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Sample records for carrier hull girder

  1. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs.

  2. Electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fiber mats as carriers for extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Suwantong, Orawan; Panomsuk, Suwannee; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sittisombut, Chavalit; Suksamran, Tittaya; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Electrospinning is a process used to produce ultrafine fibers with diameters in the nanometer range. Electrospun fiber mats have high potentials for biomedical uses, due to their high surface area and ease of drug incorporation into the fibers. They can be used as carriers for drug delivery and can enhance drug release and skin permeability. The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun fiber mats and to incorporate extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen. Antioxidant activity and extract release were determined and compared between the extract incorporated in the electrospun fiber mats and in the cast films. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was selected as the polymer matrix. Extracts in the amount of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w, based on the weight of PVA, were incorporated with 10% w/w PVA to finally obtain electrospun fiber mats and cast films. The extract content was evaluated by antioxidative activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The morphology of the electrospun fiber mats was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the diameters of the fibers were in nanoscales and that no crystal of the extract was found at any concentration of the extract. The extract contents in the electrospun fiber mats prepared at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of the extract were 9.6%, 9.7%, and 10.8% of the initial loading concentration, respectively, whereas, those in the cast films were 23.9%, 14.5%, and 21.0%, respectively. The release of the extract from the electrospun fiber mats prepared at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of the extract at 120 min were 73.2%, 83.6%, and 81.3% w/w, respectively. However, much slower release from the cast films was observed (i.e., 4.3%, 29.1%, and 40.8% w/w, respectively).

  3. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  4. Global strength assessment in oblique waves of a large gas carrier ship, based on a non-linear iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnisoru, L.; Modiga, A.; Gasparotti, C.

    2016-08-01

    At the ship's design, the first step of the hull structural assessment is based on the longitudinal strength analysis, with head wave equivalent loads by the ships' classification societies’ rules. This paper presents an enhancement of the longitudinal strength analysis, considering the general case of the oblique quasi-static equivalent waves, based on the own non-linear iterative procedure and in-house program. The numerical approach is developed for the mono-hull ships, without restrictions on 3D-hull offset lines non-linearities, and involves three interlinked iterative cycles on floating, pitch and roll trim equilibrium conditions. Besides the ship-wave equilibrium parameters, the ship's girder wave induced loads are obtained. As numerical study case we have considered a large LPG liquefied petroleum gas carrier. The numerical results of the large LPG are compared with the statistical design values from several ships' classification societies’ rules. This study makes possible to obtain the oblique wave conditions that are inducing the maximum loads into the large LPG ship's girder. The numerical results of this study are pointing out that the non-linear iterative approach is necessary for the computation of the extreme loads induced by the oblique waves, ensuring better accuracy of the large LPG ship's longitudinal strength assessment.

  5. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. A Common Sense Design Manual for Producibility of Hull Foundations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    ship’s hull. These motions can be approximated by considering the ship’s hull girder as a free-free beam with added mass included to represent the...BENDING LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE 1. FLANGE BENDING 2. BEAM BENDING 3. FRAME BENDING VERTICAL Deck Mounted A–Frame/ Truss STANDARD FOUNDATION TYPE 20 C...be carried out. Interference of foundation structure, i.e. legs, diagonals , braces , with adjacent piping systems. Interface of foundations with

  6. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  7. Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhuo

    A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder

  8. On the Kinematics of Undulator Girder Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    The theory of rigid body kinematics is used to derive equations that govern the control and measurement of the position and orientation of undulator girders. The equations form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system. The equations are linear for small motion and easily inverted as desired. For reference, some relevant girder geometrical data is also given. Equations 6-8 relate the linear potentiometer readings to the motion of the girder. Equations 9-11 relate the cam shaft angles to the motion of the girder. Both sets are easily inverted to either obtain the girder motion from the angles or readings, or, to find the angles and readings that would give a desired motion. The motion of any point on the girder can be calculated by applying either sets of equations to the two cam-planes and extrapolating in the z coordinate using equation 19. The formulation of the equations is quite general and easily coded via matrix and vector methods. They form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system.

  9. A hydraulic absorber for wideband vibration reduction in ship hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, W.J.; Lee, Y.J. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    A vibration reduction of ship hulls by an active absorber system is proposed. In the scheme, a tuned mass is moved according to the hull vibration as measured by a multi-mode sensing system in order to generate a suitable active force for vibration reduction of hull girder. In order to supply the large amount of required power, a hydraulic servo system is implemented. Then the dynamic characteristic of the hydraulic system is considered for system design. Based on stochastic theory and optimal theory, the control law of the system is derived in order to approach the optimal level of vibration reduction. A 10-t absorber is applied to a 87,000-t oil tanker to demonstrate the feasibility of this scheme. The results show that the multi-peak values of resonance are suppressed in frequency response. Moreover, the vibration excited by propeller and engine is reduced to an extremely efficient level by this scheme.

  10. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING THE 'EYE PLATES,' SOUTH GIRDER, PANEL 1, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST Harms} - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  11. 15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion of pinned connection between channel-span (left) and anchor-span (right) girders; view to southwest. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost deck-girder span, underside of deck, looking North - Elk River Bridge, Spanning Elk River at Main Street, Elk River, Sherburne County, MN

  13. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  14. Gasohol from almond hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Golden By-Products Inc. has awarded a contract to Bechtel Inc. to study the feasibility of converting almond hulls from California's Central Valley into two million gal/yr of alcohol for use in gasohol.

  15. Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of girder shop, from older section of shop showing older (1880's) construction of roof trusses. Compare with earlier views in this series. - Phoenix Iron Company, Girder Shop No. 6, North of French Creek, west of Gay Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  16. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  17. 16. VIEW OF TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF TYPICAL MAIN GIRDER WELDED 'BUTT SPLICE,' SHOWING THE 'EYE PLATES' AND THE ATTACHMENT OF THE SIDEWALK CANTILEVER BRACKETS, NORTH GIRDER, PANEL 5, LOOKING SOUTHEAST Ryan & Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  18. General perspective view of the main steel plate girder spans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the main steel plate girder spans, view looking southwest - Whiteson Bridge, Spanning South Yamhill River at Milepoint 42 on Pacific Highway West (Oregon Route 99W), Whiteson, Yamhill County, OR

  19. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northwest. Showing rope connectors and deflector sheaves. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  20. DETAIL OF A DOUBLE SET OF IBEAM GIRDERS ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF A DOUBLE SET OF I-BEAM GIRDERS ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE BRIDGE. 25 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 59.6X, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. View looking south from sidewalk includes halfthrough west girder on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from sidewalk includes half-through west girder on left and raging river (upstream) on right. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

  2. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM VALLEY STREET RAMP - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  4. 16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  5. 44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility conduit. Structure rests on granite blocks mounted on granite piers. - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF COUNTERWEIGHTS, WITH LOWER BUFFERS, LOOKING WEST FROM WEST CANAL PIER. - East Division Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch Canal at West Division Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE TWISTED BAR STOCK REINFORCING CAN BE SEEN. - Keggereis Ford Bridge, Spanning West Branch Conococheague Creek at State Route 4006, Willow Hill, Franklin County, PA

  8. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  9. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  10. Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of granite piers at low tide. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at low tide. View Northwest - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER, BEARING SHOE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER, BEARING SHOE, FLOOR BEAM, STRINGER AND LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  13. 14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  14. 16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING SHOE AND LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  15. Ultimate Strength of a Ship’s Hull Girder in Plastic and Buckling Modes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    drawn for deep - web -frame plate panels, of low slenderness ratio, simple supported and edges kept straight. It should be noted, however, that the range...H.-G., "Notes on the Buckling and Post-buckling Behaviour of Deep Web Frames," J. Marine Tech., July 1972. V. 62 [34] Timoshenko, S., "Stability of

  16. A sensitivity study of hull girder wave loads for ship shaped oil production and storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Sogstad, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    For ship type floating production and storage vessels (FPSO) moored at a permanent location, the environmental loads will be different compared to a conventional merchant ship for which wave bending moment and shear forces are calculated by use of empirical formula established by classification societies. The effect on the design loads caused by the differences in the environmental parameters applicable in the design of a FPSO versus a merchant vessel will be considered. The environmental parameters are: long crested compared with short crested waves; equal probability of occurrence of all heading angles compared with the waves always approaching the vessel`s bow; and the design of a FPSO is based on a storm with a return period of 100 years, while a merchant vessel is designed to withstand a storm with 20 years return period. The linear wave theory is not able to distinguish between the sagging and hogging wave induced responses. This will be taken care of by introducing non-linear correction factors. The non-linear response is caused by e.g. slamming, water on deck and bow flare. The study will propose a simplified method to predict wave induced vertical midship bending moments and shear forces in an early design stage for a FPSO.

  17. HULL Users’ Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    conditions and puts the results on logical unit 4. Unit 4 is either a physical tape or a permanent file disk device which will store the data for running HULL...pericdi- cally every 60 central processor minutes to protect against unscheduled machine failures. Thus, unit 4 and unit 9 store a continuous record of...number of time steps from initial conditions DIMEN (2), 3 number of spatial dimensions DT Real time step (seconds) energy last check, current ELC Real

  18. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

  19. Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassens, J.

    1931-01-01

    This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma.

  20. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  1. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  2. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  3. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  4. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  5. 11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE GIRDER SPAN. (Also includes a Marking Diagram and a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 1, dated April 7, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P-28746. Scale 1/4 inch to one foot. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  6. HullBUG Technology Development for Underwater Hull Cleaning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    grooming tools were subsequently built for the FIT test tank trolley assembly as well as for the prototype HullBUG system. Additionally several...4 3.1 Grooming Tool Development...4 3.1.1 Grooming Tool Iterations

  7. A convex hull inclusion test.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T; Cowles, J

    1987-02-01

    A new characterization of the interior of the convex hull of a finite point set is given. An inclusion test based on this characterization is, on average, almost linear in the number of points times the dimensionality.

  8. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls.

  9. Experimental Program for the Determination of Hull Structural Damping Coefficients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    experimental conditions must be recorded and presented as part of the data. Completeness requires that all factors related to the data must be measured...carrier, and a Ŕ,000 ton container ship). - 17. Ley Weds I. Distribution Steemen, Damping Document is available to the Hull vibrations public through the...Vibration ............................... 18 2.1.1.2 Forced Vibration Steady State ............... 19 2.1.1.3 Transient or Non- Harmonic Vibration

  10. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  11. 1. LOOKING NORTHEAST, SOUTH SIDE OF PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTHEAST, SOUTH SIDE OF PLATE GIRDER BRIDGE WHICH CARRIED THE INTERURBAN LINE ACROSS THE FOX RIVER. NOTE THE STEEL-FRAME SUPPORTS FOR THE CATENARY. - Illinois Traction System, Fox River Bridge, Spanning Fox River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. View of north section of bridge shows east girder as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north section of bridge shows east girder as it attaches to north concrete abutment. Note expansion rocker shoe. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

  13. 5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL LATERAL DIAGONAL TENSION EYEBARS, PAIRS OF EYEBARS RUNNING THE LENGTH OF THE BRIDGE, AND RUNNING SURFACE RAILROAD TIES - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Olmstead Bridge, Spanning Provo River, Provo, Utah County, UT

  14. 15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & CANTILEVER BRACKETS, SHOWING THE DETERIORATING ORIGINAL CONCRETE SIDEWALK AND ITS STEEL REINFORCEMENT, PANEL 1, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  15. View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west from beneath state route 18 bridge (which lies along previous alignment of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  16. 245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rusticated stone. It is the only structure on the parkway with stone faced arched piers. The view is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. 122. Goshen Creek Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct, built in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Goshen Creek Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct, built in 1949, is the only viaduct with solid, stone-faced, concrete reinforced piers. View facing north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. 17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rustic stone facade. View is to east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. 86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built in 1939, has a reinforced concrete deck and piers. It is an example of a major in-line, or straight, viaduct over a deep ravine. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. 24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. Closeup view of subarray driver module, mounted on girder at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closeup view of sub-array driver module, mounted on girder at back of array - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. 13. DETAIL OF GIRDER AND PIER CAP OF PIER 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF GIRDER AND PIER CAP OF PIER 3, SHOWING CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING SHOE. NOTE CONCRETE SHOE PEDESTAL, EXTENDED IN 1965 TO COMPENSATE FOR PIER SETTLEMENT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  4. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  5. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-05-21

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  6. 13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. (Also includes a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 3, dated April 5, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P28746. Various scales. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  8. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  9. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  10. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  11. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  12. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  13. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  14. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  17. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  18. Hydrodynamic Hull Damping (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Administration Mr. Alexander Malakhoff Mr. Thomas W. Allen Director, Structural Integrity Engineering Officer (N7) Subgroup ( SEA 55Y) MR" Sealift Command...1990 SSC-352 Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank by J. G. Kaufman and M. Prager 1990 SSC-353 Analysis of Wave Characteristics in Extreme Seas by...SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE is constituted to prosecute a research program to Improve the hull structures of ships and other marine structures by an

  19. Hull Form Design and Optimization Tool Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Combatants • Unconventional Surface Combatants • Twin - Screw , Open-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single- Screw , Closed-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single...Waterplane Area Twin Hull TriSWACH – Trimaran Small Waterplane Area Center Hull UI – User Interface UNREP – Underway Replenishment Naval Surface...resistance prediction tool for SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) ships. An example of a SWATH ship is shown in Figure 11. The input files

  20. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  1. Hull-form optimization of a container ship based on bell-shaped modification function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hee Jong

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a hydrodynamic hull-form optimization algorithm for a container ship was presented in terms of the minimum wave-making resistance. Bell-shaped modification functions were developed to modify the original hull-form and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was used as an optimizer. The wave-making resistance as an objective function was obtained by the Rankine source panel method in which non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship were fully taken into account. Numerical computation was performed to investigate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed hull-form modification algorithm for the container carrier. The computational results were validated by comparing them with the experimental data.

