-04-04

    Two varieties of hulled rice artificially contaminated with aflatoxins at five different levels were processed by dehulling and polishing methods. Contamination levels ranged from 356 to 818 microg/kg and from 244 to 645 microg/kg in medium and long grain rice, respectively. After physical processing, four different milled fractions were obtained (hull, bran, polished broken grains, and polished whole kernels). The fractions were analyzed for total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were removed in fractions intended for human consumption (polished broken grains and polished whole kernels) at rates up to 97%. They were found throughout all fractions, but higher contamination levels were detected in hull and bran fractions than in unprocessed kernels and polished fractions. Regardless of the rice variety, the aflatoxin distribution pattern depended on the initial contamination level and type of milled fraction but not on the duration of polishing.

  8. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  10. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images PMID:16346424

  11. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

  12. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of the...

  13. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  14. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. PMID:22163590

  15. A sensor system for detection of hull surface defects.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  16. Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

  17. Soybean hulls as an alternative feed for horses.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J A; Moore, J A; Tyler, H D; Miller-Auwerda, P A

    2004-06-01

    Soybean hulls have been successfully fed to ruminant animals as an economical substitute for hay. This feedstuff is a source of highly digestible fiber that does not contain starch. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate soybean hulls as a replacement fiber in horse diets. Four cecally cannulated Quarter Horse geldings, aged 6 to 10 yr and averaging 502 kg, were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Diets consisted of alfalfa/bromegrass hay (14.4% CP, 58.1% NDF, 39.1% ADF; DM basis) with the replacement of either 0, 25, 50, or 75% (as-fed basis) unpelleted soybean hulls (13.1% CP, 60.6% NDF, 43.7% ADF; DM basis). Diets were offered at 1.8% of BW (DM) daily and body weights were measured weekly. Cecal samples (90 min after feeding) and total fecal collections (3 d) were taken at the end of each treatment period. Fecal collection bags were emptied every 6 h and 10% of the total amount was frozen for later analysis. Total cecal VFA production increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 70 mM to 109 mM as proportions of soybean hulls in diets increased. Proportions of propionate increased linearly (P < 0.01) with means of 15.7, 18.0, 16.6, and 21.9 mol/100 mol total VFA for the 0, 25, 50, and 75% soybean hulls diets respectively. Proportions of butyrate decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 5.3 to 3.9 mol/100 mol total VFA. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased linearly (P = 0.02) and cubically (P = 0.03) with means of 4.9, 4.2, 4.9, and 3.3. Apparent digestibility of DM (P = 0.95), OM (P = 0.70), NDF (P = 0.34), ADF (P = 0.31), cellulose (P = 0.93), and hemicellulose (P = 0.25) did not differ among treatments. Apparent digestibility of N decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as concentrations of soybean hulls increased in the diet, and this response was associated with increased cecal fermentation and microbial biomass production. Cecal pH decreased linearly (P = 0.01) from 7.00 to 6.45 as the level of soybean hulls increased, but there was no change (P = 0.68 for

  18. Algorithm for detecting human faces based on convex-hull.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsick; Park, Chang-Woo; Park, Mignon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2002-03-25

    In this paper, we proposed a new method to detect faces in color based on the convex-hull. We detect two kinds of regions that are skin and hair likeness region. After preprocessing, we apply the convex-hull to their regions and can find a face from their intersection relationship. The proposed algorithm can accomplish face detection in an image involving rotated and turned faces as well as several faces. To validity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we make experiment with various cases.

  19. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  1. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  2. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  3. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  4. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  6. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... examination to include an underwater hull examination using divers. If an underwater examination is required... representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual hull condition... validity of its contents. (c) You must submit your preventive maintenance reports or checklists on an...

  7. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  8. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  9. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  10. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  11. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  12. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must conduct an internal examination and take random hull gaugings... include a representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual...

  13. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  14. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  15. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  16. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  17. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  20. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  2. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  3. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate in...

  4. 46 CFR 45.135 - Hull openings at or below freeboard deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. 45.135 Section 45.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.135 Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. Closures for hull...

  5. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... apply to the AHE Program. You must submit an application at least 90 days before the requested hull...

  6. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings. (b...

  7. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must...

  8. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat or...

  9. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    PubMed

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  10. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  11. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or...) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete the...

  12. 46 CFR 167.15-27 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 167.15-27... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-27 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used... slipway for an examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be...

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be...

  16. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. Each hull...

  17. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. Each hull...

  18. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. Each hull...

