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Sample records for carrier proteins

  1. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  2. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase–Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G.; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein–protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP–triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  3. Protein transduction assisted by polyethylenimine-cationized carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Midori; Murata, Hitoshi; Futami, Junichiro; Maeda, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Kosaka, Megumi; Tada, Hiroko; Seno, Masaharu; Huh, Nam-ho; Namba, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Maeda, Yoshitake; Yamada, Hidenori

    2005-06-01

    Previously, we have reported that cationized-proteins covalently modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) (direct PEI-cationization) efficiently enter cells and function in the cytosol [Futami et al. (2005) J. Biosci. Bioeng. 99, 95-103]. However, it may be more convenient if a protein could be delivered into cells just by mixing the protein with a PEI-cationized carrier protein having a specific affinity (indirect PEI-cationization). Thus, we prepared PEI-cationized avidin (PEI-avidin), streptavidin (PEI-streptavidin), and protein G (PEI-protein G), and examined whether they could deliver biotinylated proteins and antibodies into living cells. PEI-avidin (and/or PEI-streptavidin) carried biotinylated GFPs into various mammalian cells very efficiently. A GFP variant containing a nuclear localization signal was found to arrive even in the nucleus. The addition of a biotinylated RNase A derivative mixed with PEI-streptavidin to a culture medium of 3T3-SV-40 cells resulted in remarkable cell growth inhibition, suggesting that the biotinylated RNase A derivative entered cells and digested intracellular RNA molecules. Furthermore, the addition of a fluorescein-labeled anti-S100C (beta-actin binding protein) antibody mixed with PEI-protein G to human fibroblasts resulted in the appearance of a fluorescence image of actin-like filamentous structures in the cells. These results indicate that indirect PEI-cationization using non-covalent interaction is as effective as the direct PEI-cationization for the transduction of proteins into living cells and for expression of their functions in the cytosol. Thus, PEI-cationized proteins having a specific affinity for certain molecules such as PEI-streptavidin, PEI-avidin and PEI-protein G are concluded to be widely applicable protein transduction carrier molecules.

  4. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  5. The effect of haptens on protein-carrier immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gefen, Tal; Vaya, Jacob; Khatib, Soliman; Rapoport, Irena; Lupo, Meital; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; Heller, Elimelech Dan; Aizenshtein, Elina; Pitcovski, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The immune response against hapten is T-cell-dependent, and so requires the uptake, processing and presentation of peptides on MHC class II molecules by antigen-presenting cells to the specific T cell. Some haptens, following conjugation to the available free amines on the surface of the carrier protein, can reduce its immunogenicity. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism by which this occurs. Four proteins were tested as carriers and six molecules were used as haptens. The immune response to the carrier proteins was reduced > 100-fold by some of the haptens (termed carrier immunogenicity reducing haptens – CIRH), whereas other haptens did not influence the protein immunogenicity (carrier immunogenicity non-reducing haptens – nCIRH). Conjugation of the protein to a CIRH affected protein degradation by lysosomal cathepsins, leading to the generation of peptides that differ in length and sequence from those derived from the same native protein or that protein modified with nCIRH. Injection of CIRH-conjugated protein into mice induced an increase in the population of regulatory T cells. The results of this study provide a putative mechanism of action for the reduction of immune response to haptenated proteins. PMID:25041614

  6. A carrier protein strategy yields the structure of dalbavancin

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Nahoum, Virginie; Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Zentner, Isaac J.; Townsend, Tracy M.; Bhuiya, Mohammad W.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Many large natural product antibiotics act by specifically binding and sequestering target molecules found on bacterial cells. We have developed a new strategy to expedite the structural analysis of such antibiotic-target complexes, in which we covalently link the target molecules to carrier proteins, and then crystallize the entire carrier/target/antibiotic complex. Using native chemical ligation, we have linked the Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala binding epitope for glycopeptide antibiotics to three different carrier proteins. We show that recognition of this peptide by multiple antibiotics is not compromised by the presence of the carrier protein partner, and use this approach to determine the first-ever crystal structure for the new therapeutic dalbavancin. We also report the first crystal structure of an asymmetric ristocetin antibiotic dimer, as well as the structure of vancomycin bound to a carrier-target fusion. The dalbavancin structure reveals an antibiotic molecule that has closed around its binding partner; it also suggests mechanisms by which the drug can enhance its half-life by binding to serum proteins, and be targeted to bacterial membranes. Notably, the carrier protein approach is not limited to peptide ligands such as Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala, but is applicable to a diverse range of targets. This strategy is likely to yield structural insights that accelerate new therapeutic development. PMID:22352468

  7. Extra domains in secondary transport carriers and channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Barabote, Ravi D; Tamang, Dorjee G; Abeywardena, Shannon N; Fallah, Neda S; Fu, Jeffrey Yu Chung; Lio, Jeffrey K; Mirhosseini, Pegah; Pezeshk, Ronnie; Podell, Sheila; Salampessy, Marnae L; Thever, Mark D; Saier, Milton H

    2006-10-01

    "Extra" domains in members of the families of secondary transport carrier and channel proteins provide secondary functions that expand, amplify or restrict the functional nature of these proteins. Domains in secondary carriers include TrkA and SPX domains in DASS family members, DedA domains in TRAP-T family members (both of the IT superfamily), Kazal-2 and PDZ domains in OAT family members (of the MF superfamily), USP, IIA(Fru) and TrkA domains in ABT family members (of the APC superfamily), ricin domains in OST family members, and TrkA domains in AAE family members. Some transporters contain highly hydrophilic domains consisting of multiple repeat units that can also be found in proteins of dissimilar function. Similarly, transmembrane alpha-helical channel-forming proteins contain unique, conserved, hydrophilic domains, most of which are not found in carriers. In some cases the functions of these domains are known. They may be ligand binding domains, phosphorylation domains, signal transduction domains, protein/protein interaction domains or complex carbohydrate-binding domains. These domains mediate regulation, subunit interactions, or subcellular targeting. Phylogenetic analyses show that while some of these domains are restricted to closely related proteins derived from specific organismal types, others are nearly ubiquitous within a particular family of transporters and occur in a tremendous diversity of organisms. The former probably became associated with the transporters late in the evolutionary process; the latter probably became associated with the carriers much earlier. These domains can be located at either end of the transporter or in a central region, depending on the domain and transporter family. These studies provide useful information about the evolution of extra domains in channels and secondary carriers and provide novel clues concerning function.

  8. Legionella pneumophila Secretes a Mitochondrial Carrier Protein during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Pavel; Aili, Margareta; Tong, Janette; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Marobbio, Carlo M.; Lee, Sau fung; Schuelein, Ralf; Belluzzo, Simon; Binova, Eva; Mousnier, Aurelie; Frankel, Gad; Giannuzzi, Giulia; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Gabriel, Kipros; Naderer, Thomas; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Lithgow, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF) is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionella nucleotide carrier Protein (LncP), encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22241989

  9. Biochemical characterization of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tanya; Ouhtit, Allal; Gaur, Rajiv; Fernando, Augusta; Schwarzenberger, Paul; Su, Joseph; Ismail, Mohamed F; El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Karande, Anjali; Elmageed, Zakaria Abd; Rao, Prakash; Raj, Madhwa

    2009-01-01

    Riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is a growth- and development-specific protein. Here, we characterized the expression of this protein in prostate cancer by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against chicken RCP. RCP was localized to both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cell lines. Compared to controls, RCP was over-expressed in all 45 prostate adenocarcinomas, irrespective of the Gleason's score or the stage of the disease. The identified RCP had a molecular weight of 38 kDa, similar to RCP purified from chicken. Presence of this protein was also confirmed by siRNA inhibition analysis. Antibodies to chicken RCP inhibited incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA and prevented riboflavin uptake in PC3 prostate cancer cells, suggesting a critical function of this protein in prostate cancer cell growth. These data suggest that RCP can be used as a tumor biomarker in prostate cancer.

  10. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Although acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the best studied protein in plant fatty acid biosynthesis, the in vivo forms of ACPs and their steady state pools have not been examined previously in either seed or leaf. Information about the relative pool sizes of free ACP and its acyl-ACP intermediates is essential for understanding regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. In this study we utilized antibodies directed against spinach ACP as a sensitive assay to analyze the acyl groups while they were still covalently attached to ACPs. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Review on the delivery of steroids by carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Vesper, A R; Bariyanga, J; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-08-01

    Due to the poor solubility of steroids in aqueous solution, delivery of these biomaterials is of major biomedical importance. We have reviewed the conjugation of testosterone and it aliphatic dimer and aromatic dimer with several carrier proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The results of multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were compared here. Steroid-protein bindings are via hydrophilic and H-bonding contacts. HSA forms more stable conjugate than BSA and b-LG. The stability of steroid-protein conjugates is testosterone>dimer-aromatic>dimer-aliphatic. Encapsulation of steroids by protein is shown by TEM images. Modeling showed the presence of H-bonding, which stabilized testosterone-protein complexes with the free binding energy of -12.95 for HSA and -11.55 for BSA and -8.92kcal/mol for b-LG conjugates. Steroid conjugation induced major perturbations of serum protein conformations. Serum proteins can transport steroids to the target molecules.

  12. A structural appraisal of sterol carrier protein 2.

    PubMed

    Burgardt, Noelia I; Gianotti, Alejo R; Ferreyra, Raúl G; Ermácora, Mario R

    2017-05-01

    Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP2) has been associated with lipid binding and transfer activities. However, genomic, proteomic, and structural studies revealed that it is an ubiquitous domain of complex proteins with a variety functions in all forms of life. High-resolution structures of representative SCP2 domains are available, encouraging a comprehensive review of the structural basis for its success. Most SCP2 domains pertain to three major families and are frequently found as stand-alone or at the C-termini of lipid related peroxisomal enzymes, acetyltransferases causing bacterial resistance, and bacterial environmentally important sulfatases. We (1) analyzed the structural basis of the fold and the classification of SCP2 domains; (2) identified structure-determined sequence features; (3) compared the lipid binding cavity of SCP2 and other lipid binding proteins; (4) surveyed proposed mechanisms of SCP2 mediated lipid transfer between membranes; and (5) uncovered a possible new function of the SCP2 domain as a protein-protein recognition device.

  13. The solution structure of acyl carrier protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hing C; Liu, Gaohua; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O; Zheng, Jie

    2002-05-03

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) performs the essential function of shuttling the intermediates between the enzymes that constitute the type II fatty acid synthase system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unique in producing extremely long mycolic acids, and tubercular ACP, AcpM, is also unique in possessing a longer carboxyl terminus than other ACPs. We determined the solution structure of AcpM using protein NMR spectroscopy to define the similarities and differences between AcpM and the typical structures. The amino-terminal region of the structure is well defined and consists of four helices arranged in a right-handed bundle held together by interhelical hydrophobic interactions similar to the structures of other bacterial ACPs. The unique carboxyl-terminal extension from helix IV has a "melted down" feature, and the end of the molecule is a random coil. A comparison of the apo- and holo-forms of AcpM revealed that the 4'-phosphopantetheine group oscillates between two states; in one it is bound to a hydrophobic groove on the surface of AcpM, and in another it is solvent-exposed. The similarity between AcpM and other ACPs reveals the conserved structural motif that is recognized by all type II enzymes. However, the function of the coil domain extending from helix IV to the carboxyl terminus remains enigmatic, but its structural characteristics suggest that it may interact with the very long chain intermediates in mycolic acid biosynthesis or control specific protein-protein interactions.

  14. The secretory carrier membrane protein family: structure and membrane topology.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, C; Singleton, D; Rauch, M; Jayasinghe, S; Cafiso, D; Castle, D

    2000-09-01

    Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are integral membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic carriers implicated to function in membrane trafficking. Using expressed sequence tag database and library screens and DNA sequencing, we have characterized several new SCAMPs spanning the plant and animal kingdoms and have defined a broadly conserved protein family. No obvious fungal homologue has been identified, however. We have found that SCAMPs share several structural motifs. These include NPF repeats, a leucine heptad repeat enriched in charged residues, and a proline-rich SH3-like and/or WW domain-binding site in the N-terminal domain, which is followed by a membrane core containing four putative transmembrane spans and three amphiphilic segments that are the most highly conserved structural elements. All SCAMPs are 32-38 kDa except mammalian SCAMP4, which is approximately 25 kDa and lacks most of the N-terminal hydrophilic domain of other SCAMPs. SCAMP4 is authentic as determined by Northern and Western blotting, suggesting that this portion of the larger SCAMPs encodes the functional domain. Focusing on SCAMP1, we have characterized its structure further by limited proteolysis and Western blotting with the use of isolated secretory granules as a uniformly oriented source of antigen and by topology mapping through expression of alkaline phosphatase gene fusions in Escherichia coli. Results show that SCAMP1 is degraded sequentially from the N terminus and then the C terminus, yielding an approximately 20-kDa membrane core that contains four transmembrane spans. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the three conserved amphiphilic segments of the membrane core, we have demonstrated their binding to phospholipid membranes and shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy that the central amphiphilic segment linking transmembrane spans 2 and 3 is alpha-helical. In the intact protein, these segments are likely to reside in the cytoplasm-facing membrane

  15. A Cerulenin Insensitive Short Chain 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase in Spinacia oleracea Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jan G.; Clough, Richard C.; Barnum, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    A cerulenin insensitive 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase has been assayed in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf. The enzyme was active in the 40 to 80% ammonium sulfate precipitate of whole leaf homogenates and catalyzed the synthesis of acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein. This condensation reaction was five-fold faster than acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase, and the initial rates of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthesis were independent of the presence of cerulenin. In the presence of fatty acid synthase cofactors and 100 micromolar cerulenin, the principal fatty acid product of de novo synthesis was butyric and hexanoic acids. Using conformationally sensitive native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation, malonyl-, acetyl-, butyryl-, hexanoyl, and long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins could be detected by immunoblotting and autoradiography. In the presence of 100 micromolar cerulenin, the accumulation of butyryl- and hexanoyl-acyl carrier protein was observed, with no detectable long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins or fatty acids being produced. In the absence of cerulenin, the long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins also accumulated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666765

  16. Bacillus subtilis acyl carrier protein is encoded in a cluster of lipid biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Morbidoni, H R; de Mendoza, D; Cronan, J E

    1996-01-01

    A cluster of Bacillus subtilis fatty acid synthetic genes was isolated by complementation of an Escherichia coli fabD mutant encoding a thermosensitive malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase. The B. subtilis genomic segment contains genes that encode three fatty acid synthetic proteins, malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase (fabD), 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabG), and the N-terminal 14 amino acid residues of acyl carrier protein (acpP). Also present is a sequence that encodes a homolog of E. coli plsX, a gene that plays a poorly understood role in phospholipid synthesis. The B. subtilis plsX gene weakly complemented an E. coli plsX mutant. The order of genes in the cluster is plsX fabD fabG acpP, the same order found in E. coli, except that in E. coli the fabH gene lies between plsX and fabD. The absence of fabH in the B. subtilis cluster is consistent with the different fatty acid compositions of the two organisms. The amino acid sequence of B. subtilis acyl carrier protein was obtained by sequencing the purified protein, and the sequence obtained strongly resembled that of E. coli acyl carrier protein, except that most of the protein retained the initiating methionine residue. The B. subtilis fab cluster was mapped to the 135 to 145 degrees region of the chromosome. PMID:8759840

  17. Structure of apo acyl carrier protein and a proposal to engineer protein crystallization through metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xiayang; Janson, Cheryl A.

    2010-11-16

    A topic of current interest is engineering surface mutations in order to improve the success rate of protein crystallization. This report explores the possibility of using metal-ion-mediated crystal-packing interactions to facilitate rational design. Escherichia coli apo acyl carrier protein was chosen as a test case because of its high content of negatively charged carboxylates suitable for metal binding with moderate affinity. The protein was successfully crystallized in the presence of zinc ions. The crystal structure was determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution with MAD phasing using anomalous signals from the co-crystallized Zn{sup 2+} ions. The case study suggested an integrated strategy for crystallization and structure solution of proteins via engineering surface Asp and Glu mutants, crystallizing them in the presence of metal ions such as Zn{sup 2+} and solving the structures using anomalous signals.

  18. Decarboxylation of malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases in plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1997-01-01

    In order to identify regulatory steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the influence of intermediate 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier proteins) (3-oxoacyl-ACPs) and end-product acyl-ACPs of the fatty acid synthase reaction on the condensation reaction was investigated in vitro, using total fatty acid synthase preparations and purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthases (KASs; EC 2.3.1.41) from Cuphea lanceolata seeds. KAS I and II in the fatty acid synthase preparations were assayed for the elongation of octanoyl- and hexadecanoyl-ACP respectively, and the accumulation of the corresponding condensation product 3-oxoacyl-ACP was studied by modulating the content of the reducing equivalentS NADH and NADPH. Complete omission of reducing equivalents resulted with either KAS in the abnormal synthesis of acetyl-ACP from malonyl-ACP by a decarboxylation reaction. Supplementation with NADPH or NADH, separately or in combination with recombinant 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), led to a decrease in the amount of acetyl-ACP and a simultaneous increase in elongation products. This demonstrates that the accumulation of 3-oxoacyl-ACP inhibits the condensation reaction on the one hand, and induces the decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP on the other. By carrying out similar experiments with purified enzymes, this decarboxylation was attributed to the action of KAS. Our data point to a regulatory mechanism for the degradation of malonyl-ACP in plants which is activated by the accumulation of the fatty acid synthase intermediate 3-oxoacyl-ACP. PMID:9020860

  19. Not all mitochondrial carrier proteins support permeability transition pore formation: no involvement of uncoupling protein 1.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Paul G; Parker, Nadeene; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J; Brand, Martin D

    2009-12-15

    The mPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore) is a non-specific channel that is formed in the mitochondrial inner membrane in response to several stimuli, including elevated levels of matrix calcium. The pore is proposed to be composed of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocase), voltage-dependent anion channel and cyclophilin D. Knockout studies, however, have demonstrated that ANT is not essential for permeability transition, which has led to the proposal that other members of the mitochondrial carrier protein family may be able to play a similar function to ANT in pore formation. To investigate this possibility, we have studied the permeability transition properties of BAT (brown adipose tissue) mitochondria in which levels of the mitochondrial carrier protein, UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1), can exceed those of ANT. Using an improved spectroscopic assay, we have quantified mPTP formation in de-energized mitochondria from wild-type and Ucp1KO (Ucp1-knockout) mice and assessed the dependence of pore formation on UCP1. When correctly normalized for differences in mitochondrial morphology, we find that calcium-induced mPTP activity is the same in both types of mitochondria, with similar sensitivity to GDP (approximately 50% inhibited), although the portion sensitive to cyclosporin A is higher in mitochondria lacking UCP1 (approximately 80% inhibited, compared with approximately 60% in mitochondria containing UCP1). We conclude that UCP1 is not a component of the cyclosporin A-sensitive mPTP in BAT and that playing a role in mPTP formation is not a general characteristic of the mitochondrial carrier protein family but is, more likely, restricted to specific members including ANT.

  20. TIM29 is a subunit of the human carrier translocase required for protein transport.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Sylvie; Richter, Frank; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Jans, Daniel C; Lorenzi, Isotta; Pacheu-Grau, David; Jakobs, Stefan; Lenz, Christof; Urlaub, Henning; Dudek, Jan; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Rehling, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Hydrophobic inner mitochondrial membrane proteins with internal targeting signals, such as the metabolite carriers, use the carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) for transport into the inner membrane. Defects in this transport pathway have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders. While the TIM22 complex is well studied in baker's yeast, very little is known about the mammalian TIM22 complex. Using immunoprecipitation, we purified the human carrier translocase and identified a mitochondrial inner membrane protein TIM29 as a novel component, specific to metazoa. We show that TIM29 is a constituent of the 440 kDa TIM22 complex and interacts with oxidized TIM22. Our analyses demonstrate that TIM29 is required for the structural integrity of the TIM22 complex and for import of substrate proteins by the carrier translocase.

  1. Defective peroxisomal catabolism of branched fatty acyl coenzyme A in mice lacking the sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x gene function

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Udo; Raabe, Martin; Ellinghaus, Peter; Kannenberg, Frank; Fobker, Manfred; Engel, Thomas; Denis, Simone; Wouters, Fred; Wirtz, Karel W.A.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Assmann, Gerd

    1998-01-01

    Gene targeting in mice was used to investigate the unknown function of Scp2, encoding sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2; a peroxisomal lipid carrier) and sterol carrier protein-x (SCPx; a fusion protein between SCP2 and a peroxisomal thiolase). Complete deficiency of SCP2 and SCPx was associated with marked alterations in gene expression, peroxisome proliferation, hypolipidemia, impaired body weight control, and neuropathy. Along with these abnormalities, catabolism of methyl-branched fatty acyl CoAs was impaired. The defect became evident from up to 10-fold accumulation of the tetramethyl-branched fatty acid phytanic acid in Scp2(−/−) mice. Further characterization supported that the gene disruption led to inefficient import of phytanoyl-CoA into peroxisomes and to defective thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA. These results corresponded to high-affinity binding of phytanoyl-CoA to the recombinant rat SCP2 protein, as well as high 3-ketopristanoyl-CoA thiolase activity of the recombinant rat SCPx protein. PMID:9553048

  2. Secretory proteins as potential semiochemical carriers in the horse.

    PubMed

    D'Innocenzo, Barbara; Salzano, Anna Maria; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Gazzano, Angelo; Niccolini, Alberto; Sorce, Carlo; Dani, Francesca Romana; Scaloni, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo

    2006-11-14

    Two soluble proteins were isolated as major secretory products of horse sweat and of the parotid gland and characterized for structural and functional properties. The first protein, lipocalin allergen EquC1, was characterized for its glycosylation sites and bound glycosidic moieties. Only one (Asn53) of the two putative glycosylation sites within the sequence was post-translationally modified; a different glycosylation pattern was determined with respect to data previously reported. When purified from horse sweat, this protein contained oleamide and other organic molecules as natural ligands. Ligand binding experiments indicated good protein selectivity toward volatile compounds having a straight chain structure of 9-11 carbon atoms, suggesting a role of this lipocalin in chemical communication. The second protein, here reported for the first time in the horse, belongs to the group of parotid secretory proteins, part of a large superfamily of binding proteins whose function in most cases is still unclear. This protein was sequenced and characterized for its post-translational modifications. Of the three cysteine residues present, two were involved in a disulfide bridge (Cys155-Cys198). A model, built up on the basis of similar proteins, indicated a general fold characterized by the presence of a long hydrophobic barrel. Binding experiments performed with a number of different organic compounds failed to identify ligands for this protein with a well-defined physiological role.

  3. Molecular Cross-Talk between Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Carrier Proteins and Unstructured Linker Regions.

    PubMed

    Harden, Bradley J; Frueh, Dominique P

    2017-01-24

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) employ multiple domains separated by linker regions to incorporate substrates into natural products. During synthesis, substrates are covalently tethered to carrier proteins that translocate between catalytic partner domains. The molecular parameters that govern translocation and associated linker remodeling remain unknown. Here, we used NMR to characterize the structure, dynamics, and invisible states of a peptidyl carrier protein flanked by its linkers. We showed that the N-terminal linker stabilizes and interacts with the protein core while modulating dynamics at specific sites involved in post-translational modifications and/or domain interactions. The results detail the molecular communication between peptidyl carrier proteins and their linkers and could guide efforts in engineering NRPSs to obtain new pharmaceuticals.

  4. Protein Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Carriers for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Wang, Liying; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy. PMID:24772414

  5. The molecular features of uncoupling protein 1 support a conventional mitochondrial carrier-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Paul G; Lee, Yang; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2017-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is an integral membrane protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane of brown adipose tissue, and facilitates the process of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. Its activation by fatty acids, which overcomes its inhibition by purine nucleotides, leads to an increase in the proton conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane, short-circuiting the mitochondrion to produce heat rather than ATP. Despite 40 years of intense research, the underlying molecular mechanism of UCP1 is still under debate. The protein belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family of transporters, which have recently been shown to utilise a domain-based alternating-access mechanism, cycling between a cytoplasmic and matrix state to transport metabolites across the inner membrane. Here, we review the protein properties of UCP1 and compare them to those of mitochondrial carriers. UCP1 has the same structural fold as other mitochondrial carriers and, in contrast to past claims, is a monomer, binding one purine nucleotide and three cardiolipin molecules tightly. The protein has a single substrate binding site, which is similar to those of the dicarboxylate and oxoglutarate carriers, but also contains a proton binding site and several hydrophobic residues. As found in other mitochondrial carriers, UCP1 has two conserved salt bridge networks on either side of the central cavity, which regulate access to the substrate binding site in an alternating way. The conserved domain structures and mobile inter-domain interfaces are consistent with an alternating access mechanism too. In conclusion, UCP1 has retained all of the key features of mitochondrial carriers, indicating that it operates by a conventional carrier-like mechanism.

  6. Efficient skin permeation of soluble proteins via flexible and functional nano-carrier.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Il; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Ja-Young; Kim, Jin-Chul; Kim, Young Ha; Tae, Giyoong

    2012-01-30

    In spite of several intrinsic and distinct advantages, a topical and transdermal administration of drugs has been limited mainly due to very low permeability of drugs across skin. Especially, it is generally regarded that hydrophilic macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, and vaccines cannot penetrate across skin. In this study, we demonstrated that chitosan-conjugated, Pluronic-based nano-carrier (nanogel) can act as an efficient delivery vehicle of hydrophilic proteins across human skin. The functional nano-carrier (<100 nm in size), chemically-crosslinking Pluronic F 127 with chitosan conjugation, is flexible and soft with reservoir characteristics for biomacromolecules. The in-vitro permeation experiments through human cadaver skin revealed remarkable permeability of hydrophilic proteins of various sizes including FITC-BSA (67 kDa) and FITC-Insulin (6 kDa) by direct penetration of the nano-carrier across skin. The bioactivity post-permeation of proteins via the functional nano-carrier was also confirmed by delivering ß-galactosidase. Results presented in this paper suggest the use of chitosan-conjugated flexible nano-carrier as a novel platform for transcutaneous delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules and other drug-delivery applications.

  7. Carrier Mediated Systemic Delivery of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rahela; Othman, Iekhan; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades proteins and peptide therapeutics have occupied an enormous fraction of pharmaceutical industry. Despite their high potential as therapeutics, the big challenge often encountered is the effective administration and bioavailability of protein therapeutics in vivo system. Peptide molecules are well known for their in vivo short half-lives. In addition, due to high molecular weight and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, often it is not easy to administer peptides and proteins orally or through any other noninvasive routes. Conventional drug management system often demands for frequent and regular interval intravenous/subcutaneous administration, which decreases overall patient compliance and increases chances of side-effects related to dose-fluctuation in systemic circulation. A controlled mode of delivery system could address all these short-comings at a time. Therefore, long-acting sustained release formulations for both invasive and noninvasive routes are under rigorous study currently. Long-acting formulations through invasive routes can address patient compliance and dose-fluctuation issues by less frequent administration. Also, any new route of administration other than invasive routes will address cost-effectiveness of the therapeutic by lessening the need to deal with health professional and health care facility. Although a vast number of studies are dealing with novel drug delivery systems, till now only a handful of controlled release formulations for proteins and peptides have been approved by FDA. This study therefore focuses on current and perspective controlled release formulations of existing and novel protein/peptide therapeutics via conventional invasive routes as well as potential novel non-invasive routes of administration, e.g., oral, buccal, sublingual, nasal, ocular, rectal, vaginal and pulmonary.

  8. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy to compare the hydration of the protein core (Figure 2), a method which we first described in year 2 (3).Thus we have, in two... method attempted was to remove the three glutamic acid side chains which lay on the outside of the pseudo-symmetric ligating helix (see Figure 3...the ability to manipulate this histidine ligand affinity enables the concomitant manipulation of gaseous ligand affinity. One possible method is to

  9. Polyethylene glycol on stability of chitosan microparticulate carrier for protein.

    PubMed

    Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Chalongsuk, Rapeepun; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2010-09-01

    Stability enhancement of protein-loaded chitosan microparticles under storage was investigated. Chitosan glutamate at 35 kDa and bovine serum albumin as model protein drug were used in this study. The chitosan microparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation, and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) was applied after the formation of the particles. All chitosan microparticles were kept at 25°C for 28 days. A comparison was made between those preparations with PEG 200 and without PEG 200. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the microparticles such as size, zeta potential, pH, and percent loading capacity were investigated after 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. It was found that the stability decreased upon storage and the aggregation of microparticles could be observed for both preparations. The reduction in the zeta potential and the increase in the pH, size, and loading capacity were observed when they were kept at a longer period. The significant change of those preparations without PEG 200 was evident after 7 days of storage whereas those with PEG 200 underwent smaller changes with enhanced stability after 28 days of storage. Therefore, this investigation gave valuable information on the stability enhancement of the microparticles. Hence, enhanced stability of chitosan glutamate microparticles for the delivery of protein could be achieved by the application of PEG 200.

  10. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  11. Comparison of CRM197, diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid as protein carriers for meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tontini, M; Berti, F; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; De Gregorio, E; Del Giudice, G; Rappuoli, R; Costantino, P; Brogioni, G; Balocchi, C; Biancucci, M; Malito, E

    2013-10-01

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective and safest vaccines ever developed. Diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and CRM197 have been mostly used as protein carriers in licensed vaccines. We evaluated the immunogenicity of serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y meningococcal oligosaccharides conjugated to CRM197, DT and TT in naïve mice. The three carriers were equally efficient in inducing an immune response against the carbohydrate moiety in immunologically naïve mice. The effect of previous exposure to different dosages of the carrier protein on the anti-carbohydrate response was studied using serogroup A meningococcal (MenA) saccharide conjugates as a model. CRM197 showed a strong propensity to positively prime the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by its conjugates or those with the antigenically related carrier DT. Conversely in any of the tested conditions TT priming did not result in enhancement of the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by the corresponding conjugates. Repeated exposure of mice to TT or to CRM197 before immunization with the respective MenA conjugates resulted in a drastic suppression of the anti-carbohydrate response in the case of TT conjugate and only in a slight reduction in the case of CRM197. The effect of carrier priming on the anti-MenA response of DT-based conjugates varied depending on their carbohydrate to protein ratio. These data may have implications for human vaccination since conjugate vaccines are widely used in individuals previously immunized with DT and TT carrier proteins.

  12. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Rym; Canestrari, Mickaël J.; Mignot, Tâm; Lebrun, Régine; Bouveret, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS), the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways. PMID:28085879

  13. Xanthan hydrogel films: molecular conformation, charge density and protein carriers.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vânia Blasques; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2014-01-30

    In this article the molecular conformation of xanthan chains in hydrogel films was investigated by means of circular dichroism, showing substantial differences between xanthan hydrogel prepared in the absence (XNT) and in the presence of citric acid (XCA). The xanthan chains in XNT hydrogels films presented ordered conformation (helixes), while in XCA they were in the disordered conformation (coils), exposing a larger number of carboxylate groups than XNT. The large charge density in XCA hydrogels was evidenced by their behavior under variable ionic strength. Studies about the application of XNT and XCA for loading and delivering of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) showed that both events are controlled by hydrogels and proteins net charge, which can be triggered by pH. The preservation of LYZ native conformation after hydrogel loading explained the substantial bactericidal activity of LYZ loaded hydrogels and enables their use as active wound dressings.

  14. Western blot analysis of Src kinase assays using peptide substrates ligated to a carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2004-06-01

    We have applied intein-mediated peptide ligation (IPL) to the use of peptide substrates for kinase assays and subsequent Western blot analysis. IPL allows for the efficient ligation of a synthetic peptide with an N-terminal cysteine residue to an intein-generated carrier protein containing a cysteine reactive C-terminal thioester through a native peptide bond. A distinct advantage of this procedure is that each carrier protein molecule ligates only one peptide, ensuring that the ligation product forms a sharp band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by mutational analysis of peptide substrates derived from human cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2, which contains a phosphorylation site of human c-Src protein tyrosine kinase.

  15. Bioglass as a carrier for reindeer bone protein extract in the healing of rat femur defect.

    PubMed

    Tölli, Hanna; Kujala, Sauli; Levonen, Katri; Jämsä, Timo; Jalovaara, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    Bioactive glasses have been developed as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering but combination with reindeer bone protein extract has not been evaluated. We investigated the effects of bone protein extract implants (5-40 mg dosages) with bioglass (BG) carrier on the healing of rat femur defects. Bioglass implants and untreated defects served as controls. All doses of extract increased bone formation compared with the control groups, and bone union was enhanced with doses of 10 mg or more. In comparison with untreated defect, mean cross-sectional bone area at the defect site was greater when implants with BG + 15 mg of extract or bioglass alone were used, bone density at the defect site was higher in all bioglass groups with and without bone extract, and the BG + 15 mg extract dosage marginally increased bone torsional stiffness in mechanical testing. Bioglass performed well as a carrier candidate for reindeer bone protein extract.

  16. Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G; Lu, Mei-yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-06-19

    Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery

  17. Structural basis for specificity and promiscuity in a carrier protein/enzyme system from the sulfur cycle

    PubMed Central

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B.; Chappell, Paul E.; Johnson, Steven; Stelzl, Lukas S.; Berks, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial Sox (sulfur oxidation) pathway is an important route for the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Intermediates in the Sox pathway are covalently attached to the heterodimeric carrier protein SoxYZ through conjugation to a cysteine on a protein swinging arm. We have investigated how the carrier protein shuttles intermediates between the enzymes of the Sox pathway using the interaction between SoxYZ and the enzyme SoxB as our model. The carrier protein and enzyme interact only weakly, but we have trapped their complex by using a “suicide enzyme” strategy in which an engineered cysteine in the SoxB active site forms a disulfide bond with the incoming carrier arm cysteine. The structure of this trapped complex, together with calorimetric data, identifies sites of protein–protein interaction both at the entrance to the enzyme active site tunnel and at a second, distal, site. We find that the enzyme distinguishes between the substrate and product forms of the carrier protein through differences in their interaction kinetics and deduce that this behavior arises from substrate-specific stabilization of a conformational change in the enzyme active site. Our analysis also suggests how the carrier arm-bound substrate group is able to outcompete the adjacent C-terminal carboxylate of the carrier arm for binding to the active site metal ions. We infer that similar principles underlie carrier protein interactions with other enzymes of the Sox pathway. PMID:26655737

  18. Unveiling the in Vivo Protein Corona of Circulating Leukocyte-like Carriers.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Claudia; Molinaro, Roberto; Taraballi, Francesca; Toledano Furman, Naama E; Hartman, Kelly A; Sherman, Michael B; De Rosa, Enrica; Kirui, Dickson K; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-10

    Understanding interactions occurring at the interface between nanoparticles and biological components is an urgent challenge in nanomedicine due to their effect on the biological fate of nanoparticles. After the systemic injection of nanoparticles, a protein corona constructed by blood components surrounds the carrier's surface and modulates its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Biomimicry-based approaches in nanotechnology attempt to imitate what happens in nature in order to transfer specific natural functionalities to synthetic nanoparticles. Several biomimetic formulations have been developed, showing superior in vivo features as a result of their cell-like identity. We have recently designed biomimetic liposomes, called leukosomes, which recapitulate the ability of leukocytes to target inflamed endothelium and escape clearance by the immune system. To gain insight into the properties of leukosomes, we decided to investigate their protein corona in vivo. So far, most information about the protein corona has been obtained using in vitro experiments, which have been shown to minimally reproduce in vivo phenomena. Here we directly show a time-dependent quantitative and qualitative analysis of the protein corona adsorbed in vivo on leukosomes and control liposomes. We observed that leukosomes absorb fewer proteins than liposomes, and we identified a group of proteins specifically adsorbed on leukosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the presence of macrophage receptors on leukosomes' surface neutralizes their protein corona-meditated uptake by immune cells. This work unveils the protein corona of a biomimetic carrier and is one of the few studies on the corona performed in vivo.

  19. A new recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 carrier for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yokota, S; Sonohara, S; Yoshida, M; Murai, M; Shimokawa, S; Fujimoto, R; Fukushima, S; Kokubo, S; Nozaki, K; Takahashi, K; Uchida, T; Yokohama, S; Sonobe, T

    2001-07-31

    A gelatin sponge was formed by foaming and heat treating a gelatin solution, followed by coating the solid with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to reinforce the gelatin framework. This sponge was tested for its suitability as a biodegradable porous, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 carrier. Incorporation of rhBMP-2 into the sponge was closely related to its bulk density of gelatin sponge. The calcium content in the sponges, as assessed by an ectopic bone formation assay in rats, increased with the increasing sponge bulk density. Histologic and peripheral quantitative computed tomography analysis of implants in this ectopic assay system revealed cell growth throughout the carrier in 4 weeks after implantation regardless gelatin bulk density. The carrier containing rhBMP-2 maintained its three-dimensional structure after implantation; the carrier resisted collapse caused by soft tissue pressure during rapid bone formation as assessed by soft X-ray photographs. These results indicate that this newly developed sponge has excellent carrier characteristics to introduce rhBMP-2 into areas needed for bone regeneration.

  20. Protein encapsulated magnetic carriers for micro/nanoscale drug delivery systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Y.; Kaminski, M. D.; Mertz, C. J.; Finck, M. R.; Guy, S. G.; Chen, H.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine

    2005-01-01

    Novel methods for drug delivery may be based on nanotechnology using non-invasive magnetic guidance of drug loaded magnetic carriers to the targeted site and thereafter released by external ultrasound energy. The key building block of this system is to successfully synthesize biodegradable, magnetic drug carriers. Magnetic carriers using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) as matrix materials were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by a double-emulsion technique. BSA-loaded magnetic microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, surface charge, and magnetization. The BSA encapsulation efficiency was determined by recovering albumin from the microspheres using dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.05N NaOH/0.5% SDS then quantifying with the Micro-BCA protein assay. BSA release profiles were also determined by the Micro-BCA protein assay. The microspheres had drug encapsulation efficiencies up to 90% depending on synthesis parameters. Particles were spherical with a smooth or porous surface having a size range less than 5 {mu}m. The surface charge (expressed as zeta potential) was near neutral, optimal for prolonged intravascular survival. The magnetization of these BSA loaded magnetic carriers was 2 to 6 emu/g, depending on the specific magnetic materials used during synthesis.

  1. Quantifying Nanomolar Protein Concentrations Using Designed DNA Carriers and Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Designed “DNA carriers” have been proposed as a new method for nanopore based specific protein detection. In this system, target protein molecules bind to a long DNA strand at a defined position creating a second level transient current drop against the background DNA translocation. Here, we demonstrate the ability of this system to quantify protein concentrations in the nanomolar range. After incubation with target protein at different concentrations, the fraction of DNA translocations showing a secondary current spike allows for the quantification of the corresponding protein concentration. For our proof-of-principle experiments we use two standard binding systems, biotin–streptavidin and digoxigenin–antidigoxigenin, that allow for measurements of the concentration down to the low nanomolar range. The results demonstrate the potential for a novel quantitative and specific protein detection scheme using the DNA carrier method. PMID:27121643

  2. Modification of the substrate specificity of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase by protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Voelker, T A; Hawkins, D J

    1995-11-07

    The plant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TEs) are of biochemical interest because of their roles in fatty acid synthesis and their utilities in the bioengineering of plant seed oils. When the FatB1 cDNA encoding a 12:0-ACP TE (Uc FatB1) from California bay, Umbellularia californica (Uc) was expressed in Escherichia coli and in developing oilseeds of the plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus, large amounts of laurate (12:0) and small amounts of myristate (14:0) were accumulated. We have isolated a TE cDNA from camphor (Cinnamomum camphorum) (Cc) seeds that shares 92% amino acid identity with Uc FatB1. This TE, Cc FatB1, mainly hydrolyzes 14:0-ACP as shown by E. coli expression. We have investigated the roles of the N- and C-terminal regions in determining substrate specificity by constructing two chimeric enzymes, in which the N-terminal portion of one protein is fused to the C-terminal portion of the other. Our results show that the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein is critical for the specificity. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have replaced several amino acids in Uc FatB1 by using the Cc FatB1 sequence as a guide. A double mutant, which changes Met-197 to an Arg and Arg-199 to a His (M197R/R199H), turns Uc FatB1 into a 12:0/14:0 TE with equal preference for both substrates. Another mutation, T231K, by itself does not effect the specificity. However, when it is combined with the double mutant to generate a triple mutant (M197R/R199H/T231K), Uc FatB1 is converted to a 14:0-ACP TE. Expression of the double-mutant cDNA in E. coli K27, a strain deficient in fatty acid degradation, results in accumulation of similar amounts of 12:0 and 14:0. Meanwhile the E. coli expressing the triple-mutant cDNA produces predominantly 14:0 with very small amounts of 12:0. Kinetic studies indicate that both wild-type Uc FatB1 and the triple mutant have similar values of Km,app with respect to 14:0-ACP. Inhibitory studies also show that 12:0-ACP is a good

  3. Structural analysis and interaction studies of acyl-carrier protein (acpP) of Staphylococcus aureus, an extraordinarily thermally stable protein.

    PubMed

    Volk, Kathrin; Breunig, Sven D; Rid, Raphaela; Herzog, Julia; Bräuer, Maria; Hundsberger, Harald; Klein, Christian; Müller, Norbert; Önder, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Acyl-carrier-protein (acpP) is an essential protein in fatty acid biosynthesis of Staphylococcus aureus [Cronan, J.E. and Thomas, J. (2009). Complex enzymes in microbial natural product biosynthesis, part B: polyketides, aminocoumarins and carbohydrates.

  4. Induction of the lac carrier and an associated membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarias, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Induction of the lac operon in wild type Escherichia coli strains results in synthesis of a 16 kilodalton inner membrane protein in addition to the known products of the lacZ, lacY and lacA genes. Cells carrying the lacY gene on a plasmid over produce this 16 kilodalton polypeptide as well as the Lac carrier, the membrane protein product of the lacY gene. However, (/sup 35/S)methionine labeling of minicells carrying the lacY plasmid shows that the 16 kDa protein is not synthesized from the plasmid DNA. The 16 kDa protein was purified and partially characterized. It is an acidic membrane protein of apparent molecular weight 15,800 whose amino terminal sequence (NH/sub 2/-Met-Arg-Asn-Phe-Asp-Leu-) does not correspond to any nucleotide sequence known in lac operon DNA. Using antibody prepared to the purified 16 kDa protein, a quantitative analysis of conditions under which this protein is made was accomplished, and reveals that the amount of 16 kDa protein which appears in the membrane is proportional to lac operon expression. Hybridization of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 5' end of 16 kDa protein mRNA shows that its synthesis is regulated at the level of transcription. A description of attempts to clone this gene is given. Possible functional roles for the 16 kDa protein are discussed.

  5. Nonenzymatic biotinylation of a biotin carboxyl carrier protein: unusual reactivity of the physiological target lysine.

    PubMed

    Streaker, Emily D; Beckett, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed addition of biotin to proteins is highly specific. In any single organism one or a small number of proteins are biotinylated and only a single lysine on each of these proteins is modified. A detailed understanding of the structural basis for the selective biotinylation process has not yet been elucidated. Recently certain mutants of the Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase have been shown to mediate "promiscuous" biotinylation of proteins. It was suggested that the reaction involved diffusion of a reactive activated biotin intermediate, biotinoyl-5'-AMP, with nonspecific proteins. In this work the reactivity of this chemically synthesized intermediate toward the natural target of enzymatic biotinylation, the biotin carboxyl carrier protein, was investigated. The results indicate that the intermediate does, indeed, react with target protein, albeit at a significantly slower rate than the enzyme-catalyzed process. Surprisingly, analysis of the products of nonenzymatic biotinylation indicates that of five lysine residues in the protein only the physiological target side chain is modified. These results indicate that either the environment of this lysine residue or its intrinsic properties render it highly reactive to nonenzymatic biotinylation mediated by biotinoyl-5'-AMP. This reactivity may be important for its selective biotinylation in vivo.