  2. John Hull and the Money Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  3. Evaluation of corn fiber, cottonseed hulls, oat hulls and soybean hulls as roughage sources for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J T; Faulkner, D B; Garleb, K A; Barclay, R A; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1987-07-01

    An in situ trial (randomized complete block design) using cows, and a site and extent of digestion trial (Latin square design) using sheep were conducted to study the potential of corn fiber (CF), cottonseed hulls (CSH), oat hulls (OH) and soybean hulls (SH) as roughage sources for ruminants. Two feedlot trials with steers and one with lambs (completely randomized design with factorial arrangements of treatments) were conducted to study the potential of CF and SH as energy supplements relative to corn. In situ rate of ruminal dry matter (DM) disappearance (3 to 36 h) and extent of DM disappearance (36 h) indicated that CF and SH were more fermentable in the rumen compared with OH or CSH, with SH being the most fermentable. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were above 70% for sheep fed CF and SH diets, and were 50% or less for sheep fed OH and CSH diets. A ranking of by-products in terms of nutritive value followed the trend: CF greater than SH greater than OH greater than CSH. Lamb feedlot trial data showed that CF was of similar nutritive value to corn and of higher nutritive value than SH at the 50% level of supplementation. Corn-fed lambs responded better than CF- or SH-fed lambs at the 70% level of supplementation. Data from steer feedlot trials showed that CF was of similar quality to corn and of higher quality than SH. Dramatic differences exist in by-product feed utilization by ruminants. All by-products tested appeared to have some usefulness as dietary components.

  4. Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng

    2007-04-01

    We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.

  5. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  6. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  7. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  8. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  9. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  10. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to...

  11. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  12. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

  13. Improvements to the AFWL HULL Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Entered) ~n RPORTDOCUENTAION AGEREAD DESTRUCtIONS REOT OUMNATO PG BEFORE COMPLETDMG FrORN 1, REPOR7,-NU 1BER GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 . RECIPIENTS CA...ALOG NUMBER / N& 535F LLA~--O 6 4. TITLE d Su.btitle) 5. TYPE 9,F RMORT 6 PERIOD0 COVE.RED, I R1PROVEMENTS TO THlE AFWL HULL CODE 21 aAgust97o- 3 P rod 97...HYDROCODE ..................................... 10 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF FCT IN HULL .......................... 13 3.1 HULL PHASES

  14. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  15. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  16. Neural networks for convex hull computation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y; Zhang, J S; Xu, Z B

    1997-01-01

    Computing convex hull is one of the central problems in various applications of computational geometry. In this paper, a convex hull computing neural network (CHCNN) is developed to solve the related problems in the N-dimensional spaces. The algorithm is based on a two-layered neural network, topologically similar to ART, with a newly developed adaptive training strategy called excited learning. The CHCNN provides a parallel online and real-time processing of data which, after training, yields two closely related approximations, one from within and one from outside, of the desired convex hull. It is shown that accuracy of the approximate convex hulls obtained is around O[K(-1)(N-1/)], where K is the number of neurons in the output layer of the CHCNN. When K is taken to be sufficiently large, the CHCNN can generate any accurate approximate convex hull. We also show that an upper bound exists such that the CHCNN will yield the precise convex hull when K is larger than or equal to this bound. A series of simulations and applications is provided to demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis. PMID:25180203

  18. Acoustic emission monitoring of multicell reinforced concrete box girders subjected to torsion.

    PubMed

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis.

  19. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  20. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely... hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60 months (5 years). (d) At least 60 days...

  1. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  2. Application and characterization of intracore grating sensors in a CFRP prestressed concrete girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavie, A. Tino; Maaskant, Robert; Ohn, Myo M.; Rizkalla, Sami; Measures, Raymond M.

    1994-05-01

    Intracore Bragg grating sensors have been bonded on to the CFRP tendons of a prestressed concrete girder. The sensors survived both the installation procedure and casting of the concrete beam. Sensor performance is characterized in terms of maximum tensile strength and fatigue behavior. The fiber sensors survived strains of greater than 8000 (mu) (epsilon) and showed no change in either center wavelength or spectral content for 2000 (mu) (epsilon) over 320,000 cycles. The intracore grating sensor was used in a static loading test of the girder to failure and showed excellent stability and durability in comparison with the conventional technology.

  3. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  5. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  6. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  7. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  8. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  9. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  10. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  11. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the starboard outboard side of the transom within two inches of the top of the transom, gunwale, or... and within two inches of the top of the hull side, gunwale or hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (3... location specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (b) The duplicate hull identification number must...

  12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  13. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  14. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  15. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  16. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  17. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  18. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  19. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  1. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  2. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  3. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  5. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  6. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  8. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  10. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  11. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  12. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  13. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  14. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  15. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  16. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  17. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  18. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  19. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength....

  20. Carrier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ...

  1. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  2. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND..., running rigging, blocks, fittings, and sails; (4) Inspection of all railings and bulwarks and...

  3. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  4. Convex Hull Aided Registration Method (CHARM).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yitian; Ai, Danni; Liu, Yonghuai; Wang, Ge; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-08-31

    Non-rigid registration finds many applications such as photogrammetry, motion tracking, model retrieval, and object recognition. In this paper we propose a novel convex hull aided registration method (CHARM) to match two point sets subject to a non-rigid transformation. Firstly, two convex hulls are extracted from the source and target respectively. Then, all points of the point sets are projected onto the reference plane through each triangular facet of the hulls. From these projections, invariant features are extracted and matched optimally. The matched feature point pairs are mapped back onto the triangular facets of the convex hulls to remove outliers that are outside any relevant triangular facet. The rigid transformation from the source to the target is robustly estimated by the random sample consensus (RANSAC) scheme through minimizing the distance between the matched feature point pairs. Finally, these feature points are utilized as the control points to achieve nonrigid deformation in the form of thin-plate spline of the entire source point set towards the target one. The experimental results based on both synthetic and real data show that the proposed algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art ones with respect to sampling, rotational angle, and data noise. In addition, the proposed CHARM algorithm also shows higher computational efficiency compared to these methods.

  5. The shear-lag effect of thin-walled box girder under vertical earthquake excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zhipeng; Li, Yaozhuang; Guo, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The variation method based on the energy variation principle is proved to be accurate and valid for analyzing the shear lag effect of box girder under static and dynamic load. Meanwhile, dynamic problems gradually become the key factors in engineering practice. Therefore, a method for calculating the shear lag effect in thin-walled box girder under vertical seismic excitation is proposed by applying Hamilton Principle in this paper. The Timoshenko shear deformation is taken into account. And a new definition of shear lag ratio for box girder is given. What's more, some conclusions are drawn by analysis of numerical example. The results show that small amplitude of earthquake ground motion can generate high stress and obvious shear lag, especially in the region of resonance. And the influence of rotary inertia cannot be ignored for analyzing the shear lag effect. With the increase of span to width ratio, shear lag effect becomes smaller and smaller. These research conclusions will be useful for the engineering practice and enrich the theoretical studies of box girders.

  6. Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov. (Polycladida, Acotylea, Platyhelminthes): A possible case of transoceanic dispersal on a ship's hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.; Gollasch, S.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1993, the car carrier “Faust” entered Bremerhaven after a voyage from the North-American Atlantic coast to Europe. In a dockyard, five living specimens of the order Polycladida were collected from the hull of the ship. This could be a possible case of trans-atlantic dispersal of plathelminths living as fouling organisms of ships. The specimens found represent a new species of the genus Cryptostylochus Faubel, 1983, Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov.

  7. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  8. Convex hull test for ordered categorical data.

    PubMed

    Berger, V W; Permutt, T; Ivanova, A

    1998-12-01

    When testing for stochastic order in ordered 2 x J contingency tables, it is common to select the cutoff required to declare significance so as to ensure that the size of the test is exactly alpha conditionally on the margins. It is valid, however, to use the margins to select not only the cutoff but also the form of the test. Linear rank tests, which are locally most powerful and frequently used in practice, suffer from the drawback that they may have power as low as zero to detect some alternatives of interest when the margins satisfy certain conditions. The Smirnov and convex hull tests are shown, through exact conditional power calculations and simulations, to avoid this drawback. The convex hull test is also admissible and palindromic invariant and minimizes the required significance level to have limiting power of one as the alternative moves away from the null in any direction.

  9. Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza

    The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel

  10. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

  11. Prestress-force monitoring of PSC girder bridges using wireless impedance sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Lee, So-Young; Hong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a technique using wireless impedance sensor node and interface washer is proposed to monitor prestressforce in PSC girder bridges. In order to achieve the goal, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, a wireless impedance sensor node is designed for automated and cost-efficient prestress-force monitoring. Secondly, an impedance-based algorithm is embedded in the wireless impedance sensor node for autonomous prestress-force monitoring. Thirdly, a prestress-force monitoring technique using an interface washer is proposed to overcome limitations of the wireless impedance sensor node such as measureable frequency ranges with narrow band. Finally, the feasibility and applicability of the proposed technique are evaluated in a lab-scaled PSC girder model for which several prestress-loss scenarios are experimentally monitored by the wireless impedance sensor node.

  12. Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, O. Fatih

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.

  13. Development of a baseline model for a steel girder bridge using remote sensing and load tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Chen, Shen-En; Scott, Jeremy; Schmieder, Marcus; Liu, Wanqiu; Hauser, Edd

    2011-04-01

    A new skewed two span continuous steel girder bridge was constructed and opened to traffic recently. This bridge uses high performance steel (HPS 100W) in the flanges of the negative moment region over the intermediate pier. For construction verification and long-term structural health monitoring purposes, a finite element (FE) model was developed for the bridge superstructure. Various field tests were performed to verify the model: 1) LiDAR scan, 2) static truck load tests, and 3) Laser doppler vibrometer testing. LiDAR scanner was introduced to gain geometrical information of the bridge in the real world. It was also used to measure girder deflections during load tests. The fundamental frequency of the bridge vibration was obtained by using a Laser doppler vibrometer. Both dynamic and static measurements are then used to update the FE model. This valid bridge superstructure FE model was provided to local DOT bridge engineers with the completion of this study.

  14. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure-Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Cristian Boffo et al.

    2004-07-07

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  15. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure - Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C

    2004-07-16

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  16. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

  17. Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Charles Kennan

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially

  18. Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

    Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general

  19. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  20. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  1. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  2. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  3. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

  4. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  5. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

  6. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  7. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  8. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  9. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  10. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  11. Evaluation of Computational Codes for Underwater Hull Analysis Model Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Elsyca CP Master was selected as the best basis for the Underwater Hull Analysis Model; however, additional work performed with COMSOL Multiphysics...since the selection indicates that COMSOL should be re-evaluated if the Underwater Hull Analysis Model program is renewed at some future date. 05-02...8 4.3 COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS ......................................................................................... 10 4.4 ELSYCA CP

  12. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  13. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  14. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  15. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  16. Monitoring cracks and prestress-loss in PSC girder bridges using vibration-based damage detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Ryu, Yeon-Sun; Lee, Jung-Mi

    2007-04-01

    In this study, a vibration-based method to simultaneously predict prestress-loss and flexural crack in PSC girder bridges is presented. Prestress-loss and flexural crack are two typical, but quite different in nature, types of damage which can be occurred in PSC girder bridges. The following approaches are implemented to achieve the objective. Firstly, two vibration-based damage detection techniques which can predict prestress-loss and flexural crack are described. The techniques are prestress-loss prediction model and mode-shape-based crack detection method. In order to verify the feasibility and practicality of the techniques, two different lab tests are performed. A free-free beam with external unbonded tendons is used to verify the feasibility of the prestress-loss prediction model. In additional, a PSC girder with an internal unbonded tendon is used to evaluate the practicality of the prestress-loss prediction model and the mode-shape- based crack detection method.

  17. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  18. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  19. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  20. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  1. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  2. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  3. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  4. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  6. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  7. Effect of the hull fraction on the beta-glucan contents of barley and oat grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hull fraction of barley and oat grains affects the beta-glucan (BG) content in whole grains. To evaluate the impact of the hull fraction on BG content in various genetic backgrounds and growth conditions, BG contents were analyzed in five hulled barley lines, seven hulled oat lines, and one F2 ...

  8. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, R

    1924-01-01

    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  9. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Stiffeners on Shear-resistant Plate-girder Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L

    1942-01-01

    The results of 60 different tests on 2 aluminum alloy 17S-T plate girders are presented to show the influence of size and spacing of stiffeners upon the buckling characteristics of shear-resistant webs within the elastic range. It is demonstrated that stiffeners increase the stability of a web by retarding the formation subdivided panels. An empirical method of proportioning stiffeners is proposed which recognizes both of these stiffener functions, and comparisons are made with design procedures based upon theoretical considerations of the buckling problem. Also, some experimental data are provided to show the effect of stiffener size and spacing upon ultimate web strengths.

  10. In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Smart Underwater Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Blazed Array” Sonar H. Johannsson, MIT SN‘s 4-18 ordered! 1. “Non-complex” area 2. “Complex” area In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1...Global SLAM (iSAM) Sonar imagery and SLAM, mesh, path planning In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its...Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its Components The task forms a rich and important robotics problem that spans

  11. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  12. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  13. Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern Profile, Bow Profile, Loose Plate - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. 4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART IN THE ESSEX SHIPBUILDING MUSEUM SHIPYARD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  15. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  16. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  19. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  20. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  1. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  2. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  3. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-07-07

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators' safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system.