  19. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  20. Monitoring a post-tensioned concrete box girder bridge with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Jinsuk; Cao, Yinghong; Wang, Ming L.

    2009-03-01

    It is a rare opportunity to monitor a damaged structure due to extensive cracking. The progress of cracks is of primary concern for maintenance. However, it is difficult to distinguish the extension due to structural degradation from temperature to traffic. A Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) was installed in a PC box-girder bridge in order to monitor the crack development. This SHMS has continuously worked for 7 years. The temperature and traffic load patterns were deduced from raw data by using correlation techniques. Although, crack opening displacement (COD) due to temperature of daily and yearly seasonal cycles is much larger than the COD due to trucks, the overall fatigue effect due to traffic is much larger than the temperature effect because of its sheer numbers, about 3000 per day. Overweight trucks are usually allowed with permit in major interstate highway. However, frequency change due to local fatigue of crack is negligible. This research can be helpful to explain why frequency is insensitive to local damage.

  1. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  2. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  3. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  5. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  6. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  7. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  8. Supporting Schools with Loss: 'Lost for Words' in Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on efforts in Hull, England, to better train teachers to manage bereaved children. Evaluation following training shows an increased level of trained staff in schools, more use of policies and procedures, and a higher level of individuals in schools having responsibility for responses to bereavement. (Contains eight references.)…

  9. Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

  10. Online support vector machine based on convex hull vertices selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Min

    2013-04-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) method, as a promising classification technique, has been widely used in various fields due to its high efficiency. However, SVM cannot effectively solve online classification problems since, when a new sample is misclassified, the classifier has to be retrained with all training samples plus the new sample, which is time consuming. According to the geometric characteristics of SVM, in this paper we propose an online SVM classifier called VS-OSVM, which is based on convex hull vertices selection within each class. The VS-OSVM algorithm has two steps: 1) the samples selection process, in which a small number of skeleton samples constituting an approximate convex hull in each class of the current training samples are selected and 2) the online updating process, in which the classifier is updated with newly arriving samples and the selected skeleton samples. From the theoretical point of view, the first d+1 (d is the dimension of the input samples) selected samples are proved to be vertices of the convex hull. This guarantees that the selected samples in our approach keep the greatest amount of information of the convex hull. From the application point of view, the new algorithm can update the classifier without reducing its classification performance. Experimental results on benchmark data sets have shown the validity and effectiveness of the VS-OSVM algorithm.

  11. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  12. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  13. Supporting Schools with Loss: 'Lost for Words' in Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on efforts in Hull, England, to better train teachers to manage bereaved children. Evaluation following training shows an increased level of trained staff in schools, more use of policies and procedures, and a higher level of individuals in schools having responsibility for responses to bereavement. (Contains eight references.)…

  14. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  15. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  16. Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in Lake Superior. The tender ran aground on rocks several months earlier and was battered by winter storms. The wrecked vessel became part of an underwater preserve and is regularly visited by recreational divers - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter MESQUITE, Charlevoix, Charlevoix County, MI

  17. Small scale rice hull gas producer-gasoline engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Creamer, K.S.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.; Chancellor, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, a unique rice hull gas producer fueled a 3.7 kW, single cylinder, gasoline engine. At 3600 RPM and WOT, the engine developed 43% of the rated power on gasoline. Brake thermal efficiency was 16.8%. System thermal efficiency was 9.4%. Optimal spark advance for producer gas was 23/sup 0/.

  18. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  20. GPR signal analysis of post-tensioned prestressed concrete girder defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Weng, Changnian; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Meng, Xu; Lei, Linlin

    2013-06-01

    The accurate inspection of the duct condition in post-tensioned prestressed concrete (PPC) is an essential part of GPR concrete inspection. The purpose is to inspect the grouting condition of the ducts where the strands are located, to find out if there is a void in the ducts, and if any water exists. In order to investigate the radar image characteristics of different PPC duct defects, a number of model girders were manufactured. Three major ducts are included in our study: (1) well grouted and no void (normal condition); (2) the duct is half filled, and the void is filled by water or air; and (3) the duct is not filled at all, and the duct is water or air filled. The data corresponding to seven different situations are acquired and processed. It is found that the radar can detect the first interface in the duct, and the detailed structure inside the duct cannot be ‘seen’ from the images directly. Characteristic curves greatly help the interpretation. A completely void duct is the easiest to differentiate from the others. The signature for this situation is characterized by a strong and clear reflection interface which becomes weaker as the void is water filled. The normal condition shows the weakest reflection interface. As for the half void situation, the front scan shows a similar result to the normal condition whether it is water or air filled, and the back scan shows similar features to the completely void situation. The experiment and analysis is helpful and instructive for practical engineering inspection.