  6. Effects of Mutations in Aedes aegypti Sterol Carrier Protein-2 on the Biological Function of the Protein

    PubMed Central

    Radek, James T.; Dyer, David H.; Lan, Que

    2010-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) is a non-specific intracellular lipid carrier protein. However, the molecular mechanism of ligand selectivity and the in vivo function of SCP-2 remain unclear. In this study, we used site directed mutagenesis to investigate ligand selectivity and in vivo function of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 protein (AeSCP-2). Mutations to amino acids in AeSCP-2 known to interact with bound ligand also decreased NBD-cholesterol binding. Substitution of amino acids in the ligand cavity changed the ligand specificity of mutant AeSCP-2. Over-expressing AeSCP-2 wild-type in the Aedes aegypti cultured Aag-2 cells resulted in an increase in incorporation of [3H]cholesterol. However, over-expressing mutants that were deleterious to the binding of NBD-cholesterol in AeSCP-2 showed a loss in the ability to enhance uptake of [3H] cholesterol in cultured cells. Interestingly, when [3H]palmitic acid was used as the substrate for incorporation in vivo, there was no change in the levels of incorporation with over-expression of wild-type protein or mutated AeSCP-2s. The in vivo data suggest that AeSCP-2 is involved in sterol uptake, but not fatty acid uptake. This is the first report that the ability of cholesterol binding may directly correlate to AeSCP-2’s in vivo function in aiding the uptake of cholesterol. PMID:20681612

  7. Hybrid nanosystems based on natural polymers as protein carriers for respiratory delivery: Stability and toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Cordeiro, Clara; Seijo, Begoña; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Grenha, Ana

    2015-06-05

    Chitosan/carrageenan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles were previously presented as holding potential for an application in transmucosal delivery of macromolecules, with tripolyphosphate demonstrating to contribute for both size reduction and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. This work was aimed at evaluating the capacity of the nanoparticles as protein carriers for pulmonary and nasal transmucosal delivery, further assessing their biocompatibility pattern regarding that application. Nanoparticles demonstrated stability in presence of lysozyme, while freeze-drying was shown to preserve their characteristics when glucose or sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. Bovine serum albumin was associated to the nanoparticles, which were successfully microencapsulated by spray-drying to meet the aerodynamic requirements inherent to pulmonary delivery. Finally, a satisfactory biocompatibility profile was demonstrated upon exposure of two respiratory cell lines (Calu-3 and A549 cells) to the carriers. A negligible effect on cell viability along with no alterations on transepithelial electrical resistance and no induction of inflammatory response were observed.

  8. LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) is a potential carrier protein for matrix metalloproteinase-9 glycoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Tyler; Burnett, John; Shin, Alice; Yang, Jay

    2015-08-28

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a secreted glycoprotein with a major role in shaping the extracellular matrix and a detailed understanding of the secretory mechanism could help identify methods to correct diseases resulting from dysregulation of secretion. MMP-9 appears to follow a canonical secretory pathway through a quality control cycle in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transport of the properly folded protein to the Golgi apparatus and beyond for secretion. Through a complementation assay, we determined that LMAN1, a well-studied lectin-carrier protein, interacts with a secretion-competent N-glycosylated MMP-9 in the ER while N-glycosylation-deficient secretion-compromised MMP-9 does not. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated protein interaction between LMAN1 and secretion-compromised N-glycosylation-deficient MMP-9. MMP-9 secretion was reduced in the LMAN1 knockout cell line compared to control cells confirming the functional role of LMAN1. These observations support the role of LMAN1 as a lectin-carrier protein mediating efficient MMP-9 secretion.

  9. LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) is a potential carrier protein for matrix metalloproteinase-9 glycoprotein secretion

    PubMed Central

    Duellman, Tyler; Burnett, John; Shin, Alice; Yang, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a secreted glycoprotein with a major role in shaping the extra-cellular matrix and a detailed understanding of the secretory mechanism could help identify methods to correct diseases resulting from dysregulation of secretion. MMP-9 appears to follow a canonical secretory pathway through a quality control cycle in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transport of the properly folded protein to the Golgi apparatus and beyond for secretion. Through a complementation assay, we determined that LMAN1, a well-studied lectin-carrier protein, interacts with a secretion-competent N-glycosylated MMP-9 in the ER while N-glycosylation-deficient secretion-compromised MMP-9 does not. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated protein interaction between LMAN1 and secretion-compromised N-glycosylation-deficient MMP-9. MMP-9 secretion was reduced in the LMAN1 knockout cell line compared to control cells confirming the functional role of LMAN1. These observations support the role of LMAN1 as a lectin-carrier protein mediating efficient MMP-9 secretion. PMID:26150355

  10. Steady-state protein focusing in carrier ampholyte based isoelectric focusing: Part I-Analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaesool; Yoo, Kisoo; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-03-01

    The determination of an analytical solution to find the steady-state protein concentration distribution in IEF is very challenging due to the nonlinear coupling between mass and charge conservation equations. In this study, approximate analytical solutions are obtained for steady-state protein distribution in carrier ampholyte based IEF. Similar to the work of Svensson, the final concentration profile for proteins is assumed to be Gaussian, but appropriate expressions are presented in order to obtain the effective electric field and pH gradient in the focused protein band region. Analytical results are found from iterative solutions of a system of coupled algebraic equations using only several iterations for IEF separation of three plasma proteins: albumin, cardiac troponin I, and hemoglobin. The analytical results are compared with numerically predicted results for IEF, showing excellent agreement. Analytically obtained electric field and ionic conductivity distributions show significant deviation from their nominal values, which is essential in finding the protein focusing behavior at isoelectric points. These analytical solutions can be used to determine steady-state protein concentration distribution for experiment design of IEF considering any number of proteins and ampholytes. Moreover, the model presented herein can be used to find the conductivity, electric field, and pH field.

  11. Crystal structure of a PCP/Sfp complex reveals the structural basis for carrier protein posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Tufar, Peter; Rahighi, Simin; Kraas, Femke I; Kirchner, Donata K; Löhr, Frank; Henrich, Erik; Köpke, Jürgen; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Dötsch, Volker

    2014-04-24

    Phosphopantetheine transferases represent a class of enzymes found throughout all forms of life. From a structural point of view, they are subdivided into three groups, with transferases from group II being the most widespread. They are required for the posttranslational modification of carrier proteins involved in diverse metabolic pathways. We determined the crystal structure of the group II phosphopantetheine transferase Sfp from Bacillus in complex with a substrate carrier protein in the presence of coenzyme A and magnesium, and observed two protein-protein interaction sites. Mutational analysis showed that only the hydrophobic contacts between the carrier protein's second helix and the C-terminal domain of Sfp are essential for their productive interaction. Comparison with a similar structure of a complex of human proteins suggests that the mode of interaction is highly conserved in all domains of life.

  12. Possible pheromone-carrier function of two lipocalin proteins in the vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, A; Matsushita, F; Ryo, Y; Mikoshiba, K

    1994-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning and characterization of two secretory proteins specifically expressed in vomeronasal and posterior glands of the nasal septum, the ducts of which open into the lumen of the vomeronasal organ. These two proteins are members of the lipocalin superfamily, consisting of hydrophobic ligand carriers. We immunohistochemically localized one of the proteins in the mucus covering the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, where the primary reception of pheromone takes place. The immunoreactivity on the vomeronasal sensory epithelium was evident in the neonatal and post-pubertal periods, when the close contact between animals plays critical roles in suckling and sexual behaviors, respectively. These results suggest that small lipophilic molecules stimulate the accessory olfactory system to regulate the reproductive behavior of mice. Images PMID:7813422

  13. Utilizing clathrin triskelions as carriers for spatially controlled multi-protein display.

    PubMed

    Deci, Michael B; Ferguson, Scott W; Liu, Maixian; Peterson, Damian C; Koduvayur, Sujatha P; Nguyen, Juliane

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous and spatially controlled display of different proteins on nanocarriers is a desirable property not often achieved in practice. Here, we report the use of clathrin triskelions as a versatile platform for functional protein display. We hypothesized that site-specific molecular epitope recognition would allow for effective and ordered protein attachment to clathrin triskelions. Clathrin binding peptides (CBPs) were genetically fused to mCherry and green fluorescent protein (GFP), expressed, and loaded onto clathrin triskelions by site-specific binding. Attachment was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. mCherry fusion proteins modified with various CBPs displayed binding affinities between 470 nM and 287 μM for the clathrin triskelions. Simultaneous attachment of GFP-Wbox and mCherry-Cbox fusion constructs to the clathrin terminal domain was verified by Förster resonance energy transfer. The circulating half-lives, area under the curve, and the terminal half-lives of GFP and mCherry were significantly increased when attached to clathrin triskelions. Clathrin triskelion technology is useful for the development of versatile and multifunctional carriers for spatially controlled protein or peptide display with tremendous potential in nanotechnology, drug delivery, vaccine development, and targeted therapeutic applications.

  14. Purification and characterization of a novel cell-penetrating carrier similar to cholera toxin chimeric protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiping; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Huaqian; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaofen; Sun, Yunxiao; Zhao, Suqing; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Developing a recombinant vector for noninvasively delivering biological macromolecules into the brain is important. This study constructed and purified a protein complex based on the cholera toxin (CT) molecular structure. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-modified A2 subunits of CT (CTA2) were used as tracer molecules for introduction of transactivator of transcription (TAT) through the A subunit into cells. The protein complex EGFP-CTA2-TAT/(CTB)5 (CTB: B subunit of CT) was obtained using an in vitro recombination method and verified by monosialoganglioside-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography assay. The protein complexes bound more strongly to monosialoganglioside (GM1) than (CTB)5 at low concentrations (0.625-1.25 μg/mL). In vitro assays revealed that the transmembrane function of TAT was also maintained. The GM1-binding activity and cell membrane-penetrating ability suggested that a CT structure-based protein complexes could be used to design a delivery carrier for intranasal administration through GM1 binding. The expression vector introduced in this study provides a feasible expression frame for constructing several new macromolecular protein drugs for effective cell penetration.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Two Safflower Oleoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase cDNA Clones

    PubMed Central

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Bleibaum, Janice L.; Nelsen, Janet; Kridl, Jean C.; Thompson, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    Oleoyl-acyl carrier protein (18:1-ACP) thioesterase has been partially purified from developing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds. Protein species with molecular masses of 34 and 40 kD associated with thioesterase activity were identified and partially sequenced. Analysis of amino-terminal and internal cyanogen bromide peptide sequences revealed no differences in the primary structure of the two species. Amino acid sequence was used to design degenerate oligonucleotides for primers in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using safflower embryo cDNA as a template. A 380-base pair PCR product was used to isolate two classes of cDNA clones, designated 2-1 and 5-2, from the embryo cDNA library. Clone 2-1 encodes a 389-amino acid protein including a 60-amino acid transit peptide, and contains all of the protein sequence determined from the 34- and 40-kD proteins. Clone 5-2 encodes a 385-amino acid protein with 80% identity to that encoded by 2-1. Expression of the two safflower cDNA clones in Escherichia coli resulted in a 50- to 100-fold increase in the level of 18:1-ACP thioesterase activity. Both thioesterases are most active on 18:1-ACP; however, the enzyme encoded by 5-2 shows less discrimination against saturated 16- and 18-carbon acyl-ACP substrates. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:16653193

  16. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pizzo, Elio; Varcamonti, Mario; Zanfardino, Anna; Sgambati, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Carpentieri, Andrea; Izzo, Viviana; Di Donato, Alberto; Cafaro, Valeria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids), which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200–250 mg/L). After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15–18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96–98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (P)GKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods. PMID:26808536

  17. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pane, Katia; Durante, Lorenzo; Pizzo, Elio; Varcamonti, Mario; Zanfardino, Anna; Sgambati, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Carpentieri, Andrea; Izzo, Viviana; Di Donato, Alberto; Cafaro, Valeria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids), which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200-250 mg/L). After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15-18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96-98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (P)GKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods.

  18. Structural characterization and comparison of three acyl-carrier-protein synthases from pathogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Kim, Youngchang; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James; Zhou, Min; Onopriyenko, Olena; Skarina, Tatiana; Papazisi, Leka; Kwon, Keehwan; Peterson, Scott N.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2012-10-01

    The structural characterization of acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) from three different pathogenic microorganisms is reported. One interesting finding of the present work is a crystal artifact related to the activity of the enzyme, which fortuitously represents an opportunity for a strategy to design a potential inhibitor of a pathogenic AcpS. Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS{sub SA}), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS{sub VC}) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS{sub BA}) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS{sub BA} is emphasized because of the two 3′, 5′-adenosine diphosphate (3′, 5′-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3′, 5′-ADP is bound as the 3′, 5′-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoA–AcpS and 3′, 5′-ADP–AcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3′, 5′-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3′, 5′-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS{sub BA} may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.

  19. Self-organization of the vascular system in plant leaves: inter-dependent dynamics of auxin flux and carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Feugier, Francois G; Mochizuki, A; Iwasa, Y

    2005-10-21

    The vegetative hormone Auxin is involved in vascular tissues formation throughout the plant. Trans-membrane carrier proteins transporting auxin from cell to cell and distributed asymmetrically around each cell give to auxin a polarized movement in tissues, creating streams of auxin that presume future vascular bundles. According to the canalization hypothesis, auxin transport ability of cells is thought to increase with auxin flux, resulting in the self-enhancement of this flux along auxin paths. In this study we evaluate a series of models based on canalization hypothesis using carrier proteins, under different assumptions concerning auxin flux formation and carrier protein dynamics. Simulations are run on a hexagonal lattice with uniform auxin production. A single cell located in the margin of the lattice indicates the petiole, and acts as an auxin sink. The main results are: (1) We obtain branching auxin distribution patterns. (2) The type of self-enhancement described by the functional form of the carrier proteins regulation responding to the auxin flux intensity in different parts of a cell, has a strong effect on the possibility of generating the branching patterns. For response functions with acceleration in the increase of carrier protein numbers compared to the auxin flux, branching patterns are likely to be generated. For linear or decelerating response functions, no branching patterns are formed. (3) When branching patterns are formed, auxin distribution greatly differs between the case in which the number of carrier proteins in different parts of a cell are regulated independently, and the case in which different parts of a cell compete for a limited number of carrier proteins. In the former case, the auxin level is lower in veins than in the surrounding tissue, while in the latter, the auxin is present in greater abundance in veins. These results suggest that canalization is a good candidate for describing plant vein pattern formation.

  20. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  1. Therapeutics and carriers: the dual role of proteins in nanoparticles for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Pescina, Silvia; Sonvico, Fabio; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Blindness and visual impairment affect millions of people worldwide and have a very important impact on patients quality of life. Proteins and peptides represent nowadays an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ocular diseases but, despite their potential, have significant limitations, as the administration of protein-based pharmaceuticals represents a real challenge. Moreover, administration of ocular medications is difficult due to the peculiar structure of this organ and the presence of numerous barriers protecting the eye inner structure. Nanoencapsulation of peptides and proteins presents a number of advantages for their ocular delivery since it can protect the drug from metabolic activity, control and sustain the release and increase drug bioavailability after topical or intravitreal administration. In fact, nanoparticulate formulations are contributing to overcome ocular barriers, such as the corneal or the blood-retinal barrier, improve the residence time in the eye, increase local drug level, reduce the drug dosage and showing improved performance when compared to conventional formulations. Besides, proteins have also been proposed for the preparation of nanocarriers intended for ophthalmic administration, since they are highly biocompatible, biodegradable and easily modified to link surface ligands. The present review focuses the attention on the use of proteins in ocular drug delivery nanotechnology: their dual role as both therapeutics and carriers has been critically evaluated and discussed.

  2. Safety and efficacy of self-assembling bubble carriers stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate for oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Yen; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Lin, Kun-Ju; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Chiang, Ching-Hua; Mi, Fwu-Long; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2016-12-20

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is generally regarded as a potent permeability enhancer in oral formulations; however, one concern related to the use of any permeation enhancer is its possible absorption of unwanted toxins during the period of epithelial permeability enhancement. In this work, the safety and efficacy of an SDS-containing bubble carrier system that is developed from an orally administered enteric-coated capsule are evaluated. The bubble carriers comprise diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride, sodium bicarbonate (SBC), SDS, and insulin. Upon exposure to the intestinal fluid, DTPA dianhydride hydrolyzes to yield acids, and SBC rapidly reacts with these acids to generate CO2, producing bubble carriers, each containing a self-assembling water film. The hydrophilic insulin is entrapped in the self-assembled water film, which is stabilized by SDS. The SDS in the bubble carrier system can act as a dissolution enhancer in the dispersion of insulin molecules, as a surfactant that stabilizes the bubble carriers, as a protease inhibitor that protects the protein drug, and as a permeation enhancer that augments its oral bioavailability. Hence, a significant increase in the plasma insulin level and an excellent blood glucose-lowering response in diabetic rats are effectively achieved. Moreover, the enhancement of epithelial permeation by this SDS-containing formulation does not promote the absorption of intestinal endotoxins. The above facts indicate that the bubble carrier system that is stabilized by SDS can be used as a safe and potent carrier in the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  3. A special acyl carrier protein for transferring long hydroxylated fatty acids to lipid A in Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Brozek, K A; Carlson, R W; Raetz, C R

    1996-12-13

    Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharides in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, varies in structure among different Rhizobiaceae. The Rhizobium meliloti lipid A backbone, like that of Escherichia coli, is a beta1'-6-linked glucosamine disaccharide that is phosphorylated at positions 1 and 4'. Rhizobium leguminosarum lipid A lacks both phosphates, but contains aminogluconate in place of the proximal glucosamine 1-phosphate, and galacturonic acid instead of the 4'-phosphate. A peculiar feature of the lipid As of all Rhizobiaceae is acylation with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid, a long hydroxylated fatty acid not found in E. coli. We now describe an in vitro system, consisting of a membrane enzyme and a cytosolic acyl donor from R. leguminosarum, that transfers 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid to (Kdo)2-lipid IVA, a key lipid A precursor common to both E. coli and R. leguminosarum. The 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid moiety was detected in the lipid product by mass spectrometry. The membrane enzyme required the presence of Kdo residues in the acceptor substrate for activity. The cytosolic acyl donor was purified from wild-type R. leguminosarum using the acylation of (Kdo)2-[4'-32P]-lipid IVA as the assay. Amino-terminal sequencing of the purified acyl donor revealed an exact 19-amino acid match with a partially sequenced gene (orf*) of R. leguminosarum. Orf* contains the consensus sequence, DSLD, for attachment of 4'-phosphopantetheine. When the entire orf* gene was sequenced, it was found to encode a protein of 92 amino acids. Orf* is a new kind of acyl carrier protein because it is only approximately 25% identical both to the constitutive acyl carrier protein (AcpP) and to the inducible acyl carrier protein (NodF) of R. leguminosarum. Mass spectrometry of purified active Orf* confirmed the presence of 4'-phosphopantetheine and 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in the major species. Smaller mass peaks indicative of Orf* acylation with hydroxylated 20, 22, 24

  4. Structural correlates of carrier protein recognition in tetanus toxoid-conjugated bacterial polysaccharide vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Kay; Gao, Fang; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of structure-antibody recognition relationships in nine licenced polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was performed. The panel of conjugates used included vaccine components to protect against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, W and Y and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 18C. Conformation and structural analysis included size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering to determine size, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching to evaluate the protein folding and exposure of Trp residues. A capture ELISA measured the recognition of TT epitopes in the conjugates, using four rat monoclonal antibodies: 2 localised to the HC domain, and 2 of which were holotoxoid conformation-dependent. The conjugates had a wide range of average molecular masses ranging from 1.8 × 106 g/mol to larger than 20 × 106 g/mol. The panel of conjugates were found to be well folded, and did not have spectral features typical of aggregated TT. A partial correlation was found between molecular mass and epitope recognition. Recognition of the epitopes either on the HC domain or the whole toxoid was not necessarily hampered by the size of the molecule. Correlation was also found between the accessibility of Trp side chains and polysaccharide loading, suggesting also that a higher level of conjugated PS does not necessarily interfere with toxoid accessibility. There were different levels of carrier protein Trp side-chain and epitope accessibility that were localised to the HC domain; these were related to the saccharide type, despite the conjugates being independently manufactured. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for carrier protein recognition in TT conjugate vaccines. PMID:25640334

  5. Structural correlates of carrier protein recognition in tetanus toxoid-conjugated bacterial polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Kay; Gao, Fang; Derrick, Jeremy P; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-03-10

    An analysis of structure-antibody recognition relationships in nine licenced polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was performed. The panel of conjugates used included vaccine components to protect against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, W and Y and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 18C. Conformation and structural analysis included size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering to determine size, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching to evaluate the protein folding and exposure of Trp residues. A capture ELISA measured the recognition of TT epitopes in the conjugates, using four rat monoclonal antibodies: 2 localised to the HC domain, and 2 of which were holotoxoid conformation-dependent. The conjugates had a wide range of average molecular masses ranging from 1.8×10(6) g/mol to larger than 20×10(6) g/mol. The panel of conjugates were found to be well folded, and did not have spectral features typical of aggregated TT. A partial correlation was found between molecular mass and epitope recognition. Recognition of the epitopes either on the HC domain or the whole toxoid was not necessarily hampered by the size of the molecule. Correlation was also found between the accessibility of Trp side chains and polysaccharide loading, suggesting also that a higher level of conjugated PS does not necessarily interfere with toxoid accessibility. There were different levels of carrier protein Trp side-chain and epitope accessibility that were localised to the HC domain; these were related to the saccharide type, despite the conjugates being independently manufactured. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for carrier protein recognition in TT conjugate vaccines.

  6. Prospects of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) as an antifertility vaccine in male and female mammals.

    PubMed

    Adiga, P R; Subramanian, S; Rao, J; Kumar, M

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is obligatorily involved in yolk deposition of the vitamin, riboflavin, in the developing oocyte of the hen. The production of this protein is inducible by oestrogen. It is evolutionarily conserved in terms of its physicochemical, immunological and functional characteristics. It is the prime mediator of vitamin supply to the developing fetus in mammals, including primates. Passive immunoneutralization of the protein terminates pregnancy in rats. Active immunization of rats and bonnet monkeys with avian RCP prevents pregnancy without causing any adverse physiological effects of the mother in terms of her vitamin status, reproductive cycles or reproductive-endocrine profile. Denatured, linearized RCP is more effective in eliciting neutralizing antibodies capable of interfering with embryonic viability either before or during peri-implantation stages. Two defined stretches of sequential epitopes, one located at the N-terminus and the other at the C-terminus of the protein have been identified. Active immunization with either of these epitopes conjugated with diphtheria toxoid curtails pregnancy in rats and monkeys. Immunohistochemical localization of RCP on ovulated oocytes and early embryos shows that the antibodies cause degeneration only of early embryos. RCP is produced intra-testicularly and becomes localized on acrosomal surface of mammalian spermatozoa. Active immunization of male rats and monkeys with denatured RCP markedly reduces fertility by impairing the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. These findings suggest that RCP, or its defined fragments, could be a novel, first generation vaccine for regulating fertility in both the sexes.

  7. The Conserved Modular Elements of the Acyl Carrier Proteins of Lipid Synthesis Are Only Partially Interchangeable*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Cronan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work showed that expression of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) of a diverse set of bacteria replaced the function of Escherichia coli ACP in lipid biosynthesis. However, the AcpAs of Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecalis were inactive. Both failed to support growth of an E. coli acpP mutant strain. This defect seemed likely because of the helix II sequences of the two AcpAs, which differed markedly from those of the proteins that supported growth. To test this premise, chimeric ACPs were constructed in which L. lactis helix II replaced helix II of E. coli AcpP and vice versa. Expression of the AcpP protein L. lactis AcpA helix II allowed weak growth, whereas the L. lactis AcpA-derived protein that contained E. coli AcpP helix II failed to support growth of the E. coli mutant strain. Replacement of the L. lactis AcpA helix II residues in this protein showed that substitution of valine for the phenylalanine residue four residues downstream of the phosphopanthetheine-modified serine gave robust growth and allowed modification by the endogenous AcpS phosphopantetheinyl transferase (rather than the promiscuous Sfp transferase required to modify the L. lactis AcpA and the chimera of L. lactis AcpA helix II in AcpP). Further chimera constructs showed that the lack of function of the L. lactis AcpA-derived protein containing E. coli AcpP helix II was due to incompatibility of L. lactis AcpA helix I with the downstream elements of AcpP. Therefore, the origins of ACP incompatibility can reside in either helix I or in helix II. PMID:25861991

  8. The mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP) coordinates mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis with iron sulfur cluster biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Jeong, Mi-Young; Wei, Peng; Chen, Yu-Chan; Gygi, Steven P; Winge, Dennis R; Rutter, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FASII) and iron sulfur cluster (FeS) biogenesis are both vital biosynthetic processes within mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), which has a well-known role in FASII, plays an unexpected and evolutionarily conserved role in FeS biogenesis. ACP is a stable and essential subunit of the eukaryotic FeS biogenesis complex. In the absence of ACP, the complex is destabilized resulting in a profound depletion of FeS throughout the cell. This role of ACP depends upon its covalently bound 4’-phosphopantetheine (4-PP)-conjugated acyl chain to support maximal cysteine desulfurase activity. Thus, it is likely that ACP is not simply an obligate subunit but also exploits the 4-PP-conjugated acyl chain to coordinate mitochondrial fatty acid and FeS biogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17828.001 PMID:27540631

  9. New Structural Data Reveal the Motion of Carrier Proteins in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kittilä, Tiia; Mollo, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are one of the most promising resources for the production of new bioactive molecules. The mechanism of NRPS catalysis is based around sequential catalytic domains: these are organized into modules, where each module selects, modifies, and incorporates an amino acid into the growing peptide. The intermediates formed during NRPS catalysis are delivered between enzyme centers by peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains, which makes PCP interactions and movements crucial to NRPS mechanism. PCP movement has been linked to the domain alternation cycle of adenylation (A) domains, and recent complete NRPS module structures provide support for this hypothesis. However, it appears as though the A domain alternation alone is insufficient to account for the complete NRPS catalytic cycle and that the loaded state of the PCP must also play a role in choreographing catalysis in these complex and fascinating molecular machines. PMID:27435901

  10. Evolutionary, environmental and tissue controls on the occurrence of multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein

    SciTech Connect

    Battey, J.F.; Ohlrogge, J.B. )

    1989-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP). We have examined the development of this trait in evolutionarily diverse species. Isoforms were resolved by Western blotting and native PAGE of {sup 3}H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed in primitive vascular plants including gymnosperms, ferns and Psilotum and the nonvascular liverworts and mosses. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, unicellular algae and bacteria such as Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single electrophoretic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants. We have also examined light and tissue control over the expression of ACP isoforms. The expression of multiple forms of ACP in leaf of Spinacia and Avena is altered very little by light. Rather, the different patterns of ACP isoforms are primarily dependant on tissue source.

  11. Effect of increased CRM₁₉₇ carrier protein dose on meningococcal C bactericidal antibody response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucia H; Blake, Milan S

    2012-04-01

    New multivalent CRM(197)-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM(197) coadministration with CRM(197)-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM(197) carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥ 1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM(197) conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial acyl carrier protein synthase plays an essential role in the synthesis of fatty acids, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, AcpS or group I phosphopentatheine transferase exhibits two different structural conformations depending upon the pH. The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS–ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the α2 helix and in the conformation of the α3–α4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4–6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS–ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS–ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  13. Structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin Ukita, Yoko; Miyano, Masashi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from T. thermophilus HB8 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution and compared with the structures of β-keto-ACP synthases from other sources. The β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases (β-keto-ACP synthases; KAS) catalyse the addition of two-carbon units to the growing acyl chain during the elongation phase of fatty-acid synthesis. As key regulators of bacterial fatty-acid synthesis, they are promising targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtKAS II) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.07, b = 185.57, c = 62.52 Å, and contains one homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The subunits adopt the well known α-β-α-β-α thiolase fold that is common to ACP synthases. The structural and sequence similarities of TtKAS II to KAS I and KAS II enzymes of known structure from other sources support the hypothesis of comparable enzymatic activity. The dimeric state of TtKAS II is important to create each fatty-acid-binding pocket. Closer examination of KAS structures reveals that compared with other KAS structures in the apo form, the active site of TtKAS II is more accessible because of the ‘open’ conformation of the Phe396 side chain.

  14. Sticky swinging arm dynamics: studies of an acyl carrier protein domain from the mycolactone polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Steven; Tkachenko, Olga; Thomas, Ben; Bassuni, Mona; Hong, Hui; Nietlispach, Daniel; Broadhurst, William

    2016-01-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce polyketide natural products by passing a growing acyl substrate chain between a series of enzyme domains housed within a gigantic multifunctional polypeptide assembly. Throughout each round of chain extension and modification reactions, the substrate stays covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In the present study we report on the solution structure and dynamics of an ACP domain excised from MLSA2, module 9 of the PKS system that constructs the macrolactone ring of the toxin mycolactone, cause of the tropical disease Buruli ulcer. After modification of apo ACP with 4′-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to create the holo form, 15N nuclear spin relaxation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments suggest that the prosthetic group swings freely. The minimal chemical shift perturbations displayed by Ppant-attached C3 and C4 acyl chains imply that these substrate-mimics remain exposed to solvent at the end of a flexible Ppant arm. By contrast, hexanoyl and octanoyl chains yield much larger chemical shift perturbations, indicating that they interact with the surface of the domain. The solution structure of octanoyl-ACP shows the Ppant arm bending to allow the acyl chain to nestle into a nonpolar pocket, whereas the prosthetic group itself remains largely solvent exposed. Although the highly reduced octanoyl group is not a natural substrate for the ACP from MLSA2, similar presentation modes would permit partner enzyme domains to recognize an acyl group while it is bound to the surface of its carrier protein, allowing simultaneous interactions with both the substrate and the ACP. PMID:26920023

  15. Recognition of Acyl Carrier Proteins by Ketoreductases in Assembly Line Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Matthew P.; Cane, David E.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2016-01-01

    Ketoreductases (KRs) are the most widespread tailoring domains found in individual modules of assembly line polyketide synthases (PKSs), and are responsible for controlling the configurations of both the α-methyl and β-hydroxyl stereogenic centers in the growing polyketide chain. Because they recognize substrates that are covalently bound to acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) within the same PKS module, we sought to quantify the extent to which protein-protein recognition contributes to the turnover of these oxidoreductive enzymes using stand-alone domains from the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS). Reduced 2-methyl-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP substrates derived from two enantiomeric acyl chains and four distinct ACP domains were synthesized and presented to four distinct KR domains. Two KRs, from DEBS modules 2 and 5, displayed little preference for oxidation of substrates tethered to their cognate ACP domains over those attached to the other ACP domains tested. In contrast, the KR from DEBS module 1 showed a ca. 10-50-fold preference for substrate attached to its native ACP domain, whereas the KR from DEBS module 6 actually displayed a ca. 10-fold preference for the ACP from DEBS module 5. Our findings suggest that recognition of the ACP by a KR domain is unlikely to affect the rate of native assembly line polyketide biosynthesis. In some cases, however, unfavorable KR-ACP interactions may suppress the rate of substrate processing when KR domains are swapped to construct hybrid PKS modules. PMID:27118242

  16. Rod-shaped hydroxyapatite with mesoporous structure as drug carriers for proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wandong; Chai, Yamin; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Yonglan; Cao, Nana

    2014-12-01

    Rod-shaped hydroxyapatite (HAp) with mesoporous structure was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Pluronic block co-polymer F127 as the template. The rod-shaped HAp was then tested as protein drug carriers by investigating their protein adsorption/release properties. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) were used as the model drugs. Various instrumental methods were used to characterize the structure, morphology, texture and protein drug adsorption/release properties of the samples. The amounts of BSA or LSZ adsorbed onto the rod-shaped HAp and their release profiles were evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The synthesized rod-shaped HAp had irregular mesostructures with lengths of 75-125 nm and diameters of about 25 nm. The rod-shaped HAp exhibited a higher loading capacity for BSA than for LSZ in the SBF. This adsorption behavior can be explained by the morphology of the rod-shaped HAp, which grew along the c-axis, leading to an a(b)-plane area that is larger than the c-plane area. Consequently, the number of positive charges on the surface of the rod-shaped HAp increased relative to the number of negative charges. The BSA release rate in SBF was slower than that of LSZ which is a result of the HAp surface properties.

  17. Isolation and characterization of an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase gene from microalga Isochrysis galbana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Minggang; Liang, Kepeng; Wang, Bo; Sun, Xiuqin; Yue, Yanyan; Wan, Wenwen; Zheng, Li

    2013-03-01

    In most bacteria, plants and algae, fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a group of freely dissociable proteins known as the type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) system. In the FAS II system, enoylacyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) acts as a determinant for completing the cycles of fatty acid elongation. In this study, the cDNA sequence of ENR, designated as IgENR, was isolated from the microalga Isochrysis galbana CCMM5001. RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) was used to isolate the full-length cDNA of IgENR (1 503 bp), which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 044 bp and encodes a protein of 347 amino acids. The genomic DNA sequence of IgENR is interrupted by four introns. The putative amino acid sequence is homologous to the ENRs of seed plants and algae, and they contain common coenzymebinding sites and active site motifs. Under different stress conditions, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed the expression of IgENR was upregulated by high temperature (35°C), and downregulated by depleted nitrogen (0 mol/L). To clarify the mechanism of lipids accumulating lipids, other genes involved in lipids accumulation should be studied.

  18. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.; Meighen, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a /sup 3/H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi (/sup 3/H)acylprotein and (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence.

  19. Structure and Function of the Sterol Carrier Protein-2 N-Terminal Presequence†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; Hostetler, Heather A.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Tichy, Shane E.; Williams, Brad J.; Russell, David H.; Berg, Jeremy M.; Spencer, Thomas A.; Ball, Judith; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) is encoded as a precursor protein (proSCP-2), little is known regarding the structure and function of the 20-amino acid N-terminal presequence. As shown herein, the presequence contains significant secondary structure and alters SCP-2: (i) secondary structure (CD), (ii) tertiary structure (aqueous exposure of Trp shown by UV absorbance, fluorescence, fluorescence quenching), (iii) ligand binding site [Trp response to ligands, peptide cross-linked by photoactivatable free cholesterol (FCBP)], (iv) selectivity for interaction with anionic phospholipid-rich membranes, (v) interaction with a peroxisomal import protein [FRET studies of Pex5p(C) binding], the N-terminal presequence increased SCP-2’s affinity for Pex5p(C) by 10-fold, and (vi) intracellular targeting in living and fixed cells (confocal microscopy). Nearly 5-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae (AF488-CTB), 2.8-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with a mitochondrial marker (Mitotracker), but nearly 2-fold less SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with peroxisomes (AF488-antibody to PMP70). These data indicate the importance of the N-terminal presequence in regulating SCP-2 structure, cholesterol localization within the ligand binding site, membrane association, and, potentially, intracellular targeting. PMID:18465878

  20. Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que

    2009-06-12

    The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

  1. Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2009-01-01

    The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085–39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460–JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between β3 and β4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 Cα backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered. PMID:19130179

  2. Probing the Phosphopantetheine Arm Conformations of Acyl Carrier Proteins Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are universal and highly conserved domains central to both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. These proteins tether reactive acyl intermediates with a swinging 4′-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) arm and interact with a suite of catalytic partners during chain transport and elongation while stabilizing the growing chain throughout the biosynthetic pathway. The flexible nature of the Ppant arm and the transient nature of ACP–enzyme interactions impose a major obstacle to obtaining structural information relevant to understanding polyketide and fatty acid biosynthesis. To overcome this challenge, we installed a thiocyanate vibrational spectroscopic probe on the terminal thiol of the ACP Ppant arm. This site-specific probe successfully reported on the local environment of the Ppant arm of two ACPs previously characterized by solution NMR, and was used to determine the solution exposure of the Ppant arm of an ACP from 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS). Given the sensitivity of the probe’s CN stretching band to conformational distributions resolved on the picosecond time scale, this work lays a foundation for observing the dynamic action-related structural changes of ACPs using vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:25080832

  3. Submicellar bile salts stimulate phosphatidylcholine transfer activity of sterol carrier protein 2.

    PubMed

    Leonard, A N; Cohen, D E

    1998-10-01

    To explore a potential role for sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2, also known as non-specific lipid transfer protein) in hepatocellular phospholipid trafficking, we examined the influence of submicellar bile salt concentrations on phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer activity of SCP2. We measured rate constants for first-order transfer of sn-1 palmitoyl, sn-2 parinaroyl PC, a naturally fluorescent self-quenching phospholipid between model membranes. Purified bovine liver SCP2 promoted transfer of PC from donor to acceptor small unilamellar vesicles. Taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile salts (anionic steroid detergent-like molecules), at concentrations well below their critical micellar concentrations, stimulated PC transfer activity of SCP2 80- to 140-fold. Rate constants increased in proportion to bile salt concentration, temperature, and bile salt-membrane binding affinity. Sodium taurofusidate, a conjugated fungal bile salt analog, also activated PC transfer whereas no effect was observed with the anionic and non-ionic straight chain detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate and octylglucoside, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of PC transfer support a mechanism in which bile salts stimulate SCP2 activity by partitioning into donor vesicles and enhancing membrane association of SCP2. These results imply that under physiological conditions, SCP2 may contribute to hepatocellular selection and transport of biliary PCs.

  4. Sterol carrier protein-2 localization in endoplasmic reticulum and role in phospholipid formation.

    PubMed

    Starodub, O; Jolly, C A; Atshaves, B P; Roths, J B; Murphy, E J; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    2000-10-01

    Although sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2; also called nonspecific lipid transfer protein) binds fatty acids and fatty acyl-CoAs, its role in fatty acid metabolism is not fully understood. L-cell fibroblasts stably expressing SCP-2 were used to resolve the relationship between SCP-2 intracellular location and fatty acid transacylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Indirect immunofluorescence double labeling and laser scanning confocal microscopy detected SCP-2 in peroxisomes > endoplasmic reticulum > mitochondria > lysosomes. SCP-2 enhanced incorporation of exogenous [(3)H]oleic acid into phospholipids and triacylglycerols of overexpressing cells 1.6- and 2.5-fold, respectively, stimulated microsomal incorporation of [1-(14)C]oleoyl-CoA into phosphatidic acid in vitro 13-fold, and exhibited higher specificity for unsaturated versus saturated fatty acyl-CoA. SCP-2 enhanced the rate-limiting step in microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis mediated by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. SCP-2 also enhanced microsomal acyl-chain remodeling of phosphatidylethanolamine up to fivefold and phosphatidylserine twofold, depending on the specific fatty acyl-CoA, but had no effect on other phospholipid classes. In summary, these results were consistent with a role for SCP-2 in phospholipid synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  5. Structure of Dehydroergosterol Monohydrate and Interaction with Sterol Carrier Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Gallegos, Adalberto M.; Storey, Stephen M.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.; Kier, Ann B.; Meyer, Edgar; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroergosterol [ergosta-5,7,9(11),22-tetraen-3β-ol] is a naturally-occurring, fluorescent sterol utilized extensively to probe membrane cholesterol distribution, cholesterol-protein interactions, and intracellular cholesterol transport both in vitro and in vivo. In aqueous solutions, the low solubility of dehydroergosterol results in the formation of monohydrate crystals similar to cholesterol. Low temperature x-ray diffraction analysis reveals that dehydroergosterol monohydrate crystallizes in the space group P21 with 4 molecules in the unit cell and monoclinic crystal parameters a = 9.975(1)Å, b = 7.4731(9)Å, c = 34.054(4)Å, and β = 92.970(2)° somewhat similar to ergosterol monohydrate. The molecular arrangement is in a slightly closer packed bilayer structure resembling cholesterol monohydrate. Since dehydroergosterol fluorescence emission undergoes a quantum yield enhancement and red-shift of its maximum wavelength when crystallized, formation or disruption of microcrystals was monitored with high sensitivity using cuvette-based spectroscopy and multi-photon laser scanning imaging microscopy (MPLSM). This manuscript reports on the dynamical effect of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) interacting between aqueous dispersions of dehydroergosterol monohydrate microcrystal donors and acceptors consisting not only of model membranes but also vesicles derived from plasma membranes isolated by biochemical fractionation and affinity purification from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, this study provides real-time measurements of the effect of increased SCP-2 levels on the rate of disappearance of dehydroergosterol microcrystals in living cells. PMID:19020914

  6. Immunocontraceptive potential of recombinantly expressed minimized chicken riboflavin carrier protein (mini-RCP) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Karandeb, Anjali A; Adiga, P Radhakantha

    2004-12-01

    Chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) harbours four linear epitopes, constituted by the peptide residues 3-23, 64-83, 130-147 and 200-219. Antibodies to these sequences bioneutralize maternal RCP and provide protection from pregnancy in rodents. In order to overcome the major histocompatibility complex-dependent variability in immune response often encountered with use of single peptides for vaccination in genetically outbred populations, we have assembled a novel synthetic gene, incorporating in tandem the nucleotide sequences coding for all the four neutralizing epitopes of chicken RCP and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene product, mini-RCP has been characterized for its immunogenic properties and contraceptive potential in rodents. Immunization of rabbits and rats led to generation of antibodies against individual peptide components, as determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, immunized rats carried pregnancy to term and delivered healthy offsprings. Antisera from these rats exhibited decreased affinity of binding to the native protein. These findings suggest that the prospects of covalently-linked epitope peptides need to be cautiously evaluated during the design and development of peptide-based vaccines.

  7. Secretory Carrier Membrane Protein (SCAMP) deficiency influences behavior of adult flies

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, JiaLin C.; Tham, Chook Teng; Keatings, Kathleen; Fan, Steven; Liou, Angela Yen-Chun; Numata, Yuka; Allan, Douglas; Numata, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. Mammalian genomes contain five SCAMP genes SCAMP1-SCAMP5 that regulate membrane dynamics, most prominently membrane-depolarization and Ca2+-induced regulated secretion, a key mechanism for neuronal and neuroendocrine signaling. However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. Here we generate Drosophila Scamp null mutants and show that they exhibit reduced lifespan and behavioral abnormalities including impaired climbing, deficiency in odor associated long-term memory, and a susceptibility to heat-induced seizures. Neuron-specific restoration of Drosophila Scamp rescues all Scamp null behavioral phenotypes, indicating that the phenotypes are due to loss of neuronal Scamp. Remarkably, neuronal expression of human SCAMP genes rescues selected behavioral phenotypes of the mutants, suggesting the conserved function of SCAMPs across species. The newly developed Drosophila mutants present the first evidence that genetic depletion of SCAMP at the organismal level leads to varied behavioral abnormalities, and the obtained results indicate the importance of membrane dynamics in neuronal functions in vivo. PMID:25478561

  8. Tragacanth as an oral peptide and protein delivery carrier: Characterization and mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Nur, M; Ramchandran, L; Vasiljevic, T

    2016-06-05

    Biopolymers such as tragacanth, an anionic polysaccharide gum, can be alternative polymeric carrier for physiologically important peptides and proteins. Characterization of tragacanth is thus essential for providing a foundation for possible applications. Rheological studies colloidal solution of tragacanth at pH 3, 5 or 7 were carried out by means of steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory measurements. Tragacanth mucoadhesivity was also analyzed using an applicable rheological method and compared to chitosan, alginate and PVP. The particle size and zeta potential were measured by a zetasizer. Thermal properties of solutions were obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry. The solution exhibited shear-thinning characteristics. The value of the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G″) increased with an increase in angular frequency (Ω). In all cases, loss modulus values were higher than storage values (G″>G') and viscous character was, therefore, dominant. Tragacanth and alginate showed a good mucoadhesion. Tragacanth upon dispersion created particles of a submicron size with a negative zeta potential (-7.98 to -11.92 mV). These properties were pH dependant resulting in acid gel formation at pH 3.5. Tragacanth has thus a potential to be used as an excipient for peptide/protein delivery.