  4. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators’ safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710

  5. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  6. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  7. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    PubMed

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  8. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  9. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  10. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type), bulb shape (bulb height and size); and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type). WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  11. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  12. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  13. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  14. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  15. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  16. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  17. Hydrogen carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  18. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  19. Effects of Masonex and forms of cottonseed hulls on dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernlund, S D; Harris, B; Van Horn, H H; Wilcox, C J

    1980-12-01

    Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows were in a 5 X 3 factorial partially balanced incomplete block design with three missing categories to study effects of different forms of cottonseed hulls and liquid supplements on milk production and composition. Roughages were regular cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat, pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls, and pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat. Liquid supplements were 8% Maxonex2 (hemicellulose extract) and 8% cane molasses. Control had no supplement. All rations were adjusted to contain 30% cottonseed hulls. Roughages with added fat gave total rations of 2.5% added fat (air dry). Least square means for daily intake of dry matter, milk yield, and fat percent were regular cottonseed hulls 21.6 kg, 20.3 kg, 3.37%; pelleted cottonseed hulls 20.3 kg, 21.4 kg, 3.06%; pelleted cottonseed hulls plus fat 20.1 kg, 21.1 kg, 2.51%; pelleted undelinted cottonseed plus fat 19.4 kg, 20.9 kg, 2.73%. Pelleted cottonseed hulls increased milk yield, decreased dry matter intake and milk fat percent, but did not affect milk fat yields. Rations with pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls resulted in higher milk fat percent and body weight than pelleted cottonseed hulls. Added fat decreased milk fat percent and yield because of high degree and unsaturation. Liquid treatments produced no detectable effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or fat percent.

  20. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  1. A compilation of research on self-consolidating concrete for prestressed bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Eduardo S.

    This thesis is composed of three research papers, for each paper a separate chapter is used, which investigates various aspects for the production of SCC utilizing materials available in the state of Wisconsin. Chapter one provides a summary of the current state-of-the-art and practice of technical documentation and specifications related to material properties and test methods for prestressed SCC bridge girders. Chapter two provides an experimental program designed to investigate the effect of material constituents on performance of SCC mixtures. From this experimental program specific mixture parameters were recommended for the application of SCC in Wisconsin DOT projects. Finally, chapter three consisted in monitoring samples of five SCC mixtures batched at three different precast plants from Wisconsin. Creep and shrinkage readings were taken for a period of 112 days to investigate the effect of specific mixture parameters of selected mixtures with performance desired by the Wisconsin DOT and precast plants. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Computational study on turbulent flows around modern tanker hull forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wu-Joan; Kim, Do-Hyun; van, Suak-Ho

    2002-02-01

    To enhance the applicability of CFD techniques to the hull form design of modern commercial ships, an efficient and robust numerical method for turbulent flow calculation is developed. The preprocessor is composed of hull form presentation, surface mesh generation, and field grid generation. The finite-volume method is utilised to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three k- turbulence models, i.e., the standard k- model (SKE), the RNG-based k- model (RNG), and the realisable k- model (RKE), are evaluated to investigate the difference caused by the turbulence model. The developed numerical method is applied to two practical VLCC hull forms with the same forebody and the slightly different afterbodies in order to find out whether CFD can capture the difference of stern flow due to hull form variation. It is found that RKE successfully predict the strength and location of bilge vortex, while SKE and RNG fail. However, all three models can provide the right information on the nominal wake difference between two hull forms. Copyright

  3. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  4. Partwise cross-parameterization via nonregular convex hull domains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huai-Yu; Pan, Chunhong; Zha, Hongbin; Yang, Qing; Ma, Songde

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel partwise framework for cross-parameterization between 3D mesh models. Unlike most existing methods that use regular parameterization domains, our framework uses nonregular approximation domains to build the cross-parameterization. Once the nonregular approximation domains are constructed for 3D models, different (and complex) input shapes are transformed into similar (and simple) shapes, thus facilitating the cross-parameterization process. Specifically, a novel nonregular domain, the convex hull, is adopted to build shape correspondence. We first construct convex hulls for each part of the segmented model, and then adopt our convex-hull cross-parameterization method to generate compatible meshes. Our method exploits properties of the convex hull, e.g., good approximation ability and linear convex representation for interior vertices. After building an initial cross-parameterization via convex-hull domains, we use compatible remeshing algorithms to achieve an accurate approximation of the target geometry and to ensure a complete surface matching. Experimental results show that the compatible meshes constructed are well suited for shape blending and other geometric applications.

  5. Regional differences in rice hulls supply for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural by-products are becoming an attractive substrate for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regional differences in the rice hulls using Escherichia coli KO11 for bioethanol production. The rice hulls coded Edirne were obtained from Thrace Region, and the rice hulls coded Izmir were obtained from Aegean Region in Turkey. Rice hulls were treated by dilute acid before using them as substrates. The cells were incubated on an orbital shaker at 160 rpm under 30 °C during 96 h of the fermentation period. It was found that the maximum yield of ethanol from sugar (0.44 g ethanol/g reducing sugar) was obtained with the substrate C/N ratio of 29.16 in Izmir medium. The main difference was the dominant carbon source available as a substrate. It was detected that glucose concentration was about 2.5 times higher in Izmir medium, whereas xylose concentration was about two times higher in Edirne medium. The different results obtained with rice hulls from different origins could depend on the type of paddy as well as different cultivation conditions. These findings provide a valuable indicator for identifying suitable agricultural waste materials to be used as substrates for bioethanol production.

  6. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  7. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  8. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  11. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  12. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  13. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  14. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  15. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  16. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  17. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

  18. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  19. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  20. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. PMID:22163590

  1. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    end of the tail cone starts at approximately 76%L. The “X”-rudders located at approximately 86-91%L are the aft control surfaces. The present model ...Top view Side view L ψ Casing NACA−0015 Fin Hull surfaces control Aft y z xψ Nose Figure 1: A schematic diagram of the generic conventional hull form...which can affect the motion control , manoeuvring and signature of the submarine. The flow-topology model (e.g. Fig. 31) shows the presence of a pair

  2. Algorithm for detecting human faces based on convex-hull.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsick; Park, Chang-Woo; Park, Mignon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2002-03-25

    In this paper, we proposed a new method to detect faces in color based on the convex-hull. We detect two kinds of regions that are skin and hair likeness region. After preprocessing, we apply the convex-hull to their regions and can find a face from their intersection relationship. The proposed algorithm can accomplish face detection in an image involving rotated and turned faces as well as several faces. To validity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we make experiment with various cases.

  3. Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

  4. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  5. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  6. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  7. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  8. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  9. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  10. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  11. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  12. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  13. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  14. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  15. HULL User Guide for Three-Dimensional Linking with EPIC 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    plotting assistance. The current HULL code, as documented here, was developed primarily at the r Air Force Armament Laboratory and is currently...59 VI Plot Designators .......................................... 93 Ki SECTION I HULL is a system of computer programs which solve...2 ALTERNATE INPUT GENE RATE COMP:LEABLE CODE COMPILER POOCESSING HULL CR SOLVE FINITE TNPUT DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS CARD .1-[INPUT PRODUCE PLOTS

  16. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  17. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  18. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  19. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  20. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  1. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  4. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  5. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  6. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  7. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  8. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  9. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  10. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2011-11-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  11. Supporting Schools with Loss: 'Lost for Words' in Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on efforts in Hull, England, to better train teachers to manage bereaved children. Evaluation following training shows an increased level of trained staff in schools, more use of policies and procedures, and a higher level of individuals in schools having responsibility for responses to bereavement. (Contains eight references.)…

  12. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  13. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  14. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  15. Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

  16. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. Neighborhood Centre Project, Hull, September 1982 - October 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Margaret; Doyle, Patrick

    Brief reports provided in this paper document aspects of a neighborhood-center project in Hull, England. The project was aimed primarily at facilitating parent/community involvement in the education of very young children through the establishment of parent activity groups. Beginning with activity groups such as mother/toddler clubs, a community…

  18. Online support vector machine based on convex hull vertices selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Min

    2013-04-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) method, as a promising classification technique, has been widely used in various fields due to its high efficiency. However, SVM cannot effectively solve online classification problems since, when a new sample is misclassified, the classifier has to be retrained with all training samples plus the new sample, which is time consuming. According to the geometric characteristics of SVM, in this paper we propose an online SVM classifier called VS-OSVM, which is based on convex hull vertices selection within each class. The VS-OSVM algorithm has two steps: 1) the samples selection process, in which a small number of skeleton samples constituting an approximate convex hull in each class of the current training samples are selected and 2) the online updating process, in which the classifier is updated with newly arriving samples and the selected skeleton samples. From the theoretical point of view, the first d+1 (d is the dimension of the input samples) selected samples are proved to be vertices of the convex hull. This guarantees that the selected samples in our approach keep the greatest amount of information of the convex hull. From the application point of view, the new algorithm can update the classifier without reducing its classification performance. Experimental results on benchmark data sets have shown the validity and effectiveness of the VS-OSVM algorithm.

  19. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  20. Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in Lake Superior. The tender ran aground on rocks several months earlier and was battered by winter storms. The wrecked vessel became part of an underwater preserve and is regularly visited by recreational divers - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter MESQUITE, Charlevoix, Charlevoix County, MI

  1. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  2. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  3. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  4. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  5. Small scale rice hull gas producer-gasoline engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Creamer, K.S.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.; Chancellor, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, a unique rice hull gas producer fueled a 3.7 kW, single cylinder, gasoline engine. At 3600 RPM and WOT, the engine developed 43% of the rated power on gasoline. Brake thermal efficiency was 16.8%. System thermal efficiency was 9.4%. Optimal spark advance for producer gas was 23/sup 0/.

  6. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  7. Effect of Yeast Hulls on Stuck and Sluggish Wine Fermentations: Importance of the Lipid Component

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Eeva; Ingledew, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts) on sluggish or stuck white wine fermentations was studied. The enhancing effect on yeast growth and fermentation rate displayed by the hulls was shown to be similar to the effect provided by lipid extract from the same hulls. Unsaturated fatty acids and sterols were incorporated into the yeast from lipid extracts during fermentation carried out under oxygen-limited conditions. Adsorption of toxic medium-chain fatty acid (decanoic acid) onto the yeast hulls took place through a dialysis membrane. However, when the hulls were placed inside a dialysis bag, the increase in yeast growth and fermentation rate seen when freely suspended hulls were used did not occur. Accordingly, the effect of yeast hulls in preventing stuck fermentations cannot be attributed only to the adsorption and consequent removal of medium-chain fatty acids from the juice. PMID:16347950

  8. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  9. Monitoring a post-tensioned concrete box girder bridge with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Jinsuk; Cao, Yinghong; Wang, Ming L.

    2009-03-01

    It is a rare opportunity to monitor a damaged structure due to extensive cracking. The progress of cracks is of primary concern for maintenance. However, it is difficult to distinguish the extension due to structural degradation from temperature to traffic. A Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) was installed in a PC box-girder bridge in order to monitor the crack development. This SHMS has continuously worked for 7 years. The temperature and traffic load patterns were deduced from raw data by using correlation techniques. Although, crack opening displacement (COD) due to temperature of daily and yearly seasonal cycles is much larger than the COD due to trucks, the overall fatigue effect due to traffic is much larger than the temperature effect because of its sheer numbers, about 3000 per day. Overweight trucks are usually allowed with permit in major interstate highway. However, frequency change due to local fatigue of crack is negligible. This research can be helpful to explain why frequency is insensitive to local damage.

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  11. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil).

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  13. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.

    PubMed

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2011-10-01

    Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized.

  14. Filtration of Runoff From Pressure Washing Vessel Hull in Drydock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    FINAL REPORT FILTRATION OF RUNOFF FROM PRESSURE WASHING VESSEL HULL IN DRYDOCK Prepared by National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) For...NATIONAL STEEL AND SHIPBUILDING COMPANY Harbor Drive and 28th Street Post Office Box 85278 San Diego, California 92186-5278 In BehaIf of SNAME SPC PANEL SP...cooperative cost sharing effort between the U.S. Navy and National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO). The Facility and Environmental Effects Panel (SP-1

  15. Review of Hull Structural Monitoring Systems for Navy Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    similar to that shown in Figure 8(a) [40]. An alternative approach (developed by Systems Planning and Analysis , Inc., see Kiddy et al [30]) called a...timely main engine repair / operation; optimising periods between hull and propeller cleaning; assessing alternative paint strategies . The BMT...over 25 years experience related to research, design, construction and modification of naval ships and submarines. He has degrees in B. Eng (Naval

  16. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Original signed by Liam Gannon Liam Gannon Defence Scientist Approved by Original signed by Neil Pegg Neil Pegg Head/Warship Performance Approved...pressure is examined and different methods of modelling the casting within the pressure hull are evaluated. The loss of strength caused by corrosion... pratique , l’augmentation de la charge de rupture de la coque touchée par la corrosion peut atteindre 19 %, pour un amincissement de 20 % du bordé

  17. A Single Vehicle Solution for Hull Inspection and Harbor Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    harbor surveys and ship hull inspections in support of port security operations. Figure 1. REMUS 100 Duct Thruster UUV with multibeam sonar...Marine Sonic Technology dual frequency (900/1800 kHz) side scan sonar and a Blueview forward looking multibeam sonar. The side scan integration required...forward look multibeam . A second module was built N00014-08-1-0109 Page 3 for the Blueview dual frequency (900/2250 kHz) multibeam . Software for

  18. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribou, Melissa Eileen

    Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

  19. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, A.; Pacuraru, F.

    2010-08-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  20. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  1. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang

    2016-12-01

    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  2. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

  3. GPR signal analysis of post-tensioned prestressed concrete girder defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Weng, Changnian; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Meng, Xu; Lei, Linlin

    2013-06-01

    The accurate inspection of the duct condition in post-tensioned prestressed concrete (PPC) is an essential part of GPR concrete inspection. The purpose is to inspect the grouting condition of the ducts where the strands are located, to find out if there is a void in the ducts, and if any water exists. In order to investigate the radar image characteristics of different PPC duct defects, a number of model girders were manufactured. Three major ducts are included in our study: (1) well grouted and no void (normal condition); (2) the duct is half filled, and the void is filled by water or air; and (3) the duct is not filled at all, and the duct is water or air filled. The data corresponding to seven different situations are acquired and processed. It is found that the radar can detect the first interface in the duct, and the detailed structure inside the duct cannot be ‘seen’ from the images directly. Characteristic curves greatly help the interpretation. A completely void duct is the easiest to differentiate from the others. The signature for this situation is characterized by a strong and clear reflection interface which becomes weaker as the void is water filled. The normal condition shows the weakest reflection interface. As for the half void situation, the front scan shows a similar result to the normal condition whether it is water or air filled, and the back scan shows similar features to the completely void situation. The experiment and analysis is helpful and instructive for practical engineering inspection.