  1. Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Pran, K.; Sagvolden, G.; Havsgård, G. B.; Jensen, A. E.; Johnson, G. A.; Vohra, S. T.

    2001-06-01

    We discuss the need for ship hull monitoring and the roles such a system may fill during the different stages of a ship's lifetime. We have found that fibre optic sensors are well suited for this application and present the fibre Bragg grating technology that has been employed in the composite hull embedded sensor system project (CHESS). Signal processing is the key to real-time structure monitoring, and we comment on the modular signal processing system that is being developed at FFI. Finally we present the CHESS installation on a new Norwegian naval vessel and show some results obtained with this system in systematic sea-keeping tests. The CHESS measurements on the new Norwegian fast patrol boat have been instrumental in the design verification of the vessel.

  2. Terrestrial laser scanning used to detect asymmetries in boat hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; López-Alvarez, Francisco; Ordóñez, Celestino; Menéndez, Agustín; Bernardo-Sánchez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying asymmetries in boat hull sections reconstructed from point clouds captured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A surface was first fit to the point cloud using a nonparametric regression method that permitted the construction of a continuous smooth surface. Asymmetries in cross-sections of the surface were identified using a bootstrap resampling technique that took into account uncertainty in the coordinates of the scanned points. Each reconstructed section was analyzed to check, for a given level of significance, that it was within the confidence interval for the theoretical symmetrical section. The method was applied to the study of asymmetries in a medium-sized yacht. Identified were differences of up to 5 cm between the real and theoretical sections in some parts of the hull.

  3. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil).

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  6. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.

    PubMed

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2011-10-01

    Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized.

  7. Metalclad Airship Hull Study. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    functipning .in, harmony with elastic deformations of the skiA and are h’ghly.. red •,ndant both, in loading (since they are continuoas.,qircular beams) as... perimetral stations, the apex cornice will not require reinforcement. The frame can be reduced in height all along its perimeter from its present structural...sealed off by thin flat sheet, spot welded to corrugations. The inner perimetral corridor within each main frame is gas tight and contains air under hull

  8. A Single Vehicle Solution for Hull Inspection and Harbor Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    harbor surveys and ship hull inspections in support of port security operations. Figure 1. REMUS 100 Duct Thruster UUV with multibeam sonar...Marine Sonic Technology dual frequency (900/1800 kHz) side scan sonar and a Blueview forward looking multibeam sonar. The side scan integration required...forward look multibeam . A second module was built N00014-08-1-0109 Page 3 for the Blueview dual frequency (900/2250 kHz) multibeam . Software for

  9. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Original signed by Liam Gannon Liam Gannon Defence Scientist Approved by Original signed by Neil Pegg Neil Pegg Head/Warship Performance Approved...pressure is examined and different methods of modelling the casting within the pressure hull are evaluated. The loss of strength caused by corrosion... pratique , l’augmentation de la charge de rupture de la coque touchée par la corrosion peut atteindre 19 %, pour un amincissement de 20 % du bordé

  10. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of rice hull polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Chan; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2015-06-25

    Rice hulls (Oryza sativa) are high in carbohydrate content and have been utilized as dietary fiber. The immunomodulatory bioactivity of rice hull polysaccharides (RHPS) has rarely been reported. This study demonstrated the structural characteristics and immunomodulating of RHPS. The RHPS were fractioned using DEAE-650M column, producing one neutral and 3 acidic polysaccharide fractions. RHPS were examined using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, NMR and GC-MS for structural characteristics. The results showed that RHPS consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose in ratios of 10:44.8:29.8:9.3:6.1 and comprised (1→3)-Gal as backbone, and its average molecular weight was 77kDa. The presence of type II arabinogalactan (AGII) was confirmed through LM2-ELISA and Yariv gel diffusion showed the RHPS had AGII features. This study examined the immunomodulatory effects of orally administering RHPS in vivo. The RHPS increased the cytotoxicity of splenic natural killer cells, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine inductions. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide from rice hulls and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  12. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  13. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, A.; Pacuraru, F.