  9. Secretory Carrier Membrane Protein (SCAMP) deficiency influences behavior of adult flies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, JiaLin C; Tham, Chook Teng; Keatings, Kathleen; Fan, Steven; Liou, Angela Yen-Chun; Numata, Yuka; Allan, Douglas; Numata, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. Mammalian genomes contain five SCAMP genes SCAMP1-SCAMP5 that regulate membrane dynamics, most prominently membrane-depolarization and Ca(2+)-induced regulated secretion, a key mechanism for neuronal and neuroendocrine signaling. However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. Here we generate Drosophila Scamp null mutants and show that they exhibit reduced lifespan and behavioral abnormalities including impaired climbing, deficiency in odor associated long-term memory, and a susceptibility to heat-induced seizures. Neuron-specific restoration of Drosophila Scamp rescues all Scamp null behavioral phenotypes, indicating that the phenotypes are due to loss of neuronal Scamp. Remarkably, neuronal expression of human SCAMP genes rescues selected behavioral phenotypes of the mutants, suggesting the conserved function of SCAMPs across species. The newly developed Drosophila mutants present the first evidence that genetic depletion of SCAMP at the organismal level leads to varied behavioral abnormalities, and the obtained results indicate the importance of membrane dynamics in neuronal functions in vivo.

  10. A pathogenic fungi diphenyl ether phytotoxin targets plant enoyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Franck E; Ferreira, Daneel; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A; McInroy, John A; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2008-07-01

    Cyperin is a natural diphenyl ether phytotoxin produced by several fungal plant pathogens. At high concentrations, this metabolite inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase, a key enzyme in porphyrin synthesis. However, unlike its herbicide structural analogs, the mode of action of cyperin is not light dependent, causing loss of membrane integrity in the dark. We report that this natural diphenyl ether inhibits Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enoyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase (ENR). This enzyme is also sensitive to triclosan, a synthetic antimicrobial diphenyl ether. Whereas cyperin was much less potent than triclosan on this target site, their ability to cause light-independent disruption of membrane integrity and inhibition of ENR is similar at their respective phytotoxic concentrations. The sequence of ENR is highly conserved within higher plants and a homology model of Arabidopsis ENR was derived from the crystal structure of the protein from Brassica napus. Cyperin mimicked the binding of triclosan in the binding pocket of ENR. Both molecules were stabilized by the pi-pi stacking interaction between one of their phenyl rings and the nicotinamide ring of the NAD(+). Furthermore, the side chain of tyrosine is involved in hydrogen bonding with a phenolic hydroxy group of cyperin. Therefore, cyperin may contribute to the virulence of the pathogens by inhibiting ENR and destabilizing the membrane integrity of the cells surrounding the point of infection.

  11. PEGylated Dendritic Unimolecular Micelles as Versatile Carriers for Ligands of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonkyung; Hechler, Béatrice; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its widespread application in nanomedicine, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is seldom used for covalent modification of ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) due to potential steric complications. In order to study the influence of PEG chains on the biological activity of GPCR ligands bound to a common macromolecular carrier, we prepared a series of G3 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers derivatized with Alexa Fluor 488, varying numbers of PEG550/PEG750/PEG2000, and nucleoside moieties derived from the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) agonist CGS21680 (2-[4-(2-carboxylethyl)phenylethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine). These dendrimer conjugates were purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by 1H NMR and MALDI MS. In radioligand binding assays, some PAMAM-PEG conjugates showed enhanced subtype-selectivity at the human A2A AR compared to monomeric ligands of comparable affinity. The functional potency was measured in the A2A AR-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase and inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the dendrimer conjugate 10c bearing 11 PEG750 chains (out of theo. 32 amino end groups) and 14 nucleoside moieties was 5-fold more potent in A2A AR–mediated stimulation of cyclic AMP formation than 10d with four PEG2000 chains and 21 nucleosides, although the binding affinities of these two compounds were similar. Thus, a relatively small (≤10 nm) multivalent ligand 10c modified for water solubility maintained high potency and displayed increased A2A AR binding selectivity over the monomeric nucleosides. Longer PEG chains reduced affinity at the A2A AR. The current study demonstrates the feasiblity of using short PEG chains in the design of carriers that target ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:19785401

  12. Sterol carrier protein-2 alters high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, B P; Starodub, O; McIntosh, A; Petrescu, A; Roths, J B; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    2000-11-24

    Although sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) participates in the uptake and intracellular trafficking of cholesterol, its effect on "reverse cholesterol transport" has not been explored. As shown herein, SCP-2 expression inhibited high density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated efflux of [(3)H]cholesterol and fluorescent 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3b-ol (NBD-cholesterol) up to 61 and 157%, respectively. Confocal microscopy of living cells allowed kinetic analysis of two intracellular pools of HDL-mediated NBD-cholesterol efflux: the highly fluorescent lipid droplet pool and the less fluorescent pool outside the lipid droplets, designated the cytoplasmic compartment. Both the whole cell and the cytoplasmic compartment exhibited two similar kinetic pools, the half-times of which were consistent with protein (t(b)(12) near 1 min) and vesicular (t(d)(12) = 10-20 min) mediated sterol transfer. Although SCP-2 expression did not alter cytoplasmic sterol pool sizes, the rapid t(b)(12) decreased 36%, while the slower t(d)(12) increased 113%. Lipid droplets also exhibited two kinetic pools of NBD-cholesterol efflux but with half-times over 200% shorter than those of the cytoplasmic compartment. The lipid droplet slower effluxing pool size and t(d)(12) were increased 48% and 115%, respectively, in SCP-2-expressing cells. Concomitantly, the level of the lipid droplet-specific adipose differentiation-related protein decreased 70%. Overall, HDL-mediated sterol efflux from L-cell fibroblasts reflected that of the cytoplasmic rather than lipid droplet compartment. SCP-2 differentially modulated sterol efflux from the two cytoplasmic pools. However, net efflux was determined primarily by inhibition of the slowly effluxing pool rather than by acceleration of the rapid protein-mediated pool. Finally, SCP-2 expression also inhibited sterol efflux from lipid droplets, an effect related to decreased adipose differentiation-related protein, a lipid

  13. Self-assembled multicompartment liquid crystalline lipid carriers for protein, peptide, and nucleic acid drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Angelina; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, Rada; Lesieur, Sylviane; Couvreur, Patrick

    2011-02-15

    Lipids and lipopolymers self-assembled into biocompatible nano- and mesostructured functional materials offer many potential applications in medicine and diagnostics. In this Account, we demonstrate how high-resolution structural investigations of bicontinuous cubic templates made from lyotropic thermosensitive liquid-crystalline (LC) materials have initiated the development of innovative lipidopolymeric self-assembled nanocarriers. Such structures have tunable nanochannel sizes, morphologies, and hierarchical inner organizations and provide potential vehicles for the predictable loading and release of therapeutic proteins, peptides, or nucleic acids. This Account shows that structural studies of swelling of bicontinuous cubic lipid/water phases are essential for overcoming the nanoscale constraints for encapsulation of large therapeutic molecules in multicompartment lipid carriers. For the systems described here, we have employed time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution freeze-fracture electronic microscopy (FF-EM) to study the morphology and the dynamic topological transitions of these nanostructured multicomponent amphiphilic assemblies. Quasi-elastic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy can provide additional information at the nanoscale about the behavior of lipid/protein self-assemblies under conditions that approximate physiological hydration. We wanted to generalize these findings to control the stability and the hydration of the water nanochannels in liquid-crystalline lipid nanovehicles and confine therapeutic biomolecules within these structures. Therefore we analyzed the influence of amphiphilic and soluble additives (e.g. poly(ethylene glycol)monooleate (MO-PEG), octyl glucoside (OG), proteins) on the nanochannels' size in a diamond (D)-type bicontinuous cubic phase of the lipid glycerol monooleate (MO). At body temperature, we can stabilize long-living swollen states, corresponding to a diamond cubic phase

  14. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Xu, Shuqing; Gagliardini, Valeria; Whittle, Edward; Shanklin, John; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2011-01-01

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators’ sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP Δ9 and a 16:0-ACP Δ4 desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection. PMID:21436056

  15. Characterization of a structurally and functionally diverged acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from milkweed seed.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Coughlan, S J; Shanklin, J

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA for a structurally variant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase was isolated from milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed, a tissue enriched in palmitoleic (16:1delta9)* and cis-vaccenic (18:1delta11) acids. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the milkweed cDNA catalyzed delta9 desaturation of acyl-ACP substrates, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited seven- to ten-fold greater specificity for palmitoyl (16:0)-ACP and 30-fold greater specificity for myristoyl (14:0)-ACP than did known delta9-stearoyl (18:0)-ACP desaturases. Like other variant acyl-ACP desaturases reported to date, the milkweed enzyme contains fewer amino acids near its N-terminus compared to previously characterized delta9-18:0-ACP desaturases. Based on the activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of a delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase, this structural feature likely does not account for differences in substrate specificities.

  16. Subcellular localization of acyl carrier protein in leaf protoplasts of Spinacia oleracea.

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, J B; Kuhn, D N; Stumpf, P K

    1979-01-01

    This communication demonstrates that all de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in spinach leaf cells requires acyl carrier protein (ACP) and occurs specifically in the chloroplasts. Antibodies raised to purified spinach ACP inhibited at least 98% of malonyl CoA-dependent fatty acid synthesis by spinach leaf homogenates. Therefore, the presence of ACP in a compartment of the spinach leaf cell would serve as a marker for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 10(15) mol (10(-11) g) of spinach ACP was developed to measure the levels of ACP in leaf cell components isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation of a gentle lysate of spinach leaf protoplasts. All of the ACP of the leaf cell could be attributed to the chloroplast. Less than 1% of the ACP associated with chloroplasts resulted from binding of free ACP to chloroplasts. Of interest, ACP from Escherichia coli, soybean, and sunflower showed only partial crossreactivity with spinach ACP by the radioimmunoassay. These results strongly suggest that, in the leaf cell, chloroplasts are the sole site for the de novo synthesis of C16 and C18 fatty acids. These fatty acids are then transported into the cytoplasm for further modification and are either inserted into extrachloroplastic membrane lipids or returned to the chloroplast for insertion into lamellar membrane lipids. PMID:286305

  17. Novel Polymeric Scaffolds Using Protein Microbubbles as Porogen and Growth Factor Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Dey, Jagannath; Shen, Jinhui; Sun, Man-Wu; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by conventional techniques like salt leaching and phase separation are greatly limited by their poor biomolecule-delivery abilities. Conventional methods of incorporation of various growth factors, proteins, and/or peptides on or in scaffold materials via different crosslinking and conjugation techniques are often tedious and may affect scaffold's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. To overcome such deficiencies, a novel two-step porous scaffold fabrication procedure has been created in which bovine serum albumin microbubbles (henceforth MB) were used as porogen and growth factor carriers. Polymer solution mixed with MB was phase separated and then lyophilized to create porous scaffold. MB scaffold triggered substantially lesser inflammatory responses than salt-leached and conventional phase-separated scaffolds in vivo. Most importantly, the same technique was used to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)–eluting porous scaffolds, simply by incorporating IGF-1–loaded MB (MB-IGF-1) with polymer solution before phase separation. In vitro such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds were able to promote cell growth to a much greater extent than scaffold soaked in IGF-1, confirming the bioactivity of the released IGF-1. Further, such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds elicited IGF-1–specific collagen production in the surrounding tissue in vivo. This novel growth factor–eluting scaffold fabrication procedure can be used to deliver a range of single or combination of bioactive biomolecules to substantially promote cell growth and function in degradable scaffold. PMID:19327002

  18. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Philipp M; Xu, Shuqing; Gagliardini, Valeria; Whittle, Edward; Shanklin, John; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators' sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP Δ(9) and a 16:0-ACP Δ(4) desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  19. A rational approach to identify inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase.

    PubMed

    Chhabria, Mahesh T; Parmar, Kailash B; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase is an attractive target for focused design of novel antitubercular agents. Structural information available on enoyl-ACP reductase in complex with different ligands was used to generate receptor-based pharmacophore model in Discovery Studio (DS). In parallel, pharmacophore models were also generated using ligand-based approach (HypoGen module in DS). Statistically significant models were generated (r(2) = 0.85) which were found to be predictive as indicated from internal and external cross-validations. The model was used as a query tool to search Zinc and Maybridge databases to identify lead compounds and predict their activity in silico. Database searching retrieved many potential lead compounds having better estimated IC50 values than the training set compounds. These compounds were then evaluated for their drug-likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties using DS. Few selected compounds were then docked into the crystal structure of enoyl-ACP reductase using Dock 6.5. Most compounds were found to have high score values, which was found to be consistent with the results from pharmacophore mapping. Additionally, molecular docking provided useful insights into the nature of binding of the identified hit molecules. In summary, we show a useful strategy employing ligand- and structure-based approaches (pharmacophore modeling coupled with molecular docking) to identify new enoyl- ACP reductase inhibitors for antimycobacterial chemotherapy.

  20. Novel polymeric scaffolds using protein microbubbles as porogen and growth factor carriers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Dey, Jagannath; Shen, Jinhui; Sun, Man-Wu; Yang, Jian; Tang, Liping

    2010-02-01

    Polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by conventional techniques like salt leaching and phase separation are greatly limited by their poor biomolecule-delivery abilities. Conventional methods of incorporation of various growth factors, proteins, and/or peptides on or in scaffold materials via different crosslinking and conjugation techniques are often tedious and may affect scaffold's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. To overcome such deficiencies, a novel two-step porous scaffold fabrication procedure has been created in which bovine serum albumin microbubbles (henceforth MB) were used as porogen and growth factor carriers. Polymer solution mixed with MB was phase separated and then lyophilized to create porous scaffold. MB scaffold triggered substantially lesser inflammatory responses than salt-leached and conventional phase-separated scaffolds in vivo. Most importantly, the same technique was used to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-eluting porous scaffolds, simply by incorporating IGF-1-loaded MB (MB-IGF-1) with polymer solution before phase separation. In vitro such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds were able to promote cell growth to a much greater extent than scaffold soaked in IGF-1, confirming the bioactivity of the released IGF-1. Further, such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds elicited IGF-1-specific collagen production in the surrounding tissue in vivo. This novel growth factor-eluting scaffold fabrication procedure can be used to deliver a range of single or combination of bioactive biomolecules to substantially promote cell growth and function in degradable scaffold.

  1. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  2. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes: the role of electron carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2017-03-11

    Plants, cyanobacteria, and algae generate a surplus of redox power through photosynthesis, which makes them attractive for biotechnological exploitations. While central metabolism consumes most of the energy, pathways introduced through metabolic engineering can also tap into this source of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However, competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic context.

  3. Lysine and arginine biosyntheses mediated by a common carrier protein in Sulfolobus.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Horie, Akira; Yoshida, Ayako; Takahashi, Kento; Nishida, Hiromi; Lassak, Kerstin; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kosono, Saori; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    LysW has been identified as a carrier protein in the lysine biosynthetic pathway that is active through the conversion of α-aminoadipate (AAA) to lysine. In this study, we found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, not only biosynthesizes lysine through LysW-mediated protection of AAA but also uses LysW to protect the amino group of glutamate in arginine biosynthesis. In this archaeon, after LysW modification, AAA and glutamate are converted to lysine and ornithine, respectively, by a single set of enzymes with dual functions. The crystal structure of ArgX, the enzyme responsible for modification and protection of the amino moiety of glutamate with LysW, was determined in complex with LysW. Structural comparison and enzymatic characterization using Sulfolobus LysX, Sulfolobus ArgX and Thermus LysX identify the amino acid motif responsible for substrate discrimination between AAA and glutamate. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that gene duplication events at different stages of evolution led to ArgX and LysX.

  4. A conserved motif flags Acyl Carrier Proteins for β-branching in polyketide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhongshu; Farmer, Rohit; Williams, Christopher; Hothersall, Joanne; Płoskoń, Eliza; Wattana-amorn, Pakorn; Stephens, Elton R.; Yamada, Erika; Gurney, Rachel; Takebayashi, Yuiko; Masschelein, Joleen; Cox, Russell J.; Lavigne, Rob; Willis, Christine L.; Simpson, Thomas J.; Crosby, John; Winn, Peter J.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Crump, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Type I PKSs often utilise programmed β-branching, via enzymes of an “HMG-CoA synthase (HCS) cassette”, to incorporate various side chains at the second carbon from the terminal carboxylic acid of growing polyketide backbones. We identified a strong sequence motif in Acyl Carrier Proteins (ACPs) where β-branching is known. Substituting ACPs confirmed a correlation of ACP type with β-branching specificity. While these ACPs often occur in tandem, NMR analysis of tandem β-branching ACPs indicated no ACP-ACP synergistic effects and revealed that the conserved sequence motif forms an internal core rather than an exposed patch. Modelling and mutagenesis identified ACP Helix III as a probable anchor point of the ACP-HCS complex whose position is determined by the core. Mutating the core affects ACP functionality while ACP-HCS interface substitutions modulate system specificity. Our method for predicting β-carbon branching expands the potential for engineering novel polyketides and lays a basis for determining specificity rules. PMID:24056399

  5. Generating Functional Recombinant NRPS Enzymes in the Laboratory Setting via Peptidyl Carrier Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jeremy G; Calcott, Mark J; Robins, Katherine J; Ackerley, David F

    2016-11-17

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are modular enzymatic assembly lines where substrates and intermediates undergo rounds of transformation catalyzed by adenylation (A), condensation (C), and thioesterase (TE) domains. Central to the NRPS biosynthesis are peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains, small, catalytically inactive domains that shuttle substrates and intermediates between the catalytic modules and govern product release from TE domains. There is strong interest in recombination of NRPS systems to generate new chemical entities. However, the intrinsic complexity of these systems has been a major challenge. Here, we employ domain substitution and random mutagenesis to recapitulate NRPS evolution, focusing on PCP domains. Using NRPS model systems that produce two different pigmented molecules, pyoverdine and indigoidine, we found that only evolutionarily specialized recombinant PCP domains could interact effectively with the native TE domain for product release. Overall, we highlight that substituted PCP domains require very minor changes to result in functional NRPSs, and infer that positive selection pressure may improve recombinant NRPS outcomes.

  6. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme engineering of tandem acyl carrier proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shohei; Satoh, Yasuharu; Ujihara, Tetsuro; Takata, Yusuke; Dairi, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    In some microorganisms, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are biosynthesized by PUFA synthases characterized by tandem acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) in subunit A. These ACPs were previously shown to be important for PUFA productivity. In this study, we examined their function in more detail. PUFA productivities increased depending on the number of ACPs without profile changes in each subunit A of eukaryotic and prokaryotic PUFA synthases. We also constructed derivative enzymes from subunit A with 5 × ACPs. Enzymes possessing one inactive ACP at any position produced ~30% PUFAs compared with the parental enzyme but unexpectedly had ~250% productivity compared with subunit A with 4 × ACPs. Enzymes constructed by replacing the 3rd ACP with an inactive ACP from another subunit A or ACP-unrelated sequences produced ~100% and ~3% PUFAs compared with the parental 3rd ACP-inactive enzyme, respectively. These results suggest that both the structure and number of ACP domains are important for PUFA productivity. PMID:27752094

  7. Effect of Increased CRM197 Carrier Protein Dose on Meningococcal C Bactericidal Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    New multivalent CRM197-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM197 coadministration with CRM197-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM197 carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM197 conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules. PMID:22336285

  8. Preparation and evaluation of oleoyl-carboxymethy-chitosan (OCMCS) nanoparticles as oral protein carriers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Dang, Qi Feng; Ma, Fang Kui; Chen, Xi Guang; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Bum Keun

    2012-02-01

    Oleoyl-carboxymethy chitosan (OCMCS) nanoparticles based on chitosan with different molecular weights (50, 170 and 820 kDa) were prepared by self-assembled method. The nanoparticles had spherical shape, positive surface charges and the mean diameters were 157.4, 274.1 and 396.7 nm, respectively. FITC-labeled OCMCS nanoparticles were internalized via the intestinal mucosa and observed in liver, spleen, intestine and heart following oral deliverance to carps (Cyprinus carpio). Extracellular products (ECPs) of Aeromonas hydrophila as microbial antigen was efficiently loaded to form OCMCS-ECPs nanoparticles and shown to be sustained release in PBS. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) antigen-specific antibodies were detected in serum after orally immunized with OCMCS-ECPs nanoparticles than that immunized with ECPs alone and non-immunized in control group in carps. These results implied that amphiphilic modified chitosan nanoparticles had great potential to be applied as carriers for the oral administration of protein drugs.

  9. Steady-state protein focusing in carrier ampholyte-based isoelectric focusing: Part II-validation and case studies.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaesool; Yoo, Kisoo; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we systematically investigate the validity and applicability of an analytical model developed for carrier ampholyte-based isoelectric focusing (IEF). Three different IEF cases are considered in order to evaluate the efficacy of the approximate analytical results by comparison with high-resolution computer simulations. In the first case, three proteins are separated in a narrow pH range (6-9) by using 50 carrier ampholytes. In the second and third cases, the separation of proteins is studied in broad pH range (3-10) IEF by using 100 carrier ampholytes. Results obtained from the approximate analytical models are in very good agreement with the numerical results for IEF separation of cardiac troponin I, albumin, and hemoglobin in both narrow and broad pH ranges. The sensitivity of the analytical model is also tested for different initial mass ratios of proteins to ampholytes. No appreciable differences are observed between the approximate analytical and numerical results within the mass ratio range studied. The effect of a nominal electric field and/or a nominal pH gradient on protein focusing is also examined to demonstrate the effectiveness of the analytical model. Our results indicate that the use of both nominal electric field and pH gradient will result in erroneous peak concentrations for proteins. Finally, we describe the limitations of the approximate analytical solutions.

  10. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    PubMed

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Charoenphol, Phapanin; Heslinga, Michael J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Namdee, Katawut; Thompson, Alex J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2014-01-01

    The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer) is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  11. Dextran, a hapten carrier in immunoassays for s-triazines. A comparison with ELISAs based on hapten-protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Böcher, M; Giersch, T; Schmid, R D

    1992-07-06

    A conjugate of 2-aminohexylamino-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (AHA), a derivative of the herbicide atrazine, with dextran as carrier has been synthesized and used as the coating antigen in ELISA procedures. The quantification of terbutryn, atrazine and prometryn in ELISA formats using monoclonal antibodies and the AHA-dextran conjugate was at least as sensitive as ELISAs using protein conjugates as immobilized antigens (sensitivity at 50% B/B0 was 0.4-0.6 micrograms/l for terbutryn). Formats with immobilized antibody and enzyme labelled AHA proved to be less sensitive (1.5 micrograms/l for terbutryn). The observed differences in sensitivity do not apparently result from structural effects of the carrier bound hapten since all conjugates were prepared with one form of the hapten, 2-aminohexylamino-atrazine, which was covalently linked via its amino function to the carriers or enzymes.

  12. Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase I (FabI) Is Essential for the Intracellular Growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Ericson, Megan E; Frank, Matthew W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-12-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase catalyzes the last step in each elongation cycle of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is a key regulatory protein in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. Genes of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encode two functional enoyl-acyl carrier protein isoforms based on their ability to complement the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of Escherichia coli strain JP1111 [fabI(Ts)]. The FabI isoform was inactivated by the FabI selective inhibitor AFN-1252, but the FabK isoform was not affected by the drug, as expected. Inhibition of FabI by AFN-1252 decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis by 80% and lowered the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in laboratory medium. Robust exogenous fatty acid incorporation was not detected in L. monocytogenes unless the pathway was partially inactivated by AFN-1252 treatment. However, supplementation with exogenous fatty acids did not restore normal growth in the presence of AFN-1252. FabI inactivation prevented the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes, showing that neither FabK nor the incorporation of host cellular fatty acids was sufficient to support the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes Our results show that FabI is the primary enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is essential for the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Primary structure of a cerulenin-binding. beta. -ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase from barley chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Siggaard-Andersen, M.; Kauppinen, S. ); von Wettstein-Knowles, P. Univ. of Copenhagen )

    1991-05-15

    The radioactively labeled {beta}-ketoacyl thioester synthase inhibitor ({sup 3}H)cerulenin was used to tag three dimeric barley chloroplast proteins ({alpha}{alpha}, {alpha}{beta}, and {beta}{beta}) from the stromal fraction. Oligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid sequences obtained from the purified proteins were used to generate with the polymerase chain reaction a probe for cDNAs encoding the {beta} subunit. cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame for 462 residues comprising the mature protein and a 35-amino acid transit peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein is homologous to the {beta}-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) (ACP) synthase I (3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase; acyl-ACP:malonyl-ACP C-acyltransferase (decarboxylating), EC 2.3.1.41) of Escherichia coli. Under analogous experimental conditions ({sup 3}H)cerulenin tagged a single dimeric protein from spinach chloroplasts.

  14. Novel Structural Components Contribute to the High Thermal Stability of Acyl Carrier Protein from Enterococcus faecalis*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Guen; Jung, Min-Cheol; Song, Heesang; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Bang, Eunjung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It causes severe infections because of high antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis can endure extremes of temperature and pH. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids responsible for acyl group shuttling and delivery. In this study, to understand the origin of high thermal stabilities of E. faecalis ACP (Ef-ACP), its solution structure was investigated for the first time. CD experiments showed that the melting temperature of Ef-ACP is 78.8 °C, which is much higher than that of Escherichia coli ACP (67.2 °C). The overall structure of Ef-ACP shows the common ACP folding pattern consisting of four α-helices (helix I (residues 3–17), helix II (residues 39–53), helix III (residues 60–64), and helix IV (residues 68–78)) connected by three loops. Unique Ef-ACP structural features include a hydrophobic interaction between Phe45 in helix II and Phe18 in the α1α2 loop and a hydrogen bonding between Ser15 in helix I and Ile20 in the α1α2 loop, resulting in its high thermal stability. Phe45-mediated hydrophobic packing may block acyl chain binding subpocket II entry. Furthermore, Ser58 in the α2α3 loop in Ef-ACP, which usually constitutes a proline in other ACPs, exhibited slow conformational exchanges, resulting in the movement of the helix III outside the structure to accommodate a longer acyl chain in the acyl binding cavity. These results might provide insights into the development of antibiotics against pathogenic drug-resistant E. faecalis strains. PMID:26631734

  15. Novel Structural Components Contribute to the High Thermal Stability of Acyl Carrier Protein from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Guen; Jung, Min-Cheol; Song, Heesang; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Bang, Eunjung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-01-22

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It causes severe infections because of high antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis can endure extremes of temperature and pH. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids responsible for acyl group shuttling and delivery. In this study, to understand the origin of high thermal stabilities of E. faecalis ACP (Ef-ACP), its solution structure was investigated for the first time. CD experiments showed that the melting temperature of Ef-ACP is 78.8 °C, which is much higher than that of Escherichia coli ACP (67.2 °C). The overall structure of Ef-ACP shows the common ACP folding pattern consisting of four α-helices (helix I (residues 3-17), helix II (residues 39-53), helix III (residues 60-64), and helix IV (residues 68-78)) connected by three loops. Unique Ef-ACP structural features include a hydrophobic interaction between Phe(45) in helix II and Phe(18) in the α1α2 loop and a hydrogen bonding between Ser(15) in helix I and Ile(20) in the α1α2 loop, resulting in its high thermal stability. Phe(45)-mediated hydrophobic packing may block acyl chain binding subpocket II entry. Furthermore, Ser(58) in the α2α3 loop in Ef-ACP, which usually constitutes a proline in other ACPs, exhibited slow conformational exchanges, resulting in the movement of the helix III outside the structure to accommodate a longer acyl chain in the acyl binding cavity. These results might provide insights into the development of antibiotics against pathogenic drug-resistant E. faecalis strains.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-09-20

    The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS-ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the {alpha}2 helix and in the conformation of the {alpha}3-{alpha}4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4-6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS-ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS-ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  17. Experience with pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (conjugated to CRM197 carrier protein) in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Durando, P; Faust, S N; Fletcher, M; Krizova, P; Torres, A; Welte, T

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae-related infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people of all ages worldwide. Pneumococcal vaccine development started in 1911 with a whole cell vaccine and more recently multivalent plain polysaccharide and polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been developed. The recent vaccines rely on capsular polysaccharide antigens to induce serotype-specific immune responses. We summarize here the presentations on pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (conjugated to CRM197 carrier protein) given during the integrated symposium organized and funded by Pfizer International Operations during the 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 31 March to 3 April 2012, London, UK. A dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes (VST-IPD) has been reported since the introduction of a hepta-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). An indirect (herd) effect has been demonstrated to be associated with PCV7 infant vaccination programmes, with many studies reporting reductions in VST-IPD in populations that are not eligible for PCV7 vaccination. Since 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been introduced into national immunization programmes and results from early surveillance suggest that this vaccine also has an impact on the serotypes unique to PCV13, as well as continuing to protect against the PCV7 serotypes. Data from a passive surveillance system in Europe in 2009, for instance, showed that the highest incidence of IPD remains in those aged >65 years and in children <5 years. PCV13 has now been licensed for vaccination of adults >50 years based on safety and immunogenicity data; an efficacy trial is being conducted. Regardless of previous pneumococcal vaccination status, if the use of 23-valent polysaccharide is considered appropriate, it is recommended to give PCV13 first. Novel immunization strategies remain

  18. Use of structure-based drug design approaches to obtain novel anthranilic acid acyl carrier protein synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Joseph-McCarthy, Diane; Parris, Kevin; Huang, Adrian; Failli, Amedeo; Quagliato, Dominick; Dushin, Elizabeth Glasfeld; Novikova, Elena; Severina, Elena; Tuckman, Margareta; Petersen, Peter J; Dean, Charles; Fritz, Christian C; Meshulam, Tova; DeCenzo, Maureen; Dick, Larry; McFadyen, Iain J; Somers, William S; Lovering, Frank; Gilbert, Adam M

    2005-12-15

    Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl group from the coenzyme A to a serine residue in acyl carrier protein (ACP), thereby activating ACP, an important step in cell wall biosynthesis. The structure-based design of novel anthranilic acid inhibitors of AcpS, a potential antibacterial target, is presented. An initial high-throughput screening lead and numerous analogues were modeled into the available AcpS X-ray structure, opportunities for synthetic modification were identified, and an iterative process of synthetic modification, X-ray complex structure determination with AcpS, biological testing, and further modeling ultimately led to potent inhibitors of the enzyme. Four X-ray complex structures of representative anthranilic acid ligands bound to AcpS are described in detail.

  19. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mtFabD, a malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT).

    PubMed

    Ghadbane, Hemza; Brown, Alistair K; Kremer, Laurent; Besra, Gurdyal S; Fütterer, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Mycobacteria display a unique and unusual cell-wall architecture, central to which is the membrane-proximal mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan core (mAGP). The biosynthesis of mycolic acids, which form the outermost layer of the mAGP core, involves malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT). This essential enzyme catalyses the transfer of malonyl from coenzyme A to acyl carrier protein AcpM, thus feeding these two-carbon units into the chain-elongation cycle of the type II fatty-acid synthase. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis mtFabD, the mycobacterial MCAT, has been determined to 3.0 A resolution by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion. Phasing was facilitated by Ni2+ ions bound to the 20-residue N-terminal affinity tag, which packed between the two independent copies of mtFabD.

  20. The kidney in vitamin B12 and folate homeostasis: characterization of receptors for tubular uptake of vitamins and carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Birn, Henrik

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, animal studies have uncovered the molecular mechanisms for the renal tubular recovery of filtered vitamin and vitamin carrier proteins. Relatively few endocytic receptors are responsible for the proximal tubule uptake of a number of different vitamins, preventing urinary losses. In addition to vitamin conservation, tubular uptake by endocytosis is important to vitamin metabolism and homeostasis. The present review focuses on the receptors involved in renal tubular recovery of folate, vitamin B12, and their carrier proteins. The multiligand receptor megalin is important for the uptake and tubular accumulation of vitamin B12. During vitamin load, the kidney accumulates large amounts of free vitamin B12, suggesting a possible storage function. In addition, vitamin B12 is metabolized in the kidney, suggesting a role in vitamin homeostasis. The folate receptor is important for the conservation of folate, mediating endocytosis of the vitamin. Interaction between the structurally closely related, soluble folate-binding protein and megalin suggests that megalin plays an additional role in the uptake of folate bound to filtered folate-binding protein. A third endocytic receptor, the intrinsic factor-B12 receptor cubilin-amnionless complex, is essential to the renal tubular uptake of albumin, a carrier of folate. In conclusion, uptake is mediated by interaction with specific endocytic receptors also involved in the renal uptake of other vitamins and vitamin carriers. Little is known about the mechanisms regulating intracellular transport and release of vitamins, and whereas tubular uptake is a constitutive process, this may be regulated, e.g., by vitamin status.

  1. Crystal Structure of a Sulfur Carrier Protein Complex Found in the Cysteine Biosynthetic Pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgenson, Christopher T.; Burns, Kristin E.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-10-02

    The structure of the protein complex CysM-CysO from a new cysteine biosynthetic pathway found in the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been determined at 1.53 {angstrom} resolution. CysM (Rv1336) is a PLP-containing {beta}-replacement enzyme and CysO (Rv1335) is a sulfur carrier protein with a ubiquitin-like fold. CysM catalyzes the replacement of the acetyl group of O-acetylserine by CysO thiocarboxylate to generate a protein-bound cysteine that is released in a subsequent proteolysis reaction. The protein complex in the crystal structure is asymmetric with one CysO protomer binding to one end of a CysM dimer. Additionally, the structures of CysM and CysO were determined individually at 2.8 and 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Sequence alignments with homologues and structural comparisons with CysK, a cysteine synthase that does not utilize a sulfur carrier protein, revealed high conservation of active site residues; however, residues in CysM responsible for CysO binding are not conserved. Comparison of the CysM-CysO binding interface with other sulfur carrier protein complexes revealed a similarity in secondary structural elements that contribute to complex formation in the ThiF-ThiS and MoeB-MoaD systems, despite major differences in overall folds. Comparison of CysM with and without bound CysO revealed conformational changes associated with CysO binding.

  2. Fission of SNX-BAR–coated endosomal retrograde transport carriers is promoted by the dynamin-related protein Vps1

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard J.; Liu, Jingxuan; West, Matthew; Wang, Jing; Odorizzi, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Retromer is an endosomal sorting device that orchestrates capture and packaging of cargo into transport carriers coated with sorting nexin BAR domain proteins (SNX-BARs). We report that fission of retromer SNX-BAR–coated tubules from yeast endosomes is promoted by Vps1, a dynamin-related protein that localizes to endosomes decorated by retromer SNX-BARs and Mvp1, a SNX-BAR that is homologous to human SNX8. Mvp1 exhibits potent membrane remodeling activity in vitro, and it promotes association of Vps1 with the endosome in vivo. Retrograde transport carriers bud from the endosome coated by retromer and Mvp1, and cargo export is deficient in mvp1- and vps1-null cells, but with distinct endpoints; cargo export is delayed in mvp1-null cells, but cargo export completely fails in vps1-null cells. The results indicate that Mvp1 promotes Vps1-mediated fission of retromer- and Mvp1-coated tubules that bud from the endosome, revealing a functional link between the endosomal sorting and fission machineries to produce retrograde transport carriers. PMID:24567361

  3. Fission of SNX-BAR-coated endosomal retrograde transport carriers is promoted by the dynamin-related protein Vps1.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Liu, Jingxuan; West, Matthew; Wang, Jing; Odorizzi, Greg; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-03-03

    Retromer is an endosomal sorting device that orchestrates capture and packaging of cargo into transport carriers coated with sorting nexin BAR domain proteins (SNX-BARs). We report that fission of retromer SNX-BAR-coated tubules from yeast endosomes is promoted by Vps1, a dynamin-related protein that localizes to endosomes decorated by retromer SNX-BARs and Mvp1, a SNX-BAR that is homologous to human SNX8. Mvp1 exhibits potent membrane remodeling activity in vitro, and it promotes association of Vps1 with the endosome in vivo. Retrograde transport carriers bud from the endosome coated by retromer and Mvp1, and cargo export is deficient in mvp1- and vps1-null cells, but with distinct endpoints; cargo export is delayed in mvp1-null cells, but cargo export completely fails in vps1-null cells. The results indicate that Mvp1 promotes Vps1-mediated fission of retromer- and Mvp1-coated tubules that bud from the endosome, revealing a functional link between the endosomal sorting and fission machineries to produce retrograde transport carriers.

  4. Intermediates in the Sox sulfur oxidation pathway are bound to a sulfane conjugate of the carrier protein SoxYZ

    PubMed Central

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B.; Berks, Ben C.

    2017-01-01

    The Sox pathway found in many sulfur bacteria oxidizes thiosulfate to sulfate. Pathway intermediates are covalently bound to a cysteine residue in the carrier protein SoxYZ. We have used biochemical complementation by SoxYZ-conjugates to probe the identity of the intermediates in the Sox pathway. We find that unconjugated SoxYZ and SoxYZ-S-sulfonate are unlikely to be intermediates during normal turnover in disagreement with current models. By contrast, conjugates with multiple sulfane atoms are readily metabolised by the Sox pathway. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the true carrier species in the Sox pathway is a SoxYZ-S-sulfane adduct. PMID:28257465

  5. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  6. The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Ma, Ming; Cuff, Marianne E; Bigelow, Lance; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Carrier proteins (CPs) play a critical role in the biosynthesis of various natural products, especially in nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymology, where the CPs are referred to as peptidyl-carrier proteins (PCPs) or acyl-carrier proteins (ACPs), respectively. CPs can either be a domain in large multifunctional polypeptides or standalone proteins, termed Type I and Type II, respectively. There have been many biochemical studies of the Type I PKS and NRPS CPs, and of Type II ACPs. However, recently a number of Type II PCPs have been found and biochemically characterized. In order to understand the possible interaction surfaces for combinatorial biosynthetic efforts we crystallized the first characterized and representative Type II PCP member, BlmI, from the bleomycin biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC 15003. The structure is similar to CPs in general but most closely resembles PCPs. Comparisons with previously determined PCP structures in complex with catalytic domains reveals a common interaction surface. This surface is highly variable in charge and shape, which likely confers specificity for interactions. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a prototypical Type I PCP excised from the multimodular context revealed three conformational states. Comparison of the states with the structure of BlmI and other PCPs reveals that only one of the NMR states is found in other studies, suggesting the other two states may not be relevant. The state represented by the BlmI crystal structure can therefore serve as a model for both Type I and Type II PCPs.

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB).

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, T T; Schweizer, H P

    1997-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabA and fabB genes, encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Northern analysis demonstrated that fabA and fabB are cotranscribed and most probably form a fabAB operon. The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemophilus influenzae. Chromosomal fabA and fabB mutants were isolated; the mutants were auxotrophic for unsaturated fatty acids. A temperature-sensitive fabA mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of a single base that induced a G101D change; this mutant grew normally at 30 degrees C but not at 42 degrees C, unless the growth medium was supplemented with oleate. By physical and genetic mapping, the fabAB genes were localized between 3.45 and 3.6 Mbp on the 5.9-Mbp chromosome, which corresponds to the 58- to 59.5-min region of the genetic map. PMID:9286984

  8. Genomic structures and characterization of the 5'-flanking regions of acyl carrier protein and Delta4-palmitoyl-ACP desaturase genes from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Kim, Jeong-Kook; Suh, Mi Chung

    2005-09-25

    The seed-specific or seed-predominant promoters of acyl carrier protein (Cs-ACP1) and Delta4-palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (Cs-4PAD) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of petroselinic acid, were isolated from coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and analyzed in coriander endosperms and transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression of Cs-ACP1 and Cs-4PAD genes was coordinately regulated during seed development.

  9. Effect of anticoagulants on the protein corona-induced reduced drug carrier adhesion efficiency in human blood flow.

    PubMed

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2017-01-15

    Plasma proteins rapidly coat the surfaces of particulate drug carriers to form a protein corona upon their injection into the bloodstream. The high presence of immunoglobulins in the corona formed on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) surfaces was recently shown to negatively impact their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in vitro. Here, we characterized the influence of anticoagulants, or their absence, on the binding efficiency of VTCs of various materials via modulation of their protein corona. Specifically, we evaluated the adhesion of PLGA, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), silica, and polystyrene VTCs to aECs in heparinized, citrated, and non-anticoagulated (serum and whole) blood flows relative to buffer control. Particle adhesion is substantially reduced in non-anticoagulated blood flows regardless of the material type while only moderate to minimal reduction is observed for VTCs in anticoagulant-containing blood flow depending on the anticoagulant and material type. The substantial reduction in VTC adhesion in blood flows was linked to a high presence of immunoglobulin-sized proteins in the VTC corona via SDS-PAGE analysis. Of all the materials evaluated, PLGA was the most sensitive to plasma protein effects while PCL was the most resistant, suggesting particle hydrophobicity is a critical component of the observed negative plasma protein effects. Overall, this work demonstrates that anticoagulant positively alters the effect of plasma proteins in prescribing VTC adhesion to aECs in human blood flow, which has implication in the use of in vitro blood flow assays for functional evaluation of VTCs for in vivo use.

  10. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F.; Frank, Matthew W.; Lee, Richard E.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  11. Effective DNA epitope chimeric vaccines for Alzheimer's disease using a toxin-derived carrier protein as a molecular adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Wang, Shuang; Bai, Jie-Ying; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Ao; Wang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Qing; Liu, Si; Qiu, Wei-Yi; Pang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Qing; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Active amyloid-beta (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat Alzheimer disease (AD). We describe here the immunological characterization and protective effect of DNA epitope chimeric vaccines using 6 copies of Aβ1-15 fused with PADRE or toxin-derived carriers. These naked 6Aβ15-T-Hc chimeric DNA vaccines were demonstrated to induce robust anti-Aβ antibodies that could recognize Aβ oligomers and inhibit Aβ oligomer-mediated neurotoxicity, result in the reduction of cerebral Aβ load and Aβ oligomers, and improve cognitive function in AD mice, but did not stimulate Aβ-specific T cell responses. Notably, toxin-derived carriers as molecular adjuvants were able to substantially promote immune responses, overcome Aβ-associated hypo-responsiveness, and elicit long-term Aβ-specific antibody response in 6Aβ15-T-Hc-immunized AD mice. These findings suggest that our 6Aβ15-T-Hc DNA chimeric vaccines can be used as a safe and effective strategy for AD immunotherapy, and toxin-derived carrier proteins are effective molecular adjuvants of DNA epitope vaccines for Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate-Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Gomez, Alex F; Castell-Perez, M Elena

    2015-06-01

    The high cost and potential toxicity of biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) has increased the interest in natural and modified biopolymers as bioactive carriers. This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate-modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and α-lactalbumin (α-L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen samples. The Guggenheim-Andersen-de Boer model indicated that native waxy corn had significantly (P < 0.05) higher water monolayer capacity followed by 3%-OSA-modified DWxCn, WPI, 3%-OSA-modified DWxRc, α-L, and native phytoglycogen. WPC had significantly lower water monolayer capacity. All Tg values matched with the solid-like appearance of the biopolymers. Native polysaccharides and whey proteins had higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. On the other hand, depolymerized waxy starches at 7%-OSA modification had a "melted" appearance when exposed to environments with high relative humidity (above 70%) after 10 days at 23 °C. The use of depolymerized and OSA-modified polysaccharides blended with proteins created more stable blends of biopolymers. Hence, this biopolymer would be suitable for materials exposed to high humidity environments in food applications.