  4. SUBHUL: Submarine Pressure Hull Finite Element Model Generator. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    pressure hull, on the other hand, must withstand the hydrostatic pressure at the design diving depth. Within the fairings are the ballast tanks ...Figure 2.2). On older designs ballast tanks increase the overall diameter. In modern submarines the pressure hull is locally reduced in diameter to...External Ballast Tanks BALLAST TANK FAIRING SECTION A-A EXTERNAL BALLAST TANKS PRESSURE HULL FAIRING Figure 2.3 Ballast Tanks Formed by Local

  5. Effects of bottom bracings on torsional dynamic characteristics of horizontally curved twin I-girder bridges with different curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awall, Md. Robiul; Hayashikawa, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; He, Xingwen

    2012-03-01

    Curved twin I-girder bridges (CTIGBs) have low torsional stiffness that makes them vulnerable to dynamic loads. This study investigates the effects of bottom bracings on the torsional dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs. Five types of bottom bracings are designed to investigate their effects on the dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs with different curvatures under free and forced vibrations. To perform numerical investigations, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) bridge and vehicle models are established using commercial ANSYS code, and then a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis approach is proposed. Road roughness profiles generated from power spectral density and cross spectral functions are also taken into account in the analyses. The numerical results show that torsional frequencies increase significantly after providing bottom bracings, and the increasing rate depends on the type of bottom bracings and their locations of installation. Bottom bracings can act as load transmitting members from one main girder to the others. Large negative bearing forces that have occurred in bridges with small radii of curvatures can be remarkably reduced by providing bottom bracing systems. It is found that the performances of several bottom bracing systems are effective in improving the torsional dynamic characteristics of the bridges in this study.

  6. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  7. Biofouling and Design of a Biomimetic Hull-Grooming Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    used by the fouling organisms to adhere to the surface to develop a strong polymer that will not peel off of the ship hull in the marine...skin of a pilot whale.13 The dolphin’s physical defenses include desquamation or peeling off of different parts of the body’s surface, ritual...Baum, C. et al. “A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.” Biorheology. (39) p. 703-717. 2002

  8. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Aerodynamically Refined Planing-Tail Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Suydam, Henry B.

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of an aerodynamically refined planing-tail hull were determined from dynamic model tests in Langley tank no. 2. Stable take-off could be made for a wide range of locations of the center of gravity. The lower porpoising limit peak was high, but no upper limit was encountered. Resistance was high, being about the same as that of float seaplanes. A reasonable range of trims for stable landings was available only in the aft range of center-of-gravity locations.

  9. Tank Tests of Model 36 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, John

    1938-01-01

    N.A.C.A. Model 36, a hull form with parallel middle body for half the length of the forebody and designed particularly for use with stub wings, was tested according to the general fixed-trim method over the range of practical loads, trims, and speeds. It was also tested free to trim with the center of gravity at two different positions. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The resistance at the hump was exceptionally low but, at high planing speeds, afterbody interference made the performance only mediocre.

  10. Numerical Study of the Hull-Propeller-Rudder Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, Adrian; Pacuraru, Florin

    2009-09-01

    The paper describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around a maneuvering containership equipped with a rotating propeller and rudder. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  11. The xylose-rich pectins from pea hulls.

    PubMed

    Renard, C M; Weightman, R M; Thibault, J F

    1997-08-01

    The hot acid extract of pea hull, HSP, was rich in galacturonic acid, arabinose and xylose. It was fractionated by copper precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The copper-soluble fraction represented 26% of HSP and was mostly composed of an arabinan with a low degree of branching, some heteroxylans and a glucan, probably starch. The copper-precipitate (74% of HSP) contained pectins and some residual arabinan, xylan, glucan and mannan. One of the pectic fractions was rich in terminal xylose and fucose; it could be partially degraded by endo-polygalacturonase but not by endo-xylanase and seemed to contain xylogalacturonans.

  12. Supervised classification of protein structures based on convex hull representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2007-01-01

    One of the central problems in functional genomics is to establish the classification schemes of protein structures. In this paper the relationship of protein structures is uncovered within the framework of supervised learning. Specifically, the novel patterns based on convex hull representation are firstly extracted from a protein structure, then the classification system is constructed and machine learning methods such as neural networks, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied. The CATH scheme is highlighted in the classification experiments. The results indicate that the proposed supervised classification scheme is effective and efficient.

  13. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  14. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  15. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  16. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  17. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  18. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  19. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  20. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  1. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  2. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  3. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations....

  4. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations....

  5. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  6. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  7. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  8. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  9. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  10. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  11. Edith de Nancrede at Hull-House: Theatre Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the work of Edith de Nancrede in developing theater programs for youth at Chicago's Hull-House during the early part of the twentieth century. Describes how her intense dedication to theater and education contributed to the success of Hull-House and to the achievements of its leader, Jane Addams. (PRA)

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  13. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  14. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  17. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility criteria in § 71.50-17 of this part, you may... examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), who will oversee the hull...

  18. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility criteria in § 71.50-17 of this part, you may... examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), who will oversee the hull...

  19. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflamatory effects in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidative, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory activities of a new liquid rice hull (husk) smoke extract prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the liquid smoke extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ...

  20. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  1. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  2. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  3. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  4. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  5. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  6. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  7. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  8. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  9. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  10. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  11. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  12. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  14. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  16. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  18. A multilayer self-organizing model for convex-hull computation.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Datta, A; Pal, N R

    2001-01-01

    A self-organizing neural-network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a given set of planar points. The network evolves in such a manner that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes some angles which are passed to the middle layer. The middle layer is used for computation of the minimum angle (winner selection). These information are passed to the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexity of the proposed model is analyzed and is compared with existing models of similar nature.

  19. A connectionist model for convex-hull of a planar set.

    PubMed

    Datta, A; Pal, S; Pal, N R

    2000-04-01

    A neural network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a finite planar set. The model is self-organizing in that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull in an orderly fashion without any supervision. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes the activation functions, the outputs of which are passed onto the middle layer. The middle layer is used for winner selection. These information are passed onto the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexities of the proposed model are analyzed and are compared with existing models of similar nature.

  20. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  1. Hydrodynamic Towing Evaluation of SSN-637 Class Short-Hull and Long-Hull Submarines with Modified Bows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Unarnnounced By I CP ’ v Distributilon/ Availability Codes Avail and/alp Dist Speojal S S 0 00 0 0 1 J ABSTRACT An experimental evaluation was conducted...TEU 25 TEU 25STEU 25 TEU 25 TEU 4 31.OS 21.05 (2.06)t 7 I32.05 20.0 S (51) 10-25S j______J 10.0s P - Porn S - Starboard Table 6. Horizontal towline...10 22.08 13.OS 14.OS (5.14) _______ ______ _________1________ P - Porn S - Starboard Table 10. Horizontal towline angles for a short-hull

  2. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P (A ) and P (L ) . In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P (A ) and P (L ) are as small as 10-300. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T , a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A /T and L /√{T } , respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  3. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter 〈L〉 and the mean area 〈A〉 have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10(-300). We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/√[T], respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  4. Hot-compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from soy hulls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Fei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The polysaccharides of soy hulls were extracted by hot-compressed water at temperatures of 110 from 180°C and various treatment times (10-150min) in a batch system. It was determined that a moderate temperature and short time are suitable for the preparation of polysaccharides. The structure of xylan and the inter- and intra-chain hydrogen bonding of cellulose fibrils in the soy hulls were not significantly broken down. The polysaccharides obtained were primarily composed of α-L-arabinofuranosyl units, 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid units and α-D-galactose units attached with substituted units. A sugar analysis indicated that arabinose was the major component, constituting 35.6-46.9% of the polysaccharide products extracted at 130°C, 140°C, and 150°C. This investigation contributes to the knowledge of the polysaccharides of soy by-products, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste from the food industries.

  5. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  6. Fracture-mechanical analysis of the residual service life of the welded main girders of the highway bridges of Ruedersdorf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edel, Karl-Otto

    1992-07-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis was carried out on a certain type of weld defect contained in the main girders of the Ruedersdorf highway bridges (River Luehlen, Germany). To assess fatigue cracks which start from welding defects of about 10 mm height at the end of the inner cover plates, specimens were taken from the bridges. The fracture mechanical properties of the 55 years old steel and the stress intensity factors were determined to analyze the unstable and stable crack extension. The essential influence on the residual life is the extending traffic density. The assesssment of the critical crack size and that of the crack growth show a residual service life of some years. Only limited data can be generated from specimens removed from the bridges, and the effect of the service environment of any specific structure must be taken into account.

  7. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  8. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Low-drag, Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suydam, Henry B

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat incorporating a low-drag, planing-tail hull were determined from model tests made in Langley tank number 2 and compared with tests of the same flying boat incorporating a conventional-type hull. The planing-tail model, with which stable take-offs were possible for a large range of elevator positions at all center-of-gravity locations tested, had more take-off stability than the conventional model. No upper-limit porpoising was encountered by the planing-tail model. The maximum changes in rise during landings were lower for the planing-tail model than for the conventional model at most contact trims, an indication of improved landing stability for the planing-tail model. The hydrodynamic resistance of the planing-tail hull was lower than the conventional hull at all speeds, and the load-resistance ratio was higher for the planing-tail hull, being especially high at the hump. The static trim of the planing-tail hull was much higher than the conventional hull, but the variation of trim with speed during take-off was smaller.

  9. Antioxidant constituents of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] hulls.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T

    2003-01-15

    Almond hulls (Nonpareil variety) were extracted with methanol and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection. The extract contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid), and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid) in the ratio 79.5:14.8:5.7. The chlorogenic acid concentration of almond hulls was 42.52 +/- 4.50 mg/100 g of fresh weight (n = 4; moisture content = 11.39%). Extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate at 40 degrees C. At an equivalent concentration (10 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts had higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. At higher concentrations (50 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts showed increased antioxidant activity that was similar to chlorogenic acid and morin [2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] standards (at the same concentrations). These data indicate that almond hulls are a potential source of these dietary antioxidants. The sterols (3beta,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol (stigmasterol) and (3beta)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol (beta-sitosterol) (18.9 mg and 16.0 mg/100 g of almond hull, respectively) were identified by GC-MS of the silylated almond hull extract.

  10. Maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls for fault diagnosis of roller bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jinde; Cheng, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    A maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls (MMC-FCH) is proposed and applied to fault diagnosis of roller bearings. In this method, the class region of each sample set is approximated by a flexible convex hull of its training samples, and then an optimal separating hyper-plane that maximizes the geometric margin between flexible convex hulls is constructed by solving a closest pair of points problem. By using the kernel trick, MMC-FCH can be extended to nonlinear cases. In addition, multi-class classification problems can be processed by constructing binary pairwise classifiers as in support vector machine (SVM). Actually, the classical SVM also can be regarded as a maximum margin classification based on convex hulls (MMC-CH), which approximates each class region with a convex hull. The convex hull is a special case of the flexible convex hull. To train a MMC-FCH classifier, time-domain and frequency-domain statistical parameters are extracted not only from raw vibration signals but also from the resulting intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by performing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) on the raw signals, and then the distance evaluation technique (DET) is used to select salient features from the whole statistical features. The experiments on bearing datasets show that the proposed method can reliably recognize different bearing faults.

  11. JCL (job control language) procedures to run the HULL code on the Cyber 205 computer installed on CSIRONET. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The HULL code is a suite of programs for solving problems of hydrodynamic flow. HULL is a self contained system, with internal maintenance and editing facilities, currently capable of running on a number of computer sited through the world. A utility for the HULL system called SAIL manages the internally coded system, and is used to generate Fortran programs appropriate to the problem being solved. The Materials Research Laboratories obtained a current version of the HULL system early in 1986 from Eglin AFB, through TTCP channels. This version (HULL 120) is capable of solving problems in two or three dimensions, using Eulerian or Lagrangian equations of motion, or a combination of both. Hull 120 has models for elastic/plastic material behaviour, and explosive burn routines, HULL 120 is currently being installed and tested on a Control Data Cyber 205 supercomputer on the CSIRONET network. Part of the installation involves embedding into the HUll system the necessary parameters and changes to make HULL-generated code run correctly on the 205. This process is not yet complete, and will be reported separately. A second part of the installation involves writing the job control language to run HULL. This report describes a complex set of JCL procedures developed at MRL to run HULL programs on the CSIRONET Cyber 205.

  12. Tank Tests of Model 11-G Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1935-01-01

    The NACA model 11-G flying-boat hull, a modification of NACA model 11-A was tested over a range of loadings. The planing bottom of model 11-G has a variable-radius flare, or concavity, at the chines in contrast to the straight V planing bottom of model 11-A. The results are given as curves of resistance and trimming moment plotted against speed for various angles of trim. The characteristics of the form at the optimum angles of trim are given in non-dimensional form as curves of resistance coefficient, best trim angle, and trimming-moment coefficient plotted against speed coefficient. As compared with the original form, model 11-G is shown to have higher resistance at all loads and speeds and higher maximum trimming moments at heavy loads. The spray pattern, however, is generally more favorable, indicating that the service performance of model 11-A would be improved by some form of chime flare.