    2010-08-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  14. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang

    2016-12-01

    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  15. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribou, Melissa Eileen

    Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

  16. Selective voting in convex-hull ensembles improves classification accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Kodell, Ralph L.; Zhang, Chuanlei; Siegel, Eric R.; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Classification algorithms can be used to predict risks and responses of patients based on genomic and other high-dimensional data. While there is optimism for using these algorithms to improve the treatment of diseases, they have yet to demonstrate sufficient predictive ability for routine clinical practice. They generally classify all patients according to the same criteria, under an implicit assumption of population homogeneity. The objective here is to allow for population heterogeneity, possibly unrecognized, in order to increase classification accuracy and further the goal of tailoring therapies on an individualized basis. Methods and materials Anew selective-voting algorithm is developed in the context of a classifier ensemble of two-dimensional convex hulls of positive and negative training samples. Individual classifiers in the ensemble are allowed to vote on test samples only if those samples are located within or behind pruned convex hulls of training samples that define the classifiers. Results Validation of the new algorithm’s increased accuracy is carried out using two publicly available datasets having cancer as the outcome variable and expression levels of thousands of genes as predictors. Selective voting leads to statistically significant increases in accuracy from 86.0% to 89.8% (p < 0.001) and 63.2% to 67.8% (p < 0.003) compared to the original algorithm. Conclusion Selective voting by members of convex-hull classifier ensembles significantly increases classification accuracy compared to one-size-fits-all approaches. PMID:22064044

  17. Effects of bottom bracings on torsional dynamic characteristics of horizontally curved twin I-girder bridges with different curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awall, Md. Robiul; Hayashikawa, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; He, Xingwen

    2012-03-01

    Curved twin I-girder bridges (CTIGBs) have low torsional stiffness that makes them vulnerable to dynamic loads. This study investigates the effects of bottom bracings on the torsional dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs. Five types of bottom bracings are designed to investigate their effects on the dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs with different curvatures under free and forced vibrations. To perform numerical investigations, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) bridge and vehicle models are established using commercial ANSYS code, and then a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis approach is proposed. Road roughness profiles generated from power spectral density and cross spectral functions are also taken into account in the analyses. The numerical results show that torsional frequencies increase significantly after providing bottom bracings, and the increasing rate depends on the type of bottom bracings and their locations of installation. Bottom bracings can act as load transmitting members from one main girder to the others. Large negative bearing forces that have occurred in bridges with small radii of curvatures can be remarkably reduced by providing bottom bracing systems. It is found that the performances of several bottom bracing systems are effective in improving the torsional dynamic characteristics of the bridges in this study.

  18. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2012-06-01

    A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing

  19. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

  20. SUBHUL: Submarine Pressure Hull Finite Element Model Generator. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    pressure hull, on the other hand, must withstand the hydrostatic pressure at the design diving depth. Within the fairings are the ballast tanks ...Figure 2.2). On older designs ballast tanks increase the overall diameter. In modern submarines the pressure hull is locally reduced in diameter to...External Ballast Tanks BALLAST TANK FAIRING SECTION A-A EXTERNAL BALLAST TANKS PRESSURE HULL FAIRING Figure 2.3 Ballast Tanks Formed by Local

  1. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1998, is the vessel is 37 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 42 years old or older and has... sides; (v) After January 1, 1999, if the vessel is 32 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 37... a single hull, or is 32 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; (x) After...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1998, is the vessel is 37 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 42 years old or older and has... sides; (v) After January 1, 1999, if the vessel is 32 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 37... a single hull, or is 32 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; (x) After...

  3. Genetic control of a transition from black to straw-white seed hull in rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Jinjie; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-03-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication.

  4. Carrier-mediated electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steven P; Fyles, Thomas M

    2011-06-14

    Supported liquid membranes containing valinomycin or a calix[4]arene carrier can support electrodialysis under an imposed transmembrane potential. Under optimal conditions both transmembrane flux and carrier-based cation selectivity are enhanced relative to simple dialysis mediated by the same carriers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Tyramine-modified pectins via periodate oxidation for soybean hull peroxidase induced hydrogel formation and immobilization.

    PubMed

    Prokopijevic, Milos; Prodanovic, Olivera; Spasojevic, Dragica; Kovacevic, Gordana; Polovic, Natalija; Radotic, Ksenija; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2017-03-01

    Pectin was modified by oxidation with sodium periodate at molar ratios of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% and reductive amination with tyramine and sodium cyanoborohydride afterwards. Concentration of tyramine groups within modified pectin ranged from 54.5 to 538 μmol/g of dry pectin while concentration of ionizable groups ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 mmol/g of dry polymer compared to 1.5 mmol/g before modification due to the introduction of amino group. All tyramine-pectins showed exceptional gelling properties and could form hydrogel both by cross-linking of carboxyl groups with calcium or by cross-linking phenol groups with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These hydrogels were tested as carriers for soybean hull peroxidase (SHP) immobilization within microbeads formed in an emulsion based enzymatic polymerization reaction. SHP immobilized within tyramine-pectin microbeads had an increased thermal and organic solvent stability compared to the soluble enzyme. Immobilized SHP was more active in acidic pH region and had slightly decreased K m value of 2.61 mM compared to the soluble enzyme. After 7 cycles of repeated use in batch reactor for pyrogallol oxidation microbeads, immobilized SHP retained half of the initial activity.