  13. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    SciTech Connect

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J.; Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2013-04-01

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III (mtFabH) assay: principles and method.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sarbjot; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is one of the relatively newer targets in antibacterial drug discovery. The presence of distinct fatty acid synthases (FAS) in mammals and bacteria and the fact that most bacterial FAS enzymes are essential for viability make this a very attractive antimicrobial drug target. The enzyme beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase (KASIII or FabH) is the key enzyme that initiates fatty acid biosynthesis in a type II dissociated FAS. This enzyme catalyzes the condensation of acyl CoA and malonyl ACP (acyl carrier protein) to form a beta-ketoacyl ACP product, which is further processed to form mature fatty acids that are involved in various essential cellular processes and structures like phospholipid biosynthesis, cell wall formation, etc. Herein we describe a new assay for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH (mtFabH) enzyme involved in a key initiation step in the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are an integral component of the cell wall. The assay eliminates the need for the cumbersome washing steps or specialty scintillation proximity assay beads and the preparation of acyl carrier proteins required in other assay formats. This discontinuous assay involves the reduction of radiolabled long-chain beta-ketoacyl CoA product to its dihydroxy derivative, which partitions into a nonpolar phase for quantitation, while the reduced radiolabeled substrate derivative remains in the aqueous phase.

  15. Surface-bound bovine serum albumin carrier protein as present in recombinant cytokine preparations amplifies T helper 17 cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lei; Helmke, Alexandra; Waisman, Ari; Haller, Hermann; Pich, Andreas; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of T helper 17 lineage (TH17) polarization has been significantly promoted by cell culture experiments that reduce the complexity of the in vivo environment. We here investigated TH17 amplification by coating of cytokine preparations. Cytokine preparations coated to the surface compared to the same amount given in solution significantly enhanced TH17 polarization assessed by flow cytometry and interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F and RORγt mRNA expression. T cell proliferation and TH1 polarization were similarly enhanced while TREG polarization was impeded. TH17 amplification was replicated by coating the plate with low amounts of FCS or albumin as used as carrier protein for cytokines (0.5 μl 0.1%). It was unaltered by filtration, protein digestion and arylhydrocarbon receptor blockade, not replicated by LPS and independent of integrin stimulation. TH17 amplification required anti-CD3 stimulation and was T cell intrinsic. Supernatants of CD4+ cells polarized on coated cytokine preparations with carrier albumin conferred amplification to fresh splenocytes. Coating markedly elevated CD4+ IL-22 mRNA expression and IL-22 blockade significantly reduced TH17 amplification. Our data show TH17 amplification by coated albumin in the low amounts present in recombinant cytokine preparations. This unexpected adjuvant like effect underscores the need for controls also for temporal and spatial factors in cell culture. PMID:27808281

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabK) from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Jun Yamada, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2006-06-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductases are responsible for bacterial type II fatty-acid biosynthesis and are attractive targets for developing novel antibiotics. The S. pneumoniae enoyl-ACP reductase (FabK) was crystallized and selenomethionine MAD data were collected to 2 Å resolution. The enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (FabK; EC 1.3.1.9) is responsible for catalyzing the final step in each elongation cycle of fatty-acid biosynthesis. Selenomethionine-substituted FabK was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.26, b = 126.70, c = 53.63 Å, β = 112.46°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.00 Å resolution using synchrotron beamline BL32B2 at SPring-8. Two molecules were estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 45.1%.

  17. Temporal and tissue-specific regulation of a Brassica napus stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, S P; Piffanelli, P; Fairbairn, D; Bowra, S; Hatzopoulos, P; Tsiantis, M; Murphy, D J

    1994-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a Brassica napus stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene (Bn10) is presented. This gene is one member of a family of four closely related genes expressed in oilseed rape. The expression of the promoter of this gene in transgenic tobacco was found to be temporally regulated in the developing seed tissues. However, the promoter was also particularly active in other oleogenic tissues such as the tapetum and pollen grains. This raises the interesting question of whether seed-expressed lipid synthesis genes are regulated by separate tissue-specific determinants or by a single factor common to all oleogenic tissues. Parts of the plants undergoing rapid development such as the components of immature flowers and seedlings also exhibited high levels of promoter activity. These tissues are likely to have an elevated requirement for membrane lipid synthesis. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase transcript levels have previously been shown to be temporally regulated in the B. napus embryo (S.P. Slocombe, I. Cummins, R.P. Jarvis, D.J. Murphy [1992] Plant Mol Biol 20: 151-155). Evidence is presented demonstrating the induction of desaturase mRNA by abscisic acid in the embryo. PMID:8016261

  18. Resistance Mechanisms and the Future of Bacterial Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI) Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations leading to clinical antibiotic resistance are a liability of single-target inhibitors. The enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitors have one intracellular protein target and drug resistance is increased by the acquisition of single base pair mutations that alter drug binding. The spectrum of resistance mechanisms to FabI inhibitors suggests criteria that should be considered during the development of single-target antibiotics that would minimize the impact of missense mutations on their clinical usefulness. These criteria include high-affinity, fast on/off kinetics, few drug contacts with residue side chains, and no toxicity. These stringent criteria are achievable by structure-guided design, but this approach will only yield pathogen-specific drugs. Single-step acquisition of resistance may limit the clinical application of broad-spectrum, single-target antibiotics, but appropriately designed, pathogen-specific antibiotics have the potential to overcome this liability. PMID:26931811

  19. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of a water soluble porphyrin and two drug carrier proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Suzana M; Costa, Sílvia M B

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of meso-tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) sodium salt to human serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin was studied by steady-state and dynamic fluorescence at different pH of aqueous solutions. The formation of TSPP J-aggregates and a noncovalent TSPP-protein complex was monitored by fluorescence titrations, which depend on pH and on the protein nature and concentration. The complex between TSPP and protein displays a heterogeneous equilibrium with large changes in the binding strength versus pH. The large reduction of the effective binding constant from pH 2 to 7 suggests that electrostatic interactions are a major contribution to the binding of TSPP to the aforementioned proteins. TSPP aggregates and TSPP-protein complex exhibit circular dichroism induced by the presence of the protein. Circular dichroism spectra in the ultraviolet region show that the secondary structure of both proteins is not extensively affected by the TSPP presence. Protein-TSPP interaction was also examined by following the intrinsic fluorescence of the tryptophan residues of the proteins. Fluorescence quenching by acrylamide and TSPP itself also point to small changes on the protein tertiary structure and a critical distance R(0) approximately 56 A, between tryptophan and bound porphyrin, was estimated using the long distance Förster-type energy transfer formalism. PMID:11867473

  20. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    SciTech Connect

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E. . E-mail: F.Sluse@ulg.ac.be

    2005-08-05

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein.

  1. Only One of the Five Ralstonia solanacearum Long-Chain 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase Homologues Functions in Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Juanli; Ma, Jincheng; Lin, Jinshui; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Cronan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a major phytopathogenic bacterium, causes a bacterial wilt disease in diverse plants. Although fatty acid analyses of total membranes of R. solanacearum showed that they contain primarily palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1) and cis-vaccenic (C18:1) acids, little is known regarding R. solanacearum fatty acid synthesis. The R. solanacearum GMI1000 genome is unusual in that it contains four genes (fabF1, fabF2, fabF3, and fabF4) annotated as encoding 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II homologues and one gene (fabB) annotated as encoding 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I. We have analyzed this puzzling apparent redundancy and found that only one of these genes, fabF1, encoded a long-chain 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase, whereas the other homologues did not play roles in R. solanacearum fatty acid synthesis. Mutant strains lacking fabF1 are nonviable, and thus, FabF1 is essential for R. solanacearum fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, R. solanacearum FabF1 has the activities of both 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II and 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I. PMID:22194290

  2. Only one of the five Ralstonia solanacearum long-chain 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase homologues functions in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Juanli; Ma, Jincheng; Lin, Jinshui; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Cronan, John E; Wang, Haihong

    2012-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a major phytopathogenic bacterium, causes a bacterial wilt disease in diverse plants. Although fatty acid analyses of total membranes of R. solanacearum showed that they contain primarily palmitic (C(16:0)), palmitoleic (C(16:1)) and cis-vaccenic (C(18:1)) acids, little is known regarding R. solanacearum fatty acid synthesis. The R. solanacearum GMI1000 genome is unusual in that it contains four genes (fabF1, fabF2, fabF3, and fabF4) annotated as encoding 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II homologues and one gene (fabB) annotated as encoding 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I. We have analyzed this puzzling apparent redundancy and found that only one of these genes, fabF1, encoded a long-chain 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase, whereas the other homologues did not play roles in R. solanacearum fatty acid synthesis. Mutant strains lacking fabF1 are nonviable, and thus, FabF1 is essential for R. solanacearum fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, R. solanacearum FabF1 has the activities of both 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II and 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I.

  3. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. )

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  4. Engineering temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) polymers as carriers of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Uludag, H; Norrie, B; Kousinioris, N; Gao, T

    2001-06-20

    This study was carried out to engineer N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAM) polymers that contain protein-reactive N-acryloxysuccinimide (NASI) and hydrophobic alkylmethacrylates (AMAs). These thermoreversible, protein-conjugating polymers hold potential for retention of therapeutic proteins at an application site where tissue regeneration is desired. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of the polymers were effectively controlled by the AMA mole content. The AMAs with longer side-chains were more effective in lowering the LCST. Polymers without NASI exhibited a stable LCST in phosphate buffer and in serum over a 10-day study period. The LCST of polymers containing NASI was found to increase over time in phosphate buffer, but not in serum-containing medium. The LCST increase in phosphate buffer was proportional to the AMA content. The feasibility of localizing a therapeutic protein, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), to a site of application was explored in a rat intramuscular injection model. The results indicated that polymers capable of conjugating to rhBMP-2 were most effective in localizing the protein irrespective of the LCST (13-25 degrees C). For polymers with no NASI groups, a lower LCST resulted in a better rhBMP-2 localization. We conclude that thermosensitive polymers can be engineered for delivery of therapeutic proteins to improve their therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Construction of efficient and effective transformation vectors for palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Shah, Farida Habib

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil obtained from E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera is known to have about 44% of palmitic acid (C16:0). Palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase (PATE) is one of the key enzymes involved in plastidial fatty acid biosynthesis; and it determines the level of the C16:0 assimilation in oilseeds. This enzyme's activity in oil palm is responsible for high (> 44 % in E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera and 25 % in E. oleifera) content of C16:0 in its oil. By post-transcriptional PATE gene silencing, C16:0 content can be minimized for nutritional value improvement of the palm oil. The objective of this study was the construction of novel transformation vectors for PATE gene silencing. Six different transformation vectors targeted against PATE gene were constructed using 619 bp long PATE gene (5' region) fragment (from GenBank AF507115). In one set of three transformation vectors, PATE gene fragment was fused with CaMV 35S promoter in antisense, intron-spliced inverted repeat (ISIR), and inverted repeat (IR) orientations to generate antisense mRNA and hair-pin RNAs (hpRNA). In another set of three transformation vectors with same design, CaMV 35S was replaced with Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter (MSP). The expression cassette of antisense, ISIR, and IR of PATE gene fragments were constructed in primary cloning vector, pHANNIBAL or its derivative/s. Finally, all 6 expression cassettes were sub-cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the Hygromycinr and the GUS reporter genes for transformant selection and transformation detection respectively. The results of the RE analyses of the constructs and sequence analyses of PATE and MSP shows and confirms the orientation, size and locations of all the components from constructs. We hypothesize that 4 (pISIRPATE-PC, pIRPATE-PC, pMISIRPATE-PC and pMIRPATE-PC) out of 6 transformation vectors constructed in this study will be efficient and effective in palmitoyl-ACP thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm. Abbreviations anti

  6. Bioconjugation - using selective chemistry to enhance the properties of proteins and peptides as therapeutics and carriers.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Smita B; Madder, Annemieke

    2016-09-14

    The pharmaceutical market has largely been dominated by small molecule drugs; however, larger biomolecules have recently become important contenders. Of these biomolecules, protein and peptide therapeutics are proving useful due to their often improved pharmacokinetic properties. In many circumstances, functionalisation of the protein or peptide therapeutics results in performance enhancement, and various methodologies are applied. In addition, introducing unnatural amino acids for structural reinforcement via chemical modification is also common. These strategies are discussed in this review.

  7. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  8. Recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin fragments as carrier protein for PSII surface polysaccharide preserve their neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria R; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Cappelletti, Emilia; Tontini, Marta; Nilo, Alberto; Proietti, Daniela; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo; Adamo, Roberto; Scarselli, Maria

    2014-04-22

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive bacterium and is the most commonly diagnosed cause of hospital-associated and antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Despite the emergence of epidemic C. difficile strains having led to an increase in the incidence of the disease, a vaccine against this pathogen is not currently available. C. difficile strains produce two main toxins (TcdA and TcdB) and express three highly complex cell-surface polysaccharides (PSI, PSII and PSIII). PSII is the more abundantly expressed by most C. difficile ribotypes offering the opportunity of the development of a carbohydrate-based vaccine. In this paper, we evaluate the efficacy, in naive mice model, of PSII glycoconjugates where recombinant toxins A and B fragments (TcdA_B2 and TcdB_GT respectively) have been used as carriers. Both glycoconjugates elicited IgG titers anti-PSII although only the TcdB_GT conjugate induced a response comparable to that obtained with CRM197. Moreover, TcdA_B2 and TcdB_GT conjugated to PSII retained the ability to elicit IgG with neutralizing activity against the respective toxins. These results are a crucial proof of concept for the development of glycoconjugate vaccines against C. difficile infection (CDI) that combine different C. difficile antigens to potentially prevent bacterial colonization of the gut and neutralize toxin activity.

  9. Polyelectrolyte complex of carboxymethyl starch and chitosan as protein carrier: oral administration of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Assaad, Elias; Blemur, Lindsay; Lessard, Martin; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    A novel carboxymethyl starch (CMS)/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) was proposed as an excipient for oral administration of ovalbumin. The dissolution of ovalbumin from monolithic tablets (200 mg, 2.1 × 9.6 mm, 50% loading) obtained by direct compression was studied. When CMS was used as an excipient, more than 70% of the loaded ovalbumin remained undigested after 1 h of incubation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) with pepsin. The complete dissolution, after transfer of tablets into simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) with pancreatin, occurred within a total time of about 6 h. Higher protection (more than 90% stability in SGF) and longer dissolution (more than 13 h) were obtained with 50% CMS/50% chitosan physical mixture or with PEC excipients. A lower proportion of chitosan was needed for PEC than for the CMS/chitosan mixture to obtain a similar dissolution profile. The high protection against digestion by pepsin, the various release times and the mucoadhesion properties of these excipients based on CMS favor the development of suitable carriers for oral vaccinations.

  10. Virtually Designed Triclosan-Based Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Owono Owono, Luc C; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Keita, Melalie; Megnassan, Eugene; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    We report here new chemical structures of predicted nanomolar triclosan-based inhibitors (TCLs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) virtually proposed by computer-assisted molecular design. 3D models of InhA-TCL complexes were prepared by in situ modifications of the reference crystal structure (PDB entry 1P45) for a training set of 15 TCLs with known InhA inhibitory activities. A QSAR model was built leading to linear correlation between the calculated free energies of complexation (ΔΔGcom ) and experimental values IC50 (exp) : pIC50 =-0.0657×ΔΔGcom +3.0502, R(2) =0.96. In addition, ligand-based quantitative pharmacophore model (PH4) was built from bound conformations of the training set compounds and confirmed the correlation between molecular models and observed activities: pIC50 (exp=) 0.8929×pIC50 (pre) -0.441, R(2) =0.95. Structural information from both models helped us to propose new TCL analogues. A virtual library of TCLs with known predicted activities against enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfENR) was evaluated, revealing dual target TCLs. Moreover, analysis of binding site interactions suggested enriching substitutions, which led to more potent TCLs with predicted pIC50 (pre) as low as 7 nM. The computational approach, which used both free energy estimated from molecular modeling and 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model, was helpful in virtually proposing the dual-targeted drugs and provided valuable information for the design of novel potential antituberculotic agents.

  11. Sterol carrier protein 2 regulates proximal tubule size in the Xenopus pronephric kidney by modulating lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Débora M; Tran, Uyen; Romaker, Daniel; Abreu, José G; Wessely, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    The kidney is a homeostatic organ required for waste excretion and reabsorption of water, salts and other macromolecules. To this end, a complex series of developmental steps ensures the formation of a correctly patterned and properly proportioned organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the individual signaling pathways, the formation of higher order receptor complexes in lipid rafts is an equally important aspect. These membrane platforms are characterized by differences in local lipid and protein compositions. Indeed, the cells in the Xenopus pronephric kidney were positive for the lipid raft markers ganglioside GM1 and Caveolin-1. To specifically interfere with lipid raft function in vivo, we focused on the Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (scp2), a multifunctional protein that is an important player in remodeling lipid raft composition. In Xenopus, scp2 mRNA was strongly expressed in differentiated epithelial structures of the pronephric kidney. Knockdown of scp2 did not interfere with the patterning of the kidney along its proximo-distal axis, but dramatically decreased the size of the kidney, in particular the proximal tubules. This phenotype was accompanied by a reduction of lipid rafts, but was independent of the peroxisomal or transcriptional activities of scp2. Finally, disrupting lipid micro-domains by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis using Mevinolin phenocopied the defects seen in scp2 morphants. Together these data underscore the importance for localized signaling platforms in the proper formation of the Xenopus kidney.

  12. A comparative study of a range of polymeric microspheres as potential carriers for the inhalation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sivadas, Neeraj; O'Rourke, Desmond; Tobin, Aoife; Buckley, Vivienne; Ramtoola, Zeibun; Kelly, John G; Hickey, Anthony J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2008-06-24

    The aim of this study was to compare protein-loaded inhalable microparticles manufactured using a range of biocompatible polymers including hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), chitosan, hyaluronic acid, alginate, gelatin, ovalbumin and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Spray-drying was used to prepare microparticles containing bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC). Particles of respirable size and high protein loading were obtained. No evidence of BSA degradation was seen from PAGE analysis. The microparticles were mixed with mannitol as a carrier and powder aerosolization was assessed with a multi-dose dry powder inhaler (DPI) using a multi-stage cascade impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged between 2.9 and 4.7 microm. Potential polymer toxicity in the lungs was compared by impinging the particles on Calu-3 monolayers and assessing the cytotoxicity, induction of cytokine release, changes in transepithelial permeability and electrical resistance. No toxic effects were observed with most of the polymers though some evidence of compromised cell monolayer integrity was seen for PLGA and ovalbumin. PLGA and gelatin microparticles caused a significant increase in IL-8 release. Of the polymers studied, PLGA showed the greatest toxicity. Certain polymers showed particular promise for specific protein delivery needs in the lungs, such as HPC to improve flow properties, sodium hyaluronate for controlled release, and chitosan and ovalbumin for systemic delivery.

  13. Applicability of avidin protein coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug carriers in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijt, S. H.; Bölükbas, D. A.; Argyo, C.; Wipplinger, K.; Naureen, M.; Datz, S.; Eickelberg, O.; Meiners, S.; Bein, T.; Schmid, O.; Stoeger, T.

    2016-04-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) exhibit unique drug delivery properties and are thus considered as promising candidates for next generation nano-medicines. In particular, inhalation into the lungs represents a direct, non-invasive delivery route for treating lung disease. To assess MSN biocompatibility in the lung, we investigated the bioresponse of avidin-coated MSNs (MSN-AVI), as well as aminated (uncoated) MSNs, after direct application into the lungs of mice. We quantified MSN distribution, clearance rate, cell-specific uptake, and inflammatory responses to MSNs within one week after instillation. We show that amine-functionalized (MSN-NH2) particles are not taken up by lung epithelial cells, but induced a prolonged inflammatory response in the lung and macrophage cell death. In contrast, MSN-AVI co-localized with alveolar epithelial type 1 and type 2 cells in the lung in the absence of sustained inflammatory responses or cell death, and showed preferential epithelial cell uptake in in vitro co-cultures. Further, MSN-AVI particles demonstrated uniform particle distribution in mouse lungs and slow clearance rates. Thus, we provide evidence that avidin functionalized MSNs (MSN-AVI) have the potential to serve as versatile biocompatible drug carriers for lung-specific drug delivery.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) exhibit unique drug delivery properties and are thus considered as promising candidates for next generation nano-medicines. In particular, inhalation into the lungs represents a direct, non-invasive delivery route for treating lung disease. To assess MSN biocompatibility in the lung, we investigated the bioresponse of avidin-coated MSNs (MSN-AVI), as well as aminated (uncoated) MSNs, after direct application into the lungs of mice. We quantified MSN distribution, clearance rate, cell-specific uptake, and inflammatory responses to MSNs within one week after instillation. We show that amine-functionalized (MSN-NH2) particles are not taken up

  14. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhong; Zhao, Jianhao; Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10(5), 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10(5), 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10(5), 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10(5), and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10(5) respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously.

  15. Chitosan coated nanostructured lipid carriers for brain delivery of proteins by intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Gartziandia, Oihane; Herran, Enara; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Carro, Eva; Igartua, Manoli; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2015-10-01

    The remarkable increase in the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has become a serious public health problem. Considering the lack of effective treatments to address these diseases and the difficulties in accessing the brain due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), to attain a successful strategy to improve drug delivery to the brain, the administration route becomes a point of interest. The intranasal route provides a non-invasive method to bypass the BBB. Moreover, the development of new technologies for the protection and delivery of peptides is an interesting approach to consider. Thus, in this work, a suitable chitosan coated nanostructured lipid carrier (CS-NLC) formulation with the capacity to reach the brain after being intranasally administered was successfully developed and optimized. The optimal formulation displayed a particle size of 114 nm with a positive surface charge of +28 mV. The in vitro assays demonstrated the biocompatibility of the nanocarrier and its cellular uptake by 16HBE14o- cells. Furthermore, no haemagglutination or haemolysis processes were observed when the particles were incubated with erythrocytes, and no toxicity signals appeared in the nasal mucosa of mice after the administration of CS-NLCs. Finally, the biodistribution study of CS-NLC-DiR demonstrated an efficient brain delivery of the particles after intranasal administration. In conclusion, CS-NLC can be considered to be a safe and effective nanocarrier for nose-to-brain drug delivery; however, to obtain a higher concentration of the drug in the brain following intranasal administration, further modifications are warranted in the CS-NLC formulation.

  16. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  17. Functional characterizations of malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingfei; Zhu, Guan; Qin, Zonghua; Wu, Caiyan; Lv, Minna; Liao, Shenquan; Qi, Nanshan; Xie, Mingquan; Cai, Jianping

    2012-07-01

    Eimeria tenella, an apicomplexan parasite in chickens, possesses an apicoplast and its associated metabolic pathways including the Type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II). Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carry protein transacylase (MCAT) encoded by the fabD gene is one of the essential enzymes in the FAS II system. In the present study, the entire E. tenella MCAT gene (EtfabD) was cloned and sequenced. Immunolabeling located this protein in the apicoplast organelle in coccidial sporozoites. Functional replacement of the fabD gene with amber mutation of E. coli temperature-sensitive LA2-89 strain by E. tenella EtMCAT demonstrated that EcFabD and EtMCAT perform the same biochemical function. The recombinant EtMCAT protein was expressed and its general biochemical features were also determined. An alkaloid natural product corytuberine (CAS: 517-56-6) could specifically inhibit the EtMCAT activity (IC(50)=16.47μM), but the inhibition of parasite growth in vitro by corytuberine was very weak (the predicted MIC(50)=0.65mM).

  18. Calcium alginate/dextran methacrylate IPN beads as protecting carriers for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Giorgia; Di Meo, Chiara; Pescosolido, Laura; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, mechanical and protein delivery properties of a system based on the interpenetration of calcium-alginate (Ca-Alg) and dextran-methacrylate (Dex-MA) networks are shown. Interpenetrated hydrogels beads were prepared by means of the alginate chains crosslinking with calcium ions, followed by the exposure to UV light that allows the Dex-MA network formation. Optical microscope analysis showed an average diameter of the IPN beads (Ca-Alg/Dex-MA) of 2 mm. This dimension was smaller than that of Ca-Alg beads because of the Dex-MA presence. Moreover, the strength of the IPN beads, and of their corresponding hydrogels, was influenced by the Dex-MA concentration and the crosslinking time. Model proteins (BSA and HRP) were successfully entrapped into the beads and released at a controlled rate, modulated by changing the Dex-MA concentration. The enzymatic activity of HRP released from the beads was maintained. These novel IPN beads have great potential as protein delivery system.

  19. A novel cell penetrating peptide carrier for the delivery of nematocidal proteins drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jea Hyun

    Nematodes have recently become a primary source of harmful diseases to the environment that inflict harsh damages to pine trees and marine species. However, nematodes cannot be killed by normal pesticides or chemicals due to their thick outer protective layer mainly composed of collagen and cuticles. Thus, a novel approach to trigger intracellular delivery of chemicals through the layers of nematodes is required. In this study, the selection of the novel CPP was carefully progressed through protein database and serial digested fragmentation, internalization of each amino sequence was analyzed through flow cytometry and confocal microscope. As one of the most effective CPP material, JH 1.6 was compared with other major CPPs and its cellular toxicity was investigated. Furthermore, JH 1.6 was attached to various RNA, DNA, and proteins and internalization efficiency was evaluated for mammalian cells. To examine its effects on nematodes in vivo, JH 1.6 was conjugated with nematocidal protein - botulinum neurotoxin (BnT) and treated in C.elegans as a model animal. The results showed that JH 1.6 had high relative internalization rate and low cellular toxicity compared to other major CPP such as TAT and GV1001 peptides.

  20. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pomwised, Rattanaruji; Intamaso, Uraiwan; Teintze, Martin; Young, Mark; Pincus, Seth H.

    2016-01-01

    We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs) from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ). Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response. PMID:27164150

  1. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Pomwised, Rattanaruji; Intamaso, Uraiwan; Teintze, Martin; Young, Mark; Pincus, Seth H

    2016-05-05

    We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs) from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ). Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  2. Structure of the adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein didomain of the Microcystis aeruginosa microcystin synthetase McyG.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Feng; Dai, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Kang; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Ren, Yan-Min; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Microcystins, which are the most common cause of hepatotoxicity associated with cyanobacterial water blooms, are assembled in vivo on a large multienzyme complex via a mixed nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase (NRPS/PKS). The biosynthesis of microcystin in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 starts with the enzyme McyG, which contains an adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein (A-PCP) didomain for loading the starter unit to assemble the side chain of an Adda residue. However, the catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Here, the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of the McyG A-PCP didomain complexed with the catalytic intermediate L-phenylalanyl-adenylate (L-Phe-AMP) is reported. Each asymmetric unit contains two protein molecules, one of which consists of the A-PCP didomain and the other of which comprises only the A domain. Structural analyses suggest that Val227 is likely to be critical for the selection of hydrophobic substrates. Moreover, two distinct interfaces demonstrating variable crosstalk between the PCP domain and the A domain were observed. A catalytic cycle for the adenylation and peptide transfer of the A-PCP didomain is proposed.

  3. Structure-based analysis of the molecular interactions between acyltransferase and acyl carrier protein in vicenistatin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Iwasawa, Shohei; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Acyltransferases (ATs) are key determinants of building block specificity in polyketide biosynthesis. Despite the importance of protein–protein interactions between AT and acyl carrier protein (ACP) during the acyltransfer reaction, the mechanism of ACP recognition by AT is not understood in detail. Herein, we report the crystal structure of AT VinK, which transfers a dipeptide group between two ACPs, VinL and VinP1LdACP, in vicenistatin biosynthesis. The isolated VinK structure showed a unique substrate-binding pocket for the dipeptide group linked to ACP. To gain greater insight into the mechanism of ACP recognition, we attempted to crystallize the VinK–ACP complexes. Because transient enzyme–ACP complexes are difficult to crystallize, we developed a covalent cross-linking strategy using a bifunctional maleimide reagent to trap the VinK–ACP complexes, allowing the determination of the crystal structure of the VinK–VinL complex. In the complex structure, Arg-153, Met-206, and Arg-299 of VinK interact with the negatively charged helix II region of VinL. The VinK–VinL complex structure allows, to our knowledge, the first visualization of the interaction between AT and ACP and provides detailed mechanistic insights into ACP recognition by AT. PMID:26831085

  4. Immunologic memory response induced by a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine using the P64k recombinant protein as carrier.

    PubMed

    Guirola, María; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Alvarez, Anabel; Cannan-Haden, Leonardo; Caballero, Evelin; Guillén, Gerardo

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we used an adoptive lymphocyte transfer experiment to evaluate the ability of the P64k recombinant protein to recruit T-helper activity and induce immunologic memory response to the polysaccharide moiety in a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice immunized with the glycoconjugate conferred antipolysaccharide immunologic memory to naive recipient mice. The observed anamnestic immune response was characterized by more rapid kinetics, isotype switching from IgM to IgG and higher antipolysaccharide antibody titers compared with those reached in groups transferred with splenocytes from plain polysaccharide or phosphate-immunized mice. The memory response generated was also long lasting. Sera from mice transferred with cells from conjugate-immunized mice were the only protective in the infant rat passive protection assay, and also showed higher bactericidal titers. We demonstrated that priming the mice immune system with the glycoconjugate using the P64k protein as carrier induced a memory response to the polysaccharide, promoting a switch of the T-cell-independent response to a T-cell dependent one.

  5. E2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins.

    PubMed Central

    Aristarkhov, A; Eytan, E; Moghe, A; Admon, A; Hershko, A; Ruderman, J V

    1996-01-01

    Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of the mitotic cyclins A and B is required for the completion of mitosis and entry into the next cell cycle. This process is catalyzed by the cyclosome, an approximately 22S particle that contains a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, E3-C, that requires a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein (UBC) E2-C. Here we report the purification and cloning of E2-C from clam oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of E2-C indicates that it is a new UBC family member. Bacterially expressed recombinant E2-C is active in in vitro cyclin ubiquitination assays, where it exhibits the same substrate specificities seen with native E2-C. These results demonstrate that E2-C is not a homolog of UBC4 or UBC9, proteins previously suggested to be involved in cyclin ubiquitination, but is a new UBC family member with unique properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8633058

  6. Heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1) genetic variants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study participants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XinJing; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Acton, Ronald T.; Barton, James C.; McLaren, Christine E.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Eckfeldt, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1) has been identified as a possible heme carrier by in vitro analysis. To determine the association of mutations within the HCP1 gene with iron phenotypes, we examined the entire coding region of the HCP1 gene in 788 US and Canadian participants selected from the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. We sequenced the exon and flanking intronic regions if variants were detected. We tested 298 non-C282Y homozygotes from four racial/ethnic backgrounds (White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic) selected because they had high serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturations (TS). As controls, we chose 300 other random participants of the same racial/ethnic backgrounds from the same geographic locations. From the 333 HEIRS Study C282Y homozygotes, we selected 75 based on high SF and TS, 75 based on low SF and TS; 75 were selected randomly as controls. Thirty-five of the randomly selected C282Y homozygotes were also included in the high and the low SF and TS groups due to numerical limitations. We identified eight different HCP1 genetic variants; each occurred in a heterozygous state. Except one, each was found in a single HEIRS Study participant. Thus, HCP1 variants are infrequent in the populations that we tested. Five HEIRS Study participants had non-synonymous, coding region HCP1 variants. Each of these five had TS above the 84th gender- and ethnic/racial group-specific percentile (TS percentiles: 84.7, 91.3, 97.9, 99.5, and 99.9). PMID:19176287

  7. Carbohydrate particles as protein carriers and scaffolds: physico-chemical characterization and collagen stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Ivone; Rocha, Sandra; Loureiro, Joana A.; do Carmo Pereira, Maria; Ivanova, Galya; Coelho, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The preservation of protein properties after entrapping into polymeric matrices and the effects of drying the emulsions still remains uncertain and controversial. Carbohydrate particles were designed and prepared by homogenization of gum arabic and maltodextrin mixture, with collagen hydrolysate (CH) followed by spray-drying. The encapsulation of CH in the carbohydrate matrix was achieved with an efficiency of 85 ± 2 %. The morphology and the size of the particles, before (40-400 nm) and after spray-drying (<20 μm), were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Measurements of the nuclear relaxation times and application of diffusion ordered spectroscopy, obtained through pulsed field gradient NMR experiments, have been performed to determine the structure of the CH-polysaccharide conjugates and to clarify the mechanism of CH immobilization in the polysaccharide matrix. In vitro release profiles in ultrapure water and in cellular medium reveal that the diffusion rate of CH from the polymeric matrix to the dialysis solution decreases in average 30-50 % over time, compared to free CH molecules. In cellular medium at 37 °C, the complete release of CH from the particles is achieved only after 24 h, demonstrating a significant decrease in the CH mass transfer process when compared with free CH. The findings of this study outline the ability of gum arabic/maltodextrin matrices to entrap and preserve CH original properties after the spray-drying process and support the potential of the polymeric scaffold for protein delivery and tissue engineering.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-04-01

    A truncated form of biotin carboxyl carrier protein containing the C-terminal half fragment (BCCPΔN76) and the biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the mutation R48A (BPL*) or the double mutation R48A K111A (BPL**) were successfully cocrystallized in the presence of ATP and biotin. The BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract X-rays to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein–protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPΔN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPΔN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 Å, β = 95.9°. Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.45 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 50%.

  9. Compartmentalization of a Unique ADP/ATP Carrier Protein SFEC (Sperm Flagellar Energy Carrier, AAC4) with Glycolytic Enzymes in the Fibrous Sheath of the Human Sperm Flagellar Principal Piece

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Haidl, Gerhard; Schaefer, Martina; Egner, Ursula; Herr, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The longest part of the sperm flagellum, the principal piece, contains the fibrous sheath, a cytoskeletal element unique to spermiogenesis. We performed mass spectrometry proteomics on isolated human fibrous sheaths identifying a unique ADP/ATP carrier protein, SFEC [AAC4], seven glycolytic enzymes previously unreported in the human sperm fibrous sheath, and sorbitol dehydrogenase. SFEC, pyruvate kinase and aldolase were co-localized by immunofluorescence to the principal piece. A homology model constructed for SFEC predicted unique residues at the entrance to the nucleotide binding pocket of SFEC that are absent in other human ADP/ATP carriers, suggesting opportunities for selective drug targeting. This study provides the first evidence of a role for an ADP/ATP carrier family member in glycolysis. The co-localization of SFEC and glycolytic enzymes in the fibrous sheath supports a growing literature that the principal piece of the flagellum is capable of generating and regulating ATP independently from mitochondrial oxidation in the mid-piece. A model is proposed that the fibrous sheath represents a highly ordered complex, analogous to the electron transport chain, in which adjacent enzymes in the glycolytic pathway are assembled to permit efficient flux of energy substrates and products with SFEC serving to mediate energy generating and energy consuming processes in the distal flagellum, possibly as a nucleotide shuttle between flagellar glycolysis, protein phosphorylation and mechanisms of motility. PMID:17137571

  10. Lysosome-associated protein 1 (LAMP-1) and lysosome-associated protein 2 (LAMP-2) in a larger family carrier of Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ester M; do Monte, Semiramis J H; do Nascimento, Fernando F; de Castro, Jose A F; Sousa, Jackeline L M; Filho, Henrique C S A L C; da Silva, Raimundo N; Labilloy, Anatália; Monte Neto, José T; da Silva, Adalberto S

    2014-02-15

    This study investigated the potential relationship between the expression levels of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) 1 and 2 and responses to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the members of a single family with Fabry disease (FD). LAMP levels were assessed by flow cytometry in leukocytes from 17 FD patients who received an eight-month course of ERT course and 101 healthy individuals. We found that phagocytic cells from the FD patients had higher expression levels of both LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, relative to the levels in phagocytes from the healthy controls (p=0.001). Furthermore, the LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 levels in phagocytes from the FD carriers continuously decreased with ERT administration to reach levels similar to those in healthy controls. We suggest that LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 could be used as additional markers with which to assess ERT effectiveness in FD.

  11. Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Protein Cdc20 Transcriptionally Activates Expression of Ubiquitin Carrier Protein UbcH10*

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Somsubhra; Banerjee, Taraswi; Sen, Debrup; Das, Tania; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2011-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate segregation of chromosomes by monitoring kinetochore attachment of spindles during mitosis. Proper progression of mitosis depends on orderly ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of various mitotic inhibitors. At the molecular level, upon removal of SAC, Cdc20 activates E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome that, along with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH10, executes this function. Both Cdc20 and UbcH10 are overexpressed in many cancer types and are associated with defective SAC function leading to chromosomal instability. The precise mechanism of correlated overexpression of these two proteins remains elusive. We show that Cdc20 transcriptionally up-regulates UbcH10 expression. The WD40 domain of Cdc20 is required for this activity. Physical interaction between Cdc20 and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-CBP/p300 complex and its subsequent recruitment to the UBCH10 promoter are involved in this transactivation process. This transcriptional regulatory function of Cdc20 was observed to be cell cycle-specific. We hypothesize that this co-regulated overexpression of both proteins contributes to chromosomal instability. PMID:21454660

  12. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

    PubMed

    Elmes, Matthew W; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Tsirka, Stella E; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G

    2015-04-03

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

  13. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins (FABPs) Are Intracellular Carriers for Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD)*

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew W.; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T.; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P.; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M.; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Tsirka, Stella E.; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:25666611

  14. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible.

  15. Non-Carrier Nanoparticles Adjuvant Modular Protein Vaccine in a Particle-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Arjun; Ritchie, Fiona K.; Wibowo, Nani; Lua, Linda H. L.; Middelberg, Anton P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used to adjuvant vaccine formulations due to their biocompatibility, ease of manufacture and the opportunity to tailor their size, shape, and physicochemical properties. The efficacy of similarly-sized silica (Si-OH), poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (nps) to adjuvant recombinant capsomere presenting antigenic M2e modular peptide from Influenza A virus (CapM2e) was investigated in vivo. Formulation of CapM2e with Si-OH or PLGA nps significantly boosted the immunogenicity of modular capsomeres, even though CapM2e was not actively attached to the nanoparticles prior to injection (i.e., formulation was by simple mixing). In contrast, PCL nps showed no significant adjuvant effect using this simple-mixing approach. The immune response induced by CapM2e alone or formulated with nps was antibody-biased with very high antigen-specific antibody titer and less than 20 cells per million splenocytes secreting interferon gamma. Modification of silica nanoparticle surface properties through amine functionalization and pegylation did not lead to significant changes in immune response. This study confirms that simple mixing-based formulation can lead to effective adjuvanting of antigenic protein, though with antibody titer dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. PMID:25756283

  16. Protein nanocoatings on synthetic polymeric nanofibrous membranes designed as carriers for skin cells

    PubMed Central

    Bacakova, Marketa; Pajorova, Julia; Stranska, Denisa; Hadraba, Daniel; Lopot, Frantisek; Riedel, Tomas; Brynda, Eduard; Zaloudkova, Margit; Bacakova, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Protein-coated resorbable synthetic polymeric nanofibrous membranes are promising for the fabrication of advanced skin substitutes. We fabricated electrospun polylactic acid and poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanofibrous membranes and coated them with fibrin or collagen I. Fibronectin was attached to a fibrin or collagen nanocoating, in order further to enhance the cell adhesion and spreading. Fibrin regularly formed a coating around individual nanofibers in the membranes, and also formed a thin noncontinuous nanofibrous mesh on top of the membranes. Collagen also coated most of the fibers of the membrane and randomly created a soft gel on the membrane surface. Fibronectin predominantly adsorbed onto a thin fibrin mesh or a collagen gel, and formed a thin nanofibrous structure. Fibrin nanocoating greatly improved the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts, whereas collagen nanocoating had a positive influence on the behavior of human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, fibrin stimulated the fibroblasts to synthesize fibronectin and to deposit it as an extracellular matrix. Fibrin coating also showed a tendency to improve the ultimate tensile strength of the nanofibrous membranes. Fibronectin attached to fibrin or to a collagen coating further enhanced the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of both cell types. PMID:28223803

  17. Photoaffinity labeling of the dopamine reuptake carrier protein with 3-azido sup 3 H GBR-12935

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, S.P.; Martenson, R.E.; Laing, P.; Thurkauf, A.; Decosta, B.; Rice, K.C.; Paul, S.M. )

    1991-04-01

    A high affinity tritiated azido-diphenylpiperazine derivative, 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935, was synthesized as a potential photoaffinity probe of the dopamine transporter. Initially, the reversible binding of 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 to crude synaptosomal membranes from the rat striatum was characterized. Specific binding was sodium dependent and inhibited by a variety of drugs that are known to potently inhibit dopamine uptake. Other neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, as well as cis-flupenthixol, a potent inhibitor of {sup 3}H GBR-12935 binding to piperazine binding sites, failed to inhibit specific binding at concentrations of less than or equal to 10 microM. A good correlation was observed between the relative potencies of these drugs in inhibiting dopamine uptake into synaptosomes and in inhibiting specific 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 binding to rat striatal membranes. These data suggest that 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935, like other diphenylpiperazines such as {sup 3}H GBR-12935 and {sup 3}H GBR-12909, binds primarily to the dopamine transporter under defined assay conditions. After UV photolysis of crude synaptosomal membranes preincubated with 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 (1-2 nM), a single radiolabeled polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Photoincorporation of 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 into this polypeptide was inhibited selectively by compounds that inhibit the uptake of dopamine and was completely dependent on the presence of Na+. No photolabeled proteins were observed when cerebellar membranes were substituted for striatal membranes. Essentially complete adsorption of the radiolabeled 80-kDa polypeptide to wheat germ agglutinin and elution with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine strongly suggest that the dopamine transporter polypeptide photolabeled by 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 is glycosylated.

  18. Lipid, detergent, and Coomassie Blue G-250 affect the migration of small membrane proteins in blue native gels: mitochondrial carriers migrate as monomers not dimers.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Paul G; Harding, Marilyn; Ruprecht, Jonathan J; Lee, Yang; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2013-07-26

    Blue native gel electrophoresis is a popular method for the determination of the oligomeric state of membrane proteins. Studies using this technique have reported that mitochondrial carriers are dimeric (composed of two ∼32-kDa monomers) and, in some cases, can form physiologically relevant associations with other proteins. Here, we have scrutinized the behavior of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC3 in blue native gels. We find that the apparent mass of AAC3 varies in a detergent- and lipid-dependent manner (from ∼60 to ∼130 kDa) that is not related to changes in the oligomeric state of the protein, but reflects differences in the associated detergent-lipid micelle and Coomassie Blue G-250 used in this technique. Higher oligomeric state species are only observed under less favorable solubilization conditions, consistent with aggregation of the protein. Calibration with an artificial covalent AAC3 dimer indicates that the mass observed for solubilized AAC3 and other mitochondrial carriers corresponds to a monomer. Size exclusion chromatography of purified AAC3 in dodecyl maltoside under blue native gel-like conditions shows that the mass of the monomer is ∼120 kDa, but appears smaller on gels (∼60 kDa) due to the unusually high amount of bound negatively charged dye, which increases the electrophoretic mobility of the protein-detergent-dye micelle complex. Our results show that bound lipid, detergent, and Coomassie stain alter the behavior of mitochondrial carriers on gels, which is likely to be true for other small membrane proteins where the associated lipid-detergent micelle is large when compared with the mass of the protein.