  13. Probabilistic ultimate strength analysis of submarine pressure hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerik, Burak Can; Shin, Hyun-Kyoung; Cho, Sang-Rai

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the application of structural reliability analysis to submarine pressure hulls to clarify the merits of probabilistic approach in respect thereof. Ultimate strength prediction methods which take the inelastic behavior of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells and hemi-spherical shells into account are reviewed. The modeling uncertainties in terms of bias and coefficient of variation for failure prediction methods in current design guidelines are defined by evaluating the compiled experimental data. A simple ultimate strength formulation for ring-stiffened cylinders taking into account the interaction between local and global failure modes and an ultimate strength formula for hemispherical shells which have better accuracy and reliability than current design codes are taken as basis for reliability analysis. The effects of randomness of geometrical and material properties on failure are assessed by a prelimnary study on reference models. By evaluation of sensitivity factors important variables are determined and comparesons are made with conclusions of previous reliability studies.

  14. Revisiting the method of characteristics via a convex hull algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Mercier, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    We revisit the method of characteristics for shock wave solutions to nonlinear hyperbolic problems and we propose a novel numerical algorithm-the convex hull algorithm (CHA)-which allows us to compute both entropy dissipative solutions (satisfying all entropy inequalities) and entropy conservative (or multi-valued) solutions. From the multi-valued solutions determined by the method of characteristics, our algorithm "extracts" the entropy dissipative solutions, even after the formation of shocks. It applies to both convex and non-convex flux/Hamiltonians. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed method with a variety of numerical tests, including conservation laws in one or two spatial dimensions and problem arising in fluid dynamics.

  15. Convex hull of a Brownian motion in confinement.

    PubMed

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of confinement on the mean perimeter of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory. We use a minimal model where an infinite reflecting wall confines the walk to one side. We show that the mean perimeter displays a surprising minimum with respect to the starting distance to the wall and exhibits a nonanalyticity for small distances. In addition, the mean span of the trajectory in a fixed direction θ∈]0,π/2[, which can be shown to yield the mean perimeter by integration over θ, presents these same two characteristics. This is in striking contrast to the one-dimensional case, where the mean span is an increasing analytical function. The nonmonotonicity in the two-dimensional case originates from the competition between two antagonistic effects due to the presence of the wall: reduction of the space accessible to the Brownian motion and effective repulsion.

  16. Convex hull of a Brownian motion in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of confinement on the mean perimeter of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory. We use a minimal model where an infinite reflecting wall confines the walk to one side. We show that the mean perimeter displays a surprising minimum with respect to the starting distance to the wall and exhibits a nonanalyticity for small distances. In addition, the mean span of the trajectory in a fixed direction θ ∈]0 ,π /2 [ , which can be shown to yield the mean perimeter by integration over θ , presents these same two characteristics. This is in striking contrast to the one-dimensional case, where the mean span is an increasing analytical function. The nonmonotonicity in the two-dimensional case originates from the competition between two antagonistic effects due to the presence of the wall: reduction of the space accessible to the Brownian motion and effective repulsion.

  17. Isosurface construction in any dimension using Convex Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bhaniramka, Praveen; Wenger, Rephael; Crawfis, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We present an algorithm for constructing isosurfaces in any dimension. The input to the algorithm is a set of scalar values in a d-dimensional regular grid of (topological) hypercubes. The output is a set of (d-1)-dimensional simplices forming a piecewise linear approximation to the isosurface. The algorithm constructs the isosurface piecewise within each hypercube in the grid using the convex hull of an appropriate set of points. We prove that our algorithm correctly produces a triangulation of a (d-1)-manifold with boundary. In dimensions three and four, lookup tables with 2(8) and 2(16) entries, respectively, can be used to speed the algorithm's running time. In three dimensions, this gives the popular Marching Cubes algorithm. We discuss applications of four-dimensional isosurface construction to time varying isosurfaces, interval volumes, and morphing.

  18. Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Liong, Syafrin; Koessler, Matthew Walter; Duncan, Alec J; Gourlay, Tim

    2016-06-01

    Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats was recorded 142 times in total, over 3 sites: 2 in southern British Columbia, Canada, and 1 off Western Australia. Underwater sound peaked between 70 and 400 Hz, exhibiting strong tones in this frequency range related to engine and propeller rotation. Sound propagation models were applied to compute monopole source levels, with the source assumed 1 m below the sea surface. Broadband source levels (10-48 000 Hz) increased from 134 to 171 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m with speed from 3 to 16 m/s (10-56 km/h). Source power spectral density percentile levels and 1/3 octave band levels are given for use in predictive modeling of underwater sound of these boats as part of environmental impact assessments.

  19. Rice-hull-fired power plant burns a nuisance waste, sells electricity, ash

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-07-01

    Agrielectric Power Partners, Ltd., Lake Charles, LA, operate a 10.6 MW power plant fueled by rice hulls. The system is financially viable because PURPA regulations require the local utility to buy excess power from the producer. The installation also disposes of agricultural waste and process byproducts in an environmentally sound manner. The rice hulls are burned in a cyclonic effect boiler. Ash, which is 20% rice hulls on a dry basis, is finding markets as ladle and tundish insulation in the steel industry and as an absorbent for liquid waste spills.

  20. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  1. Tank tests of a family of flying-boat hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Parkinson, John B

    1934-01-01

    This report presents towing tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a parent form and five variations of a flying-boat hull. The beams of two of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent and the lengths changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of stations. The lengths of the two others of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent while the beams were changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of buttocks, all other widths being changed in proportion. The remaining derived form has the same length and beam as the parent, but the lines of the forebody were altered to give a planing bottom with no longitudinal curvature forward of the step. The test data were analyzed to determine the minimum resistance and the angle at which it occurs for all speeds and loads. The results of this analysis are given in the form of non dimensional curves for each model. The effect of variation in over-all size, as indicated by a "complete" test on any given hull, is pointed out. The effect of changing length alone by the spacing of buttocks, as well as the effects of the changes in length-beam ratio and longitudinal curvature that result from these operations are discussed. The difficulties encountered in interpreting test results of systematic families derived by the method used are emphasized. Further studies are suggested in which changes in the variable under consideration would not be obscured by secondary changes in other important variables.

  2. Consolidation of cladding hulls from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, D. D., Jr.

    1998-04-10

    To consolidate metallic waste that is residual from Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, waste ingots are currently being cast using an induction furnace located in a hot cell. These ingots, which have been developed to serve as final waste forms destined for repository disposal, are stainless steel (SS)-Zr alloys (the Zr is very near 15 wt.%). The charge for the alloys consists of stainless steel cladding hulls, Zr from the fuel being treated, noble metal fission products, and minor amounts of actinides that are present with the cladding hulls. The actual in-dated cladding hulls have been characterized before they were melted into ingots, and the final as-cast ingots have been characterized to determine the degree of consolidation of the charge material. It has been found that ingots can be effectively cast from irradiated cladding hulls residual from the electrometallurgical treatment process by employing an induction furnace located in a hot cell.

  3. Tank Tests of an Alternate Hull Form for the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Posner, Jack

    1946-01-01

    Tests have been made in Langley tank no. I of a dynamic model of the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 airplane. These tests were made using an alternate hull form, the purpose of which was to reduce the bow spray and eliminate the landing instability which are objectionable features of the production design. The major differences from the PB2Y-3 hull included a deeper step to improve the landing stability , and a lengthened forebody and increased beam to reduce the sway in the propellers and on the flaps. The tests showed that the spray characteristics of the revised hull form were much better than that ot the production design. In addition the take-off and landing stability of the model with the alternate hull were satisfactory.

  4. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have been made, or where other critical areas of concern have been identified, the OCMI may require an... hull condition assessment, the OCMI may require the presence of a third party examiner and a...

  5. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  6. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  7. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  8. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  9. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  10. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Singh, Barinderjit; Singh, Narpinder; Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal

    2017-03-01

    In this study, extraction of polyphenols using different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) with ultrasound and conventional method from whole mung bean (WMB), hull and cotyledon was conducted. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total antioxidant activities (TAA), ferric reducing power (FRP) and DPPH radical scavenging activity were determined. Ultrasound treated extracts exhibited higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH in different mung bean fractions than CSE. Among the solvents, acetone showed better TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH. Hull had significantly higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH than WMB and cotyledon. Sinapic acid (SA) was the major polyphenol in different fractions. Acetone extract of hull showed high polyphenol content. SA, ferulic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin and luteolin were the major contributors to antioxidant activity of acetone extract. Mung bean hull contained the maximum polyphenols and acetone was observed to be the best extraction medium for polyphenols in combination with ultrasound.

  11. Congruency effects in dot comparison tasks: convex hull is more important than dot area.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Hogan, Grace; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-11-16

    The dot comparison task, in which participants select the more numerous of two dot arrays, has become the predominant method of assessing Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity. Creation of the dot arrays requires the manipulation of visual characteristics, such as dot size and convex hull. For the task to provide a valid measure of ANS acuity, participants must ignore these characteristics and respond on the basis of number. Here, we report two experiments that explore the influence of dot area and convex hull on participants' accuracy on dot comparison tasks. We found that individuals' ability to ignore dot area information increases with age and display time. However, the influence of convex hull information remains stable across development and with additional time. This suggests that convex hull information is more difficult to inhibit when making judgements about numerosity and therefore it is crucial to control this when creating dot comparison tasks.

  12. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect.

  13. Congruency effects in dot comparison tasks: convex hull is more important than dot area

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Hogan, Grace; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dot comparison task, in which participants select the more numerous of two dot arrays, has become the predominant method of assessing Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity. Creation of the dot arrays requires the manipulation of visual characteristics, such as dot size and convex hull. For the task to provide a valid measure of ANS acuity, participants must ignore these characteristics and respond on the basis of number. Here, we report two experiments that explore the influence of dot area and convex hull on participants’ accuracy on dot comparison tasks. We found that individuals’ ability to ignore dot area information increases with age and display time. However, the influence of convex hull information remains stable across development and with additional time. This suggests that convex hull information is more difficult to inhibit when making judgements about numerosity and therefore it is crucial to control this when creating dot comparison tasks. PMID:28163886

  14. David Hull's generalized natural selection as an explanation for scientific change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Michelle Yvette

    2001-10-01

    Philosophers of science such as Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn have employed evolutionary idiom in describing scientific change. In Science as a Process (1988) Hull makes evolutionary theory explanatorily applicable. He modifies key evolutionary terms in order that both biological evolution and scientific change are instances of a general selection process. According to Hull, because of naturally-existing competition for credit among researchers and the professional lineages they constitute, scientists are constrained to cooperate and collaborate. This process entails two important philosophical consequences. First, it allows for a natural justification of why the sciences can provide objective empirical knowledge. Second, appreciating its strength means that a philosophical analysis of scientific change is solidly difficult features to combine. I work on strengthening two weaknesses in Hull's arguments. First, operating in his analysis is an unexplicated notion of ``information'' running parallel to the equally opaque notion of genetic information. My third chapter provides a clear account of ``genetic information'' whose usefulness extends beyond the assistance it can render Hull as a clear concept is needed in biological contexts as well. The fourth and fifth chapters submit evidence of scientific change from radio astronomy. Hull insists on empirical backing for philosophical theses but his own book stands to suffer from selection effects as it offers cases drawn from a single subspecialty in the biological sciences. I found that in the main scientists and the change they propel accords well with Hull's explanation. However, instances of major change reveal credit- and resource-sharing to a degree contrary with what Hull would expect. My conclusion is that the naturalness of competition, instantiated during the course of standardized and relatively ``normal'' scientific research, is not the norm during periods of new research and its uncertain standards of

  15. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    Best Available Copy ., AD-A007 341 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL...PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME II APPENDICES By Alan J. Stev/crt 6 December 1974 Approved...of the comparative performance of high eflic.icncy ship propulsion systems, four arrangement drawings have been prepared. Each drawing shows the

  16. Peanut hulls as a litter source for broiler breeder replacement pullets.

    PubMed

    Lien, R J; Hess, J B; Conner, D E; Wood, C W; Shelby, R A

    1998-01-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were reared on either peanut hulls or pine shavings to determine effects of litter type on growth performance and litter characteristics. Pullets were reared to 20 wk of age in rooms initially bedded with 8 cm of clean shavings or hulls. Heating and ventilation were standardized in all rooms. Restricted skip-a-day feeding was used to attain recommended growth curves. Water was continuously provided for ad libitum consumption. Litter and environmental variables were measured throughout rearing and 2 wk after pullets were removed from the litter materials. Feed consumption, BW, mortality, and uniformity at 20 wk were not affected by litter type; however, gizzard weights were decreased in pullets reared on hulls. Litter bulk density increased with use and was greater for shavings through 11 wk, but not thereafter. Particle size decreased with use in both litter types. Through 11 wk, there were more particles in the > 4 mm range and less in the < 1.7 mm range with hulls. Litter moisture increased with use but was not affected by litter type. Litter pH was greater in unused shavings, but during and after use was generally greater in hulls. With both litter types, litter and environmental ammonia levels increased to 11 wk then decreased; however, this effect was more pronounced for hulls. Bacteria populations were not affected by litter type; however, greater fungal populations were observed in shavings at 7 and 15 wk. Aflatoxins were detected in unused hulls but not shavings. Because aflatoxin levels decreased during use and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus populations were not detected in samples collected during use, aflatoxins observed were presumed to have been formed prior to use. Peanut hulls performed similarly to pine shavings as a litter source for breeder pullets; however, the specific influence of the aflatoxins contained in this litter source on bird performance deserves further study.

  17. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hyung; Park, Yu Dark; Park, Hyung Gyu; Park, Won Chul; Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Kil Soo; Chun, Ho Hwan

    2012-12-01

    An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  18. Ingestive Behavior and Nitrogen Balance of Confined Santa Ines Lambs Fed Diets Containing Soybean Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Milena Patrícia Viana; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Filho, Antônio Eustáquio; dos Santos, Edileusa de Jesus; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade; Barroso, Daniele Soares; Filho, George Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m), considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance. PMID:25049922

  19. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product.