  6. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  7. The xylose-rich pectins from pea hulls.

    PubMed

    Renard, C M; Weightman, R M; Thibault, J F

    1997-08-01

    The hot acid extract of pea hull, HSP, was rich in galacturonic acid, arabinose and xylose. It was fractionated by copper precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The copper-soluble fraction represented 26% of HSP and was mostly composed of an arabinan with a low degree of branching, some heteroxylans and a glucan, probably starch. The copper-precipitate (74% of HSP) contained pectins and some residual arabinan, xylan, glucan and mannan. One of the pectic fractions was rich in terminal xylose and fucose; it could be partially degraded by endo-polygalacturonase but not by endo-xylanase and seemed to contain xylogalacturonans.

  8. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Aerodynamically Refined Planing-Tail Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Suydam, Henry B.

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of an aerodynamically refined planing-tail hull were determined from dynamic model tests in Langley tank no. 2. Stable take-off could be made for a wide range of locations of the center of gravity. The lower porpoising limit peak was high, but no upper limit was encountered. Resistance was high, being about the same as that of float seaplanes. A reasonable range of trims for stable landings was available only in the aft range of center-of-gravity locations.

  9. Tank Tests of Model 36 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, John

    1938-01-01

    N.A.C.A. Model 36, a hull form with parallel middle body for half the length of the forebody and designed particularly for use with stub wings, was tested according to the general fixed-trim method over the range of practical loads, trims, and speeds. It was also tested free to trim with the center of gravity at two different positions. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The resistance at the hump was exceptionally low but, at high planing speeds, afterbody interference made the performance only mediocre.

  10. Numerical Study of the Hull-Propeller-Rudder Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, Adrian; Pacuraru, Florin

    2009-09-01

    The paper describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around a maneuvering containership equipped with a rotating propeller and rudder. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  11. Supervised classification of protein structures based on convex hull representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2007-01-01

    One of the central problems in functional genomics is to establish the classification schemes of protein structures. In this paper the relationship of protein structures is uncovered within the framework of supervised learning. Specifically, the novel patterns based on convex hull representation are firstly extracted from a protein structure, then the classification system is constructed and machine learning methods such as neural networks, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied. The CATH scheme is highlighted in the classification experiments. The results indicate that the proposed supervised classification scheme is effective and efficient.

  12. Biofouling and Design of a Biomimetic Hull-Grooming Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    used by the fouling organisms to adhere to the surface to develop a strong polymer that will not peel off of the ship hull in the marine...skin of a pilot whale.13 The dolphin’s physical defenses include desquamation or peeling off of different parts of the body’s surface, ritual...Baum, C. et al. “A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.” Biorheology. (39) p. 703-717. 2002

  13. Body condition of dogs fed diets containing soya hulls.

    PubMed

    Sabchuk, Tabyta T; Scheraiber, Mariana; Zanatta, Carolina P; Maiorka, Alex; Félix, Ananda P; Oliveira, Simone G

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in dogs. Therefore, there is an increasing need of foods for obese dogs with high-fibre content to dilute energies and to reduce energy absorption. Soya hulls are cheap and are widely available as a fibre source. We aimed at evaluating the body condition of dogs fed diets containing 0 % soya hulls (0SH) or 16 % soya hulls (16SH) in replacement of maize. Twelve adult dogs, with 11·3 (se 1·6) kg average body weight (BW), 4·1 (se 0·1) years old and body condition score (BCS) between 4 and 7, were completely randomised assigned (six per treatment) and were fed the 0SH diet according to their maintenance energy requirements or the same amount in grams (g/kg BW(0·75)) of the 16SH diet once daily for 56 d. The animals were evaluated on days 0 and 57 for BW, BCS (1, very thin to 9, obese), subcutaneous fat thickness in the L7 vertebra using ultrasound (L7), canine BMI (CBMI) and body fat (BF). Data were analysed by the Student's t test and Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0·05). The change (final - initial) in BW (-0·58 v. -0·49 kg), BCS (-1 v. -1), L7 (-2 v. 0·35 mm), CBMI (-0·85 v. -0·63 kg/m(2)) and BF (-5·0 v. -5·4 %) of dogs fed the 0SH and 16SH diets, respectively, were not different (P > 0·05). The 16SH diet, with 11·4 % restriction in metabolisable energy, did not change the BCS of adult dogs. Further studies evaluating the supply of soya hulls only to overweight/obese dogs should to be carried out, because these dogs may respond differently than the group evaluated, which had a BCS between 4 and 7 (ideal to overweight).