  19. Adjuvant and carrier protein-dependent T-cell priming promotes a robust antibody response against the Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Andrea J.; Anderson, Charles F.; Riteau, Nicolas; Rausch, Kelly; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Kelnhofer, Emily R.; Howard, Randall F.; Sher, Alan; Germain, Ronald N.; Duffy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Humoral immune responses have the potential to maintain protective antibody levels for years due to the immunoglobulin-secreting activity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, many subunit vaccines under development fail to generate robust LLPC responses, and therefore a variety of strategies are being employed to overcome this limitation, including conjugation to carrier proteins and/or formulation with potent adjuvants. Pfs25, an antigen expressed on malaria zygotes and ookinetes, is a leading transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate for Plasmodium falciparum. Currently, the conjugate vaccine Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel is in Phase 1 clinical trials in the USA and Africa. Thus far, it has proven to be safe and immunogenic, but it is expected that a more potent formulation will be required to establish antibody titers that persist for several malaria transmission seasons. We sought to determine the contribution of carrier determinants and adjuvants in promoting high-titer, long-lived antibody responses against Pfs25. We found that both adjuvants and carrier proteins influence the magnitude and capacity of Pfs25-specific humoral responses to remain above a protective level. Furthermore, a liposomal adjuvant with QS21 and a TLR4 agonist (GLA-LSQ) was especially effective at inducing T follicular helper (Tfh) and LLPC responses to Pfs25 when coupled to immunogenic carrier proteins. PMID:28091576

  20. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes. PMID:26230706

  1. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  2. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-05-18

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm(3)) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm(3)) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone.

  3. Rational design of broad spectrum antibacterial activity based on a clinically relevant enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schiebel, Johannes; Chang, Andrew; Shah, Sonam; Lu, Yang; Liu, Li; Pan, Pan; Hirschbeck, Maria W; Tareilus, Mona; Eltschkner, Sandra; Yu, Weixuan; Cummings, Jason E; Knudson, Susan E; Bommineni, Gopal R; Walker, Stephen G; Slayden, Richard A; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Tonge, Peter J; Kisker, Caroline

    2014-06-06

    Determining the molecular basis for target selectivity is of particular importance in drug discovery. The ideal antibiotic should be active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic organisms with a minimal effect on human targets. CG400549, a Staphylococcus-specific 2-pyridone compound that inhibits the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), has recently been shown to possess human efficacy for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, which constitute a serious threat to human health. In this study, we solved the structures of three different FabI homologues in complex with several pyridone inhibitors, including CG400549. Based on these structures, we rationalize the 65-fold reduced affinity of CG400549 toward Escherichia coli versus S. aureus FabI and implement concepts to improve the spectrum of antibacterial activity. The identification of different conformational states along the reaction coordinate of the enzymatic hydride transfer provides an elegant visual depiction of the relationship between catalysis and inhibition, which facilitates rational inhibitor design. Ultimately, we developed the novel 4-pyridone-based FabI inhibitor PT166 that retained favorable pharmacokinetics and efficacy in a mouse model of S. aureus infection with extended activity against Gram-negative and mycobacterial organisms.

  4. Triclosan Resistome from Metagenome Reveals Diverse Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductases and Selective Enrichment of Triclosan Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Raees; Kong, Hyun Gi; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Jinhee; Baek, Kwang-Yeol; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent and TCS resistance is considered to have evolved in diverse organisms with extensive use of TCS, but distribution of TCS resistance has not been well characterized. Functional screening of the soil metagenome in this study has revealed that a variety of target enoyl acyl carrier protein reductases (ENR) homologues are responsible for the majority of TCS resistance. Diverse ENRs similar to 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7-α-HSDH), FabG, or the unusual YX7K-type ENR conferred extreme tolerance to TCS. The TCS-refractory 7-α HSDH-like ENR and the TCS-resistant YX7K-type ENR seem to be prevalent in human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that a selective enrichment occurred in pathogenic bacteria in soil. Additionally, resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be mediated by antibiotic resistance genes that co-localize with TCS resistance determinants. Further comparative analysis of ENRs from 13 different environments has revealed a huge diversity of both prototypic and metagenomic TCS-resistant ENRs, in addition to a selective enrichment of TCS-resistant specific ENRs in presumably TCS-contaminated environments with reduced ENR diversity. Our results suggest that long-term extensive use of TCS can lead to the selective emergence of TCS-resistant bacterial pathogens, possibly with additional resistance to multiple antibiotics, in natural environments. PMID:27577999

  5. Defective pollen wall is required for anther and microspore development in rice and encodes a fatty acyl carrier protein reductase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Hexin; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yuanyun; Liang, Wanqi; Ranathunge, Kosala; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Wang, Yujiong; Kai, Guoying; Shanklin, John; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  6. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene from the oleaginous microalga Chlorella zofingiensis: cloning, characterization and transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Zheng; Zhong, Yujuan; Huang, Junchao; Hu, Qiang; Chen, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The green alga Chlorella zofingiensis can accumulate high level of oleic acid (OA, C18:1△(9)) rich oils in response to stress conditions. To understand the regulation of biosynthesis of fatty acid in particular OA at the molecular level, we cloned and characterized the stearoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) responsible for OA formation through desaturation of stearic acid (C18:0) from C. zofingiensis. Southern blot indicated that the C. zofingiensis genome contained a single copy of SAD, from which the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity to the corresponding homologs from other microalgae and higher plants. The desaturation activity of SAD was demonstrated in vitro using C18:0-ACP as a substrate. Stress conditions such as high light (HL), nitrogen deficiency (N(-)), or combination of HL and N(-) (HL + N(-)) drastically up-regulated the transcripts of biotin carboxylase (BC, a subunit of ACCase) and SAD, and therefore induced considerably the cellular accumulation of total fatty acids including OA. Glucose (50 mM) gave rise to the similar up-regulation of the two genes and induction of fatty acid accumulation. The accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was found to be associated with the up-regulation of genes. This is the first report of characterization of Chlorella-derived SAD and the results may contribute to understanding of the mechanisms involved in fatty acid/lipid biosynthesis in microalgae.

  7. Modification of triclosan scaffold in search of improved inhibitors for enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Stec, Jozef; Fomovska, Alina; Afanador, Gustavo A; Muench, Stephen P; Zhou, Ying; Lai, Bo-Shiun; El Bissati, Kamal; Hickman, Mark R; Lee, Patty J; Leed, Susan E; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Sommervile, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig W; Rice, David; Prigge, Sean T; McLeod, Rima; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2013-07-01

    Through our focused effort to discover new and effective agents against toxoplasmosis, a structure-based drug design approach was used to develop a series of potent inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) enzyme in Toxoplasma gondii (TgENR). Modifications to positions 5 and 4' of the well-known ENR inhibitor triclosan afforded a series of 29 new analogues. Among the resulting compounds, many showed high potency and improved physicochemical properties in comparison with the lead. The most potent compounds 16 a and 16 c have IC50 values of 250 nM against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites without apparent toxicity to the host cells. Their IC50 values against recombinant TgENR were found to be 43 and 26 nM, respectively. Additionally, 11 other analogues in this series had IC50 values ranging from 17 to 130 nM in the enzyme-based assay. With respect to their excellent in vitro activity as well as improved drug-like properties, the lead compounds 16 a and 16 c are deemed to be excellent starting points for the development of new medicines to effectively treat Toxoplasma gondii infections.

  8. Slc10A4 - what do we know about the function of this "secret ligand carrier" protein?

    PubMed

    Borges, Karin

    2013-10-01

    This commentary discusses the possible functions of a relatively newly described solute carrier protein, Slc10a4, in regards to a recent article by Zelano et al. (2013) published in the January issue of Experimental Neurology, 239, 73-81. Slc10a4 belongs to the sodium-bile acid cotransporter family (Slc10), but does not show plasma membrane transport activity of bile acids and related molecules. It is co-localized with synaptic vesicle transporters for acetylcholine and dopamine. In Slc10a4 lacking mice, Zelano et al. found increased excitability in hippocampal slices and in vivo responses to pilocarpine, but not kainate. These findings are critically examined here. This author speculates on the possible function of Slc10a4, but remains partial about "specific effects of Slc10a4 in cholinergic systems". It is hoped that approaches targeting human SLC10A4 can be discovered for potential clinical use in neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Conversely, some side effects are expected due to peripheral Slc10a4 localization in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, as well as mast cells.

  9. Transport of platinum bonded nucleotides into proteoliposomes, mediated by Drosophila melanogaster thiamine pyrophosphate carrier protein (DmTpc1).

    PubMed

    Carrisi, Chiara; Antonucci, Daniela; Lunetti, Paola; Migoni, Danilo; Girelli, Chiara R; Dolce, Vincenza; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Benedetti, Michele; Capobianco, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    The results of the present study suggest that DmTpc1 is actively implicated in the specific uptake of free cytoplasmic Pt bonded nucleotides, and therefore could be linked to the mechanism of action of some platinum-based antitumor drugs. Although DmTpc1 has a low affinity for model [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-dGTP)] and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(py)(N7-5'-dGTP)] compared to dATP it's well known that DNA platination level of few metal atoms per double-stranded molecule may account for the pharmacological activity of platinum based antitumor drugs. This is the first investigation where it has been demonstrated that a mitochondrial carrier is directly involved in the transport of metalated purines related with the cisplatin mechanism of action. Moreover it is shown as a lower hindrance of nucleotide bonded platinum complexes could strongly enhance mitochondrial uptake. Furthermore, a new application of ICP-AES addressed to measure the transport of metalated nucleobases, by using a recombinant protein reconstituted into liposomes, has been here, for the first time, developed and compared with a standard technique such as the liquid scintillation counting.

  10. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J.; Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance. PMID:23519660

  11. Inefficient translation renders the Enterococcus faecalis fabK enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase phenotypically cryptic.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E

    2014-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the bacterial fatty acid elongation cycle. Enterococcus faecalis is unusual in that it encodes two unrelated enoyl-ACP reductases, FabI and FabK. We recently reported that deletion of the gene encoding FabI results in an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) auxotroph despite the presence of fabK, a gene encoding a second fully functional enoyl-ACP reductase. By process of elimination, our prior report argued that poor expression was the reason that fabK failed to functionally replace FabI. We now report that FabK is indeed poorly expressed and that the expression defect is at the level of translation rather than transcription. We isolated four spontaneous mutants that allowed growth of the E. faecalis ΔfabI strain on fatty acid-free medium. Each mutational lesion (single base substitution or deletion) extended the fabK ribosome binding site. Inactivation of fabK blocked growth, indicating that the mutations acted only on fabK rather than a downstream gene. The mutations activated fabK translation to levels that supported fatty acid synthesis and hence cell growth. Furthermore, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments showed that point mutations that resulted in increased complementarity to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA increased FabK translation to levels sufficient to support growth, whereas mutations that decreased complementarity blocked fabK translation.

  12. Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A; Davies, H M; Voelker, T A

    1995-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from such enzymes several times during angiosperm evolution. Also, the ubiquitous 18:1-ACP thioesterase appears to be a derivative of a 16:0 thioesterase. PMID:7734968

  13. Modification of Triclosan Scaffold in Search of Improved Inhibitors for Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Reductase in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Jozef; Fomovska, Alina; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Muench, Stephen P.; Zhou, Ying; Lai, Bo-Shiun; Bissati, Kamal El; Hickman, Mark R.; Lee, Patty J.; Leed, Susan E.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Sommervile, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig W.; Rice, David; Prigge, Sean T.; McLeod, Rima; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Through our focused effort to discover new and effective agents against toxoplasmosis, a structure-based drug design approach was utilized to develop a series of potent inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) enzyme in Toxoplasma gondii (TgENR). Modifications to positions 5 and 4′ of the well-known ENR inhibitor triclosan afforded a series of 29 new analogs. Among the resulting compounds, many showed high potency and improved physicochemical properties in comparison with the lead. The most potent compounds 16a and 16c have IC50 values of 250 nM against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites without apparent toxicity to the host cells. Their IC50 values against the recombinant TgENR were 43 and 26 nM, respectively. Additionally, 11 other analogs in this series had IC50 values ranging from 17 to 130 nM in the enzyme-based assay. With respect to their excellent in vitro activity as well as improved drug-like properties, the lead compounds 16a and 16c are deemed to be an excellent starting point for the development of new medicines to effectively treat Toxoplasma gondii infections. PMID:23776166

  14. Ionically-crosslinked milk protein nanoparticles as flutamide carriers for effective anticancer activity in prostate cancer-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Saad, Noha I; Helmy, Maged W; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

    2013-11-01

    In this study, casein (CAS) nanoparticles were used to encapsulate the hydrophobic anticancer drug, flutamide (FLT), aiming at controlling its release, enhancing its anti-tumor activity, and reducing its hepatotoxicity. The nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification of CAS, at pH below its isoelectric point, and stabilized via ionic-crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The nanoparticles were spherical and positively charged with a size below 100 nm and exhibited a sustained drug release up to 4 days. After intravenous administration into prostate cancer-bearing rats for 28 days, FLT-loaded CAS nanoparticles showed a higher anti-tumor efficacy as revealed by a significantly higher % reduction in PSA serum level (75%) compared to free FLT (55%). Moreover, the nanoparticles demonstrated a marked reduction in the relative weights of both prostate tumor and seminal vesicle (43% and 32%) compared to free FLT (12% and 18%), respectively. A significantly higher anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and apoptotic effects was demonstrated by the nanoparticles compared to drug solution as evidenced by their ability to decrease the expression of the proliferative marker (Ki-67) and reduce the level of tumor angiogenic markers (VEGF and IGF-1) as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 with subsequent induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Conclusively, these novel ionically-crosslinked milk protein nanovehicles offer a promising carrier to allow controlled intravenous delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

  15. A simple method for isolation and construction of markerless cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kouji; Keta, Sumie; Uesaka, Kazuma; Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ihara, Kunio; Omata, Tatsuo; Aichi, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene. On the basis of these observations, we developed an efficient method to isolate aas-deficient mutants from cultures of Synechocystis cells by counter selection using linoleic acid or linolenic acid as the selective agent. A variety of aas mutations were found in about 70 % of the FFA-resistant mutants thus selected. Various aas mutants were isolated also from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, using lauric acid as a selective agent. Selection using FFAs was useful also for construction of markerless aas knockout mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Thus, genetic engineering of FFA-producing cyanobacterial strains would be greatly facilitated by the use of the FFAs for counter selection.

  16. Effect of sterol carrier protein-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution in plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, Barbara P; Jefferson, John R; McIntosh, Avery L; Gallegos, Adalberto; McCann, Bonnie M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2007-10-01

    Although sphingolipids are highly important signaling molecules enriched in lipid rafts/caveolae, relatively little is known regarding factors such as sphingolipid binding proteins that may regulate the distribution of sphingolipids to lipid rafts/caveolae of living cells. Since early work demonstrated that sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) enhanced glycosphingolipid transfer from membranes in vitro, the effect of SCP-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells was examined. Using a non-detergent affinity chromatography method to isolate lipid rafts/caveolae and non-rafts from purified L-cell plasma membranes, it was shown that lipid rafts/caveolae were highly enriched in multiple sphingolipid species including ceramides, acidic glycosphingolipids (ganglioside GM1); neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, globosides), and sphingomyelin as compared to non-raft domains. SCP-2 overexpression further enriched the content of total sphingolipids and select sphingolipid species in the lipid rafts/caveolae domains. Analysis of fluorescence binding and displacement data revealed that purified human recombinant SCP-2 exhibited high binding affinity (nanomolar range) for all sphingolipid classes tested. The binding affinity decreased in the following order: ceramides > acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside GM1) > neutral glycosphingolipid (monohexosides, hexosides, globosides) > sphingomyelin. Enrichment of individual sphingolipid classes to lipid rafts/caveolae versus non-rafts in SCP-2 expressing plasma membranes followed closely with those classes most strongly bound to SCP-2 (ceramides, GM1 > the neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, and globosides) > sphingomyelin). Taken together these data suggested that SCP-2 acts to selectively regulate sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells.

  17. Carrier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ...

  18. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  19. Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-09-29

    In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries.

  20. Crystal Structure of Epiphyas Postvittana Takeout 1 With Bound Ubiquinone Supports a Role As Ligand Carriers for Takeout Proteins in Insects

    SciTech Connect

    Hamiaux, C.; Stanley, D.; Greenwood, D.R.; Baker, E.N.; Newcomb, R.D.

    2009-05-19

    Takeout (To) proteins are found exclusively in insects and have been proposed to have important roles in various aspects of their physiology and behavior. Limited sequence similarity with juvenile hormone-binding proteins (JHBPs), which specifically bind and transport juvenile hormones in Lepidoptera, suggested a role for To proteins in binding hydrophobic ligands. We present the first crystal structure of a To protein, EpTo1 from the light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana, solved in-house by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur anomalous dispersion, and refined to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. EpTo1 adopts the unusual {alpha}/{beta}-wrap fold, seen only for JHBP and several mammalian lipid carrier proteins, a scaffold tailored for the binding and/or transport of hydrophobic ligands. EpTo1 has a 45 {angstrom} long, purely hydrophobic, internal tunnel that extends for the full length of the protein and accommodates a bound ligand. The latter was shown by mass spectrometry to be ubiquinone-8 and is probably derived from Escherichia coli. The structure provides the first direct experimental evidence that To proteins are ligand carriers; gives insights into the nature of endogenous ligand(s) of EpTo1; shows, by comparison with JHBP, a basis for different ligand specificities; and suggests a mechanism for the binding/release of ligands.

  1. Discrimination of Potent Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase by Thermal Shift Assay

    PubMed Central

    Afanador, Gustavo A.; Muench, Stephen P.; McPhillie, Martin; Fomovska, Alina; Schön, Arne; Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Gang; Stec, Jozef; Freundlich, Joel S.; Shieh, Hong-Ming; Anderson, John W.; Jacobus, David P.; Fidock, David A.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Fishwick, Colin W.; Rice, David W.; Freire, Ernesto; McLeod, Rima; Prigge, Sean T.

    2014-01-01

    Many microbial pathogens rely on a type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway which is distinct from the type I pathway found in humans. Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (ENR) is an essential FASII pathway enzyme and the target of a number of antimicrobial drug discovery efforts. The biocide triclosan is established as a potent inhibitor of ENR and has been the starting point for medicinal chemistry studies. We evaluated a series of triclosan analogs for their ability to inhibit the growth of Toxoplasma gondii, a pervasive human pathogen, and its ENR enzyme (TgENR). Several compounds were identified that inhibited TgENR at low nanomolar concentrations, but could not be further differentiated due to the limited dynamic range of the TgENR activity assay. Thus, we adapted a thermal shift assay (TSA) to directly measure the dissociation constant (Kd) of the most potent inhibitors identified in this study as well as inhibitors from previous studies. Furthermore, the TSA allowed us to determine the mode of action of these compounds in the presence of NADH or NAD+ cofactors. We found that all of the inhibitors bind to a TgENR/NAD+ complex, but that they differed in their dependence on NAD+ concentration. Ultimately, we were able to identify compounds which bind to the TgENR/NAD+ complex in the low femtomolar range. This shows how TSA data combined with enzyme inhibition, parasite growth inhibition data and ADMET predictions allow for better discrimination between potent ENR inhibitors for future medicine development. PMID:24295325

  2. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  3. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  4. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm3) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm3) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone. PMID:27189411

  5. Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Muench, Stephen P.; Prigge, Sean T.; McLeod, Rima; Rafferty, John B.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Roberts, Craig W.; Mui, Ernest J.; Rice, David W.

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. Recent studies have demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the biocide triclosan arrest the growth of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and inhibit the activity of the apicomplexan enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR). The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures of T. gondii ENR have revealed that, as in its bacterial and plant homologues, a loop region which flanks the active site becomes ordered upon inhibitor binding, resulting in the slow tight binding of triclosan. In addition, the T. gondii ENR–triclosan complex reveals the folding of a hydrophilic insert common to the apicomplexan family that flanks the substrate-binding domain and is disordered in all other reported apicomplexan ENR structures. Structural comparison of the apicomplexan ENR structures with their bacterial and plant counterparts has revealed that although the active sites of the parasite enzymes are broadly similar to those of their bacterial counterparts, there are a number of important differences within the drug-binding pocket that reduce the packing interactions formed with several inhibitors in the apicomplexan ENR enzymes. Together with other significant structural differences, this provides a possible explanation of the lower affinity of the parasite ENR enzyme family for aminopyridine-based inhibitors, suggesting that an effective antiparasitic agent may well be distinct from equivalent antimicrobials.

  6. Crystal structures and kinetic properties of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase I from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ling; Gao, Zengqiang; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Shennan; Dong, Yuhui

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive citrus disease. The leading cause of HLB is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for bacterial viability and has been validated as a target for the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Enoyl−acyl carrier protein reductase (also called ENR or FabI and a product of the fabI gene) is an enzyme required in a critical step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and has attracted attention as a target of novel antimicrobial agents. We determined the crystal structures of FabI from Ca. L. asiaticus in its apoform as well as in complex with b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) at 1.7 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively, to facilitate the design and screening of small molecule inhibitors of FabI. The monomeric ClFabI is highly similar to other known FabI structures as expected; however, unlike the typical tetramer, ClFabI exists as a hexamer in crystal, whereas as dimer in solution, on the other hand, the substrate binding loop which always disordered in apoform FabI structures is ordered in apo-ClFabI. Interestingly, the structure of ClFabI undergoes remarkable conformational change in the substrate-binding loop in the presence of NAD. We conclude that the signature sequence motif of FabI can be considered as Gly-(Xaa)5-Ser-(Xaa)n-Val-Tyr-(Xaa)6-Lys-(Xaa)n-Thr instead of Tyr-(Xaa)6-Lys. We have further identified isoniazid as a competitive inhibitor with NADH. PMID:24407918

  7. Functional Characterization of Triclosan-Resistant Enoyl-acyl-carrier Protein Reductase (FabV) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Lin, Jin-Shui; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR), FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholerae fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P. aeruginosa to be extremely resistant to triclosan. Moreover, fabV exhibits pleiotropic effects. Deletion of fabV led P. aeruginosa to show attenuated swarming motility, decreased rhamnolipid, pyoverdine and acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) production. Complementation of the fabV mutant with any one ENR encoding gene could restore these features to some extent, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that addition of exogenous AHLs could restore the fabV mutant strain to swarm on semisolid plates and to produce more virulence factors than the fabV mutant strain. These findings indicate that deletion of fabV reduced the activity of ENR in P. aeruginosa, decreased fatty acid synthesis, and subsequently depressed the production of AHLs and other virulence factors, which finally may led to a reduction in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, fabV should be an ideal target for the control of P. aeruginosa infectivity. PMID:27965638

  8. Dissecting the Structural Elements for the Activation of β-Ketoacyl-(Acyl Carrier Protein) Reductase from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Zheng, Heping; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Shumilin, Igor A.; Osinski, Tomasz; Demas, Matt; Grimshaw, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT β-Ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase (FabG) catalyzes the key reductive reaction in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is a vital metabolic pathway in bacteria and a promising target for new antibiotic development. The activation of the enzyme is usually linked to the formation of a catalytic triad and cofactor binding, and crystal structures of FabG from different organisms have been captured in either the active or inactive conformation. However, the structural elements which enable activation of FabG require further exploration. Here we report the findings of structural, enzymatic, and binding studies of the FabG protein found in the causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae (vcFabG). vcFabG exists predominantly as a dimer in solution and is able to self-associate to form tetramers, which is the state seen in the crystal structure. The formation of the tetramer may be promoted by the presence of the cofactor NADP(H). The transition between the dimeric and tetrameric states of vcFabG is related to changes in the conformations of the α4/α5 helices on the dimer-dimer interface. Two glycine residues adjacent to the dimer interface (G92 and G141) are identified to be the hinge for the conformational changes, while the catalytic tyrosine (Y155) and a glutamine residue that forms hydrogen bonds to both loop β4-α4 and loop β5-α5 (Q152) stabilize the active conformation. The functions of the aforementioned residues were confirmed by binding and enzymatic assays for the corresponding mutants. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the results of structural, enzymatic, and binding studies of FabG from Vibrio cholerae (vcFabG). In this work, we dissected the structural elements responsible for the activation of vcFabG. The structural information provided here is essential for the development of antibiotics specifically targeting bacterial FabG, especially for the multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae. PMID:26553852

  9. Advancement in recombinant protein production using a marine oxygen carrier to enhance oxygen transfer in a CHO-S cell line.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Fiona; Bossard, Morgane; Dutheil, Delphine; Rousselot, Morgane; Polard, Valérie; Férec, Claude; Leize, Elisabeth; Delépine, Pascal; Zal, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant proteins, particularly proteins used as therapeutics, are widely expressed for bioprocessing manufacturing processes. Mammalian cell lines represent the major host cells for bioproduction, according to their capacities of post-translational modifications and folding of secreted proteins. Many parameters can affect cell productivity, especially the rate of oxygen transfer. Dissolved oxygen, in high or low proportions, is a crucial parameter which can affect cell viability and thus productivity. HEMARINA has developed a new technology, commercially proposed as HEMOXCell(®), to improve cell culture at a large production scale. HEMOXCell(®) is a marine oxygen carrier having properties of high oxygen sensitivity, to be used as an oxygen additive during cell culture manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the effects of HEMOXCell(®) on the culture of the commonly used CHO-S cell line. Two main objectives were pursued: 1) cell growth rate and viability during a batch mode process, and 2) the determination of the effect of this oxygen carrier on recombinant protein production from a CHO-transfected cell line. Our results show an increase of CHO-S cellular growth at a rate of more than four-fold in culture with HEMOXCell(®). Moreover, an extension of the growth exponential phase and high cell viability were observed. All of these benefits seem to contribute to the improvement of recombinant protein production. This work underlines several applications using this marine-type oxygen carrier for large biomanufacturing. It is a promising cell culture additive according to the increasing demand for therapeutic products such as monoclonal antibodies.

  10. Expression Cloning of a Pseudomonas Gene Encoding a Hydroxydecanoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein-Dependent UDP-GlcNAc Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Garry D.; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Cotter, Robert J.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    1998-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-3-O-acyltransferase (UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase) catalyzes the first step of lipid A biosynthesis (M. S. Anderson and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 262:5159–5169, 1987). We here report the isolation of the lpxA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a library of Pseudomonas strain PAO1 expressed in Escherichia coli LE392 (J. Lightfoot and J. S. Lam, J. Bacteriol. 173:5624–5630, 1991). Pseudomonas lpxA encodes a 10-carbon-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase, whereas the E. coli transferase is selective for a 14-carbon acyl chain. Recombinant cosmid 1137 enabled production of a 3-hydroxydecanoyl-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase in E. coli. It was identified by assaying lysozyme-EDTA lysates of individual members of the library with 3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the substrate. Cosmid 1137 contained a 20-kb insert of P. aeruginosa DNA. The lpxA gene region was localized to a 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment. Sequencing revealed that it contains one complete open reading frame (777 bp) encoding a new lpxA homolog. The predicted Pseudomonas LpxA is 258 amino acids long and contains 21 complete hexapeptide repeating units, spaced in approximately the same manner as the 24 repeats of E. coli LpxA. The P. aeruginosa UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase is 54% identical and 67% similar to the E. coli enzyme. A plasmid (pGD3) containing the 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment complemented E. coli RO138, a temperature-sensitive mutant harboring lpxA2. LpxA assays of extracts of this construct indicated that it is >1,000-fold more selective for 3-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP than for 3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP. Mass spectrometry of lipid A isolated from this strain by hydrolysis at pH 4.5 revealed [M-H]− 1,684.5 (versus 1,796.5 for wild-type lipid A), consistent with 3-hydroxydecanoate rather than 3-hydroxymyristate at positions 3 and 3′. PMID:9440522

  11. Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Urvashi; Ganjam, Goutham K; Vasudevan, Nandini; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2005-02-28

    Estrogen is an important steroid hormone that mediates most of its effects on regulation of gene expression by binding to intracellular receptors. The consensus estrogen response element (ERE) is a 13bp palindromic inverted repeat with a three nucleotide spacer. However, several reports suggest that many estrogen target genes are regulated by diverse elements, such as imperfect EREs and ERE half sites (ERE 1/2), which are either the proximal or the distal half of the palindrome. To gain more insight into ERE half site-mediated gene regulation, we used a region from the estrogen-regulated chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) gene promoter that contains ERE half sites. Using moxestrol, an analogue of estrogen and transient transfection of deletion and mutation containing RCP promoter/reporter constructs in chicken hepatoma (LMH2A) cells, we identified an estrogen response unit (ERU) composed of two consensus ERE 1/2 sites and one non-consensus ERE 1/2 site. Mutation of any of these sites within this ERU abolishes moxestrol response. Further, the ERU is able to confer moxestrol responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, RCP promoter is regulated by moxestrol in estrogen responsive human MCF-7 cells, but not in other cell lines such as NIH3T3 and HepG2 despite estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) co transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with promoter regions encompassing the half sites and nuclear extracts from LMH2A cells show the presence of a moxestrol-induced complex that is abolished by a polyclonal anti-ERalpha antibody. Surprisingly, estrogen receptor cannot bind to these promoter elements in isolation. Thus, there appears to be a definite requirement for some other factor(s) in addition to estrogen receptor, for the generation of a suitable response of this promoter to estrogen. Our studies therefore suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation by estrogen, involving ERE half sites without direct binding of ER to the

  12. Apo-neocarzinostatin: a protein carrier for Cu(II) glycocomplexes and Cu(II) into U937 and HT29 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ludivine; Franzoni, Susanna; Mussi, Francesca; Aumont-Niçaise, Magali; Bertrand, Hélène; Desmadril, Michel; Pelosi, Giorgio; Buschini, Annamaria; Policar, Clotilde

    2014-06-01

    In the field of pharmaceuticals there is an increasing need for new delivery systems to overcome the issues of solubility, penetration, toxicity and drug resistance. One of the possible strategies is to use biocarriers such as proteins to encourage the cell-penetration of drugs. In this paper, the use of the apo-protein neocarzinostatin (apo-NCS) as a carrier-protein for two Cu(II) glycocomplexes, previously characterized, and Cu(II) ions was investigated. Its interaction with the metallic compounds was analyzed using microcalorimetry. The dissociation constants were shown to be in the micromolar range. The Cu(II) glycocomplexes, in absence of apo-NCS, were found to be cytotoxic in the U937 and HT29 cell lines whereas the corresponding glycoligands showed no toxicity. The leukemic cell line (U937) seems to be more sensitive to glycocomplexes than the colon cancer cell line (HT29). Interestingly, apo-NCS was shown to increase systematically the antiproliferative activity by a factor of 2 and 3 for Cu(II) glycocomplexes and Cu(II) respectively. The antiproliferative activity detected was not related to proteasome inhibition. This result stresses the importance of new molecular tools for the delivery of Cu(II) to tumor cells using non-covalent association with carriers proteins.

  13. The Length of the Bound Fatty Acid Influences the Dynamics of the Acyl Carrier Protein and the Stability of the Thioester Bond†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis have been shown to exhibit a high degree of conformational flexibility, in that they are able to sequester fatty acid intermediates between 4 and 18 carbons in length. This flexibility has been observed in X-ray and NMR structures of acyl carrier proteins attached to different fatty acids. NMR studies comparing decanoyl-ACP and stearoyl-ACP indicated that ACP exhibits more dynamic motions when bound to longer fatty acids. We have used complementary chemical and NMR methods as an approach to improving our understanding of the effect of fatty acid length on the dynamics of acyl carrier protein. A chemical assay of the accessibility of the acyl thioester to solvent revealed a positive correlation between chain length and rate of hydrolysis. Surprisingly, this linear correlation was biphasic, with accelerated hydrolysis observed for fatty acids longer than 15 carbons. To further understand the motions associated with this acceleration, we collected 15N relaxation dispersion data for 14:0-, 15:0-, and 16:0-ACP. The greatest dispersions were exhibited by residues that form the entrance to the fatty acid binding pocket. In addition, these dispersions were observed to increase with the length of the fatty acid. Because the exchange rates derived from fitting the data to a two-state model varied from residue to residue, a more complex motional model appears to be required to adequately explain the dynamics. Thus, acyl-ACP offers an interesting system for future investigations of complex protein motions on the micro- and millisecond time scales. PMID:20014832

  14. Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Cargo Receptors for Improving Secretion of Carrier-Fused Heterologous Proteins in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Huy-Dung; Maruyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent hosts for industrial protein production due to their superior secretory capacity; however, the yield of heterologous eukaryotic proteins is generally lower than that of fungal or endogenous proteins. Although activating protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) improves the yield, the importance of intracellular transport machinery for heterologous protein secretion is poorly understood. Here, using Aspergillus oryzae as a model filamentous fungus, we studied the involvement of two putative lectin-like cargo receptors, A. oryzae Vip36 (AoVip36) and AoEmp47, in the secretion of heterologous proteins expressed in fusion with the endogenous enzyme α-amylase as the carrier. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that mDsRed-tagged AoVip36 localized in the Golgi compartment, whereas AoEmp47 showed localization in both the ER and the Golgi compartment. Deletion of AoVip36 and AoEmp47 improved heterologous protein secretion, but only AoVip36 deletion had a negative effect on the secretion of α-amylase. Analysis of ER-enriched cell fractions revealed that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 were involved in the retention of heterologous proteins in the ER. However, the overexpression of each cargo receptor had a different effect on heterologous protein secretion: AoVip36 enhanced the secretion, whereas AoEmp47 promoted the intracellular retention. Taken together, our data suggest that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 hinder the secretion of heterologous proteins by promoting their retention in the ER but that AoVip36 also promotes the secretion of heterologous proteins. Moreover, we found that genetic deletion of these putative ER-Golgi cargo receptors significantly improves heterologous protein production. The present study is the first to propose that ER-Golgi transport is a bottleneck for heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi. PMID:25362068

  15. A dengue-2 Envelope fragment inserted within the structure of the P64k meningococcal protein carrier enables a functional immune response against the virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Lisset; Rodríguez, Rayner; Lazo, Laura; Silva, Ricardo; Zulueta, Aída; Chinea, Glay; López, Carlos; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    A gene fragment encoding for the amino acids (aa) 286-426 from the dengue Envelope (E) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as two forms of fusion proteins. In one case, the E fragment was fused to the first 45 aa of the P64k protein from Neisseria meningitidis (PD2) while, in the other, it was inserted within the lipoil-binding domain of the aforementioned bacterial protein (PD3). PD2 was obtained as insoluble form within the cytoplasm of the bacteria while PD3 was distributed equally as soluble and insoluble forms. The insoluble forms of each protein as well as the soluble fraction of PD3 were semipurified to test the antigenicity and the immunogenicity in mice. The forms containing the entire P64k protein exhibited the highest recognition with different polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, the neutralizing antibodies elicited by the recombinant proteins were higher in the case of PD3 forms than with PD2, independently of the solubility status. In addition, mice inoculated with the semipurified insoluble form of PD3 were partially protected against lethal challenge with dengue-2 virus, administered by intracerebral inoculation. The results suggested the folding and carrier capacity of the P64k protein over the E fragment, converting PD3 as an attractive vaccine candidate against dengue-2 virus.

  16. Co-expression studies of the orphan carrier protein Slc10a4 and the vesicular carriers VAChT and VMAT2 in the rat central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Burger, S; Döring, B; Hardt, M; Beuerlein, K; Gerstberger, R; Geyer, J

    2011-10-13

    The orphan carrier protein Slc10a4 represents a novel member of the so-called "sodium-bile acid co-transporter family," SLC10. Slc10a4 has a close phylogenetic relationship with the liver bile acid carrier Ntcp (Slc10a1), but has no transport activity for bile acids. In a previous study Slc10a4 proved to be predominantly expressed in the rat brain, where it was localized within cholinergic neurons. However, whether this cholinergic expression pattern was exclusive for Slc10a4 and whether this protein might also be expressed in the peripheral nervous system or other peripheral organs, remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study we analyzed the expression of Slc10a4 in neuronal and non-neuronal rat tissues more systematically, employing immunofluorescence co-localization studies of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter VAChT and the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2. The Slc10a4 protein was found to be widely expressed throughout structures of the CNS and peripheral nervous system. In addition to cholinergic neurons in the CNS, the retina, the neuromuscular junction and parasympathetic innervations, Slc10a4 was also localized in certain monoaminergic neurons and nerve fibers in the substantia nigra, the spinal cord and sympathetic innervations. Slc10a4 expression was also detected in granules of rat peritoneal and tissue mast cells using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments with rat brain vesicle preparations revealed that the Slc10a4 protein was expressed in synaptic vesicles where it co-localized with synaptophysin, VAChT and VMAT2. This vesicular expression pattern was also shown in the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 by immunofluorescence. Based on the findings of the present study we can speculate about the function of Slc10a4 as follows: (I) Slc10a4 could be a novel vesicular transporter for cholinergic and/or various monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral

  17. Anti-Group B Streptococcus Glycan-Conjugate Vaccines Using Pilus Protein GBS80 As Carrier and Antigen: Comparing Lysine and Tyrosine-directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Nilo, Alberto; Morelli, Laura; Passalacqua, Irene; Brogioni, Barbara; Allan, Martin; Carboni, Filippo; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Zerbini, Francesca; Maione, Domenico; Fabbrini, Monica; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Hu, Qi-Ying; Margarit, Immaculada; Berti, Francesco; Adamo, Roberto

    2015-07-17

    Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in pregnant women, newborns, and elderly people. Vaccination of pregnant women represents the best strategy for prevention of neonatal disease, and GBS polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines are currently under clinical testing. The potential of GBS pilus proteins selected by genome-based reverse vaccinology as protective antigens for anti-streptococcal vaccines has also been demonstrated. Dressing pilus proteins with surface glycan antigens could be an attractive approach to extend vaccine coverage. We have recently developed an efficient method for tyrosine-directed ligation of large glycans to proteins via copper-free azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. This method enables targeting of predetermined sites of the protein, ensuring that protein epitopes are preserved prior to glycan coupling and a higher consistency in glycoconjugate batches. Herein, we compared conjugates of the GBS type II polysaccharide (PSII) and the GBS80 pilus protein obtained by classic lysine random conjugation and by the recently developed tyrosine-directed ligation. PSII conjugated to CRM197, a carrier protein used for vaccines in the market, was used as a control. We found that the constructs made from PSII and GBS80 were able to elicit murine antibodies recognizing individually the glycan and protein epitopes on the bacterial surface. The generated antibodies were efficacious in mediating opsonophagocytic killing of strains expressing exclusively PSII or GBS80 proteins. The two glycoconjugates were also effective in protecting newborn mice against GBS infection following vaccination of the dams. Altogether, these results demonstrated that polysaccharide-conjugated GBS80 pilus protein functions as a carrier comparably to CRM197, while maintaining its properties of protective protein antigen. Glycoconjugation and reverse vaccinology can, therefore, be combined to design

  18. O-Phospho-L-serine and the Thiocarboxylated Sulfur Carrier Protein CysO-COSH are Substrates for CysM, a Cysteine Synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Seán E.; Jurgenson, Christopher T.; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetic pathway of CysM, a cysteine synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the expression of which is upregulated under conditions of oxidative stress, was studied by transient-state kinetic techniques. This enzyme exhibits extensive homology with the B-isozymes of the well-studied O-acetylserine sulfhydrylases and employs a similar chemical mechanism involving a stable α-aminoacrylate intermediate. However, we show that specificity of CysM for its amino acid substrate is more than 500-fold greater for O-phospho-L-serine than for O-acetyl-L-serine, suggesting that O-phospho-L-serine is the likely substrate in vivo. We also investigated the kinetics of the carbon-sulfur bond-forming reaction between the CysM-bound α-aminoacrylate intermediate and the thiocarboxylated sulfur-carrier protein, CysO-COSH. The specificity of CysM for this physiological sulfide equivalent is more than three orders of magnitude greater than that for bisulfide. Moreover, the kinetics of this latter reaction are limited by association of the proteins, whilst the reaction with bisulfide is consistent with a rapid equilibrium binding model. We interpret this finding to suggest that the CysM active site with the bound aminoacrylate intermediate is protected from solvent and that binding of CysO-COSH produces a conformational change allowing rapid sulfur transfer. This study represents the first detailed kinetic characterization of sulfide transfer from a sulfide carrier protein. PMID:18842002

  19. O-phospho-L-serine and the thiocarboxylated sulfur carrier protein CysO-COSH are substrates for CysM, a cysteine synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Seán E; Jurgenson, Christopher T; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P

    2008-11-04

    The kinetic pathway of CysM, a cysteine synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was studied by transient-state kinetic techniques. The expression of which is upregulated under conditions of oxidative stress. This enzyme exhibits extensive homology with the B-isozymes of the well-studied O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase family and employs a similar chemical mechanism involving a stable alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate. However, we show that specificity of CysM for its amino acid substrate is more than 500-fold greater for O-phospho-L-serine than for O-acetyl-L-serine, suggesting that O-phospho-L-serine is the likely substrate in vivo. We also investigated the kinetics of the carbon-sulfur bond-forming reaction between the CysM-bound alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate and the thiocarboxylated sulfur carrier protein, CysO-COSH. The specificity of CysM for this physiological sulfide equivalent is more than 3 orders of magnitude greater than that for bisulfide. Moreover, the kinetics of this latter reaction are limited by association of the proteins, while the reaction with bisulfide is consistent with a rapid equilibrium binding model. We interpret this finding to suggest that the CysM active site with the bound aminoacrylate intermediate is protected from solvent and that binding of CysO-COSH produces a conformational change allowing rapid sulfur transfer. This study represents the first detailed kinetic characterization of sulfide transfer from a sulfide carrier protein.

  20. The BioC O-Methyltransferase Catalyzes Methyl Esterification of Malonyl-Acyl Carrier Protein, an Essential Step in Biotin Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven; Cronan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicated the Escherichia coli BioC protein as the initiator of the synthetic pathway that forms the pimeloyl moiety of biotin (Lin, S., Hanson, R. E., and Cronan, J. E. (2010) Nat. Chem. Biol. 6, 682–688). BioC was believed to be an O-methyltransferase that methylated the free carboxyl of either malonyl-CoA or malonyl-acyl carrier protein based on the ability of O-methylated (but not unmethylated) precursors to bypass the BioC requirement for biotin synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. However, only indirect proof of the hypothesized enzymatic activity was obtained because the activities of the available BioC preparations were too low for direct enzymatic assay. Because E. coli BioC protein was extremely recalcitrant to purification in an active form, BioC homologues of other bacteria were tested. We report that the native form of Bacillus cereus ATCC10987 BioC functionally replaced E. coli BioC in vivo, and the protein could be expressed in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. In disagreement with prior scenarios that favored malonyl-CoA as the methyl acceptor, malonyl-acyl carrier protein was a far better acceptor of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine than was malonyl-CoA. BioC was specific for the malonyl moiety and was inhibited by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sinefungin. High level expression of B. cereus BioC in E. coli blocked cell growth and fatty acid synthesis. PMID:22965231

  1. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Natarajan, Sampath; Kim, Hyesoon; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2008-12-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight in rice, which is one of the most devastating diseases in rice-cultivating countries. The Xoo0880 (fabD) gene coding for a malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) from Xoo was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. MCAT is an essential enzyme that catalyzes a key reaction of fatty-acid synthesis in bacteria and plants: the conversion of malonyl-CoA to malonyl-acyl carrier protein. The FabD enzyme was purified and crystallized in order to elucidate its three-dimensional structure and to determine its enzymatic reaction mechanism and biological importance. The crystal obtained diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 41.4, b = 74.6, c = 98.5 A. According to Matthews coefficient calculations, the crystallographic structure contains only one monomeric unit in the asymmetric unit with a V(M) of 2.21 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 44.3%.