  20. Some results on the statistics of hull perimeters in large planar triangulations and quadrangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    The hull perimeter at distance d in a planar map with two marked vertices at distance k from each other is the length of the closed curve separating these two vertices and lying at distance d from the first one (d\\lt k). We study the statistics of hull perimeters in large random planar triangulations and quadrangulations as a function of both k and d. Explicit expressions for the probability density of the hull perimeter at distance d, as well as for the joint probability density of hull perimeters at distances d 1 and d 2, are obtained in the limit of infinitely large k. We also consider the situation where the distance d at which the hull perimeter is measured corresponds to a finite fraction of k. The various laws that we obtain are identical for triangulations and for quadrangulations, up to a global rescaling. Our approach is based on recursion relations recently introduced by the author which determine the generating functions of so-called slices, i.e. pieces of maps with appropriate distance constraints. It is indeed shown that the map decompositions underlying these recursion relations are intimately linked to the notion of hull perimeters and provide a simple way to fully control them.

  1. A Fast Algorithm of Convex Hull Vertices Selection for Online Classification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuguang; Nie, Xiangli; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-20

    Reducing samples through convex hull vertices selection (CHVS) within each class is an important and effective method for online classification problems, since the classifier can be trained rapidly with the selected samples. However, the process of CHVS is NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm to select the convex hull vertices, based on the convex hull decomposition and the property of projection. In the proposed algorithm, the quadratic minimization problem of computing the distance between a point and a convex hull is converted into a linear equation problem with a low computational complexity. When the data dimension is high, an approximate, instead of exact, convex hull is allowed to be selected by setting an appropriate termination condition in order to delete more nonimportant samples. In addition, the impact of outliers is also considered, and the proposed algorithm is improved by deleting the outliers in the initial procedure. Furthermore, a dimension convention technique via the kernel trick is used to deal with nonlinearly separable problems. An upper bound is theoretically proved for the difference between the support vector machines based on the approximate convex hull vertices selected and all the training samples. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data sets show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  3. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  4. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  5. Synthetic carriers of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dellacherie, E; Labrude, P; Vigneron, C; Riess, J G

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, construction of artificial carriers of oxygen for transfusion purposes has evolved in three main directions, which can be reviewed as follows. The first approach consists of modifying hemoglobin (Hb), the natural oxygen carrier, in order to lower its oxygen affinity and increase its intravascular persistence. To achieve this aim, two basic procedures have been used: molecular and environmental modification. In the first case, Hb is modified with chemical reagents; the second requires encapsulation of Hb to obtain artificial erythrocytes. The second approach is based on the use of synthetic oxygen-carrying chelates that mimic the oxygenation function of Hb. The main products in this class are metalloporphyrins, whose chemical environment is designed to render them efficient as reversible carriers of oxygen in vivo. Finally, the third approach deals with the perfluorochemicals used in emulsified form. Perfluorochemical liquids are excellent gas solvents, but some problems remain unsolved with regard to their development as oxygen carriers in vivo: low O2 dissolving capacity, toxicity, and excretion.

  6. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium.

  7. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sellers, W I; Hepworth-Bell, J; Falkingham, P L; Bates, K T; Brassey, C A; Egerton, V M; Manning, P L

    2012-10-23

    Body mass is a critical parameter used to constrain biomechanical and physiological traits of organisms. Volumetric methods are becoming more common as techniques for estimating the body masses of fossil vertebrates. However, they are often accused of excessive subjective input when estimating the thickness of missing soft tissue. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a minimum convex hull is derived mathematically from the point cloud generated by laser-scanning mounted skeletons. This has the advantage of requiring minimal user intervention and is thus more objective and far quicker. We test this method on 14 relatively large-bodied mammalian skeletons and demonstrate that it consistently underestimates body mass by 21 per cent with minimal scatter around the regression line. We therefore suggest that it is a robust method of estimating body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and demonstrate its usage to predict the body mass of one of the largest, relatively complete sauropod dinosaurs: Giraffatitan brancai (previously Brachiosaurus) as 23200 kg.

  8. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, W. I.; Hepworth-Bell, J.; Falkingham, P. L.; Bates, K. T.; Brassey, C. A.; Egerton, V. M.; Manning, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is a critical parameter used to constrain biomechanical and physiological traits of organisms. Volumetric methods are becoming more common as techniques for estimating the body masses of fossil vertebrates. However, they are often accused of excessive subjective input when estimating the thickness of missing soft tissue. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a minimum convex hull is derived mathematically from the point cloud generated by laser-scanning mounted skeletons. This has the advantage of requiring minimal user intervention and is thus more objective and far quicker. We test this method on 14 relatively large-bodied mammalian skeletons and demonstrate that it consistently underestimates body mass by 21 per cent with minimal scatter around the regression line. We therefore suggest that it is a robust method of estimating body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and demonstrate its usage to predict the body mass of one of the largest, relatively complete sauropod dinosaurs: Giraffatitan brancai (previously Brachiosaurus) as 23200 kg. PMID:22675141

  9. Geometry control of long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during construction through finite element model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi

    2016-04-01

    In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.

  10. Effects of breadfruit seed hull ash on the microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy/breadfruit seed hull ash particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuanya, C. U.; Ibhadode, A. O. A.; Dagwa, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy matrix composites reinforced with different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull (husk) ash particles of size 500 nm were investigated. Six (6) different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull ash particles were added to aluminium alloy matrix using a double stir-casting method. Microstructural analysis shows that with the increase of the reinforcement weight fraction, the matrix grain size decreases. The mechanical properties of the composites are improved over the matrix materials, except for the slightly decrease of the impact energy. Fracture surface examination indicates that there is a good interfacial bonding between the aluminium alloy matrix and the breadfruit seed hull ash particles and that fracture initiation does not occur at the particle-matrix interface. Hence, incorporation of breadfruit seed hull ash particles in aluminium matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminium composites with improved hardness and strength. These composites can find applications in automotive components where light weight materials are required with good stiffness and strength.

  11. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  13. Yarn carrier with clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  14. Development of a remotely controlled testing platform with low-drag air-ventilated hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.; Perry, Nicholaus I.; Mattson, Alexander W.; Chaney, Christopher S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the development and testing of a remotely controlled boat platform with an innovative air-ventilated hull. The application of air cavities on the underside of ship hulls is a promising means for reducing hydrodynamic drag and pollutant emissions and increasing marine transportation efficiency. Despite this concept's potential, design optimization and high-performance operation of novel air-cavity ships remain a challenging problem. Hull construction and sensor instrumentation of the model-scale air-cavity boat is described in the paper. The modular structure of the hull allows for easy modifications, and an electric propulsion unit enables self-propelled operation. The boat is controlled remotely via a radio transmission system. Results of initial tests are reported, including thrust, speed, and airflow rate in several loading conditions. The constructed platform can be used for optimizing air-cavity systems and testing other innovative hull designs. This system can be also developed into a high-performance unmanned boat.

  15. CudaChain: an alternative algorithm for finding 2D convex hulls on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative GPU-accelerated convex hull algorithm and a novel S orting-based P reprocessing A pproach (SPA) for planar point sets. The proposed convex hull algorithm termed as CudaChain consists of two stages: (1) two rounds of preprocessing performed on the GPU and (2) the finalization of calculating the expected convex hull on the CPU. Those interior points locating inside a quadrilateral formed by four extreme points are first discarded, and then the remaining points are distributed into several (typically four) sub regions. For each subset of points, they are first sorted in parallel; then the second round of discarding is performed using SPA; and finally a simple chain is formed for the current remaining points. A simple polygon can be easily generated by directly connecting all the chains in sub regions. The expected convex hull of the input points can be finally obtained by calculating the convex hull of the simple polygon. The library Thrust is utilized to realize the parallel sorting, reduction, and partitioning for better efficiency and simplicity. Experimental results show that: (1) SPA can very effectively detect and discard the interior points; and (2) CudaChain achieves 5×-6× speedups over the famous Qhull implementation for 20M points.

  16. Augmented convex hull plots: Rationale, implementation in R and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Gaj; Pohar, Maja

    2005-04-01

    The paper addresses the possibility to replace cluttered multi-group scatter-plots with augmented convex hull plots. By replacing scatter-plot points with convex hulls, space is gained for visualization of descriptive statistics with error bars or confidence ellipses within the convex hulls. An informative addition to the plot is calculation of the area of convex hull divided by corresponding group size as a bivariate dispersion measure. Marginal distributions can be depicted on the sides of the main plot in established ways. Bivariate density plots might be used instead of convex hulls in the presence of outliers. Like any scatter-plot type visualization, the technique is not limited to raw data -- points can be derived from any dimension reduction technique, or simple functions can be used as axes instead of original dimensions. The limited possibilities for producing such plots in existing software are surveyed, and our general and flexible implementation in R -- the publicly available chplot function -- is presented. Examples based on our daily biostatistical consulting practice illustrate the technique with various options.

  17. Effects of internal mass distribution and its isolation on the acoustic characteristics of a submerged hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Herwig; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of machinery isolation in marine vessels is to isolate structural vibration of the onboard machinery from the hull and to reduce far-field radiation of underwater noise. A substantial proportion of the total submarine mass is on flexible mounts that isolate supported masses from the hull at frequencies above the mounting system resonant frequency. This reduces the dynamically effective mass of the hull and affects the signature of the marine vessel due to propeller excitation. A fully coupled finite element/boundary element (FE/BE) model has been developed to investigate the effect of mass distribution and isolation in a submerged hull. The finite element model of the structure includes internal structures to represent the machinery and other flexibly mounted components. Changes in the radiated sound power demonstrate the effect of machinery isolation on the acoustic signature of the submerged hull due to the external propeller forces. Results are also presented to show how the arrangement of flexible mounts for a large internal structure can influence the radiation due to machinery forces.

  18. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    PubMed

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value.

  19. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  20. Intake and digestibility of low-quality native grass hay by beef cows supplemented with graded levels of soybean hulls.

    PubMed

    Martin, S K; Hibberd, C A

    1990-12-01

    Twelve Hereford cows and four mature, ruminally cannulated Hereford x Angus heifers were fed supplements providing either 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3 kg/d of soybean hulls and including 440 g of protein/d (cottonseed meal was used to equalize protein intake) to determine the effects of supplementation on intake and utilization of low-quality native grass hay. Cattle were housed in individual pens and fed coarsely chopped (5-cm screen) native grass hay harvested in mid-November (4.1% CP, 76.9% NDF). Hay OM intake peaked (quadratic, P = .04) at 10.1 kg/d with 1 kg of soybean hulls and decreased when 2 kg (9.8 kg/d) or 3 kg (9.1 kg/d) of soybean hulls were fed. Although hay intake decreased when soybean hulls replaced cottonseed meal, feeding 3 kg soybean hulls decreased hay OM intake by only .64 kg. Total OM digestibility increased linearly (P = .009) with added increments of soybean hulls (45.8%, 46.2%, 46.6% and 48.6% for 0 through 3 kg soybean hulls/d, respectively), indicating that hulls were more digestible than the hay. Digestibility of NDF was not affected (P = .14) by level of soybean hull supplementation, although ADF digestibility increased (linear, P = .03). Increases in OM intake and digestibility with soybean hulls combined to increase digestible OM intake (linear, P = .0001). Soybean hull supplementation increased ruminal VFA concentrations (linear, P = .04) and the molar proportion of propionate (linear, P = .006).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  3. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  4. Marine propulsion device with engine heat recovery system and streamlining hull closures

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H. W.

    1985-11-12

    A Marine Jet Propulsion System for use as an inboard engine for boats is herein described. An engine or motor means is attached in a driving relationship to a pump and thrust output apparatus. Heat generated by and rejected by the engine or motor is passed into the pump base for dissipation into the outputted jet thrust stream. Air and/or exhaust gas from the engine is ejected around the jet output stream to reduce against-the-hull turbulence and jet stream or thrust energy losses. Streamlining hull closures for the jet pump intake and output ports are provided to reduce system hull drag when not in use and to limit marine organism growth inside the pump.

  5. Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater.

  6. The Langevin Hull: Constant pressure and temperature dynamics for non-periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Vardeman, Charles F; Stocker, Kelsey M; Gezelter, J Daniel

    2011-04-12

    We have developed a new isobaric-isothermal (NPT) algorithm which applies an external pressure to the facets comprising the convex hull surrounding the system. A Langevin thermostat is also applied to the facets to mimic contact with an external heat bath. This new method, the "Langevin Hull", can handle heterogeneous mixtures of materials with different compressibilities. These systems are problematic for traditional affine transform methods. The Langevin Hull does not suffer from the edge effects of boundary potential methods, and allows realistic treatment of both external pressure and thermal conductivity due to the presence of an implicit solvent. We apply this method to several different systems including bare metal nanoparticles, nanoparticles in an explicit solvent, as well as clusters of liquid water. The predicted mechanical properties of these systems are in good agreement with experimental data and previous simulation work.

  7. Applicability of convex hull in multiple detector response space for neutron dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2009-08-01

    A novel neutron dose measurement method that flexibly responds to variations in the neutron field is being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This is an implementation of the multi-detector method (first introduced in 1960s) for neutron dose evaluation using a convex hull in the response space defined for multiple detectors. The convex hull provides a range of possible neutron dose corresponding to the incident neutron spectrum. Feasibility of the method was studied using a simulated response of mixed gas proportional counter. Monochromatic neutrons are shown to be fundamentally suitable for mapping the convex. The convex hull can be further reduced taking into consideration a priori information about physically possible incident neutron spectra, for example, theoretically derived moderated neutron spectra originated from a fission neutron source.

  8. Selectivity of the Cd2+/Ca2+ exchange on modified rice hull silica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Flores, Norma A; Solache, Marcos; Olguín, M Teresa; Fripiat, José J; Pacheco-Malagón, Graciela; Saniger, José M; Bulbulian, Silvia

    2009-03-01

    The rice hull ash is composed by 94% of SiO2, an agricultural waste that can be recovered and purified by a depolymerization reaction yielding an organo-silicic gel. The purpose of this paper is to show that this silica can be used to fix Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The pH of hydrolysis of the organo-silicic gel is the main factor modifying the distribution between the solid and the solution. The contact time between the Cd2+ solution and the solid was studied to optimize the sorption conditions. The equilibrium measurements were performed after 40 hours at room temperature. The competition with Ca2+ ions in the solutions was also studied in order to evaluate the selectivity of the Cd2+ fixation. It was found that the rice hull ash has a higher capacity to fix Cd2+ than the rice hull derivatives.