  14. Infrared Implications in Double Hull Surface Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    IR benefits. * Cervenka, P.O. and L. Massa, "Laws of ! nfrared Similitude," CDNSWC Report CARDIVNSWC-TR-94/002 (Jan 1994). 7 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...The calculations are carried out with the intention of simulating two time periods: 1000 and 1400 hours. The target ship is assumed to be moving along a...element (element 2) for the wet double hull (compartment temperature) case produced the following data: Sun load 486 W/m2 Target self-emission -346

  15. Fracture-mechanical analysis of the residual service life of the welded main girders of the highway bridges of Ruedersdorf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edel, Karl-Otto

    1992-07-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis was carried out on a certain type of weld defect contained in the main girders of the Ruedersdorf highway bridges (River Luehlen, Germany). To assess fatigue cracks which start from welding defects of about 10 mm height at the end of the inner cover plates, specimens were taken from the bridges. The fracture mechanical properties of the 55 years old steel and the stress intensity factors were determined to analyze the unstable and stable crack extension. The essential influence on the residual life is the extending traffic density. The assesssment of the critical crack size and that of the crack growth show a residual service life of some years. Only limited data can be generated from specimens removed from the bridges, and the effect of the service environment of any specific structure must be taken into account.

  16. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  17. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.27 Information displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the...

  18. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.27 Information displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the...

  19. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.27 Information displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the...

  20. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.27 Information displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the...

  1. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.27 Information displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the...

  2. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  3. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  4. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  5. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  6. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  7. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  8. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  11. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  12. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182 Section 154.182 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182...

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  14. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  16. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  18. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  20. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  1. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underwater hull examination using divers. If an underwater examination is required, the examination must... gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual hull condition assessment, the OCMI may... contents. (c) You must submit your preventive maintenance reports or checklists on an annual basis to the...

  3. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expanded examination to include an underwater hull examination using divers. If an underwater examination... include a representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual... report and confirm the validity of its contents. (c) You must submit your preventive maintenance reports...

  4. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  5. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility criteria in § 71.50-17 of this part, you may... examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), who will oversee the hull...

  6. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflamatory effects in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidative, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory activities of a new liquid rice hull (husk) smoke extract prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the liquid smoke extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ...

  7. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527 Section 25.527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r x=ratio...

  8. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527 Section 25.527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r x=ratio...

  9. 46 CFR 128.230 - Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design. 128.230 Section 128.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 128.230 Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads—materials and pressure design. (a) Each piping...

  10. 33 CFR 187.321 - What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions? 187.321 Section 187.321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Vessel Titling Systems § 187.321 What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions? A State must...

  11. Early Child Care and Education at Hull House: Voices from the Past, Challenges for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Helen L.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of Chicago's Hull House centers on the physical and social environments, types of child care offered, learning experiences and environment in the day nursery and kindergarten, and professional education. Implications of Hull House for contemporary child care are described. (BG)

  12. Edith de Nancrede at Hull-House: Theatre Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the work of Edith de Nancrede in developing theater programs for youth at Chicago's Hull-House during the early part of the twentieth century. Describes how her intense dedication to theater and education contributed to the success of Hull-House and to the achievements of its leader, Jane Addams. (PRA)

  13. Edith de Nancrede at Hull-House: Theatre Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the work of Edith de Nancrede in developing theater programs for youth at Chicago's Hull-House during the early part of the twentieth century. Describes how her intense dedication to theater and education contributed to the success of Hull-House and to the achievements of its leader, Jane Addams. (PRA)

  14. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  15. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  16. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  17. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  18. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... environmental safety and security; and (3) cost effectiveness. The alternatives considered are as follows... the waters of PWS. Implementation of this interim rule will codify current industry practice... disproportionate costs on double hull tank vessel owners and operators (as single hull tank vessels would...