  2. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of basic proteins with equilibrium isoelectric focusing in carrier ampholyte-pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Rabilloud, T

    1994-02-01

    A modified procedure for the two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of basic polypeptides is described. This method uses isoelectric focusing with carrier ampholytes in the first dimension, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis in the second dimension. Counteraction of the cathodic drift is achieved by glass tube treatment (silanization), electrolyte modification (use of weak bases and acids), protection of the catholyte from carbon dioxide, and the addition of glycerol to the gel mix. Better resolution and reproducibility are obtained than with nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis, since quasi equilibrium focusing can be obtained.

  3. The Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Mediates Fatty Acid Import1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Berlepsch, Simon; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Brodesser, Susanne; Fink, Patrick; Marin, Kay; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Gierth, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of fatty acids across biological membranes is a largely uncharacterized process, although it is essential at membranes of several higher plant organelles like chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we analyzed loss-of-function mutants of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a model system to circumvent redundancy problems encountered in eukaryotic organisms. Cells deficient in the only cytoplasmic Synechocystis acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (SynAas) were highly resistant to externally provided α-linolenic acid, whereas wild-type cells bleached upon this treatment. Bleaching of wild-type cells was accompanied by a continuous increase of α-linolenic acid in total lipids, whereas no such accumulation could be observed in SynAas-deficient cells (Δsynaas). When SynAas was disrupted in the tocopherol-deficient, α-linolenic acid-hypersensitive Synechocystis mutant Δslr1736, double mutant cells displayed the same resistance phenotype as Δsynaas. Moreover, heterologous expression of SynAas in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants lacking the major yeast fatty acid import protein Fat1p (Δfat1) led to the restoration of wild-type sensitivity against exogenous α-linolenic acid of the otherwise resistant Δfat1 mutant, indicating that SynAas is functionally equivalent to Fat1p. In addition, liposome assays provided direct evidence for the ability of purified SynAas protein to mediate α-[14C]linolenic acid retrieval from preloaded liposome membranes via the synthesis of [14C]linolenoyl-acyl carrier protein. Taken together, our data show that an acyl-activating enzyme like SynAas is necessary and sufficient to mediate the transfer of fatty acids across a biological membrane. PMID:22535424

  4. Expression and intracellular processing of the 58 kDa sterol carrier protein-2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase in transfected mouse L-cell fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, B P; Petrescu, A D; Starodub, O; Roths, J B; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1999-04-01

    Although the sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2) gene encodes for two proteins, almost nothing is known of the function and potential processing of the larger transcript corresponding to the 58 kDa sterol carrier protein-2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (SCP-x), in intact cells. L-cell fibroblasts transfected with cDNA encoding for the 58 kDa SCP-x protein had a 4.5-fold increase in SCP-x mRNA transcript levels. Western blot analysis showed SCP-x protein expression reached 0.011% of total protein, representing a 4.1-fold increase over basal levels. Surprisingly, the 13.2 kDa SCP-2 protein also increased 2-fold in the transfected cells. This was consistent with part of the 58 kDa SCP-x being proteolytically processed to 13.2 kDa SCP-2 as there was no evidence of an mRNA transcript corresponding to a 13.2/15.2 kDa gene product in the transfected L-cell clones. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of transfected L-cells showed that SCP-x/SCP-2 co-localized in highest concentration with catalase in peroxisomes, but significant amounts appeared extra-peroxisomal. Overexpression of SCP-x significantly altered cholesterol uptake and metabolism. Uptake of exogenous [3H]cholesterol and total cholesterol mass were increased 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, in SCP-x expressors. Although cholesterol ester mass was unaltered, incorporation of exogenous [3H]cholesterol and [3H]oleic acid into cholesteryl esters increased 2.3- and 2.5-fold, respectively. These results from intact cells suggest the 13.2 kDa SCP-2 can arise from the larger SCP-2 gene product and indicate a role for the 58 kDa SCP-x protein in cholesterol uptake and intracellular cycling.

  5. Novel photonic technique creates micrometer resolution protein arrays and provides a new approach to coupling of genes, peptide hormones and drugs to nanoparticle carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duroux, M.; Duroux, L.; Neves-Petersen, M. T.; Skovsen, E.; Petersen, S. B.

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate that ultraviolet light can be used to make sterically oriented covalent immobilization of a large variety of protein molecules onto either thiolated quartz, gold or silicon. The reaction mechanism behind the reported new technology involves light-induced breakage of disulphide bridges in proteins upon UV illumination of nearby aromatic amino acids, resulting in the formation of free, reactive thiol groups that will form covalent bonds with thiol reactive surfaces. In general, the protein molecules retain their function. The size of the immobilization spot is limited to the focal point of illumination being as small as a few micrometers. This new technology allows for dense packing of different bio-molecules on a surface, allowing the creation of multi-potent functionalised new materials, such as nano-biosensors. We have developed the necessary technology for preparing large protein arrays of enzymes and fragments of monoclonal antibodies. Dedicated image processing software has been developed for making quality assessment of the protein arrays. This novel technology is ideal to couple drugs and other bio-molecules to nanoparticles which can be used as carriers into cells for therapeutic purposes.

  6. A Modification-Specific Peptide-Based Immunization Approach Using CRM197 Carrier Protein: Development of a Selective Vaccine Against Pyroglutamate Aβ Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Acker, Christopher M; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strategies aimed at reducing cerebral accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ immunization has proven to be effective at promoting Aβ clearance in animal models, but adverse effects have hampered its clinical evaluation. The first anti-Aβ immunization clinical trial, which assessed a full-length Aβ1-42 vaccine, showed an increased risk of encephalitis, most likely because of autoimmune proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) response against all forms of Aβ. Immunization against less abundant but potentially more pathologically relevant Aβ products, such as N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate-3 Aβ (AβpE3), could provide efficacy and improve tolerability in Aβ immunotherapy. Here, we describe a selective vaccine against AβpE3 that uses the diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 as a carrier protein for epitope presentation. CRM197 is currently used in licensed vaccines and has demonstrated excellent immunogenicity and safety in humans. In mice, our AβpE3:CRM197 vaccine triggered the production of specific anti-AβpE3 antibodies that did not cross-react with Aβ1-42, non-cyclized AβE3 or N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate-11 Aβ (AβpE11). AβpE3:CRM197 antiserum strongly labeled AβpE3 in insoluble protein extracts and decorated cortical amyloid plaques in human AD brains. Anti-AβpE3 antibodies were almost exclusively of the IgG1 isotype, suggesting an antiinflammatory Th2 response bias to the AβpE3:CRM197 vaccine. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that CRM197 has potential as a safe and suitable vaccine carrier for active and selective immunization against specific protein sequence modifications or conformations such as AβpE3. PMID:27900387

  7. Bile salts-containing vesicles: promising pharmaceutical carriers for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and peptide/protein-based therapeutics or vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Most of the new drugs, biological therapeutics (proteins/peptides) and vaccines have poor performance after oral administration due to poor solubility or degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Though, vesicular carriers exemplified by liposomes or niosomes can protect the entrapped agent to a certain extent from degradation. Nevertheless, the harsh GIT environment exemplified by low pH, presence of bile salts and enzymes limits their capabilities by destabilizing them. In response to that, more resistant bile salts-containing vesicles (BS-vesicles) were developed by inclusion of bile salts into lipid bilayers constructs. The effectiveness of orally administrated BS-vesicles in improving the performance of vesicles has been demonstrated in researches. Yet, these attempts did not gain considerable attention. This is the first review that provides a comprehensive overview of utilizing BS-vesicles as a promising pharmaceutical carrier with a special focus on their successful applications in oral delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and vaccines. Insights on the possible mechanisms by which BS-vesicles improve the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated drug or immunological response of entrapped vaccine are explained. In addition, methods adopted to prepare and characterize BS-vesicles are described. Finally, the gap in the scientific researches tackling BS-vesicles that needs to be addressed is highlighted.

  8. Identification of a Dual-Targeted Protein Belonging to the Mitochondrial Carrier Family That Is Required for Early Leaf Development in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiming; Yang, Jian; Wu, Zhongchang; Liu, Huili; Huang, Fangliang; Wu, Yunrong; Carrie, Chris; Narsai, Reena; Murcha, Monika; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A dual-targeted protein belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family was characterized in rice (Oryza sativa) and designated 3′-Phosphoadenosine 5′-Phosphosulfate Transporter1 (PAPST1). The papst1 mutant plants showed a defect in thylakoid development, resulting in leaf chlorosis at an early leaf developmental stage, while normal leaf development was restored 4 to 6 d after leaf emergence. OsPAPST1 is highly expressed in young leaves and roots, while the expression is reduced in mature leaves, in line with the recovery of chloroplast development seen in the older leaves of papst1 mutant plants. OsPAPST1 is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and chloroplast envelope. Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis reveals reduced expression of genes encoding photosynthetic components (light reactions) in papst1 mutant plants. In addition, sulfur metabolism is also perturbed in papst1 plants, and it was seen that PAPST1 can act as a nucleotide transporter when expressed in Escherichia coli that can be inhibited significantly by 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate. Given these findings, together with the altered phenotype seen only when leaves are first exposed to light, it is proposed that PAPST1 may act as a 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate carrier that has been shown to act as a retrograde signal between chloroplasts and the nucleus. PMID:23411694

  9. Analysis of the expression pattern of the carrier protein transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated changes.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Transthyretin is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid protein synthesized early in development by the liver, choroid plexus and several other tissues. It is a carrier protein for the antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and thyroid hormones. Transthyretin helps internalize thyroxine and retinol-binding protein into cells by binding to megalin, which is a multi-ligand receptor expressed on the luminal surface of various epithelia. We investigated the expression of transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human skin; however, their expression pattern in the hair follicle is still to be elucidated. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of transthyretin and megalin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes." A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 53-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10, and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively). Transthyretin and megalin were prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The concentrations of transthyretin and megalin were 0.12 and 0.03 Ul/ml, respectively, as indicated by PCR. The expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e., strong expression during early and mature anagen, very weak expression during catagen and moderate expression during telogen. The expression values of these proteins in the anagen were statistically significantly higher than those of either catagen or telogen hair follicles (P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that transthyretin and megalin are variably expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles. It also reports variations in the expression of these proteins during hair follicle cycling. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  10. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-thioesterase B from seeds of Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis).

    PubMed

    Dong, Shubin; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Shanzhi; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-05-25

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TE EC 3.1.2.14) are fatty acid biosynthesis key enzymes that determine fatty acid carbon chain length in most plant tissues. A full-length cDNA corresponding to one of the fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) genes, designated LcFatB, was isolated from developing Lindera communis seeds using PCR and RACE with degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of multiple TE gene sequences obtained from GenBank. The 1788 bp cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1260 bp encoding a protein of 419 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 61-73% identity to proteins in the FatB class of plant thioesterases. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LcFatB was expressed in all tissues of L. communis, with the highest expression in the developing seeds 75days after flowering. Recombinant pET-MLcFatB was constructed using the pET-30 a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)△FadE, a strain that deleted the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE). SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins isolated from pET-MLcFatB E. coli cells after induction with IPTG revealed a protein band at ~40.5kDa, corresponding to the predicted size of LcFatB mature protein. The decanoic acid and lauric acid contents of the pET-MLcFatB transformant were increased significantly. These findings suggest that an LcFatB gene from a non-traditional oil-seed tree could be used to function as a saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase and could potentially be used to modify the fatty acid composition of seed oil from L. communis or other species through transgenic approaches.

  11. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  12. Differential impact of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) in blood of common laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J.; Onyskiw, Peter J.; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2016-01-01

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene)-glycol (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of micro-sized, but not nano-sized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as a better model in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems. PMID:26505780

  13. Probing the Mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis [beta]-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III mtFabH: Factors Influencing Catalysis and Substrate Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alistair K.; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Kremer, Laurent; Lindenberg, Sandra; Dover, Lynn G.; Sacchettini, James C.; Besra, Gurdyal S.

    2010-11-30

    Mycolic acids are the dominant feature of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. These {alpha}-alkyl, {beta}-hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the condensation of two fatty acids, a long meromycolic acid and a shorter C{sub 24}-C{sub 26} fatty acid. The component fatty acids are produced via a combination of type I and II fatty acid synthases (FAS) with FAS-I products being elongated by FAS-II toward meromycolic acids. The {beta}-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III encoded by mtfabH (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acyl-CoA chain length specificity of mtFabH was assessed in vitro; the enzyme extended longer, physiologically relevant acyl-CoA primers when paired with AcpM, its natural partner, than with Escherichia coli ACP. The ability of the enzyme to use E. coli ACP suggests that a similar mode of binding is likely with both ACPs, yet it is clear that unique factors inherent to AcpM modulate the substrate specificity of mtFabH. Mutation of proposed key mtFabH residues was used to define their catalytic roles. Substitution of supposed acyl-CoA binding residues reduced transacylation, with double substitutions totally abrogating activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 46} revealed its more critical role in malonyl-AcpM decarboxylation than in the acyl-CoA binding role. Interestingly, this effect was suppressed intragenically by Arg{sup 161} {yields} Ala substitution. Our structural studies suggested that His{sup 258}, previously implicated in malonyl-ACP decarboxylation, also acts as an anchor point for a network of water molecules that we propose promotes deprotonation and transacylation of Cys{sup 122}.

  14. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) in healthy carriers: Distribution of genotypes and 30 bp deletion in latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) oncogene.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rita Mariel; Fellner, María Dolores; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Durand, Karina; Teyssié, Angélica R; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2004-08-01

    There are two types of Epstein Barr virus (EBV): EBV-1 and EBV-2, distinguished by genomic polymorphism in the genes encoding the nuclear antigens (EBNA-2, -3A, -3B, -3C). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is an EBV protein with known oncogenic properties. Different variants had been described; among them, a 30 base pair (bp) deletion (del-LMP-1) had been reported in benign and malignant pathologies, but there is little information about its frequency in healthy populations. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the EBV genotypes and the 30 bp deletion frequency, in EBV healthy carriers from Argentina. Analysis of EBNA-3C and LMP-1 genes were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Southern blot hybridization on DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from blood bank donors. EBV-1 was present in 75.9% of samples, EBV-2 in 14.6%, and co-infections with both types in 6.5%. The deleted LMP-1 variant was found in 7.4% of analyzed samples, corresponding 3.2% to deleted variant alone and 4.2% to co-infections with non-deleted form. The non-deleted variant was found in 64.6% whereas in the remaining 28%, no PCR product was detected. These results showed that EBV-1 was the more prevalent type in healthy carriers of Argentina, similar to reports from others countries. A predominance of the non-deleted LMP-1 variant was observed. The presence of co-infections with both types and variants demonstrated that healthy individuals may also harbor multiple EBV infections.

  15. Organic silicone sol-gel polymer as a noncovalent carrier of receptor proteins for label-free optical biosensor application.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Wang, Linghua; Han, Xiuyou; Cheng, Jianfang; Lv, Huanlin; Wang, Jinyan; Jian, Xigao; Zhao, Mingshan; Jia, Lingyun

    2013-01-23

    Optical biosensing techniques have become of key importance for label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions in the current proteomics era. Together with an increasing emphasis on high-throughput applications in functional proteomics and drug discovery, there has been demand for facile and generally applicable methods for the immobilization of a wide range of receptor proteins. Here, we developed a polymer platform for microring resonator biosensors, which allows the immobilization of receptor proteins on the surface of waveguide directly without any additional modification. A sol-gel process based on a mixture of three precursors was employed to prepare a liquid hybrid polysiloxane, which was photopatternable for the photocuring process and UV imprint. Waveguide films were prepared on silicon substrates by spin coating and characterized by atomic force microscopy for roughness, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the surface of the polymer film was smooth (rms = 0.658 nm), and exhibited a moderate hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 97°. Such a hydrophobic extent could provide a necessary binding strength for stable immobilization of proteins on the material surface in various sensing conditions. Biological activity of the immobilized Staphylococcal protein A and its corresponding biosensing performance were demonstrated by its specific recognition of human Immunoglobulin G. This study showed the potential of preparing dense, homogeneous, specific, and stable biosensing surfaces by immobilizing receptor proteins on polymer-based optical devices through the direct physical adsorption method. We expect that such polymer waveguide could be of special interest in developing low-cost and robust optical biosensing platform for multidimensional arrays.

  16. Dominant-negative cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein E2-C/UbcH10 blocks cells in metaphase

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Fiona M.; Aristarkhov, Alexander; Beck, Sharon; Hershko, Avram; Ruderman, Joan V.

    1997-01-01

    Destruction of mitotic cyclins by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is required for cells to complete mitosis and enter interphase of the next cell cycle. In clam eggs, this process is catalyzed by a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein, E2-C, and the cyclosome/anaphase promoting complex (APC), a 20S particle containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity. Here we report cloning a human homolog of E2-C, UbcH10, which shares 61% amino acid identity with clam E2-C and can substitute for clam E2-C in vitro. Dominant-negative clam E2-C and human UbcH10 proteins, created by altering the catalytic cysteine to serine, inhibit the in vitro ubiquitination and destruction of cyclin B in clam oocyte extracts. When transfected into mammalian cells, mutant UbcH10 inhibits the destruction of both cyclin A and B, arrests cells in M phase, and inhibits the onset of anaphase, presumably by blocking the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of proteins responsible for sister chromatid separation. Thus, E2-C/UbcH10-mediated ubiquitination is involved in both cdc2 inactivation and sister chromatid separation, processes that are normally coordinated during exit from mitosis. PMID:9122200

  17. Structural insight into amino group-carrier protein-mediated lysine biosynthesis: crystal structure of the LysZ·LysW complex from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-02

    In the biosynthesis of lysine by Thermus thermophilus, the metabolite α-ketoglutarate is converted to the intermediate α-aminoadipate (AAA), which is protected by the 54-amino acid acidic protein LysW. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of LysZ from T. thermophilus (TtLysZ), an amino acid kinase that catalyzes the second step in the AAA to lysine conversion, which was in a complex with LysW at a resolution of 1.85 Å. A crystal analysis coupled with isothermal titration calorimetry of the TtLysZ mutants for TtLysW revealed tight interactions between LysZ and the globular and C-terminal extension domains of the LysW protein, which were mainly attributed to electrostatic forces. These results provided structural evidence for LysW acting as a protecting molecule for the α-amino group of AAA and also as a carrier protein to guarantee better recognition by biosynthetic enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of lysine.

  18. Modulation of intrahepatic cholesterol trafficking: evidence by in vivo antisense treatment for the involvement of sterol carrier protein-2 in newly synthesized cholesterol transport into rat bile.

    PubMed Central

    Puglielli, L; Rigotti, A; Amigo, L; Nuñez, L; Greco, A V; Santos, M J; Nervi, F

    1996-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol represents one of the two major excretory pathways for sterol elimination from the body and plays a central role in cholesterol gallstone formation. Biliary cholesterol originates from a precursor pool of preformed and newly synthesized free cholesterol. Although it has been suggested that newly synthesized and preformed biliary cholesterol are secreted by independent pathways, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. We used male Wistar rats to study the time-course of the appearance of newly synthesized cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine and protein into bile. The specific role of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in the transport of newly synthesized biliary cholesterol was evaluated by an in vivo antisense oligonucleotide approach. In contrast to [14C]phosphatidylcholine and [35S]proteins, the time-course of [14C]cholesterol appearance into bile was rapid, and microtubule- and Golgi-independent. In vivo SCP-2 antisense treatment reduced and delayed the appearance of biliary [14C]cholesterol. Furthermore, hepatic SCP-2 expression increased more than 3-fold over control values in rats that had been treated with diosgenin to increase biliary secretion of newly synthesized cholesterol. These results suggest that SCP-2 is necessary for the rapid transport of newly synthesized cholesterol into bile and that hepatocytes can induce SCP-2 expression according to the rate of biliary secretion of newly synthesized cholesterol. PMID:8760350

  19. A fragment of the envelope protein from dengue-1 virus, fused in two different sites of the meningococcal P64k protein carrier, induces a functional immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Lisset; Rodríguez, Rayner; Lazo, Laura; Bernardo, Lídice; Silva, Ricardo; Zulueta, Aída; López, Carlos; Martín, Jorge; Valdés, Iris; del Rosario, Delfina; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G

    2004-02-01

    Previously we have reported the capacity of the fusion protein PD3, composed of the P64k protein and the envelope (E) fragment from amino acids (aa) 286-426 of dengue-2 virus (DEN-2), to induce a functional immune response in mice against the homologous virus. In that case, the E fragment was inserted within the lipoyl-binding domain of the meningococcal P64k protein. In the present study, to test the functionality of the same E region from dengue-1 (DEN-1), a similar construct was made. Furthermore, another alternative of fusion protein was also constructed where the same E fragment from DEN-1 was fused to the C-terminus of the P64k protein. The recombinant proteins obtained (PD11 and PD10) were semi-purified and analysed for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and the ability to protect mice against lethal challenge. Both molecules exhibited the same recognition patterns against anti-DEN-1 polyclonal antibodies. In addition, when administered to mice, they elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies and induced significant protection against lethal challenge with DEN-1 after intracerebral inoculation. These results reveal the availability of two sites within the P64k for the further insertion of DEN fragments, enabling a construct carrying two fragments from heterologous serotypes within the same molecule of this protein carrier.

  20. Use of whey protein beads as a new carrier system for recombinant yeasts in human digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Eric; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel; Alric, Monique

    2006-12-15

    A new immobilizing protocol using whey protein isolates was developed to entrap recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The model yeast strain expresses the heterologous P45073A1 that converts trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Beads resulted from a cold-induced gelation of a whey protein solution (10%) containing yeasts (7.5 x 10(7)cells ml(-1)) into 0.1M CaCl(2). The viability and growth capability of yeasts were not altered by our entrapment process. The release and activity of immobilized yeasts were studied in simulated human gastric conditions. During the first 60 min of digestion, 2.2+/-0.9% (n=3) of initial entrapped yeasts were recovered in the gastric medium suggesting that beads should cross the gastric barrier in human. The P45073A1 activity of entrapped yeasts remained significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of free ones throughout digestion (trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate of 63.4+/-1.6% versus 51.5+/-1.8% (n=3) at 120 min). The protein matrix seemed to create a microenvironment favoring the activity of yeasts in the stringent gastric conditions. These results open up new opportunities for the development of drug delivery system using recombinant yeasts entrapped in whey protein beads. The main potential medical applications include biodetoxication or the correction of digestive enzyme deficiencies.

  1. Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Pedrero, María; Manuel de Villena, F. Javier; Muñoz-San Martín, Cristina; Campuzano, Susana; Garranzo-Asensio, María; Barderas, Rodrigo; Pingarrón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53). The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation. PMID:27879639

  2. Trehalose inhibits solute carrier 2A (SLC2A) proteins to induce autophagy and prevent hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Heitmeier, Monique R.; Mayer, Allyson L.; Higgins, Cassandra B.; Crowley, Jan R.; Kraft, Thomas E.; Chi, Maggie; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Chen, Zhouji; Finck, Brian N.; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Hruz, Paul W.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide that has gained attention for its ability to induce cellular autophagy and mitigate diseases related to pathological protein aggregation. Despite decades of ubiquitous use as a nutraceutical, preservative, and humectant, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we showed that trehalose inhibited members of the SLC2A (also known as GLUT) family of glucose transporters. Trehalose-mediated inhibition of glucose transport induced AMPK (adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase)-dependent autophagy regression of hepatic steatosis in vivo, and a reduction in the accumulation of lipid droplets in primary murine hepatocyte cultures. Our data indicated that, by inhibiting glucose transport, trehalose triggers beneficial cellular autophagy. PMID:26905426

  3. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF.

  4. High-κ GdTixOy sensing membrane-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor with magnetic nanoparticles as enzyme carriers for protein contamination-free glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Peng, Yen-Bo; Pan, Tung-Ming

    2013-09-15

    This paper reports an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) device featuring a novel high-κ GdTixOy sensing membrane for high-performance pH sensing and glucose biosensing. The effect of the annealing temperature (700, 800, or 900°C) on the sensing properties of the GdTixOy membranes was investigated. The GdTixOy EIS device annealed at 900°C exhibited the greatest pH sensing performance, including the highest sensitivity (62.12mV/pH), the smallest hysteresis voltage (5mV), and the lowest drift rate (0.4mV/h), presumably because of its well-crystallized GdTixOy structure. To overcome the problems typically encountered during the practical application of biosensors (e.g., protein adsorption; preservation of enzymatic activity), we employed Fe3O4-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as enzyme carriers. The adsorption of serum protein on the unmodified sensing membrane led to poor EIS-based pH sensing (r(2)=0.71); the performance was greatly improved, however, after attaching the MNPs to the sensing membrane, thereby blocking protein adsorption significantly (by 98%) and allowing excellent pH sensing (r(2)=0.99). Moreover, we prepared a hybrid configuration of the proposed GdTixOy membrane-EIS, with magnetically attached glucose oxidase-immobilized MNPs, for glucose biosensing. The use of MNPs as enzyme carriers effectively preserved the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase, with 45.3% of the original enzymatic activity retained after 120h of storage at 4°C (compared with complete loss of the free enzyme's activity under the same storage conditions). In addition, the proposed biosensor exhibited superior detection sensitivity of 11.03mV/mM relative to that (8.17mV/mM) obtained using the conventional enzyme immobilization method. Finally, we established the accuracy of the proposed method for blood glucose measurement; gratifyingly, blood glucose detection was comparable with the high-sensitivity glucose quantification obtained using a commercial glucose assay

  5. Expression of scFv-Mel-Gal4 triple fusion protein as a targeted DNA-carrier in Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiyu; Luo, Jian; Xu, Lining; Zeng, Jianping; Cao, Limin; Dong, Jiahong; Cai, Shouwang

    2013-12-01

    Liver-directed gene therapy has become a promising treatment for many liver diseases. In this study, we constructed a multi-functional targeting molecule, which maintains targeting, endosome-escaping, and DNA-binding abilities for gene delivery. Two single oligonucleotide chains of Melittin (M) were synthesized. The full-length cDNA encoding anti-hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor scFv C1 (C1) was purified from C1/pIT2. The GAL4 (G) gene was amplified from pSW50-Gal4 by polymerase chain reaction. M, C1 and G were inserted into plasmid pGC4C26H to product the recombinant plasmid pGC-C1MG. The fused gene C1MG was subsequently subcloned into plasmid pET32c to product the recombinant plasmid C1MG/pET32c and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The scFv-Mel-Gal4 triple fusion protein (C1MG) was purified with a Ni(2+) chelating HiTrap HP column. The fusion protein C1MG of roughly 64 kD was expressed in inclusion bodies; 4.5 mg/ml C1MG was prepared with Ni(2+) column purification. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed the antigen-binding ability of C1MG to the cell surface of the liver-derived cell line and liver tissue slices. Hemolysis testing showed that C1MG maintained membrane-disrupting activity. DNA-binding capacity was substantiated by luciferase assay, suggesting that C1MG could deliver the DNA into cells efficiently on the basis of C1MG. Successful expression of C1MG was achieved in E. coli, and C1MG recombinant protein confers targeting, endosome-escaping and DNA-binding capacity, which makes it probable to further study its liver-specific DNA delivery efficacy in vivo.

  6. Heme carrier protein (HCP-1) spatially interacts with the CD163 hemoglobin uptake pathway and is a target of inflammatory macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Christian A; Vallelian, Florence; Imhof, Alexander; Schoedon, Gabriele; Schaer, Dominik J

    2008-02-01

    Macrophages constitute the major cellular compartment for hemoglobin (Hb) degradation and subsequent recycling of heme-iron to erythropoiesis. Dysregulation of macrophage iron and heme metabolism is a major pathophysiologic determinant of anemia of chronic disease. In this study, we show that the heme transporter heme carrier protein 1 (HCP-1) is expressed in human macrophages. Within early endosomes, HCP-1 colocalizes with endocytosed Hb-haptoglobin (Hp) complexes, which are taken up via the CD163 scavenger receptor pathway. Hb-Hp passes the divalent metal transporter 1B/HCP-1-positive endosomal compartment on its route from the cell surface to lysosomes. HCP-1 mRNA and protein expression are down-regulated by stimulation of macrophages with various TLR agonists and IFN-gamma. The profound suppression of HCP-1 expression by inflammatory macrophage activation parallels the regulation of the iron exporter ferroportin. In contrast, dexamethasone enhanced HCP-1 expression significantly. Given the spatial relationship, we propose that the Hb scavenger receptor CD163 and HCP-1 constitute a linked pathway for Hb catabolism and heme-iron recycling in human macrophages.

  7. Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus RNA and Capsid Protein in Lymphoid Tissues of Convalescent Pigs Does Not Indicate Existence of a Carrier State.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Smoliga, G R; Bishop, E; Pauszek, S J; Hartwig, E J; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2016-04-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five FMDV strains within serotypes A, O and Asia-1. Furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from clinical or subclinical FMD. Despite lack of detection of infectious FMDV, there was a high prevalence of FMDV RNA detection in lymph nodes draining lesion sites harvested at 35 days post-infection, with the most frequent detection recorded in popliteal lymph nodes (positive detection in 88% of samples obtained from non-vaccinated pigs). Likewise, at 35 dpi, FMDV capsid antigen was localized within follicles of draining lymph nodes, but without concurrent detection of FMDV non-structural protein. There was a marked decline in the detection of FMDV RNA and antigen in tissue samples by 60 dpi, and no antigen or viral RNA could be detected in samples obtained at 100 dpi. The data presented herein provide the most extensive investigation of FMDV persistence in pigs. The overall conclusion is that domestic pigs are unlikely to be competent long-term carriers of infectious FMDV; however, transient persistence of FMDV protein and RNA in lymphoid tissues is common following clinical or subclinical infection.

  8. Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and requirement of ferredoxin for enzyme activity.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, G A; Scherer, D E; Foxall-Van Aken, S; Kenny, J W; Young, H L; Shintani, D K; Kridl, J C; Knauf, V C

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) catalyzes the principal conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of vegetable oils. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase was purified from developing embryos of safflower seed, and extensive amino acid sequence was determined. The amino acid sequence was used in conjunction with polymerase chain reactions to clone a full-length cDNA. The primary structure of the protein, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA, includes a 33-amino-acid transit peptide not found in the purified enzyme. Expression in Escherichia coli of a gene encoding the mature form of stearoyl-ACP desaturase did not result in an altered fatty acid composition. However, active enzyme was detected when assayed in vitro with added spinach ferredoxin. The lack of significant activity in vitro without added ferredoxin and the lack of observed change in fatty acid composition indicate that ferredoxin is a required cofactor for the enzyme and that E. coli ferredoxin functions poorly, if at all, as an electron donor for the plant enzyme. Images PMID:2006194

  9. The Candida albicans plasma membrane protein Rch1p, a member of the vertebrate SLC10 carrier family, is a novel regulator of cytosolic Ca2+ homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linghuo; Alber, Joerg; Wang, Jihong; Du, Wei; Yang, Xuexue; Li, Xichuan; Sanglard, Dominique; Geyer, Joachim

    2012-06-15

    Candida albicans RCH1 (regulator of Ca(2+) homoeostasis 1) encodes a protein of ten TM (transmembrane) domains, homologous with human SLC10A7 (solute carrier family 10 member 7), and Rch1p localizes in the plasma membrane. Deletion of RCH1 confers hypersensitivity to high concentrations of extracellular Ca(2+) and tolerance to azoles and Li(+), which phenocopies the deletion of CaPMC1 (C. albicans PMC1) encoding the vacuolar Ca(2+) pump. Additive to CaPMC1 mutation, lack of RCH1 alone shows an increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity, Ca(2+) uptake and cytosolic Ca(2+) level. The Ca(2+) hypersensitivity is abolished by cyclosporin A and magnesium. In addition, deletion of RCH1 elevates the expression of CaUTR2 (C. albicans UTR2), a downstream target of the Ca(2+)/calcineurin signalling. Mutational and functional analysis indicates that the Rch1p TM8 domain, but not the TM9 and TM10 domains, are required for its protein stability, cellular functions and subcellular localization. Therefore Rch1p is a novel regulator of cytosolic Ca(2+) homoeostasis, which expands the functional spectrum of the vertebrate SLC10 family.

  10. The 2.1 A structure of an elicitin-ergosterol complex: a recent addition to the Sterol Carrier Protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, G.; O'Donohue, M.; Gaudemer, O.; Perez, V.; Pernollet, J. C.; Brunie, S.

    1999-01-01

    Elicitins, produced by most of the phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Phytophthora, provoke in tobacco both remote leaf necrosis and the induction of a resistance against subsequent attack by various microorganisms. Despite the recent description of the three-dimensional crystal structure of cryptogein (CRY), the molecular basis of the interactions between Phytophthora and plants largely remains unknown. The X-ray crystal structure, refined at 2.1 A, of a ligand complexed, mutated CRY, K13H, is reported. Analysis of this structure reveals that CRY is able to encapsulate a ligand that induces only a minor conformational change in the protein structure. The ligand has been identified as an ergosterol by gas chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. This result is consistent with biochemical data that have shown that elicitins are a distinct class of Sterol Carrier Proteins (SCP). Data presented here provide the first structural description of the pertinent features of the elicitin sterol interaction and permit a reassessment of the importance of both the key residue 13 and the mobility of the omega loop for the accessibility of the sterol to the cavity. The biological implications thereof are discussed. This paper reports the first structure of a SCP/sterol complex. PMID:10386869

  11. Immunological Evidence for the Existence of a Carrier Protein for Sucrose Transport in Tonoplast Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Root Storage Tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Getz, H. P.; Grosclaude, J.; Kurkdjian, A.; Lelievre, F.; Maretzki, A.; Guern, J.

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised in mice against a highly purified tonoplast fraction from isolated red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) root vacuoles. Positive hybridoma clones and sub-clones were identified by prescreening using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by postscreening using a functional assay. This functional assay consisted of testing the impact of hybridoma supernatants and antibody-containing ascites fluids on basal and ATP-stimulated sugar uptake in vacuoles, isolated from protoplasts, as well as in tonoplast vesicles, prepared from tissue homogenates of red beet roots. Antibodies from four clones were particularly positive in ELISAs and they inhibited sucrose uptake significantly. These antibodies were specific inhibitors of sucrose transport, but they exhibited relatively low membrane and species specificity since uptake into red beet root protoplasts and sugarcane tonoplast vesicles was inhibited as well. Fast protein liquid chromatography assisted size exclusion chromatography on Superose 6 columns yielded two major peaks in the 55 to 65-kD regions and in the 110- to 130-kD regions of solubilized proteins from red beet root tonoplasts, which reacted positively in immunoglobulin-M(IgM)-specific ELISAs with anti-sugarcane tonoplast monoclonal IgM antibodies. Only reconstituted proteoliposomes containing polypeptides from the 55- to 65-kD band took up [14C]-sucrose with linear rates for 2 min, suggesting that this fraction contains the tonoplast sucrose carrier. PMID:12231863

  12. 3-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is not similar to other condensing enzymes of fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, H; Jaworski, J G

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding spinach (Spinacia oleracea) 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III), which catalyzes the initial condensing reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis, was isolated. Based on the amino acid sequence of tryptic digests of purified spinach KAS III, degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and used to amplify a 612-bp fragment from first-strand cDNA of spinach leaf RNA. A root cDNA library was probed with the PCR fragment, and a 1920-bp clone was isolated. Its deduced amino acid sequence matched the sequences of the tryptic digests obtained from the purified KAS III. Northern analysis confirmed that it was expressed in both leaf and root. The clone contained a 1218-bp open reading frame coding for 405 amino acids. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli BL 21 as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was 48 and 45% identical with the putative KAS III of Porphyra umbilicalis and KAS III of E. coli, respectively. It also had a strong local homology to the plant chalcone synthases but had little homology with other KAS isoforms from plants, bacteria, or animals. PMID:8290632

  13. Structural basis for docking of peroxisomal membrane protein carrier Pex19p onto its receptor Pex3p

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Nakatsu, Toru; Nakano, Hiroaki; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Kato, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes require peroxin (Pex) proteins for their biogenesis. The interaction between Pex3p, which resides on the peroxisomal membrane, and Pex19p, which resides in the cytosol, is crucial for peroxisome formation and the post-translational targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). It is not known how Pex3p promotes the specific interaction with Pex19p for the purpose of PMP translocation. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of the complex between a cytosolic domain of Pex3p and the binding-region peptide of Pex19p. The overall shape of Pex3p is a prolate spheroid with a novel fold, the ‘twisted six-helix bundle.' The Pex19p-binding site is at an apex of the Pex3p spheroid. A 16-residue region of the Pex19p peptide forms an α-helix and makes a contact with Pex3p; this helix is disordered in the unbound state. The Pex19p peptide contains a characteristic motif, consisting of the leucine triad (Leu18, Leu21, Leu22), and Phe29, which are critical for the Pex3p binding and peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:21102411

  14. Interaction of the Nitrogen Regulatory Protein GlnB (PII) with Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein (BCCP) Controls Acetyl-CoA Levels in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hauf, Waldemar; Schmid, Katharina; Gerhardt, Edileusa C. M.; Huergo, Luciano F.; Forchhammer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The family of PII signal transduction proteins (members GlnB, GlnK, NifI) plays key roles in various cellular processes related to nitrogen metabolism at different functional levels. Recent studies implied that PII proteins may also be involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, since GlnB proteins from Proteobacteria and from Arabidopsis thaliana were shown to interact with biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In case of Escherichia coli ACCase, this interaction reduces the kcat of acetyl-CoA carboxylation, which should have a marked impact on the acetyl-CoA metabolism. In this study we show that the PII protein of a unicellular cyanobacterium inhibits the biosynthetic activity of E. coli ACC and also interacts with cyanobacterial BCCP in an ATP and 2-oxoglutarate dependent manner. In a PII mutant strain of Synechocystis strain PCC 6803, the lacking control leads to reduced acetyl-CoA levels, slightly increased levels of fatty acids and formation of lipid bodies as well as an altered fatty acid composition. PMID:27833596

  15. Polyampholyte nanoparticles prepared by self-complexation of cationized poly(γ-glutamic acid) for protein carriers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heyun; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2012-08-01

    A novel amphoteric poly(amino acid) is synthesized by grafting a cationic amino acid (L-Arg) to γ-PGA to prepare charged NPs. γ-PGA-Arg NPs can be prepared by the self-complexation of a single polymer by intra-/inter-molecular electrostatic interactions when the polymer is dispersed in water. The size and surface charge of the NPs can be regulated by the grafting degree of Arg (41, 56, and 83%). The smallest NPs are obtained at 56% grafting degree of the γ-PGA-Arg copolymer. The 56 and 83% grafting degree NPs are stable for at least 1 week. Depending on their surface charge, these NPs can selectively adsorb anionically or cationically charged proteins.

  16. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a Solute Carrier Transport Protein with Non-Classical Function

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Katrin; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Rinis, Natalie; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Merk, Hans F.; Schmalzing, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO) have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold) and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20) and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2). A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F) revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration. PMID:24376674

  17. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuechao; Walboomers, X Frank; van den Dolder, Juliette; Yang, Fang; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Mingwen; Jansen, John A

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and bioactivity of the transfection. We also intended to investigate the behavior of transfected cells when seeded on 3-dimensional titanium fiber mesh scaffolds. Nanoparticles of calcium phosphate encapsulating plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (plasmid enhanced green fluorescent protein-BMP2) were prepared. Then, STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells were transfected using these nanoparticles. Transfection and bioactivity of the secreted BMP2 were examined. Thereafter, the transfected cells were cultured on a fibrous titanium mesh. The cultures were investigated using scanning electron microscipy and evaluated for cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for odontogenesis-related gene expression. The results showed that the size of the DNA-loaded particles was approximately 100 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles could protect the DNA encapsulated inside from external DNase and release the loaded DNA in a low-acid environment (pH 3.0). In vitro, nanoparticle transfection was shown to be effective and to accelerate or promote the odontogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells when cultured in the 3-dimensional scaffolds. Based on our results, plasmid DNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles appear to be an effective non-viral vector for gene delivery and functioned well for odontogenic differentiation through Bmp2 transfection.

  18. Hydrogen carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  19. Differences in the Structure and Dynamics of the Apo- and Palmitate-ligated Forms of Aedes aegypti Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (AeSCP-2)*

    PubMed Central

    Singarapu, Kiran K.; Radek, James T.; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L.; Lan, Que

    2010-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) is a nonspecific lipid-binding protein expressed ubiquitously in most organisms. Knockdown of SCP-2 expression in mosquitoes has been shown to result in high mortality in developing adults and significantly lowered fertility. Thus, it is of interest to determine the structure of mosquito SCP-2 and to identify its mechanism of lipid binding. We report here high quality three-dimensional solution structures of SCP-2 from Aedes aegypti determined by NMR spectroscopy in its ligand-free state (AeSCP-2) and in complex with palmitate. Both structures have a similar mixed α/β fold consisting of a five-stranded β-sheet and four α-helices arranged on one side of the β-sheet. Ligand-free AeSCP-2 exhibited regions of structural heterogeneity, as evidenced by multiple two-dimensional 15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence peaks for certain amino acids; this heterogeneity disappeared upon complex formation with palmitate. The binding of palmitate to AeSCP-2 was found to decrease the backbone mobility of the protein but not to alter its secondary structure. Complex formation is accompanied by chemical shift differences and a loss of mobility for residues in the loop between helix αI and strand βA. The structural differences between the αI and βA of the mosquito and the vertebrate SCP-2s may explain the differential specificity (insect versus vertebrate) of chemical inhibitors of the mosquito SCP-2. PMID:20356842

  20. Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster: Purification of Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and Malonyl-Coenzyme A:ACP Transacylase (FabD)

    PubMed Central

    Kutchma, Alecksandr J.; Hoang, Tung T.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    1999-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4′-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H6-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity. PMID:10464226

  1. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-04-21

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape.