  9. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  10. Performance and physiology of steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroid hormones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment with steers grazing toxic tall fescue indicated that feeding pelleted soybean hulls in conjunction with steroid hormone implants can increase steer weight gain, and feeding soyben hulls can reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte...

  11. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  12. Tank tests of a model of a flying-boat hull with a fluted bottom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1935-01-01

    A 1/5-scale model of a flying-boat hull having flutes in the bottom both forward and aft of the step (NACA model 19) was tested to determine its water performance. The model was also tested after the successive removal of the flutes on the afterbody and forebody. The results from these tests are compared with those from tests of a model of the hull of the Navy PN-8 flying boat and it is concluded that the fluted-bottom model and its modifications are inferior to the model of the PN-8.

  13. Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Godwin, L Scott

    2003-04-01

    The natural barriers to species invasions that exist in isolated marine environments such as Hawaii are overcome by anthropogenic influences on the dispersal patterns of marine organisms. This creates a situation where the marine habitats of the Hawaiian Archipelago are more readily exposed to marine non-indigenous species. A case study of a particular anthropogenic dispersal mode, maritime vessel hull fouling, is reviewed. This mode has effects on altered environments, such as harbors, as well as unaltered coastal habitats. Hull fouling of commercial maritime vessels is documented as a transport vector, and an inter-island dispersal mechanism for marine non-indigenous species to the main Hawaiian Islands.

  14. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  15. Welding torch trajectory generation for hull joining using autonomous welding mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascoet, J. Y.; Hamilton, K.; Carabin, G.; Rauch, M.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Shipbuilding processes involve highly dangerous manual welding operations. Welding of ship hulls presents a hazardous environment for workers. This paper describes a new robotic system, developed by the SHIPWELD consortium, that moves autonomously on the hull and automatically executes the required welding processes. Specific focus is placed on the trajectory control of such a system and forms the basis for the discussion in this paper. It includes a description of the robotic hardware design as well as some methodology used to establish the torch trajectory control.

  16. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  17. AFWL (Air Force Weapons Laboratory) vectorized EPHULL (Elastic/Plastic HULL) code user manual. Final report, March 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    This report was prepared as a user manual for implementing the vectorized Elastic/Plastic HULL (EPHULL) Composite HULL code and SAIL code on the AFWL CRAY computer. Major programs required to operate the Composite HULL code and supporting programs and files on the AFWL CRAY are described. The Composite HULL code developed through this work is usable over the range of problems formerly accommodated by either Vector HULL or EPHULL, and is simpler and less time-consuming for new users to learn. The Cylinder In Situ Test (CIST) Equation of State (EOS) in this manual was rewritten from the California Research Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (CRALE) code for use with a variety of soils.

  18. Resistance and seakeeping numerical performance analyses of a semi-small waterplane area twin hull at medium to high speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernengo, Giuliano; Bruzzone, Dario

    2016-03-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis of a new semi-small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) suitable for various applications such as small and medium size passenger ferries is presented. This may be an attractive crossover configuration resulting from the merging of two classical shapes: a conventional SWATH and a fast catamaran. The final hull design exhibits a wedge-like waterline shape with the maximum beam at the stern; the hull ends with a very narrow entrance angle, has a prominent bulbous bow typical of SWATH vessels, and features full stern to arrange waterjet propellers. Our analysis aims to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrodynamic performance of a hull with such a complex shape both in terms of resistance of the hull in calm water and seakeeping capability in regular head waves and compare the performance with that of a conventional SWATH. The analysis is performed using a boundary element method that was preliminarily validated on a conventional SWATH vessel.

  19. Telemetry carrier ring and support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A telemetry carrier ring for use in a gas turbine engine includes an annular support ring connected to the engine and an annular carrier ring coupled to the support ring, each ring exhibiting different growth characteristics in response to thermal and mechanical loading. The carrier ring is coupled to the support ring by a plurality of circumferentially spaced web members which are relatively thin in an engine radial direction to provide a predetermined degree of radial flexibility. the web members have a circumferential width and straight axial line of action selected to transfer torque and thrust between the support ring and the carrier ring without substantial deflection. The use of the web members with radial flexibility provides compensation between the support ring and the carrier ring since the carrier ring grows at a different rate than the supporting ring.

  20. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  1. The Effect of Buckwheat Hull Extract on Lipid Oxidation in Frozen-Stored Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality.

  2. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  3. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) method was used in this study, which was originally described by ...

  4. Micro-Heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  5. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The principle of MPT technique is to monitor the thermally driven motion of inert micro-spheres, which...

  6. Micro-heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  7. Rice hull mulch affects germination of bittercress and creeping woodsorrel in container plant culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulches are commonly used to control weeds in container nursery crops, especially in sites where preemergence herbicides are either not labeled or potentially phytotoxic to the crop. Parboiled rice hulls have been shown to provide effective weed control when applied 1.25 to 2.5 cm deep over the con...

  8. Effects of Secondary Structure on the Stress and Stability of Submarine Pressure Hulls,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    which might have significant impact on the global stress pattern of -’ the submarine section. The stress pattern for the ballast tank and pressure hull...Specific rapwtrttg perois SCVWIIsL DREA Report &SPONSORING ACTIVITY (%A qam" of a. Oepiuntgni ogM offtice W tuifso SI10-10~ WIG OeseNCRta 41 8tel

  9. Dielectric-based method for determining moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine nondestructively and instantaneously moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. Results of measurement along with standard errors of calibration are show...

  10. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) have many health benefits attributed to their high content of protein, non-digestible starches, fiber, and other bioactive components. Hulls from dry beans are rich in phenolics known to possess antioxidant activity that is beneficial to human health. The object...

  11. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health.

  12. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182 Section 154.182 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... secondary barrier, each 100m (328 ft.) of full penetration butt welded joints in that portion of...

  13. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  14. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bending stress shall not exceed the following limits: (1) Independent tanks may be installed in such a... stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70... reduction in hull stress when independent tanks are installed in such a manner as to contribute to...

  15. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation... distinctive identification in a design protection notice required by 17 U.S.C. 1306. A distinctive identification of an owner may not be used in a design notice before it has first been recorded with the...

  16. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  17. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  18. CFD Analysis of a Penta-hulled, Air-Entrapment, High-Speed Planning Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    f. Hydrofoils ................................................................................10 4. Analytic Hierarchy Process...ruled out as a possibility. f. Hydrofoils The main advantage to a hydrofoil hull shape is the high speeds created during non displacement mode. The...internal arrangement space. However, the vulnerability of the foils during high speed caused us to rule out the hydrofoil during the initial study. 4

  19. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  20. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bending stress shall not exceed the following limits: (1) Independent tanks may be installed in such a... stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70... reduction in hull stress when independent tanks are installed in such a manner as to contribute to...

  1. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  2. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  3. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  4. Digestion of fibre polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage by adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1989-11-01

    Characterization of the carbohydrates of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage using both colorimetric and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques permitted a detailed investigation into the extent of digestion of differing types of fibre. These digestion studies were greatly aided by the development of a rapid bioassay employing starved adult cockerels. Total collection of undigested residues, uncontaminated by food spillage, could be made from trays placed under the cockerels. Chemical analysis showed that pea hulls consisted mainly of fibre with very little available carbohydrate present, whereas more than half of freeze-dried carrot and cabbage consisted of available carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch) and consequently considerably less fibre was present. The fibre of carrot and cabbage was similarly composed of nearly equal amounts of neutral and acidic polysaccharides, whereas pea-hull fibre had four times as much neutral as acidic polysaccharides. The digestibility of total neutral polysaccharides from all three foodstuffs was extremely low. However, there appeared to be preferential digestion of polysaccharides composed of rhamnose, arabinose and galactose residues, all associated with pectic material, in contrast to the indigestibility of polysaccharides composed of fucose, xylose and glucose. Acidic polysaccharides were digested to a greater extent than neutral ones, and those of carrot and cabbage more so than pea hulls. The polysaccharides which were the most soluble were also the most digestible, but due to the arbitrariness of polysaccharide solubility, quantification of their total digestibility per se was considered not possible.

  5. A 1 log N parallel algorithm for detecting convex hulls on image boards.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Lin, J Y

    1998-01-01

    By finding the maximum and minimum of {yi-mxi|1=orhull of N arbitrarily given points on an image board, The mathematical theory needed is included, and computation time is 1 log N.

  6. Hausdorff methods for approximating the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in integer problems with monotone objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.

  7. Mean perimeter of the convex hull of a random walk in a semi-infinite medium.

    PubMed

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-08-01

    We study various properties of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory, in the presence of an infinite reflecting wall. Recently [Phys. Rev. E 91, 050104(R) (2015)], we announced that the mean perimeter of the convex hull at time t, rescaled by √Dt, is a nonmonotonous function of the initial distance to the wall. In this article, we first give all the details of the derivation of this mean rescaled perimeter, in particular its value when starting from the wall and near the wall. We then determine the physical mechanism underlying this surprising nonmonotonicity of the mean rescaled perimeter by analyzing the impact of the wall on two complementary parts of the convex hull. Finally, we provide a further quantification of the convex hull by determining the mean length of the portion of the reflecting wall visited by the Brownian motion as a function of the initial distance to the wall.

  8. Mean perimeter of the convex hull of a random walk in a semi-infinite medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-08-01

    We study various properties of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory, in the presence of an infinite reflecting wall. Recently [Phys. Rev. E 91, 050104(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.050104], we announced that the mean perimeter of the convex hull at time t , rescaled by √{D t }, is a nonmonotonous function of the initial distance to the wall. In this article, we first give all the details of the derivation of this mean rescaled perimeter, in particular its value when starting from the wall and near the wall. We then determine the physical mechanism underlying this surprising nonmonotonicity of the mean rescaled perimeter by analyzing the impact of the wall on two complementary parts of the convex hull. Finally, we provide a further quantification of the convex hull by determining the mean length of the portion of the reflecting wall visited by the Brownian motion as a function of the initial distance to the wall.

  9. [3-D endocardial surface modelling based on the convex hull algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Xi, Ri-hui; Shen, Hai-dong; Ye, You-li; Zhang, Yong

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a method based on the convex hull algorithm is presented for extracting modelling data from the locations of catheter electrodes within a cardiac chamber, so as to create a 3-D model of the heart chamber during diastole and to obtain a good result in the 3-D reconstruction of the chamber based on VTK.

  10. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables...

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  12. Gasified rice hull biochar is a source of phosphorus and potassium for container-grown plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar materials have been reported to improve the chemical, physical, and biological properties of mineral soils and soilless substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) on available nutrients in a container substrate. Two experimen...

  13. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  14. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. 108.133 Section 108.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural...

  15. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. 108.133 Section 108.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural...

  16. Magneto-Electric Method and Apparatus for Remote Powering on the Hull of an Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-02

    heavy expensive wiring harnesses . The sensors are embedded in a polymer material and are located several inches above the hull of the underwater...vehicle. It would be desirable to deliver power to the sensor arrays without the use of large wiring harnesses in order to reduce costs and the overall

  17. Influence of canola hulls on gain in weight of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Campbell, S J; McGregor, D I

    1983-12-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets in which the protein component was supplied by defatted ground seed, defatted ground dehulled fraction, or defatted ground hulls of Brassica napus L. cv. Tower or Brassica campestris L. cv. Candle, obtained from autoclaved seed. They were also fed casein diets to which defatted ground hulls of Tower or Candle seed were added. Gain in weight was equally good for all diets containing Candle seed fractions and for diets containing Tower ground seed. However, it was lower for diets containing the ground dehulled fraction or the ground hulls of Tower. Addition of Candle hulls or of a mixture of equal proportions (w/w) of Candle and Tower hulls to diets containing dehulled Tower did not improve the gain in weight of larvae, compared with that of larvae fed diets containing the dehulled fraction, alone. Similar additions of Tower hulls or of the mixture to diets containing the dehulled fraction of Candle had no adverse effect on larval gain in weight, compared to that registered by larvae fed the dehulled fraction of Candle. Significant improvement in weight gain in comparison with that recorded for larvae fed the unsupplemented casein diet could not be demonstrated when ground hulls of Tower or Candle were added to this diet. Considered collectively, weight gains of larvae of T. molitor were consistently greater when Candle products were fed than when Tower products provided the protein fraction of the diet.

  18. Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Bailey, C A; Cartwright, A L

    2003-10-01

    High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) on intestinal viscosity, measures of growth, and feed conversion in broiler chickens fed to 20 d of age. Growth and feed conversion ratio were not affected by inclusion of as much as 7.5% of the germ fraction into poultry diets, while inclusion of the hull fraction reduced growth at all concentrations. The hull fraction increased intestinal viscosity at all inclusion levels fed, although feed conversion was not affected until the inclusion rate exceeded 5.0%. The germ fraction significantly increased intestinal viscosity at 7.5 and 10% inclusion rates. When germ fraction was fed, relative organ weights remained constant through all concentrations except for the ventriculus and duodenum at 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels. Relative pancreas weight was significantly increased at the 10% level of the hull fraction. Increases in intestinal viscosity corresponded with growth depression. These results suggest that residual gum was responsible for some deleterious effects seen when guar meal was fed. The germ fraction was a superior ingredient when compared with the hull fraction. The guar meal germ fraction constituting as much as 7.5% of the diet supported growth and feed conversion measures similar to those observed with a typical corn-soybean poultry ration.