  19. Refined universal laws for hull volumes and perimeters in large planar maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2017-07-01

    We consider ensembles of planar maps with two marked vertices at distance k from each other, and look at the closed line separating these vertices and lying at distance d from the first one (d  <  k). This line divides the map into two components, the hull at distance d which corresponds to the part of the map lying on the same side as the first vertex and its complementary. The number of faces within the hull is called the hull volume, and the length of the separating line the hull perimeter. We study the statistics of the hull volume and perimeter for arbitrary d and k in the limit of infinitely large planar quadrangulations, triangulations and Eulerian triangulations. We consider more precisely situations where both d and k become large with the ratio d/k remaining finite. For infinitely large maps, two regimes may be encountered: either the hull has a finite volume and its complementary is infinitely large, or the hull itself has an infinite volume and its complementary is of finite size. We compute the probability for the map to be in either regime as a function of d/k as well as a number of universal statistical laws for the hull perimeter and volume when maps are conditioned to be in one regime or the other.

  20. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations....

  1. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  2. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load... (knots) at the design takeoff weight with the flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; β=angle...

  3. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load... (knots) at the design takeoff weight with the flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; β=angle...

  4. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  5. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  6. Finite element model updating of multi-span steel-arch-steel-girder bridges based on ambient vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Gao, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Sheng; Zhu, Guan-Rong; Su, Yu-Min

    2017-04-01

    The three-span steel-arch-steel-girder Jiaxian Bridge was newly constructed in 2010 to replace the former one that has been destroyed by Typhoon Sinlaku (2008, Taiwan). It was designed and built to continue the domestic service requirement, as well as to improve the tourism business of the Kaohsiung city government, Taiwan. This study aimed at establishing the baseline model of Jiaxian Bridge for hazardous scenario simulation such as typhoons, floods and earthquakes. Necessities of these precaution works were attributed to the inherent vulnerability of the sites: near fault and river cross. The uncalibrated baseline bridge model was built with structural finite element in accordance with the blueprints. Ambient vibration measurements were performed repeatedly to acquire the elastic dynamic characteristics of the bridge structure. Two frequency domain system identification algorithms were employed to extract the measured operational modal parameters. Modal shapes, frequencies, and modal assurance criteria (MAC) were configured as the fitting targets so as to calibrate/update the structural parameters of the baseline model. It has been recognized that different types of structural parameters contribute distinguishably to the fitting targets, as this study has similarly explored. For steel-arch-steel-girder bridges in particular this case, joint rigidity of the steel components was found to be dominant while material properties and section geometries relatively minor. The updated model was capable of providing more rational elastic responses of the bridge superstructure under normal service conditions as well as hazardous scenarios, and can be used for manage the health conditions of the bridge structure.

  7. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  9. A multilayer self-organizing model for convex-hull computation.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Datta, A; Pal, N R

    2001-01-01

    A self-organizing neural-network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a given set of planar points. The network evolves in such a manner that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes some angles which are passed to the middle layer. The middle layer is used for computation of the minimum angle (winner selection). These information are passed to the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexity of the proposed model is analyzed and is compared with existing models of similar nature.

  10. A connectionist model for convex-hull of a planar set.

    PubMed

    Datta, A; Pal, S; Pal, N R

    2000-04-01

    A neural network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a finite planar set. The model is self-organizing in that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull in an orderly fashion without any supervision. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes the activation functions, the outputs of which are passed onto the middle layer. The middle layer is used for winner selection. These information are passed onto the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexities of the proposed model are analyzed and are compared with existing models of similar nature.

  11. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit, other...

  12. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit, other...

  13. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  14. 46 CFR 115.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain...

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-17 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull...-17 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger... aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3) It has operated exclusively in fresh water...

  16. Hydrodynamic Towing Evaluation of SSN-637 Class Short-Hull and Long-Hull Submarines with Modified Bows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Unarnnounced By I CP ’ v Distributilon/ Availability Codes Avail and/alp Dist Speojal S S 0 00 0 0 1 J ABSTRACT An experimental evaluation was conducted...TEU 25 TEU 25STEU 25 TEU 25 TEU 4 31.OS 21.05 (2.06)t 7 I32.05 20.0 S (51) 10-25S j______J 10.0s P - Porn S - Starboard Table 6. Horizontal towline...10 22.08 13.OS 14.OS (5.14) _______ ______ _________1________ P - Porn S - Starboard Table 10. Horizontal towline angles for a short-hull

  17. The effect of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls and proanthocyanidin extracts from bean (Vicia faba L.) hulls on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Yuste, P; Longstaff, M; McCorquodale, C