  2. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape. PMID:27097688

  3. The Sulfur Carrier Protein TusA Has a Pleiotropic Role in Escherichia coli That Also Affects Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Radon, Christin; Bühning, Martin; Nimtz, Manfred; Leichert, Lars I.; Denis, Yann; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Méjean, Vincent; Leimkühler, Silke

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli l-cysteine desulfurase IscS mobilizes sulfur from l-cysteine for the synthesis of several biomolecules such as iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters, molybdopterin, thiamin, lipoic acid, biotin, and the thiolation of tRNAs. The sulfur transfer from IscS to various biomolecules is mediated by different interaction partners (e.g. TusA for thiomodification of tRNAs, IscU for FeS cluster biogenesis, and ThiI for thiamine biosynthesis/tRNA thiolation), which bind at different sites of IscS. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of a ΔtusA strain showed that the expression of genes of the moaABCDE operon coding for proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis is increased under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Additionally, under anaerobic conditions the expression of genes encoding hydrogenase 3 and several molybdoenzymes such as nitrate reductase were also increased. On the contrary, the activity of all molydoenzymes analyzed was significantly reduced in the ΔtusA mutant. Characterization of the ΔtusA strain under aerobic conditions showed an overall low molybdopterin content and an accumulation of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate. Under anaerobic conditions the activity of nitrate reductase was reduced by only 50%, showing that TusA is not essential for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. We present a model in which we propose that the direction of sulfur transfer for each sulfur-containing biomolecule is regulated by the availability of the interaction partner of IscS. We propose that in the absence of TusA, more IscS is available for FeS cluster biosynthesis and that the overproduction of FeS clusters leads to a modified expression of several genes. PMID:23281480

  4. Heterologous expression of the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene from the plant Umbellularia californica mediates polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rehm, B H; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-03-01

    The acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase cDNA from the plant Umbellularia californica was functionally expressed in various recombinant Escherichia coli strains in order to establish a new metabolic route toward medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) biosynthesis from non-related carbon sources. Coexpression of the PHA synthase genes from Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or only the PHA synthase gene from P. aeruginosa, respectively, showed PHA(MCL) accumulation when the type II PHA synthase from P. aeruginosa was produced. Both wild-type E. coli and various fad mutants were investigated; and only when the beta-oxidation pathway was impaired PHA(MCL) accumulation from gluconate was observed, contributing to about 6% of cellular dry weight. Thus coexpression of type II PHA synthase gene with cDNA encoding the medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase from U. californica established a new PHA(MCL) biosynthesis pathway, connecting fatty acid de novo biosynthesis with fatty acid beta-oxidation, using a non-related carbon source.

  5. Structure of a Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein Essential for Lipid A Biosynthesis with Very Long-chain Fatty Acids in Open and Closed Conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelot, Theresa A.; Rossi, Paolo M.; Forouhar, Farhad; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Yunhuang; Ni, Shuisong; Unser, Sarah; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas; Everett, John K.; Prestegard, James H.; Hunt, John F.; Montelione, Gaetano; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-09-18

    The solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures and backbone (15)N dynamics of the specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP), RpAcpXL, from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in both the apo form and holo form modified by covalent attachment of 4'-phosphopantetheine at S37, are virtually identical, monomeric, and correspond to the closed conformation. The structures have an extra α-helix compared to the archetypical ACP from Escherichia coli, which has four helices, resulting in a larger opening to the hydrophobic cavity. Chemical shift differences between apo- and holo-RpAcpXL indicated some differences in the hinge region between α2 and α3 and in the hydrophobic cavity environment, but corresponding changes in nuclear Overhauser effect cross-peak patterns were not detected. In contrast to the NMR structures, apo-RpAcpXL was observed in an open conformation in crystals that diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution, which resulted from movement of α3. On the basis of the crystal structure, the predicted biological assembly is a homodimer. Although the possible biological significance of dimerization is unknown, there is potential that the resulting large shared hydrophobic cavity could accommodate the very long-chain fatty acid (28-30 carbons) that this specialized ACP is known to synthesize and transfer to lipid A. These structures are the first representatives of the AcpXL family and the first to indicate that dimerization may be important for the function of these specialized ACPs.

  6. Genome Mining of Amino Group Carrier Protein-Mediated Machinery: Discovery and Biosynthetic Characterization of a Natural Product with Unique Hydrazone Unit.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kenichi; Hasebe, Fumihito; Shiwa, Yuh; Kanesaki, Yu; Tomita, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2017-01-20

    We recently revealed that a Streptomyces strain possesses the gene encoding amino group carrier protein (AmCP). AmCP is involved in the biosynthesis of a previously unidentified nonproteinogenic amino acid, (2S,6R)-diamino-(5R,7)-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid (DADH), which is a core compound for the synthesis of the dipeptide-containing novel natural product vazabitide A. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to investigate the diversity of the biosynthetic machinery that uses AmCP; the results revealed that genes encoding AmCP are widely distributed among actinomycetes. The heterologous expression of the AmCP-containing gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. SoC090715LN-17 led to the discovery of s56-p1, a novel natural product. The structure of s56-p1 was determined by spectroscopic analysis; the results revealed that s56-p1 has a putative DADH-derived molecule as the core and also possesses a unique hydrazone unit that is rarely observed in natural products. Our results pave the way for investigations of unexploited AmCP-mediated biosynthesis routes among actinomycetes and of the biosynthetic mechanism of the unique hydrazone unit.

  7. Structure of the Francisella tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) in complex with NAD[superscript +] and triclosan

    SciTech Connect

    Mehboob, Shahila; Truong, Kent; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2010-11-19

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) catalyzes the last rate-limiting step in the elongation cycle of the fatty-acid biosynthesis pathway and has been validated as a potential antimicrobial drug target in Francisella tularensis. The development of new antibiotic therapies is important both to combat potential drug-resistant bioweapons and to address the broader societal problem of increasing antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria. The crystal structure of FabI from F. tularensis (FtuFabI) in complex with the inhibitor triclosan and the cofactor NAD{sup +} has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. Triclosan is known to effectively inhibit FabI from different organisms. Precise characterization of the mode of triclosan binding is required to develop highly specific inhibitors. Comparison of our structure with the previously determined FtuFabI structure (PDB code 2jjy) which is bound to only NAD{sup +} reveals the conformation of the substrate-binding loop, electron density for which was missing in the earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the conformation of the NAD{sup +} cofactor. This shift in the position of the phosphate groups allows more room in the active site for substrate or inhibitor to bind and be better accommodated. This information will be crucial for virtual screening studies to identify novel scaffolds for development into new active inhibitors.

  8. Effect of vaccination with carrier protein on response to meningococcal C conjugate vaccines and value of different immunoassays as predictors of protection.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Moya; Robinson, Andrew; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Southern, Joanna; Findlow, Jamie; Martin, Sarah; Thornton, Carol; Goldblatt, David; Corbel, Michael; Sesardic, Dorothea; Cartwight, Keith; Richmond, Peter; Miller, Elizabeth

    2002-09-01

    In order to plan for the wide-scale introduction of meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine for United Kingdom children up to 18 years old, phase II trials were undertaken to investigate whether there was any interaction between MCC vaccines conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or a derivative of diphtheria toxin (CRM(197)) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines given for boosting at school entry or leaving. Children (n = 1,766) received a diphtheria-tetanus booster either 1 month before, 1 month after, or concurrently with one of three MCC vaccines conjugated to CRM(197) or TT. All of the MCC vaccines induced high antibody responses to the serogroup C polysaccharide that were indicative of protection. The immune response to the MCC-TT vaccine was reduced as a result of prior immunization with a tetanus-containing vaccine, but antibody levels were still well above the lower threshold for protection. Prior or simultaneous administration of a diphtheria-containing vaccine did not affect the response to MCC-CRM(197) vaccines. The immune responses to the carrier proteins were similar to those induced by a comparable dose of diphtheria or tetanus vaccine. The results also demonstrate that, for these conjugate vaccines in these age groups, both standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and those that measure high-avidity antibodies to meningococcal C polysaccharide correlated equally well with assays that measure serum bactericidal antibodies, the established serological correlate of protection for MCC vaccines.

  9. Identification of a malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase and its regulatory role in fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Liu, Wan-Jun; Hu, Dong-Xiong; Wang, Xiang; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Alimujiang, Adili; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2016-08-30

    Oleaginous microalgae hold great promises for biofuel production. However, commercialization of microalgal biofuels remains impracticable due to lack of suitable industrial strain with high growth rate and lipid productivity. Engineering of metabolic pathways is a potential strategy for the improvement of microalgal strains for the production of lipids and also value-added products in microalgae. Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) has been reported to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Here, we identified a putative MCAT in the oleaginous marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica. NoMCAT-overexpressing N. oceanica showed higher growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency. The neutral lipid content of engineered lines showed a significant increase by up to 31% compared to wild type. GC-MS analysis revealed that NoMCAT overexpression significantly altered the fatty acid composition. The composition of EPA (C20:5) increased by 8%, which is a polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for animal nutrition. These results demonstrate the role of MCAT in enhancing fatty acid biosynthesis and growth in microalgae, and also provide an insight into metabolic engineering of microalgae with high industrial potential. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. β-Hydroxyacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Dehydratase (FabZ) from Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis : Structure Determination, Enzymatic Characterization, and Cross-Inhibition Studies

    DOE PAGES

    McGillick, Brian E.; Kumaran, Desigan; Vieni, Casey; ...

    2016-01-28

    The bacterial system for fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) contains several enzymes whose sequence and structure are highly conserved across a vast array of pathogens. Coupled with their low homology and difference in organization compared to the equivalent system in humans, this makes the FAS pathway an excellent target for antimicrobial drug development. To this end, we have cloned, expressed, and purified the β-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from both Francisella tularensis (FtFabZ) and Yersinia pestis (YpFabZ). We also solved the crystal structures and performed an enzymatic characterization of both enzymes and several mutant forms of YpFabZ. In addition, we havemore » discovered two novel inhibitors of FabZ, mangostin and stictic acid, which show similar potencies against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. Lastly, we selected several compounds from the literature that have been shown to be active against single homologues of FabZ and tested them against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. Our results have revealed clues as to which scaffolds are likely to lead to broad-spectrum antimicrobials targeted against FabZ as well as modifications to existing FabZ inhibitors that may improve potency.« less

  11. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  12. Core-Shell Soy Protein-Soy Polysaccharide Complex (Nano)particles as Carriers for Improved Stability and Sustained Release of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei-Ping; Ou, Shi-Yi; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-06-22

    Using soy protein isolate (SPI) and soy-soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) as polymer matrixes, this study reported a novel process to fabricate unique core-shell complex (nano)particles to perform as carriers for curcumin (a typical poorly soluble bioactive). In the process, curcumin-SPI nanocomplexes were first formed at pH 7.0 and then coated by SSPS. At this pH, the core-shell complex was formed in a way the SPI nanoparticles might be incorporated into the interior of SSPS molecules without distinctly affecting the size and morphology of particles. The core-shell structure was distinctly changed by adjusting pH from 7.0 to 4.0. At pH 4.0, SSPS was strongly bound to the surface of highly aggregated SPI nanoparticles, and as a consequence, much larger complexes were formed. The bioaccessibility of curcumin in the SPI-curcumin complexes was unaffected by the SSPS coating. However, the core-shell complex formation greatly improved the thermal stability and controlled release properties of encapsulated curcumin. The improvement was much better at pH 4.0 than that at pH 7.0. All of the freeze-dried core-shell complex preparations exhibited good redispersion behavior. The findings provide a simple approach to fabricate food-grade delivery systems for improved water dispersion, heat stability, and even controlled release of poorly soluble bioactives.

  13. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  14. Prioritization of active antimalarials using structural interaction profile of Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (PfENR)-triclosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S P; George, L B; Jasrai, Y T; Pandya, H A

    2015-01-01

    An empirical relationship between the experimental inhibitory activities of triclosan derivatives and its computationally predicted Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (PfENR) dock poses was developed to model activities of known antimalarials. A statistical model was developed using 57 triclosan derivatives with significant measures (r = 0.849, q(2) = 0.619, s = 0.481) and applied on structurally related and structurally diverse external datasets. A substructure-based search on ChEMBL malaria dataset (280 compounds) yielded only two molecules with significant docking energy, whereas eight active antimalarials (EC(50) < 100 nM, tested on 3D7 strain) with better predicted activities (pIC(50) ~ 7) from Open Access Malaria Box (400 compounds) were prioritized. Further, calculations on the structurally diverse rhodanine molecules (known PfENR inhibitors) distinguished actives (experimental IC(50) = 0.035 μM; predicted pIC(50) = 6.568) and inactives (experimental IC(50) = 50 μM; predicted pIC50 = -4.078), which showed that antimalarials possessing dock poses similar to experimental interaction profiles can be used as leads to test experimentally on enzyme assays.

  15. Distribution of sterol carrier protein/sub 2/ (SCP/sub 2/) in rat tissues and evidence for slow turnover in liver and adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kharroubi, A., Chanderbhan, R.; Fiskum, G.; Noland, B.J.; Scallen, T.J.; Vahouny, G.V.

    1986-03-05

    Sterol carrier protein/sub 2/ (SCP/sub 2/) has been implicated in the regulation of the terminal stages of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, and in sterol utilization for adrenal steroid hormone and hepatic bile acid synthesis. In the present studies, a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay, using (/sup 125/I) SCP/sub 2/, has been developed. Highest levels of SCP/sub 2/ were found in rat liver with progressively lower levels in intestinal mucosa, adrenal, kidney, lung and testis. SCP/sub 2/ levels were low or absent in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and serum. Liver SCP/sub 2/ was largely (44%) associated with the microsomal fraction, while in adrenal, 46% was associated with mitochondria, a distribution which is consistent with the proposed roles for SCP/sub 2/ in these tissues. Levels of SCP/sub 2/ in AS 30D hepatoma cells were only 5% of those in normal liver. In liver there was no indication of diurnal rhythm of SCP/sub 2/ in the cytosol and only slight variation of the microsomal SCP/sub 2/ levels. Fasting has only slight effects on SCP/sub 2/ concentration of rat liver microsomes and cytosol. Neither ACTH nor cycloheximide treatment of rats had a significant effect on SCP/sub 2/ distribution in the adrenal. In general, these findings indicate that SCP/sub 2/ has a low turn-over rate.

  16. Enhanced production of branched-chain fatty acids by replacing β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Yanfang; Bentley, Gayle J; Liu, Di; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-08-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are important precursors for the production of advanced biofuels with improved cold-flow properties. Previous efforts in engineering type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) for BCFA production suffered from low titers and/or the co-production of a large amount of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), making it nearly impossible for further conversion of BCFAs to branched biofuels. Synthesis of both SCFAs and BCFAs requires FabH, the only β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the initial condensation reaction between malonyl-ACP and a short-chain acyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrated that replacement of the acetyl-CoA-specific E. coli FabH with a branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabH directed the flux to the synthesis of BCFAs, resulting in a significant enhancement in BCFA titer compared to a strain containing both acetyl-CoA- and branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabHs. We further demonstrated that the composition of BCFAs can be tuned by engineering the upstream pathway to control the supply of different branched-chain acyl-CoAs, leading to the production either even-chain-iso-, odd-chain-iso-, or odd-chain-anteiso-BCFAs separately. Overall, the top-performing strain from this study produced BCFAs at 126 mg/L, comprising 52% of the total free fatty acids.

  17. Defective Pollen Wall Is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Hexin; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yuanyun; Liang, Wanqi; Ranathunge, Kosala; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Wang, Yujiong; Kai, Guoying; Shanklin, John; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots. PMID:21705642

  18. Expression of cholera toxin B subunit-lumbrokinase in edible sunflower seeds-the use of transmucosal carrier to enhance its fusion protein's effect on protection of rats and mice against thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Jin, Chao; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaozhou; Guan, Wenzhu

    2014-01-01

    Lumbrokinase (LK) is a group of serine proteases with strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities and is useful for treating diseases caused by thrombus. Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been widely used to facilitate antigen delivery by serving as an effective mucosal carrier molecule for the induction of oral tolerance. We investigate here the application of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in enhancing its fusion protein-LKs effect to protect rats against thrombosis. Thus, in this study, CTB-LK fusion gene separated by a furin cleavage site was expressed in seeds of Helianthus annuus L. The activity of recombinant protein in seeds of transgenic sunflower was confirmed by Western blot analysis, fibrin plate assays and GM1 -ganglioside ELISA. The thrombosis model of rats and mice revealed that the oral administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing CTB-LK had a more significant anti-thrombotic effect on animals compared with that administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing LK. It is possible to conclude that CTB can successfully enhance its fusion protein to be absorbed in rats or mice thrombosis model. The use of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in the delivery of transgenic plant-derived oral therapeutic proteins was supported. In addition, for the purpose of that recombinant CTB-LK was designed for oral administration, thus the expression of CTB-LK in edible sunflower seeds eliminated the need for downstream processing of proteins.

  19. Solution Structure of 4'-Phosphopantetheine - GmACP3 from Geobacter Metallireducens: A Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein with Atypical Structural Features and a Putative Role in Lipopolysaccharide Biosyntheses

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelot, Theresa A.; Smola, Matthew J.; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Ciccosanti, Colleen; Hamilton, Keith; Acton, Thomas; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K.; Prestegard, James H.; Montelione, Gaetano; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2011-03-08

    GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens is a specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP) whose gene, gmet_2339, is located near genes encoding many proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, indicating a likely function for GmACP3 in LPS production. By overexpression in Escherichia coli, about 50% holo-GmACP3 and 50% apo-GmACP3 were obtained. Apo-GmACP3 exhibited slow precipitation and non-monomeric behavior by 15NNMRrelaxation measurements. Addition of 4'-phosphopantetheine (4'-PP) via enzymatic conversion by E. coli holo-ACP synthase resulted in stable >95% holo-GmACP3 that was characterized as monomeric by 15N relaxation measurements and had no indication of conformational exchange. We have determined a high-resolution solution structure of holo-GmACP3 by standard NMR methods, including refinement with two sets of NH residual dipolar couplings, allowing for a detailed structural analysis of the interactions between 4'-PP and GmACP3. Whereas the overall four helix bundle topology is similar to previously solved ACP structures, this structure has unique characteristics, including an ordered 4'-PP conformation that places the thiol at the entrance to a central hydrophobic cavity near a conserved hydrogen-bonded Trp-His pair. These residues are part of a conservedWDSLxH/N motif found in GmACP3 and its orthologs. The helix locations and the large hydrophobic cavity are more similar tomediumand long-chain acyl-ACPs than to other apo- and holo-ACP structures. Taken together, structural characterization along with bioinformatic analysis of nearby genes suggests that GmACP3 is involved in lipid A acylation, possibly by atypical long-chain hydroxy fatty acids, and potentially is involved in synthesis of secondary metabolites.

  20. Neutralization of acidic residues in helix II stabilizes the folded conformation of acyl carrier protein and variably alters its function with different enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huansheng; Murphy, Anne; McMaster, Christopher R; Byers, David M

    2007-02-16

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP), a small protein essential for bacterial growth and pathogenesis, interacts with diverse enzymes during the biosynthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and other specialized products such as lipid A. NMR and hydrodynamic studies have previously shown that divalent cations stabilize native helical ACP conformation by binding to conserved acidic residues at two sites (A and B) at either end of the "recognition" helix II. To examine the roles of these amino acids in ACP structure and function, site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace individual site A (Asp-30, Asp-35, Asp-38) and site B (Glu-47, Glu-53, Asp-56) residues in recombinant Vibrio harveyi ACP with the corresponding amides, along with combined mutations at each site (SA, SB) or both sites (SA/SB). Like native V. harveyi ACP, all individual mutants were unfolded at neutral pH but adopted a helical conformation in the presence of millimolar Mg(2+) or upon fatty acylation. Mg(2+) binding to sites A or B independently stabilized native ACP conformation, whereas mutant SA/SB was folded in the absence of Mg(2+), suggesting that charge neutralization is largely responsible for ACP stabilization by divalent cations. Asp-35 in site A was critical for holo-ACP synthase activity, while acyl-ACP synthetase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) activities were more affected by mutations in site B. Both sites were required for fatty acid synthase activity. Overall, our results indicate that divalent cation binding site mutations have predicted effects on ACP conformation but unpredicted and variable consequences on ACP function with different enzymes.

  1. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N’Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:26703572

  2. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N'Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-12-12

    We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50(exp)). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50(exp). Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50(exp) (pIC50(exp) = -0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R² = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50(pre) reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.

  3. Alteration of the specificity and regulation of fatty acid synthesis of Escherichia coli by expression of a plant medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Voelker, T A; Davies, H M

    1994-12-01

    The expression of a plant (Umbellularia californica) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (BTE) cDNA in Escherichia coli results in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity but causes only a minor accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. BTE's full impact on the bacterial fatty acid synthase is apparent only after expression in a strain deficient in fatty acid degradation, in which BTE increases the total fatty acid output of the bacterial cultures fourfold. Laurate (12:0), normally a minor fatty acid component of E. coli, becomes predominant, is secreted into the medium, and can accumulate to a level comparable to the total dry weight of the bacteria. Also, large quantities of 12:1, 14:0, and 14:1 are made. At the end of exponential growth, the pathway of saturated fatty acids is almost 100% diverted by BTE to the production of free medium-chain fatty acids, starving the cells for saturated acyl-ACP substrates for lipid biosynthesis. This results in drastic changes in membrane lipid composition from predominantly 16:0 to 18:1. The continued hydrolysis of medium-chain ACPs by the BTE causes the bacterial fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids even when membrane production has ceased in stationary phase, which shows that the fatty acid synthesis rate can be uncoupled from phospholipid biosynthesis and suggests that acyl-ACP intermediates might normally act as feedback inhibitors for fatty acid synthase. As the fatty acid synthesis is increasingly diverted to medium chains with the onset of stationary phase, the rate of C12 production increases relative to C14 production. This observation is consistent with activity of the BTE on free acyl-ACP pools, as opposed to its interaction with fatty acid synthase-bound substrates.

  4. ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE2 and 3 Are Responsible for Making Omega-7 Fatty Acids in the Arabidopsis Aleurone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Fiona M.; Munoz-Azcarate, Olaya; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3. We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content. Enzymatic analysis has previously shown that AAD family members possess both stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturase activity, including the predominant isoform SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVE2. However, aad3 ssi2 aleurone contained the same amount of ω-7s as aad3. Within the AAD family, AAD3 shares the highest degree of sequence similarity with AAD2 and AAD4. Mutant analysis showed that AAD2 also contributes to ω-7 production in the aleurone, and aad3 aad2 exhibits an approximately 85% reduction in ω-7s. Mutant analysis also showed that FATTY ACID ELONGASE1 is required for the production of very long chain ω-7s in the aleurone. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the ω-7 pathway proceeds via Δ9 desaturation of palmitoyl-ACP followed by elongation of the product. Interestingly, significant variation was also identified in the ω-7 content of Brassica napus aleurone, with the highest level detected being approximately 47% of total fatty acids. PMID:27462083

  5. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Initiated by the FabY Class of β-Ketoacyl Acyl Carrier Protein Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanqiu; Sachdeva, Meena; Leeds, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The prototypical type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in bacteria utilizes two distinct classes of β-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) domains to assemble long-chain fatty acids, the KASIII domain for initiation and the KASI/II domain for elongation. The central role of FAS in bacterial viability and virulence has stimulated significant effort toward developing KAS inhibitors, particularly against the KASIII domain of the β-acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase FabH. Herein, we show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not utilize a FabH ortholog but rather a new class of divergent KAS I/II enzymes to initiate the FAS pathway. When a P. aeruginosa cosmid library was used to rescue growth in a fabH downregulated strain of Escherichia coli, a single unannotated open reading frame, PA5174, complemented fabH depletion. While deletion of all four KASIII domain-encoding genes in the same P. aeruginosa strain resulted in a wild-type growth phenotype, deletion of PA5174 alone specifically attenuated growth due to a defect in de novo FAS. Siderophore secretion and quorum-sensing signaling, particularly in the rhl and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) systems, was significantly muted in the absence of PA5174. The defect could be repaired by intergeneric complementation with E. coli fabH. Characterization of recombinant PA5174 confirmed a preference for short-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates, supporting the identification of PA5174 as the predominant enzyme catalyzing the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A with malonyl-ACP in P. aeruginosa. The identification of the functional role for PA5174 in FAS defines the new FabY class of β-ketoacyl synthase KASI/II domain condensation enzymes. PMID:22753059

  6. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0-14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8-C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids.

  7. High-resolution structures of Thermus thermophilus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase in the apo form, in complex with NAD+ and in complex with NAD+ and triclosan

    PubMed Central

    Otero, José M.; Noël, Ann-Josée; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Wende, Wolfgang; Schierling, Benno; Pingoud, Alfred; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR; the product of the fabI gene) is an important enzyme that is involved in the type II fatty-acid-synthesis pathway of bacteria, plants, apicomplexan protozoa and mitochondria. Harmful pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum use the type II fatty-acid-synthesis system, but not mammals or fungi, which contain a type I fatty-acid-synthesis pathway consisting of one or two multifunctional enzymes. For this reason, specific inhibitors of ENR are attractive antibiotic candidates. Triclosan, a broad-range antibacterial agent, binds to ENR, inhibiting fatty-acid synthesis. As humans do not have an ENR enzyme, they are not affected. Here, high-resolution structures of Thermus thermophilus (Tth) ENR in the apo form, bound to NAD+ and bound to NAD+ plus triclosan are reported. Differences from and similarities to other known ENR structures are reported; in general, the structures are very similar. The cofactor-binding site is also very similar to those of other ENRs and, as reported for other species, triclosan leads to greater ordering of the loop that covers the cofactor-binding site, which, together with the presence of triclosan itself, presumably provides tight binding of the dinucleotide, preventing cycling of the cofactor. Differences between the structures of Tth ENR and other ENRs are the presence of an additional β-sheet at the N-terminus and a larger number of salt bridges and side-chain hydrogen bonds. These features may be related to the high thermal stability of Tth ENR. PMID:23027736

  8. Secretory carrier membrane protein SCAMP2 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate interactions in the regulation of dense core vesicle exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haini; Ellena, Jeff; Liu, Lixia; Szabo, Gabor; Cafiso, David; Castle, David

    2007-09-25

    Secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2) functions in late steps of membrane fusion in calcium-dependent granule exocytosis. A basic/hydrophobic peptide segment within SCAMP2 (SCAMP2 E: CWYRPIYKAFR) has been implicated in this function and shown to bind and sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2] within membranes through an electrostatic mechanism. We now show that alanine substitution of tryptophan W2 within SCAMP2 E substantially weakens peptide binding to negatively charged liposomes; other substitutions for arginine R4 and lysine K8 have only limited effects on binding. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of liposomes containing spin-labeled PIP2 shows that R4 but not K8 is critical for SCAMP E binding to PIP2. The interfacial locations of SCAMP E and its structural variants within lipid bicelles measured by oxygen enhancement of nuclear relaxation are all similar. Corresponding point mutations within full-length SCAMP2 (SC2-R204A, SC2-K208A, and SC2-W202A) have been analyzed for biological effects on dense core vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. With the same level of overexpression, SC2-R204A but not SC2-K208A inhibited secretion of cotransfected human growth hormone and of noradrenalin. Inhibition by SC2-R204A was the same as or greater than previously observed for SC2-W202A. Analysis of noradrenalin secretion by amperometry showed that inhibitory mutants of SCAMP2 decrease the probability of fusion pore opening and the stability of initially opened but not yet expanded fusion pores. The strong correlation between SCAMP2 E interactions with PIP2 and inhibition of exocytosis, particularly by SC2-R204A, led us to propose that SCAMP2 interaction with PIP2 within the membrane interface regulates fusion pore formation during exocytosis.

  9. Escherichia coli Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI) Supports Efficient Operation of a Functional Reversal of the β-Oxidation Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Jacob E.; Clomburg, James M.; Blankschien, Matthew D.; Chou, Alexander; Kim, Seohyoung

    2014-01-01

    We recently used a synthetic/bottom-up approach to establish the identity of the four enzymes composing an engineered functional reversal of the β-oxidation cycle for fuel and chemical production in Escherichia coli (J. M. Clomburg, J. E. Vick, M. D. Blankschien, M. Rodriguez-Moya, and R. Gonzalez, ACS Synth Biol 1:541–554, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb3000782). While native enzymes that catalyze the first three steps of the pathway were identified, the identity of the native enzyme(s) acting as the trans-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase(s) remained unknown, limiting the amount of product that could be synthesized (e.g., 0.34 g/liter butyrate) and requiring the overexpression of a foreign enzyme (the Euglena gracilis trans-enoyl-CoA reductase [EgTER]) to achieve high titers (e.g., 3.4 g/liter butyrate). Here, we examine several native E. coli enzymes hypothesized to catalyze the reduction of enoyl-CoAs to acyl-CoAs. Our results indicate that FabI, the native enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase (ENR) from type II fatty acid biosynthesis, possesses sufficient NADH-dependent TER activity to support the efficient operation of a β-oxidation reversal. Overexpression of FabI proved as effective as EgTER for the production of butyrate and longer-chain carboxylic acids. Given the essential nature of fabI, we investigated whether bacterial ENRs from other families were able to complement a fabI deletion without promiscuous reduction of crotonyl-CoA. These characteristics from Bacillus subtilis FabL enabled ΔfabI complementation experiments that conclusively established that FabI encodes a native enoyl-CoA reductase activity that supports the β-oxidation reversal in E. coli. PMID:25527535

  10. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanocarrier Improved Cellular Transport of Lysosomal Cholesterol in Human Sterol Carrier Protein-Deficient Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Da-Eun; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Jeongmin

    2016-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2), which is not found in tissues of people with Zellweger syndrome, facilitates the movement of cholesterol within cells, resulting in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient cells. This study investigated whether synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanocarrier (sHDL-NC) improves the cellular transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts. Human SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts were incubated with [(3)H-cholesterol]LDL as a source of cholesterol and sHDL-NC. The cells were fractionated by centrifugation permit tracking of [(3)H]-cholesterol from lysosome into plasma membrane. Furthermore, cellular content of cholesteryl ester as a storage form and mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor were measured to support the cholesterol transport to plasma membrane. Incubation with sHDL-NC for 8 h significantly increased uptake of [(3)H]-cholesterol to lysosome by 53% and further enhanced the transport of [(3)H]-cholesterol to plasma membrane by 32%. Treatment with sHDL-NC significantly reduced cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R). In conclusion, sHDL-NC enables increased transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane. In addition, these data were indirectly supported by decreased cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased gene expression of LDL-R. Therefore, sHDL-NC may be a useful vehicle for transporting cholesterol, which may help to prevent accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts.

  11. RhlA converts beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates in fatty acid synthesis to the beta-hydroxydecanoyl-beta-hydroxydecanoate component of rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Rock, Charles O

    2008-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a rhamnolipid (RL) surfactant that functions in hydrophobic nutrient uptake, swarming motility, and pathogenesis. We show that RhlA supplies the acyl moieties for RL biosynthesis by competing with the enzymes of the type II fatty acid synthase (FASII) cycle for the beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) pathway intermediates. Purified RhlA forms one molecule of beta-hydroxydecanoyl-beta-hydroxydecanoate from two molecules of beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP and is the only enzyme required to generate the lipid component of RL. The acyl groups in RL are primarily beta-hydroxydecanoyl, and in vitro, RhlA has a greater affinity for 10-carbon substrates, illustrating that RhlA functions as a molecular ruler that selectively extracts 10-carbon intermediates from FASII. Eliminating either FabA or FabI activity in P. aeruginosa increases RL production, illustrating that slowing down FASII allows RhlA to more-effectively compete for beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP. In Escherichia coli, the rate of fatty acid synthesis increases 1.3-fold when RhlA is expressed, to ensure the continued formation of fatty acids destined for membrane phospholipid even though 24% of the carbon entering FASII is diverted to RL synthesis. Previous studies have placed a ketoreductase, called RhlG, before RhlA in the RL biosynthetic pathway; however, our experiments show that RhlG has no role in RL biosynthesis. We conclude that RhlA is necessary and sufficient to form the acyl moiety of RL and that the flux of carbon through FASII accelerates to support RL production and maintain a supply of acyl chains for phospholipid synthesis.

  12. The stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase promoter (Des) from oil palm confers fruit-specific GUS expression in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Saed Taha, Rima; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar

    2012-09-01

    The stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase is a plastid-localized enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP and plays an important role in the determination of the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. Functional characterization of the fatty acid desaturase genes and their specific promoters is a prerequisite for altering the composition of unsaturated fatty acids of palm oil by genetic engineering. In this paper, the specificity and strength of the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene promoter (Des) was evaluated in transgenic tomato plants. Transcriptional fusions between 5' deletions of the Des promoter (Des1-4) and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were generated and their expression analyzed in different tissues of stably transformed tomato plants. Histochemical analysis of the Des promoter deletion series revealed that GUS gene expression was confined to the tomato fruits. No expression was detected in vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants. The highest levels of GUS activity was observed in different tissues of ripe red fruits (vascular tissue, septa, endocarp, mesocarp and columella) and in seeds, which harbored the promoter region located between -590 and +10. A comparison of the promoter-deletion constructs showed that the Des4 promoter deletion (314bp) produced a markedly low level of GUS expression in fruits and seeds. Fluorometric analysis of the GUS activity revealed a 4-fold increase in the activity of the full-length Des promoter compared to the CaMV35S promoter. RNA-hybridization analyses provided additional evidence of increased GUS expression in fruits driven by a Des fragment. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of the Des promoter as a tool for the genetic engineering of oil palms and other species, including dicots, in improving the quality and nutritional value of the fruits.

  13. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  14. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: Identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; ...

    2015-05-11

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds andmore » structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Here, Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids.« less

  15. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  16. Biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Harrison, Megan S; Burd, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Sorting of macromolecules within the endosomal system is vital for physiological control of nutrient homeostasis, cell motility, and proteostasis. Trafficking routes that export macromolecules from the endosome via vesicle and tubule transport carriers constitute plasma membrane recycling and retrograde endosome-to-Golgi pathways. Proteins of the sorting nexin family have been discovered to function at nearly every step of endosomal transport carrier biogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they form the core machineries of cargo-specific transport pathways that are closely integrated with cellular physiology. Here, we summarize recent progress in elucidating the pathways that mediate the biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

  17. Continuous affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase served as a column for reversed-phase electrochromatography and matrix carrier in time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jen-Kuei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2015-08-19

    This study developed an affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase (AG-NSP) for protein analysis using nanofluidic capillary electrochromatography (nano-CEC) conjugated with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The AG-NSP can be used for protein pre-separation in nano-CEC and as a matrix carrier for protein analysis in MALDI-TOF-MS. A hydrophobicity gradient in AG-NSP was photochemically formed by grafting 4-azidoaniline hydrochloride on vertically arrayed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through gray-level exposure to UV light. The reversed-phase gradient stationary phase in AG-NSP was tailored according to the properties of the mobile phase gradient in capillary electrochromatography. As a result, the operation of the system is easily automated using a single buffer solution without the need for multiple solvents for elution. The use of nano-CEC with AG-NSP demonstrated excellent separation efficiency and high resolution for various types of DNA/protein/peptide. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was then performed directly on the separated proteins and peptides on the chip. The proposed system was then used for the detection of three types of proteins with different molecular weights and PI values, including Cytochrome c (12,360, pI = 10), Lysozyme (14,300, pI = 11), and BSA (86,000, pI = 5)), and digested IgG fragments. The proposed system provided resolution of 1000 Da for the proteins in this study and the separation of digested IgG fragments at a low concentration of 1.2 pmol μL(-1).

  18. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  19. Cell-penetrating DNA-binding protein as a safe and efficient naked DNA delivery carrier in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Sung; Yang, Seung-Woo; Hong, Dong-Ki; Kim, Woo-Taek; Kim, Ho-Guen; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2010-01-29

    Non-viral gene delivery is a safe and suitable alternative to viral vector-mediated delivery to overcome the immunogenicity and tumorigenesis associated with viral vectors. Using the novel, human-origin Hph-1 protein transduction domain that can facilitate the transduction of protein into cells, we developed a new strategy to deliver naked DNA in vitro and in vivo. The new DNA delivery system contains Hph-1-GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid that includes the five repeats of GAL4 upstream activating sequence (UAS). Hph-1-GAL4-DBD protein formed complex with plasmid DNA through the specific interaction between GAL4-DBD and UAS, and delivered into the cells via the Hph-1-PTD. The pEGFP DNA was successfully delivered by the Hph-1-GAL4 system, and the EGFP was effectively expressed in mammalian cells such as HeLa and Jurkat, as well as in Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) plant cells. When 10 {mu}g of pEGFP DNA was intranasally administered to mice using Hph-1-GAL4 protein, a high level of EGFP expression was detected throughout the lung tissue for 7 days. These results suggest that an Hph-1-PTD-mediated DNA delivery strategy may be an useful non-viral DNA delivery system for gene therapy and DNA vaccines.

  20. Influence of acidic fibroblast growth factor on bone regeneration in experimental cranial defects using spongostan and Bio-Oss as protein carriers.

    PubMed

    Arias-Gallo, Javier; Chamorro-Pons, Manuel; Avendaño, Carlos; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to valuate 2 substances as potential carriers of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) in a rat craniectomy model: gelatin sponge (Spongostan; Ferrosan A/S, Søborg, Denmark) and natural bone mineral (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland).Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter circular craniectomy was performed in the left parietal bone. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups of 8 rats, each group receiving a different treatment: control (no substance added), Spongostan, Bio-Oss, FGF, FGF + Spongostan, and FGF + Bio-Oss. Animals were killed 12 weeks after surgery.Descriptive histology and stereology were used, the latter to measure the volumes of regenerated bone and Bio-Oss remaining in the defect. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in bone regeneration between groups, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the volume of remaining Bio-Oss particles.Histologically, the control defects behaved like critical size defects, showing incomplete bone regeneration. Only the FGF + Spongostan group achieved nearly complete bone regeneration. Bio-Oss particles seemed to reduce centripetal bone regeneration. Spongostan by itself did not interfere with spontaneous bone healing.Stereologic measurements of the volume of new bone growth, measured in cubic millimeter, were as follows: control group, 3.86 ± 1.03; Bio-Oss, 2.26 ± 1.06; Spongostan, 3.00 ± 0.81; FGF, 3.99 ± 1.85; FGF + Bio-Oss, 3.02 ± 1.88; and FGF + Spongostan, 8.93 ± 1.28. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the FGF + Spongostan group and the other groups (P < 0.001). Comparison among the other groups did not show significant differences.Fibroblast growth factor 1 with a Spongostan carrier has shown great efficacy for bone regeneration in cranial critical size defects in rats. Bio-Oss did not produce a regenerative effect, either alone or with FGF-1.

  1. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 2. Transport studies, photoaffinity labeling, and identification of the membrane carrier protein for methotrexate from murine L1210 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Price, E.M.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-07-28

    A membrane-derived component of the methotrexate/one-carbon-reduced folate transport system in murine L1210 cells has been identified by using a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate. The compound, a radioiodinated 4-azidosalicylyl derivative of the lysine analogue of methotrexate, is transported into murine L1210 cells in a temperature-dependent, sulfhydryl reagent inhibitable manner with a K/sub t/ of 506 +/- 79 nM and a V/sub max/ of 17.9 +/- 4.2 pmol min/sup -1/ (mg of total cellular protein)/sup -1/. Uptake of the iodinated compound at 200 nM is inhibited by low amounts of methotrexate. The parent compounds of the iodinated photoprobe inhibit (/sup 3/H)methotrexate uptake, with the uniodinated 4-azidosalicylyl derivative exhibiting a K/sub i/ of 66 +/- 21 nM. UV irradiation, at 4 /sup 0/C, of a cell suspension that had been incubated with the probe results in the covalent modification of a 46K-48K protein. This can be demonstrated when the plasma membranes from the labeled cells are analyzed via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Labeling of this protein occurs half-maximally at a reagent concentration that correlates with the K/sub t/ for transport of the iodinated compound. Protection against labeling of this protein by increasing amounts of methotrexate parallels the concentration dependence of inhibition of photoprobe uptake by methotrexate. Evidence that, in the absence of irradiation and at 37/sup 0/C, the iodinated probe is actually internalized is demonstrated by the labeling of two soluble proteins (M/sub r/ 38K and 21K) derived from the cell homogenate supernatant.

  2. A single endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase-1 protein allotype is a strong risk factor for Behçet’s disease in HLA-B*51 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Ombrello, Michael J; Kirino, Yohei; Erer, Burak; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Seyahi, Emire; Özyazgan, Yilmaz; Watts, Norman; Gül, Ahmet; Kastner, Daniel L.; Remmers, Elaine F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) protein is highly polymorphic with numerous missense amino acid variants. We sought to determine the naturally occurring ERAP1 protein allotypes and their contribution to Behçet’s disease. Methods Genotypes of all reported missense ERAP1 gene variants with 1000 Genomes EUR super-population frequency greater than 1% were determined in 1,900 Behçet’s disease cases and 1,779 controls from Turkey. ERAP1 protein allotypes and their contributions to Behçet’s disease risk were determined by haplotype identification and disease association analyses. Results One ERAP1 protein allotype with 5 non-ancestral amino acids was recessively associated with disease (P = 3.13 × 10−6, odds ratio 2.55, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.82). The ERAP1 association was absent in individuals who lacked HLA-B*51. Individuals who carry HLA-B*51 and who are also homozygous for the haplotype had an increased disease odds compared with those with neither risk factor (P = 4.80 × 10−20, odds ratio 10.96, 95% CI 5.91 to 20.32). Discussion The Behçet’s disease-associated ERAP1 protein allotype was previously shown to have poor peptide trimming activity. Combined with its requirement for HLA-B*51, these data suggest that a hypoactive ERAP1 allotype contributes to Behçet’s disease risk by altering the peptides available for binding to HLA-B*51. PMID:27217550

  3. The ortholog of human solute carrier family 35 member B1 (UDP-galactose transporter-related protein 1) is involved in maintenance of ER homeostasis and essential for larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Nomura, Kazuko H; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Kamiyama, Shin; Nishihara, Shoko; Nomura, Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Although the solute carrier 35B1 (SLC35B1) is evolutionarily conserved, its functions in metazoans remain unknown. To elucidate its function, we examined developmental roles of an SLC35B1 family gene (HUT-1: homolog of UDP-Gal transporter) in Caenorhabditis elegans. We isolated a deletion mutant of the gene and characterized phenotypes of the mutant and hut-1 RNAi-treated worms. GFP-HUT-1 reporter analysis was performed to examine gene expression patterns. We also tested whether several nucleotide sugar transporters can compensate for hut-1 deficiency. The hut-1 deletion mutant and RNAi worms showed larval growth defect and lethality with disrupted intestinal morphology. Inactivation of hut-1 induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hut-1 showed genetic interactions with the atf-6, pek-1, and ire-1 genes involved in unfolded protein response signaling. ER ultrastructure and ER marker distribution in hut-1-deficient animals showed that HUT-1 is required for maintenance of ER structure. Reporter analysis revealed that HUT-1 is an ER protein ubiquitously expressed in tissues, including the intestine. Lethality and the ER stress phenotype of the mutant were rescued with the human hut-1 ortholog UGTrel1. These results indicate important roles for hut-1 in development and maintenance of ER homeostasis in C. elegans.

  4. Immune sensitization to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) resulting from skin exposure: albumin as a carrier protein connecting skin exposure to subsequent respiratory responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may promote subsequent airway inflammatory responses. We developed a murine model to investigate pathogenic mechanisms by which MDI skin exposure might promote subsequent immune responses, including respiratory tract inflammation. Methods Mice exposed via the skin to varying doses (0.1-10% w/v) of MDI diluted in acetone/olive oil were subsequently evaluated for MDI immune sensitization. Serum levels of MDI-specific IgG and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), while respiratory tract inflammation, induced by intranasal delivery of MDI-mouse albumin conjugates, was evaluated based on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Autologous serum IgG from "skin only" exposed mice was used to detect and guide the purification/identification of skin proteins antigenically modified by MDI exposure in vivo. Results Skin exposure to MDI resulted in specific antibody production and promoted subsequent respiratory tract inflammation in animals challenged intranasally with MDI-mouse albumin conjugates. The degree of (secondary) respiratory tract inflammation and eosinophilia depended upon the (primary) skin exposure dose, and was maximal in mice exposed to 1% MDI, but paradoxically limited in mice receiving 10-fold higher doses (e.g. 10% MDI). The major antigenically-modified protein at the local MDI skin exposure site was identified as albumin, and demonstrated biophysical changes consistent with MDI conjugation. Conclusions MDI skin exposure can induce MDI-specific immune sensitivity and promote subsequent respiratory tract inflammatory responses and thus, may play an important role in MDI asthma pathogenesis. MDI

  5. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  6. Degradable Cross-Linked Nanoassemblies as Drug Carriers for Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin.