  19. Co-composting rice hulls and/or sawdust with poultry manure in NE Argentina.

    PubMed

    Leconte, M C; Mazzarino, M J; Satti, P; Iglesias, M C; Laos, F

    2009-09-01

    Rice hulls and sawdust are two common C-rich wastes derived from rice and timber agro-industries in subtropical NE Argentina. An alternative to the current management of these wastes (from bedding to uncontrolled burning) is composting. However, given their C-rich nature and high C/N ratio, adequate composting requires mixing with a N-rich waste, such as poultry manure. The effect of different proportions of poultry manure, rice hulls and/or sawdust on composting efficiency and final compost quality was studied. Five piles were prepared with a 2:1 and 1:1 ratio of sawdust or rice hulls to poultry manure, and 1:1:1 of all three materials (V/V). Different indicators of compost stability and quality were measured. Thermophilic phase was shorter for piles with rice hulls than for piles with sawdust (60 days vs. 105 days). Time required for stability was similar for both C-rich wastes (about 180 days). Characteristics of final composts were: pH 5.8-7.2, electrical conductivity 2.5-3.3 mS/cm, organic C 20-26%, total N 2.2-2.9%, lignin 19-22%, total Ca 18-24 g/kg, and extractable P 6-8 g/kg, the latter representing 60% of total P. Nitrogen conservation was high in all piles, especially in the one containing both C-rich wastes. Piles with sawdust were characterized by high total and available N, while piles with only rice hulls had higher Si, K and pH. Extractable P was higher in 1:1 piles, and organic C in 2:1 piles.

  20. Structural and acoustic responses of a submarine hull due to propeller forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Sascha; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2009-08-01

    The low frequency structural and acoustic responses of a simplified axisymmetric submarine model to fluctuating propeller forces along the submarine axis are investigated. The forces arise from a hydrodynamic mechanism and are transmitted from the propeller to the submarine hull through both the shaft and the fluid. Numerical models have been developed to simulate the strongly coupled structure-fluid interaction of a submerged vessel in the frequency domain. The structure is modelled using the finite element method, so that more complex features such as ring-stiffeners, bulkheads and the propulsion system can be taken into account. A simple, passive vibration attenuation system known as a resonance changer is included in the model of the propeller/shafting system. The surrounding fluid is modelled using the boundary element method. The influence and importance of model parameters such as structural stiffness and fluid loading effects are investigated. Due to the fluctuating propeller forces, the hull is excited by axial structural forces transmitted through the propeller/shafting system as well as by acoustic dipoles, where the dipoles are correlated to the structural forces in strength and direction. The acoustic dipole at the propeller also radiates sound directly to the far field of the surrounding fluid. It is demonstrated that the performance of the RC is negatively influenced at frequencies above the fundamental axial resonance of the hull by the effect of forces transmitted through the fluid. Another problem arises due to increased axial movement of the propeller, when the RC is optimised to minimise excitation of the hull via the propeller shaft. This results in an additional sound field that excites the submarine hull in a similar manner to the fluid forces that arise directly from the hydrodynamic mechanism.

  1. Castor beans hulls as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Urbano, Stela Antas; de Azevedo, Marcílio; Félix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; de Siqueira, Michelle Christina Bernardo; Alves, Felipe José Lins; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton 85 hay (0, 33, 66, or 100 %) with by castor bean hulls on the intake and nutrient digestibility and performance of 28 noncastrated lambs, averaging 7 months in age, 19.5 ± 2.0 kg average live weight, fed on diets based on forage cactus. The animals were housed in individual pens for 100 days. The digestibility trial occurred 40 days after the start of the performance using LIPE® as an external indicator for estimating fecal dry matter production. The replacement of hay with Castor beans hulls linearly decreased the intakes of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and crude protein and reduced the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter content, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient content. The hot carcass and true carcass yields were not influenced by the treatments and the feed conversion increased linearly. The empty body weight, live weight at slaughter, hot and cold carcass weights, total gain, and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay with castor bean hulls reduced the intake of dry matter, crude protein and energy, consequently reducing the performance of the animals. However, as the regression coefficients were of low magnitude, data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared using the Dunnett test with diet without castor bean hulls set as the control treatment. The Tifton 85 hay can be replaced up to 66 % by castor bean hulls in finishing diets for lambs.

  2. A General Tank Test of a Model of the Hull of the British Singapore IIC Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Truscott, Starr

    1936-01-01

    A general test was made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a 1/12-size model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat loaned by the Director of Research, British Air Ministry. The results are given in charts and are compared with the results of tests of a model of an American flying-boat hull, the Sikorsky S-40. The Singapore hull has a greater hump resistance but a much lower high-speed resistance than the S-40.

  3. Infrared hot carrier diode mixer.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, L W; Erler, J W

    1977-11-01

    Detection of a 54.3-GHz beatnote at 10.6 microm has been observed with a hot carrier diode mixer. The diode consists of a "cat whisker" antenna, which forms an ohmic point contact to n-InAs. The mechanism of this room-temperature detector is described as the "thermoelectric effect" of hot carriers.

  4. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  5. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  6. Optically induced free carrier light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.; Richards, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Signal carrier laser beam is optically modulated by a second laser beam of different frequency acting on a free carrier source to which the signal carrier laser is directed. The second laser beam affects the transmission characteristics of the free carrier source to light from the signal carrier laser, thus modulating it.

  7. A general tank test of a model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat including a special working chart for the determination of hull performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1938-01-01

    The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.

  8. The roles of the convex hull and the number of potential intersections in performance on visually presented traveling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Lee, Michael D; Dry, Matthew; Hughes, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem requires finding the shortest tour through a two-dimensional array of points. MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have suggested that people solve such problems by using a global-to-local perceptual organizing process based on the convex hull of the array. We review evidence for and against this idea, before considering an alternative, local-to-global perceptual process, based on the rapid automatic identification of nearest neighbors. We compare these approaches in an experiment in which the effects of number of convex hull points and number of potential intersections on solution performance are measured. Performance worsened with more points on the convex hull and with fewer potential intersections. A measure of response uncertainty was unaffected by the number of convex hull points but increased with fewer potential intersections. We discuss a possible interpretation of these results in terms of a hierarchical solution process based on linking nearest neighbor clusters.

  9. Peanut hull pellets as a single use sorbent for the capture of Cu(II) from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P D; Watson, M A; Brown, J; Jefcoat, I A

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the ability of peanut hulls and peanut hull pellets to adsorb copper from dilute aqueous metal ion solutions in batch and fixed bed systems. The kinetics of copper uptake onto the media have been investigated in batch systems and the influence of pH and particle size on the rate and extent of copper capture determined. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theories were determined; the Langmuir model was found to best represent the equilibrium isotherm data. In normalized kinetic tests at least 75% of copper removal occurred within the first 20 min; 92% removal was effected within the first 50 min. The rate of uptake was optimum within the pH range 5-7.5, and media capacities remained relatively constant at a pH above 4.0. Bench-scale column studies were performed using peanut hull pellets. The overall capacity of pelletized peanut hulls was higher than for unmodified peanut hulls. Due to their demonstrated ability for Cu(II) uptake and favorable structural characteristics, pelletized peanut hulls could gain use as a low-cost, once-through biomass filter medium for copper-bearing waste streams.

  10. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material – though anisotropically contracted – and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: • Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope. • Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven. • Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  11. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  12. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  13. Design and realization a skiff racing boat hull made of natural fibers reinforced composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collotta, M.; Solazzi, L.; Pandini, S.; Tomasoni, G.; Alberti, M.; Donzella, G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the development of a racing boat with an hull made of a composite material reinforced by natural fibers. In particular, we report here the design and realization of the boat hull, the assessment of its mechanical performance by means of a computer assisted simulation, and the cost analysis to assess the economic sustainability of the new composite developed. The results have shown that the new composite has a performance comparable with conventional glass fiber reinforced composites employed for the realization of this type of boat, accordingly to the technology employed and the lamination sequence adopted. Moreover, the FEM analysis performed over the skiff of the designed and constructed boat has demonstrated a successful choice of the material for real application, as it was later confirmed by the good performance of the boat in water. Finally, the cost analysis highlighted the economic sustainability of the new composite, allowing a cost saving of over 28% with respect to carbon fiber composites.

  14. A thermogravimetric analysis of the combustion kinetics of karanja (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls char.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Azharul; Auta, M; Kabir, G; Hameed, B H

    2016-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Karanj fruit hulls char (KFH-char) was investigated with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The TGA outlined the char combustion thermographs at a different heating rate and isoconversional methods expressed the combustion kinetics. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods authenticated the char average activation energy at 62.13 and 68.53kJ/mol respectively, enough to derive the char to burnout. However, the Coats-Redfern method verified the char combustion via complex multi-step mechanism; the second stage mechanism has 135kJ/mol average activation energy. The TGA thermographs and kinetic parameters revealed the adequacy of the KFH-char as fuel substrate than its precursor, Karanj fruit hulls (KFH).

  15. Optimization of compartments arrangement of submarine pressure hull with knowledge based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Bo-Young; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul; Koo, Youn-Hoe; Kraus, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to optimize an arrangement of ship compartments with knowledge-based systems. Though great attention has been shown to the optimization of hull forms in recent years, the study on arrangement design optimization has received relatively little attention. A ship is both an engineering system and a kind of assembly of many spaces. This means that, to design an arrangement of ship compartments, it is necessary to treat not only geometric data but also knowledge on topological relations between spaces and components of a ship. In this regard, we select a suitable knowledge representation scheme for describing ship compartments and their relations, and then develop a knowledge-based system using expert system shell. This new approach is applied to create design variations for optimization on an arrangement of a pressure hull of a submerged vehicle. Finally, we explicate how our approach improves the design process.

  16. A trait-based test for habitat filtering: Convex hull volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwell, W.K.; Schwilk, D.W.; Ackerly, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Community assembly theory suggests that two processes affect the distribution of trait values within communities: competition and habitat filtering. Within a local community, competition leads to ecological differentiation of coexisting species, while habitat filtering reduces the spread of trait values, reflecting shared ecological tolerances. Many statistical tests for the effects of competition exist in the literature, but measures of habitat filtering are less well-developed. Here, we present convex hull volume, a construct from computational geometry, which provides an n-dimensional measure of the volume of trait space occupied by species in a community. Combined with ecological null models, this measure offers a useful test for habitat filtering. We use convex hull volume and a null model to analyze California woody-plant trait and community data. Our results show that observed plant communities occupy less trait space than expected from random assembly, a result consistent with habitat filtering. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Convex hull test of the linear separability hypothesis in visual search.

    PubMed

    Bauer, B; Jolicoeur, P; Cowan, W B

    1999-08-01

    Visual search for a colour target in distractors of two other colours is dramatically affected by the configuration of the colours in CIE (x, y) space. To a first approximation, search is difficult when a target's chromaticity falls directly between (i.e. is not linearly separable from) two distractor chromaticities, otherwise search is easy (D'Zmura [1991, Vision Research, 31, 951-966]; Bauer, Jolicoeur, & Cowan [1996a, Vision Research, 36, 1439-1466]; Bauer, Jolicoeur, & Cowan [1996b, Perception, 25, 1282-1294]). In this paper, we demonstrate that the linear separability effect transcends the two distractor case. Placing a target colour inside the convex hull defined by a set of distractors hindered search performance compared with a target placed outside the convex hull. This is true whether the target was linearly separable in chromaticity only (Experiments 1 and 2), or in a combination of luminance and chromaticity (Experiments 3 and 4).

  18. A trait-based test for habitat filtering: convex hull volume.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, William K; Schwilk, L Dylan W; Ackerly, David D

    2006-06-01

    Community assembly theory suggests that two processes affect the distribution of trait values within communities: competition and habitat filtering. Within a local community, competition leads to ecological differentiation of coexisting species, while habitat filtering reduces the spread of trait values, reflecting shared ecological tolerances. Many statistical tests for the effects of competition exist in the literature, but measures of habitat filtering are less well-developed. Here, we present convex hull volume, a construct from computational geometry, which provides an n-dimensional measure of the volume of trait space occupied by species in a community. Combined with ecological null models, this measure offers a useful test for habitat filtering. We use convex hull volume and a null model to analyze California woody-plant trait and community data. Our results show that observed plant communities occupy less trait space than expected from random assembly, a result consistent with habitat filtering.

  19. Neurocomputing model for computation of an approximate convex hull of a set of points and spheres.

    PubMed

    Pal, Srimanta; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2007-03-01

    In this letter, a two-layer neural network is proposed for computation of an approximate convex hull of a set of given points in 3-D or a set of spheres of different sizes. The algorithm is designed based on an elegant concept-shrinking of a spherical rubber balloon surrounding the set of objects in 3-D. Logically, a set of neurons is orderly placed on a spherical mesh i.e., on a rubber balloon surrounding the objects. Each neuron has a parameter vector associated with its current position. The resultant force of attraction between a neuron and each of the given points/objects, determines the direction of a movement of the neuron lying on the rubber balloon. As the network evolves, the neurons (parameter vectors) approximate the convex hull more and more accurately.

  20. The effect of vessel speed on the survivorship of biofouling organisms at different hull locations.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Piola, Richard F; Taylor, Michael D; Hewitt, Chad L; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2010-07-01

    This study used a specially designed MAGPLATE system to quantify the en route survivorship and post-voyage recovery of biofouling assemblages subjected to short voyages (< 12 h) across a range of vessel speeds (slow, medium, fast; in the range 4.0-21.5 knots). The effect of hull location (bow, amidships and stern) was also examined. While no significant differences were evident in en route survivorship of biofouling organisms amongst hull locations, biofouling cover and richness were markedly reduced on faster vessels relative to slower craft. Therefore, the potential inoculum size of non-indigenous marine species and richness is likely to be reduced for vessels that travel at faster speeds (> 14 knots), which is likely to also reduce the chances of successful introductions. Despite this, the magnitude of introductions from biofouling on fast vessels can be considered minor, especially for species richness where 90% of source-port species were recorded at destinations.