    1992-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins were prepared from three bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties by extracting hulls in aqueous acetone. The amounts of freeze-dried extracts recovered were 74, 89 and 97 g/kg hull for the varieties Brunette, Statissa and Minica respectively. Chicks (3 weeks old) were fed on a maize-soya-bean control diet or the same control diet substituted with either 30 g proanthocyanidin extracts/kg or 300 g proanthocyanidin-rich hulls/kg. Chicks were tube-fed diets twice daily for 4 d. Nutrient digestibilities were calculated from amounts present in diets and freeze-dried excreta with the aid of titanium dioxide as a marker. Enzyme activities were measured in digesta removed from the jejunum. Extracts of proanthocyanidins depressed the digestibility of protein by 34%, starch by 3% and had no effect on the digestibility of lipid. Proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed the digestibility of protein by 62%, starch by 6% and lipid by 4%. Digestive enzyme activities were depressed to the same extent by extracts and hulls, trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) by 55 and 62%, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) by 75 and 78% and lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) by 31 and 32% for proanthocyanidin-extract and proanthocyanidin-rich-hull diets respectively. The susceptibility of substrates as well as enzymes to the effects of proanthocyanidins is discussed.

  18. The role of Bh4 in parallel evolution of hull colour in domesticated and weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Vigueira, C C; Li, W; Olsen, K M

    2013-08-01

    The two independent domestication events in the genus Oryza that led to African and Asian rice offer an extremely useful system for studying the genetic basis of parallel evolution. This system is also characterized by parallel de-domestication events, with two genetically distinct weedy rice biotypes in the US derived from the Asian domesticate. One important trait that has been altered by rice domestication and de-domestication is hull colour. The wild progenitors of the two cultivated rice species have predominantly black-coloured hulls, as does one of the two U.S. weed biotypes; both cultivated species and one of the US weedy biotypes are characterized by straw-coloured hulls. Using Black hull 4 (Bh4) as a hull colour candidate gene, we examined DNA sequence variation at this locus to study the parallel evolution of hull colour variation in the domesticated and weedy rice system. We find that independent Bh4-coding mutations have arisen in African and Asian rice that are correlated with the straw hull phenotype, suggesting that the same gene is responsible for parallel trait evolution. For the U.S. weeds, Bh4 haplotype sequences support current hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationship between the two biotypes and domesticated Asian rice; straw hull weeds are most similar to indica crops, and black hull weeds are most similar to aus crops. Tests for selection indicate that Asian crops and straw hull weeds deviate from neutrality at this gene, suggesting possible selection on Bh4 during both rice domestication and de-domestication. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Pressure Stagnation Line on a Planing Hull in Calm Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Christine; Judge, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    High-speed planing boats are subjected to repeat impacts due to slamming, which can cause structural damage and discomfort or injury to passengers. An experimental study aimed at understanding and predicting the physics of a planing craft re-entering the water after becoming partially airborne was conducted. A subset of this experiment includes calm water analysis to gain an understanding of the pressure stagnation line and its correlation with the wetted surface on the planning craft in calm water conditions. A planing hull model was towed in a 116-m long, 8-m wide tow-tank with a water depth of 5 m. Hull models at 1/10 and 1/4 of full-scale were examined. These models, only free to move in heave and pitch, were instrumented to measure dynamic pressures with point-pressure sensors at 12 locations near the LCG (longitudinal center of gravity) and transom as well as a highly spatially resolved pressure mapping system. These pressure measurements were sampled at rates up to 20 kHz. Using these pressure measurements along with underwater photos of the wetted surface allowed for the v-shaped wetted line and stagnation line to be measured. Preliminary results show that the peak pressures occur before the wetted line and that atmospheric pressure is reached at the transom. Supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Hot-compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from soy hulls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Fei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The polysaccharides of soy hulls were extracted by hot-compressed water at temperatures of 110 from 180°C and various treatment times (10-150min) in a batch system. It was determined that a moderate temperature and short time are suitable for the preparation of polysaccharides. The structure of xylan and the inter- and intra-chain hydrogen bonding of cellulose fibrils in the soy hulls were not significantly broken down. The polysaccharides obtained were primarily composed of α-L-arabinofuranosyl units, 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid units and α-D-galactose units attached with substituted units. A sugar analysis indicated that arabinose was the major component, constituting 35.6-46.9% of the polysaccharide products extracted at 130°C, 140°C, and 150°C. This investigation contributes to the knowledge of the polysaccharides of soy by-products, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste from the food industries.