    PubMed

    Ponta, Andrei; Akter, Shanjida; Bae, Younsoo

    2011-09-26

    Cross-linked nanoassemblies (CNAs) with a degradable core were prepared for sustained release of 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a potent inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). The particle size of CNAs ranged between 100 and 250 nm, which changed depending on the cross-linking yields and drug entrapment method. CNAs with a 1% cross-linking yield entrapped 17-AAG in aqueous solutions, yet degraded in 3 hrs. CNAs entrapped 5.2 weight% of 17-AAG as the cross-linking yield increased to 10%, retaining more than 80% of particles for 24 hrs. CNAs with drugs entrapped after the cross-linking reactions were 100 nm and remained stable in both pH 7.4 and 5.0, corresponding to the physiological, tumoral, and intracellular environments. Drug was completely released from CNAs in 48 hrs, which would potentially maximize drug delivery and release efficiency within tumor tissues. Drug release patterns were not negatively affected by changing the cross-linking yields of CNAs. CNAs entrapping 17-AAG suppressed the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells as equally effective as free drugs. The results demonstrated that CNAs would be a promising formulation that can be used in aqueous solutions for controlled delivery and release of 17-AAG.

  7. Encapsulation of proteins in hydrogel carrier systems for controlled drug delivery: influence of network structure and drug size on release rate.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Andreas; Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Miethe, Sebastian; Tiersch, Brigitte; Koetz, Joachim; Hust, Michael; Bunjes, Heike; Menzel, Henning

    2013-01-20

    Novel hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl starch modified with polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)₆MA) were developed as delivery system for the controlled release of proteins. Since the drug release behavior is supposed to be related to the pore structure of the hydrogel network the pore sizes were determined by cryo-SEM, which is a mild technique for imaging on a nanometer scale. The results showed a decreasing pore size and an increase in pore homogeneity with increasing polymer concentration. Furthermore, the mesh sizes of the hydrogels were calculated based on swelling data. Pore and mesh size were significantly different which indicates that both structures are present in the hydrogel. The resulting structural model was correlated with release data for bulk hydrogel cylinders loaded with FITC-dextran and hydrogel microspheres loaded with FITC-IgG and FITC-dextran of different molecular size. The initial release depended much on the relation between hydrodynamic diameter and pore size while the long term release of the incorporated substances was predominantly controlled by degradation of the network of the much smaller meshes.

  8. Cloning and Characterisation of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-acyl Carrier Protein-coenzyme A Transferase Gene (phaG) from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55.

    PubMed

    Arsad, Hasni; Sudesh, Kumar; Nazalan, Najimudin; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Wahab, Habibah; Razip Samian, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    The (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP-CoA transferase catalyses the conversion of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP to (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA derivatives, which serves as the ultimate precursor for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerisation from unrelated substrates in pseudomonads. PhaG was found to be responsible for channelling precursors for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from a de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathway when cultured on carbohydrates, such as glucose or gluconate. The phaG gene was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 using a homologous probe. The gene was located in a 3660 bp Sal I fragment (GenBank accession number EU305558). The open reading frame (ORF) was 885 bp long and encoded a 295 amino acid protein. The predicted molecular weight was 33251 Da, and it showed a 62% identity to the PhaG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The function of the cloned phaG of Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 was confirmed by complementation studies. Plasmid pBCS39, which harboured the 3660 bp Sal I fragment, was found to complement the PhaG-mutant heterologous host cell, Pseudomonas putida PhaGN-21. P. putida PhaGN-21, which harboured pBCS39, accumulated PHA that accounted for up to 18% of its cellular dry weight (CDW). P. putida PhaGN-21, which harboured the vector alone (PBBR1MCS-2), accumulated only 0.6% CDW of PHA.

  9. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  10. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  11. Synthetic carriers of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dellacherie, E; Labrude, P; Vigneron, C; Riess, J G

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, construction of artificial carriers of oxygen for transfusion purposes has evolved in three main directions, which can be reviewed as follows. The first approach consists of modifying hemoglobin (Hb), the natural oxygen carrier, in order to lower its oxygen affinity and increase its intravascular persistence. To achieve this aim, two basic procedures have been used: molecular and environmental modification. In the first case, Hb is modified with chemical reagents; the second requires encapsulation of Hb to obtain artificial erythrocytes. The second approach is based on the use of synthetic oxygen-carrying chelates that mimic the oxygenation function of Hb. The main products in this class are metalloporphyrins, whose chemical environment is designed to render them efficient as reversible carriers of oxygen in vivo. Finally, the third approach deals with the perfluorochemicals used in emulsified form. Perfluorochemical liquids are excellent gas solvents, but some problems remain unsolved with regard to their development as oxygen carriers in vivo: low O2 dissolving capacity, toxicity, and excretion.

  12. Inorganic Nanomaterials as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhu; Hao, Xiaohong; Liang, Xingjie; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhou, Guoqiang; Shen, Shigang; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    For safe and effective therapy, drugs must be delivered efficiently and with minimal systemic side effects. Nanostructured drug carriers enable the delivery of small-molecule drugs as well as nucleic acids and proteins. Inorganic nanomaterials are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their unique physicochemical properties, such as facile preparation, good storage stability and biocompatibility. Many inorganic nanostructure-based drug delivery platforms have been prepared. Although there are still many obstacles to overcome, significant advances have been made in recent years. This review focuses on the status and development of inorganic nanostructures, including silica, quantum dots, gold, carbon-based and magnetic iron oxide-based nanostructures, as carriers for chemical and biological drugs. We specifically highlight the extensive use of these inorganic drug carriers for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the most important areas in the field that urgently require further study.

  13. The effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on the functionality of the solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    McCann, Mark J; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J; Perry, Nigel B; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  14. Biological evaluation of potent triclosan-derived inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase InhA in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Stec, Jozef; Vilchèze, Catherine; Lun, Shichun; Perryman, Alexander L; Wang, Xin; Freundlich, Joel S; Bishai, William; Jacobs, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2014-11-01

    New triclosan (TRC) analogues were evaluated for their activity against the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase InhA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TRC is a well-known inhibitor of InhA, and specific modifications to its positions 5 and 4' afforded 27 derivatives; of these compounds, seven derivatives showed improved potency over that of TRC. These analogues were active against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mtb strains. The most active compound in this series, 4-(n-butyl)-1,2,3-triazolyl TRC derivative 3, had an MIC value of 0.6 μg mL(-1) (1.5 μM) against wild-type Mtb. At a concentration equal to its MIC, this compound inhibited purified InhA by 98 %, and showed an IC50 value of 90 nM. Compound 3 and the 5-methylisoxazole-modified TRC 14 were able to inhibit the biosynthesis of mycolic acids. Furthermore, mc(2) 4914, an Mtb strain overexpressing inhA, was found to be less susceptible to compounds 3 and 14, supporting the notion that InhA is the likely molecular target of the TRC derivatives presented herein.

  15. Biological Evaluation of Potent Triclosan-Derived Inhibitors of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase InhA in Drug-sensitive and Drug-resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Lun, Shichun; Perryman, Alexander L.; Wang, Xin; Freundlich, Joel S.; Bishai, William; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    New triclosan (TRC) analogs were evaluated for their activity against the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase InhA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TRC is a well-known inhibitor of InhA and specific modifications to its positions 5 and 4′ afforded twenty-seven derivatives; of these compounds seven derivatives showed an improved potency in comparison to TRC. These analogs were active against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mtb strains. The most active compound in this series, 3, had an MIC value of 0.6 μg/mL (1.5 μM) against wild-type Mtb. At a concentration equal to its MIC, this molecule inhibited the purified InhA enzyme to the extent of 98%, and it showed an IC50 value of 90 nM. Compounds 3 and 14 were able to inhibit the biosynthesis of mycolic acids. Furthermore, mc24914, an Mtb strain overexpressing inhA, was resistant to the compounds 3 and 14, supporting the notion that InhA is the likely molecular target of the TRC derivatives presented herein. PMID:25165007

  16. β-Hydroxyacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Dehydratase (FabZ) from Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis : Structure Determination, Enzymatic Characterization, and Cross-Inhibition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McGillick, Brian E.; Kumaran, Desigan; Vieni, Casey; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2016-01-28

    The bacterial system for fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) contains several enzymes whose sequence and structure are highly conserved across a vast array of pathogens. Coupled with their low homology and difference in organization compared to the equivalent system in humans, this makes the FAS pathway an excellent target for antimicrobial drug development. To this end, we have cloned, expressed, and purified the β-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from both Francisella tularensis (FtFabZ) and Yersinia pestis (YpFabZ). We also solved the crystal structures and performed an enzymatic characterization of both enzymes and several mutant forms of YpFabZ. In addition, we have discovered two novel inhibitors of FabZ, mangostin and stictic acid, which show similar potencies against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. Lastly, we selected several compounds from the literature that have been shown to be active against single homologues of FabZ and tested them against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. Our results have revealed clues as to which scaffolds are likely to lead to broad-spectrum antimicrobials targeted against FabZ as well as modifications to existing FabZ inhibitors that may improve potency.

  17. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  18. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  19. Defective Expression of the Mitochondrial-tRNA Modifying Enzyme GTPBP3 Triggers AMPK-Mediated Adaptive Responses Involving Complex I Assembly Factors, Uncoupling Protein 2, and the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Juan M.; Villarroya, Magda; Aguado, Carmen; Enríquez, J. Antonio; Knecht, Erwin; Armengod, M.-Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    GTPBP3 is an evolutionary conserved protein presumably involved in mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) modification. In humans, GTPBP3 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with lactic acidosis, and have been associated with a defect in mitochondrial translation, yet the pathomechanism remains unclear. Here we use a GTPBP3 stable-silencing model (shGTPBP3 cells) for a further characterization of the phenotype conferred by the GTPBP3 defect. We experimentally show for the first time that GTPBP3 depletion is associated with an mt-tRNA hypomodification status, as mt-tRNAs from shGTPBP3 cells were more sensitive to digestion by angiogenin than tRNAs from control cells. Despite the effect of stable silencing of GTPBP3 on global mitochondrial translation being rather mild, the steady-state levels and activity of Complex I, and cellular ATP levels were 50% of those found in the controls. Notably, the ATPase activity of Complex V increased by about 40% in GTPBP3 depleted cells suggesting that mitochondria consume ATP to maintain the membrane potential. Moreover, shGTPBP3 cells exhibited enhanced antioxidant capacity and a nearly 2-fold increase in the uncoupling protein UCP2 levels. Our data indicate that stable silencing of GTPBP3 triggers an AMPK-dependent retrograde signaling pathway that down-regulates the expression of the NDUFAF3 and NDUFAF4 Complex I assembly factors and the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), while up-regulating the expression of UCP2. We also found that genes involved in glycolysis and oxidation of fatty acids are up-regulated. These data are compatible with a model in which high UCP2 levels, together with a reduction in pyruvate transport due to the down-regulation of MPC, promote a shift from pyruvate to fatty acid oxidation, and to an uncoupling of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic alterations, and the low ATP levels, may negatively affect heart function. PMID:26642043

  20. Expression of a delta 9 14:0-acyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase gene is necessary for the production of omega 5 anacardic acids found in pest-resistant geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum).

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D J; Cahoon, E B; Shanklin, J; Craig, R; Cox-Foster, D L; Mumma, R O; Medford, J I

    1996-01-01

    Anacardic acids, a class of secondary compounds derived from fatty acids, are found in a variety of dicotyledonous families. Pest resistance (e.g., spider mites and aphids) in Pelargonium xhortorum (geranium) is associated with high levels (approximately 81%) of unsaturated 22:1 omega 5 and 24:1 omega 5 anacardic acids in the glandular trichome exudate. A single dominant locus controls the production of these omega 5 anacardic acids, which arise from novel 16:1 delta 11 and 18:1 delta 13 fatty acids. We describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a unique delta 9 14:0-acyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase. Several lines of evidence indicated that expression of this desaturase leads to the production of the omega 5 anacardic acids involved in pest resistance. First, its expression was found in pest-resistant, but not suspectible, plants and its expression followed the production of the omega 5 anacardic acids in segregating populations. Second, its expression and the occurrence of the novel 16:1 delta 11 and 18:1 delta 13 fatty acids and the omega 5 anacardic acids were specific to tall glandular trichomes. Third, assays of the recombinant protein demonstrated that this desaturase produced the 14:1 delta 9 fatty acid precursor to the novel 16:1 delta 11 and 18:1 delta 13 fatty acids. Based on our genetic and biochemical studies, we conclude that expression of this delta 9 14:0-ACP desaturase gene is required for the production of omega 5 anacardic acids that have been shown to be necessary for pest resistance in geranium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8710947

  1. Theileria annulata: carrier state and immunity.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, T; Williamson, S; Kirvar, E; Shiels, B; Brown, C G

    1998-06-29

    Recovery from primary infection of Theileria annulata results in the development of a persistent carrier state in the vertebrate host. The carrier state is of great importance in the maintenance of the life cycle by alternate tick/cattle challenge and both contributes to and may be necessary for maintenance of immunity. Therefore, an accurate determination of carrier animals could be useful in determining immune status and may allow the necessary control measures to be implemented. Detailed information on the carrier state of animals following immunization with attenuated cell lines is lacking. In this study, relationship between immune response, persistence of the parasite, and the antibody response has been investigated. Calves were infected with T. annulata sporozoites, low passage (non-attenuated) or high passage (attenuated, vaccine) cell lines and later challenged with a lethal dose of heterologous sporozoites. The presence and persistence of the parasite were monitored by PCR using primers derived from genes coding for ssrRNA and a 30 kDa major merozoite surface protein, by Giemsa stained blood smears to detect the presence of piroplasms and also by attempting to establish infected mononuclear cell cultures from venous blood. Antibody responses were measured by indirect ELISA using a merozoite recombinant antigen and IFAT using piroplasm and macroschizont antigens. Results showed that there was an evident relationship between the persistence of carrier status, antibody response in ELISA and immune response to challenge.

  2. Physiological and pathological roles of mitochondrial SLC25 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Baines, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrion relies on compartmentalization of certain enzymes, ions and metabolites for the sake of efficient metabolism. In order to fulfil its activities, a myriad of carriers are properly expressed, targeted and folded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Among these carriers, the six-transmembrane-helix mitochondrial SLC25 (solute carrier family 25) proteins facilitate transport of solutes with disparate chemical identities across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Although their proper function replenishes building blocks needed for metabolic reactions, dysfunctional SLC25 proteins are involved in pathological states. It is the purpose of the present review to cover the current knowledge on the role of SLC25 transporters in health and disease. PMID:23988125

  3. Yarn carrier with clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  4. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  5. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  7. Acrylate-tethering drug carrier: covalently linking carrier to biological surface and application in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Pan-In, Porntip; Samutprasert, Pawatsanai; Banlunara, Wijit; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2014-11-10

    The development of carriers to sustain drugs at stomach surface is an attractive strategy to increase drug bioavailability locally and systematically. So far, the only reported carrier that can form a covalent bond with mucus, the thiolated carrier, relies on a reversible disulfide exchange reaction between thiols on the carrier and disulfide bridges on the mucus. Here we show the design and fabrication of a cellulose carrier with tethering acrylate groups (denoted here as clickable carrier) that, under a nontoxic condition, can efficiently react with thiols on biomaterials in situ through the thermodynamically driven and kinetically probable Michael thiol-ene click reaction. Here we show the attachments of the clickable carriers to a mucin protein, a surface of human laryngeal carcinoma cells, and a surface of a fresh porcine stomach. We also show that the required thiol moieties can be generated in situ by reducing existing cystine disulfide bridges with either the edible vitamin C or the relatively nontoxic tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. Comparing to a control carrier, the clickable carrier can increase some drug concentrations in an ex vivo stomach tissue, and improve the Helicobacter pylori treatment in infected C57BL/6 mice.

  8. Telemetry carrier ring and support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A telemetry carrier ring for use in a gas turbine engine includes an annular support ring connected to the engine and an annular carrier ring coupled to the support ring, each ring exhibiting different growth characteristics in response to thermal and mechanical loading. The carrier ring is coupled to the support ring by a plurality of circumferentially spaced web members which are relatively thin in an engine radial direction to provide a predetermined degree of radial flexibility. the web members have a circumferential width and straight axial line of action selected to transfer torque and thrust between the support ring and the carrier ring without substantial deflection. The use of the web members with radial flexibility provides compensation between the support ring and the carrier ring since the carrier ring grows at a different rate than the supporting ring.

  9. Identification of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hildyard, John C W; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate transport is fundamental for metabolism and mediated by a specific inhibitable carrier. We have identified the yeast mitochondrial pyruvate carrier by measuring inhibitor-sensitive pyruvate uptake into mitochondria from 18 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, each lacking an unattributed member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). Only mitochondria from the YIL006w deletion mutant exhibited no inhibitor-sensitive pyruvate transport, but otherwise behaved normally. YIL006w encodes a 41.9 kDa MCF member with homologous proteins present in both the human and mouse genomes. PMID:12887330

  10. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  11. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: Identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong -Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-05-11

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Here, Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids.

  12. Infrared hot carrier diode mixer.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, L W; Erler, J W

    1977-11-01

    Detection of a 54.3-GHz beatnote at 10.6 microm has been observed with a hot carrier diode mixer. The diode consists of a "cat whisker" antenna, which forms an ohmic point contact to n-InAs. The mechanism of this room-temperature detector is described as the "thermoelectric effect" of hot carriers.

  13. X chromosome inactivation in carriers of Barth syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Orstavik, K H; Orstavik, R E; Naumova, A K; D'Adamo, P; Gedeon, A; Bolhuis, P A; Barth, P G; Toniolo, D

    1998-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by cardiac and skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and short stature. A gene for BTHS, G4.5, was recently cloned and encodes several novel proteins, named "tafazzins." Unique mutations have been found. No correlation between the location or type of mutation and the phenotype of BTHS has been found. Female carriers of BTHS seem to be healthy. This could be due to a selection against cells that have the mutant allele on the active X chromosome. We therefore analyzed X chromosome inactivation in 16 obligate carriers of BTHS, from six families, using PCR in the androgen-receptor locus. An extremely skewed X-inactivation pattern (>=95:5), not found in 148 female controls, was found in six carriers. The skewed pattern in two carriers from one family was confirmed in DNA from cultured fibroblasts. Five carriers from two families had a skewed pattern (80:20-<95:5), a pattern that was found in only 11 of 148 female controls. Of the 11 carriers with a skewed pattern, the parental origin of the inactive X chromosome was maternal in all seven cases for which this could be determined. In two families, carriers with an extremely skewed pattern and carriers with a random pattern were found. The skewed X inactivation in 11 of 16 carriers is probably the result of a selection against cells with the mutated gene on the active X chromosome. Since BTHS also shows great clinical variation within families, additional factors are likely to influence the expression of the phenotype. Such factors may also influence the selection mechanism in carriers. PMID:9792874

  14. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  16. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  17. Optically induced free carrier light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.; Richards, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Signal carrier laser beam is optically modulated by a second laser beam of different frequency acting on a free carrier source to which the signal carrier laser is directed. The second laser beam affects the transmission characteristics of the free carrier source to light from the signal carrier laser, thus modulating it.

  18. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  19. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  20. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  1. A vaccine carrier derived from Neisseria meningitidis with mitogenic activity for lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M A; Friedman, A; Oliff, A I; Tai, J; Martinez, D; Deck, R R; Shieh, J T; Jenkins, T D; Donnelly, J J; Hawe, L A

    1992-01-01

    Protein carriers vary in their ability to increase the immunogenicity of poorly immunogenic or T-lymphocyte-independent antigens. We examined one such carrier, the outer membrane protein complex derived from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain B11, in an attempt to determine why this outer membrane protein complex was more immunogenic in young infants and in relevant animal models than two other carriers used in conjugates made with Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide, a T-cell-independent antigen. A single protein of the outer membrane protein complex, the class 2 porin protein, was purified and shown to function as a T-helper lymphocyte carrier protein. Unexpectedly, it was also found to have mitogenic activity for lymphocytes that was not due to lipopolysaccharide. This mitogenic activity appears to date to be unique to this carrier protein of the carrier proteins tested and may contribute to the ability of the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccine made with the outer membrane protein complex to generate IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses in mice and infant monkeys and protective immune responses in infants less than 6 months of age. Images PMID:1533934

  2. Stable wafer-carrier system

    DOEpatents

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C

    2013-10-22

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  3. Extracellular vesicles as novel carriers for therapeutic molecules.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nambin; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been various attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. From chemical reagents to nucleic acids, various macromolecules were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins due to physical or chemical forces. Also, the loading efficiency of conventional methods is too low for most proteins. We have recently proposed a new method, the so-called exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein-protein interaction (EXPLORs), to overcome the limitations. Since EXPLORs are produced by actively loading of intracellular proteins into EVs using blue light without protein purification steps, we demonstrated that the EXPLOR technique significantly improves the loading and delivery efficiency of therapeutic proteins. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate the potential of EXPLOR technology as a novel platform for biopharmaceuticals, by successful delivery of several functional proteins such as Cre recombinase, into the target cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 585-586].

  4. Extracellular vesicles as novel carriers for therapeutic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nambin; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been various attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. From chemical reagents to nucleic acids, various macromolecules were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins due to physical or chemical forces. Also, the loading efficiency of conventional methods is too low for most proteins. We have recently proposed a new method, the so-called exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein-protein interaction (EXPLORs), to overcome the limitations. Since EXPLORs are produced by actively loading of intracellular proteins into EVs using blue light without protein purification steps, we demonstrated that the EXPLOR technique significantly improves the loading and delivery efficiency of therapeutic proteins. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate the potential of EXPLOR technology as a novel platform for biopharmaceuticals, by successful delivery of several functional proteins such as Cre recombinase, into the target cells. PMID:27733233

  5. Alternative sugars as potential carriers for dry powder inhalations.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Hartwig; Bolzen, Nina

    2004-02-11

    Most dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations rely on lactose monohydrate as a carrier in the drug powder blends. However, lactose cannot be used for compounds that interact with the reducing sugar function of the lactose, such as formoterol, budesonide or peptides and proteins. In this study, alternative carriers like mannitol, glucose, sorbitol, maltitol and xylitol have therefore been evaluated for their potential use in DPI formulations. Raw materials were characterised physico-chemically and blends with the model drug substance budesonide were tested with respect to the aerosolization behaviour of the powders. It was found out that similarly to the problems known for lactose monohydrate, such as supplier variability, variability between different qualities of one supplier, the same difficulties apply to the alternative carriers investigated. Different sources and qualities of mannitol led to significant differences in the fine particle fraction (FPF), varying from 15 to 50% for two different qualities of mannitol. Similar observations were made for the other carrier materials studied. Also, the influence of conditioning the raw material at different relative humidity was found to have substantial influence on the performance of drug/carrier blends which is characterised by a strong decrease in the FPF. In summary, mannitol showed potential as a drug carrier to be used in DPIs whereas the more hygroscopic sugars only showed poor dispersibility.

  6. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  7. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  8. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but...

  9. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  10. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  11. Hydrogen as an energy carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilization of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources solar energy, wind energy and hydropower, and from nuclear energy. It is also in a position to one day supplement or supersede the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. Contents: Significance and Use of Hydrogen: Energy Supply Structures and the Importance of Gaseous Energy Carriers. Technologies for the Energetic Use of Hydrogen. Hydrogen as Raw Material. Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Energy. Production of Hydrogen from Nonfossil Primary Energy: Photovoltaic Electricity Generation. Thermo-mechanical Electricity Generation. Water Splitting Methods. Selected Hydrogen Production Systems. Storage, Transport and Distribution of Hydrogen. Design of a Future Hydrogen Energy Economy: Potential and Chances of Hydrogen. Hydrogen in a Future Energy Economy. Concepts for the Introduction of Nonfossil Hydrogen. Energy-economic Conditions and the Cooperation with Hydrogen Producing Countries. Index.

  12. Charge carrier transport in polyvinylcarbazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutnev, Andrey P.; Saenko, Vladimir S.; Pozhidaev, Evgenii D.; Kolesnikov, Vladislav A.

    2006-07-01

    A critical analysis of the existing time-of-flight (TOF) data in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) proves that these are highly controversial with claims and counterclaims about charge carrier transport (dispersive versus Gaussian). It is felt that the TOF method taken alone is incapable of resolving the standing dilemma. As a final means to resolve it, we propose a combination of two varieties of the TOF technique using both sheet-like and uniform carrier generation modes in conjunction with radiation-induced conductivity measurements. All three techniques are realized using the ELA-50 electron gun facility. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach we report experimental data for PVK, which show that carrier transport in this polymer is indeed dispersive. Evidence is presented substantiating the gross interference the surface traps could exert on the shape of a TOF transient. As a result, a preflight part of the TOF signal should not be used for parameter evaluation.

  13. Carrier sense data highway system

    DOEpatents

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  14. Carrier-Mediated Antiviral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    encapsulat- ed nbavirin (3 mg per mouse) on days 0 and 2. " %.. - V % % CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 245 Table 2. Effect or MTP-PE Treatment on the...illustrates the effect of IV MTP-PE on the survival of mice injected int’a- .. - ,.,.,.. nasally with HSV- 1 . A small but significant enhancement of...dosage of interferon was marginally effective when given in %%’. CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 251 only two or three injections (on days I and 6 or

  15. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  16. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  17. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  18. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  19. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  20. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  1. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  2. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  3. Carrier lifetimes in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Saurav

    Carrier lifetimes are one of the most crucial parameters that govern the performance of high voltage/high power devices. The lack of understanding of the factors that determine the carrier lifetimes in silicon carbide is currently a major impediment in the development of high voltage/high power technology based on this material. The objective of this dissertation was to identify and subsequently, characterize various recombination channels present in silicon carbide. Of special importance was identification of lifetime limiting defects in the high quality epitaxial layers grown by state-of-the-art chemical vapor deposition technique for high voltage application. The effect of growth conditions (C/Si ratio, growth temperature, seed polarity, epilayer thickness, and background doping) on the concentrations of various defects were investigated with the aim of manipulating carrier lifetimes by controlling different growth parameters. Based on the qualitative correlations between various point defects and carrier lifetimes in more than thirty epitaxial layers, three defects (Z-defect, EH6/7 center, and P1 center) were identified as potential lifetime limiting defects. The P1 center was shown to act as efficient recombination channel whenever present in concentrations greater than 1013 cm-3. Such concentrations were observed in layers grown on the C-face and at low C/Si ratio (less than 1.5). The measurement of recombination rates of electrons and holes via the Z-defect and the EH6/7 center (as a function of temperature) were performed by analyzing the carrier dynamics in specially designed p-n diodes. At 300 K, the capture cross section of the two states of the Z-defect were sigman1˜6x10-15 cm2 (electron capture at the donor state), sigmap1˜2x1014 cm2 (hole capture at the donor state), sigman2˜1x10 16 cm2 (electron capture at the acceptor state), and sigma p2˜1e-13 cm2 (hole capture at the acceptor state). The electron capture cross section for the EH6/7 centers was

  4. Association of polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) and fatty acid-binding protein-3 and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) with fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and

  5. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  6. Water-structuring technology with the molecular chaperone proteins: indicated application of the α-crystallin domains and imidazole-containing peptidomimetics in cosmetic skin care systems or dermatological therapeutic drug carrier formulations.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Nikolayev, Gennady M; Nikolayeva, Juliana G; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-01-01

    Changes in structural proteins and hydration during aging are responsible for altered skin morphologic and mechanical properties manifested as wrinkling, sagging, loss of elasticity, and apparent dryness. Impairment in protein hydration may add to the ultrastructural, mechanical, and biochemical changes in structural proteins in the aged skin. At Innovative Vision Products, Inc., we have pioneered a molecular chaperone protein-activated therapeutic or cosmetic platform to enable simultaneous analysis of water-binding and structuring characteristics for biology-related or skin aging and skin disease-related pathways. This cutting-edge technology has changed the hydration of proteins in photoaged skin which so that they are more compact and interact with water to limited degree. The mechanisms of skin diseases, aging, and cellular and signaling pathways mediated by targeting with molecular chaperone protein(s) are considered. Skin lesions that are growing, spreading, or pigmented, and those that occur on exposed areas of skin are likely to be treated by these emerging pharmacological chaperones that could have cosmetic or dermatological benefits. Examples of such chaperones are anti-/trans-glycation-imidazole-containing peptidomimetic(s) (natural L-carnosine derivatives and mimetics) combined with the molecular chaperone protein α-crystallin derived from a natural source, brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts, or with recombinant human αA-crystallin. This patented biotechnology represents an efficient tool with which to mitigate the consequences of free radical-induced skin damage. The article is organized to provide in one place all of the relevant technical information, such as high-performance nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance application tools, and to describe the entire process from sample preparation to data analysis, which is moving from biological studies to biotechnology batches of the product. The proposed biotechnology results in

  7. Carriers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Research Publications Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home Adults With SMA Play Travel Grief & Loss Community & ...

  8. 47 CFR 54.904 - Carrier certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier certification. 54.904 Section 54.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.904...

  9. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and/or charges. (b) To corroborate the selection of the above study carriers, and to provide a data base for a continuing evaluation of the validity and usefulness of those carriers as a study group... A, Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data....

  10. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  11. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  12. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  14. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  16. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  17. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  18. 49 CFR 1241.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common carriers. 1241.1 Section 1241.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 1241.1 Common carriers. All common...

  19. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.1 Common carriers. All common carriers by...

  20. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  1. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  2. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  3. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  4. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... other carriers to pass off by means of activities which are inconsistent with the minimum safeguards...

  5. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  6. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap local...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.105 Carrier common line... shall be assessed upon all interexchange carriers that use local exchange common line facilities for...

  7. A new class of carriers that transport selective cargo from the trans Golgi network to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Wakana, Yuichi; van Galen, Josse; Meissner, Felix; Scarpa, Margherita; Polishchuk, Roman S; Mann, Matthias; Malhotra, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We have isolated a membrane fraction enriched in a class of transport carriers that form at the trans Golgi network (TGN) and are destined for the cell surface in HeLa cells. Protein kinase D (PKD) is required for the biogenesis of these carriers that contain myosin II, Rab6a, Rab8a, and synaptotagmin II, as well as a number of secretory and plasma membrane-specific cargoes. Our findings reveal a requirement for myosin II in the migration of these transport carriers but not in their biogenesis per se. Based on the cargo secreted by these carriers we have named them CARTS for CARriers of the TGN to the cell Surface. Surprisingly, CARTS are distinct from the carriers that transport vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein and collagen I from the TGN to the cell surface. Altogether, the identification of CARTS provides a valuable means to understand TGN to cell surface traffic. PMID:22909819

  8. Tunnel and field effect carrier ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Bell, L. Douglas (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for interacting carriers with a structure of matter employ an electrode for emitting said carriers at a distance from a surface of that structure, and cause such carriers to travel along ballistic trajectories inside that structure by providing along the mentioned distance a gap for performance of a process selected from the group of carrier tunneling and field emission and injecting carriers emitted by the mentioned electrode and that process ballistically into the structure through the gap and the mentioned surface. The carriers are collected or analyzed after their travel along ballistic trajectories in the structure of matter. Pertinent information on the inside of the structure is obtained by conducting inside that structure what conventionally would have been considered external ballistics, while performing the carrier-propelling internal ballistics conversely outside that structure.

  9. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  10. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  11. Albumin-Based Nanodevices as Drug Carriers.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, is being increasingly used to improve and exploit the advantages of efficient drug delivery. Different nanodevices have been developed in recent years, among them protein-based nanoparticles which have gained considerable interest. Albumin is a versatile protein carrier with several characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for drug delivery, such as its availability, its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its lack of toxicity and immunogenicity. This review embodies an overview of different methods available for production of albumin-based nanoparticles, with focus on high-energy emulsification methods. A comparison between production by using sonication, which involves acoustic cavitation, and the high pressure homogenization method, where occurs hydrodynamic cavitation, is presented. Taking into account important properties of nanoparticles required for intravenous administration, the use of poloxamers, tri-block copolymer surfactants is discussed as it improves blood circulation time and bioavailability of nanoparticles. Thus, nanoparticles can be engineered to provide adequate features to therapeutic applications, in which can be included surface functionalization with targeting agents. Different albumin-based formulations and their therapeutic applications are presented in this review, with emphasis on applications in cancer therapy, where albumin-based strategies are promising for targeted drug delivery in innovative clinical strategies.

  12. Glycosylation of solute carriers: mechanisms and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Falsig

    2016-02-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC glycosylation are slowly emerging. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise overview of the aspects of glycobiology most relevant to SLCs, to discuss the roles of glycosylation in the regulation and function of SLCs, and to outline the major open questions in this field, which can now be addressed given major technical advances in this and related fields of study in recent years.

  13. At What Cost a Carrier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    expense of unmanned missiles and aircra". If the $eet were designed today , with the technolo- gies now available and the threats now emerging, it likely...brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...mission is to inform and prepare the national security leaders of today and tomorrow. CNAS is located in Washington, and was established in February

  14. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  15. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  16. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  17. Lipid Nanocapsule as Vaccine Carriers for His-Tagged Proteins: Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Immune Responses to HIV I His-Gag p41 and Systemic Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Saurabh; Jain, Anekant; Woodward, Jerold G.; Mumper, Russell J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design novel nanocapsules (NCs) with surface-chelated nickel (Ni-NCs) as a vaccine delivery system for histidine (His)-tagged protein antigens. Ni-NCs were characterized for binding His-tagged model proteins through high affinity non-covalent interactions. The mean diameter and zeta potential of the optimized Ni-NCs was 214.9 nm and - 14.8 mV, respectively. The optimal binding ratio of His-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (His-GFP) and His-tagged HIV-1 Gag p41 (His-Gag p41) to the Ni-NCs was 1:221 and 1:480 w/w, respectively. Treatment of DC2.4 cells with Ni-NCs did not result in significant loss in the cell viability up to 24 h (<5%). We further evaluated the antibody response of the Ni-NCs using His-Gag p41 as a model antigen. Formulations were administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice at day 0 (prime) and 14 (boost) followed by serum collection on day 28. Serum His-Gag p41 specific antibody levels were found to be significantly higher at 1 and 0.5 μg doses of Gag p41-His-Ni-NCs (His-Gag p41 equivalent) compared to His-Gag p41 (1 μg) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AH). The serum IgG2a levels induced by Gag p41-His-Ni-NCs (1 μg) were significantly higher than AH adjuvanted His-Gag p41. The Ni-NCs alone did not result in elevation of systemic IL-12/p40 and CCL5/RANTES inflammatory cytokine levels upon subcutaneous administration in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, the proposed Ni-NCs can bind His-tagged proteins and have the potential to be used as antigen delivery system capable of generating strong antigen specific antibodies at doses much lower than with aluminum based adjuvant and causing no significant elevation of systemic proinflammatory IL-12/p40 and CCL5/RANTES cytokines. PMID:22068049

  18. Tuning superconductivity by carrier injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Paul

    2011-03-01

    All high-Tc cuprates are stacking sequences of Cu O2 layers and charge reservoir layers consisting of metal oxides. Upon doping the Cu O2 layers, antiferromagnetic order is destroyed and metallic conductivity is established. Usually doping is achieved by a non-stoichiometric composition of the charge reservoir layer. However, we already have shown that we can change the carrier concentration of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O8 + δ single crystals by current injection along the c- axis. Critical temperature, c-axis resistivity and critical current of intrinsic Josephson junctions can be tuned in a large range from underdoping to extreme overdoping. This effect is persistent up to annealing temperatures of approximately 270 K. Using current injection at higher bias, we were able to reduce the carrier concentration again. We investigated in detail the superconducting properties by performing macroscopic quantum tunneling experiments of intrinsic Josephson junctions. The experiments have been carried out repeatedly on samples, whose properties were changed only by current injection. An exponential increase of the critical current density with hole concentration was observed. At the same time, the capacitance of intrinsic Josephson junctions increased significantly. Finally, only by current injection, we were able to convert into the superconducting state a nonsuperconducting, oxygen depleted sample. This work was done in collaboration with Y. Koval, X.Y. Jin, S. Probst, Y. Simsek, C. Steiner (Universität Erlangen), H. B. Wang (NIMS, Tsukuba), and G. Behr, B. Büchner (IFW Dresden).

  19. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Parshad, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Kraemer, K.H.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E. )

    1990-01-01

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families.

  20. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, C.; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  1. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  2. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    PubMed

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  3. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the nucleotide position 559 in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3), which changes the amino acid sequence of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter protein from a valine to a phenylalanine in position 180. The elite U.S. Holstein sire Penstate Ivanhoe Star was identified as the common ancestor of the current CVM carriers. Because his offspring, mainly those of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, were used in many countries, CVM has potentially spread into China. In the present study, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, 10 CVM carriers were found among 68 at-risk Chinese Holstein bulls, and 282 carriers were found among 602 at-risk cows. The results of this study indicate that the CVM gene exists in the Chinese Holstein population.

  4. Design, fabrication and biomedical applications of zein-based nano/micro-carrier systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Lili; Li, Feng; Shi, Nianqiu; Li, Chunlei; Yu, Xianghui; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2016-11-20

    Nano/micro-carrier systems have shown promising application in the biomedical field as various delivery carriers. The composite material and fabrication method determine their microstructures, properties and thus their potential applications. Since approved as tablet coating material by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), zein has been widely investigated as one of protein-based materials in the past few decades. Zein is renewable, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive in comparison with animal proteins (e.g., gelatin and albumin). This paper reviews the current landscape of zein-based nano/micro-carrier systems, with particular emphasis on nano/microparticles, nano/microcapsules and their design, fabrication, assembly mechanisms and biomedical applications especially for controlled drug delivery. The benefits, challenges and related solutions of zein-based colloidal carrier systems are also discussed. In addition, investigations on the molecular structure, biocompatibility and immunogenicity of zein are summarized and discussed.

  5. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  6. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  7. ECHIDNA-mediated post-Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers for differential cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Jonsson, Kristoffer; McFarlane, Heather E; Johnson, Errin; Gendre, Delphine; Swarup, Ranjan; Friml, Jirí; Samuels, Lacey; Robert, Stéphanie; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2013-10-01

    The plant hormone indole-acetic acid (auxin) is essential for many aspects of plant development. Auxin-mediated growth regulation typically involves the establishment of an auxin concentration gradient mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters. The localization of auxin carriers and their amount at the plasma membrane are controlled by membrane trafficking processes such as secretion, endocytosis, and recycling. In contrast to endocytosis or recycling, how the secretory pathway mediates the localization of auxin carriers is not well understood. In this study we have used the differential cell elongation process during apical hook development to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the post-Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers in Arabidopsis. We show that differential cell elongation during apical hook development is defective in Arabidopsis mutant echidna (ech). ECH protein is required for the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-mediated trafficking of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to the plasma membrane. In contrast, ech mutation only marginally perturbs the trafficking of the highly related auxin influx carrier LIKE-AUX1-3 or the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED-3, both also involved in hook development. Electron tomography reveals that the trafficking defects in ech mutant are associated with the perturbation of secretory vesicle genesis from the TGN. Our results identify differential mechanisms for the post-Golgi trafficking of de novo-synthesized auxin carriers to plasma membrane from the TGN and reveal how trafficking of auxin influx carriers mediates the control of differential cell elongation in apical hook development.

  8. Laboratory Studies of DIB Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of the following potential diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are reviewed: unspecified organics, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fullerenes and derivatives, as well as porphyrins and related material. An assessment of each is given, along with suggestions for further experimental studies needed to fully test each candidate. Of the experimental techniques in common use matrix isolation spectroscopy with neon matrices is the most appropriate for the DIBs. The low vapor pressure and high reactivity of these materials preclude gas phase studies on many of these species. At this point, given the type and quality of published data available, carbon chains and PARs are the most promising candidates for a number of the DIBs.

  9. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  10. Charge carrier thermalization in organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    van der Kaap, N. J.; Koster, L. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Charge carrier mobilities of organic semiconductors are often characterized using steady-state measurements of space charge limited diodes. These measurements assume that charge carriers are in a steady-state equilibrium. In reality, however, energetically hot carriers are introduces by photo-excitation and injection into highly energetic sites from the electrodes. These carriers perturb the equilibrium density of occupied states, and therefore change the overall charge transport properties. In this paper, we look into the effect of energetically hot carriers on the charge transport in organic semiconductors using steady state kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For injected hot carriers in a typical organic semiconductor, rapid energetic relaxation occurs in the order of tens of nanoseconds, which is much faster than the typical transit time of a charge carrier throught the device. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of photo-generated carriers on the steady-state mobility. For a typical organic voltaic material, an increase in mobility of a factor of 1.1 is found. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of energetically hot carriers on normal device operation is limited. PMID:26791095

  11. Non-invasive administration of biodegradable nano-carrier vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kalam, Mohd Abul; Khan, Abdul Arif; Alshamsan, Aws

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticulate carriers play an important role and holding a significant potential for the development of novel immunomodulatory agents as easily they are taken up by antigen presenting cells. They allow an enhanced antigen stability, better immunogenicity and immunostimulatory effect with sustained and controlled release of the antigen to the target sites. Better information and vital understanding of mechanism of action, interaction of such vectors with the APCs and dendritic cells and antigen release kinetics in immunomodulatory effects, and improved knowledge of their in vivo fate and distribution are now needed, those collectively would speed up the rational strategies of nanoparticles as carriers for vaccines and other protein antigens. The evolution of such innovative adjuvants for protein and DNA immunizations are an exciting and growing zone in immunology, which may enhance the clinical outcomes in many infectious and non-infectious diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in nano-vaccinology with polymeric (especially biodegradable) carriers, their methods of preparation, surface modification, their interaction with antigen presenting cells, release of antigens, its kinetics and mechanism in the delivery of vaccines via non-invasive routes. PMID:28123631

  12. Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Zhou, K. C.; Huang, S. P.; Liu, F.; Li, Y. M.; Xue, Z. G.; Long, Z. G.

    2004-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite crystalline nanoparticles were created by a precipitation hydrothermal technique and the majority of crystal particles were in the size range of 40-60nm and exhibited a colloidal feature when suspended in water. The gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line cells were cultivated in the presence of10-100 μg ml-1 hydroxyapatite nanoparticle suspension and verified by MTT evaluation for their biocompatibility in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the HA nanoparticles potentially adsorb the green fluorescence protein EGFP-N1 plasmid DNA at pH 2 and 7, but not at pH 12. The DNA-nanoparticle complexes transfected EGFP-N1 pDNA into SGC-7901 cells in vitro with the efficiency about 80% as referenced with Lipofectmine TM 2000. In vivo animal experiment revealed no acute toxic adverse effect 2weeks after tail vein injection into mice, and TEM examination demonstrated their biodistribution and expression within the cytoplasm and also a little in the nuclei of the liver, kidney and brain tissue cells. These results suggest that the HA nanoparticle is a promising material that can be used as gene carrier, vectors.

  13. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  14. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier revenues. 271.5 Section 271.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5...

  15. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier costs. 271.4 Section 271.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4...

  16. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  17. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  18. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  19. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  20. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  1. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  2. Data-aided carrier tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    Power in composite signal sidebands is used to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in carrier tracking loop, thereby reducing radio loss and decreasing probability of receiver error. By adding quadrature channel to phase-lock-loop detector circuit of receiver, dc component can be fed back into carrier tracking loop.

  3. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form.

    PubMed

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S M; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  4. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  5. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  6. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India.

    PubMed

    Hayer, S S; Ranjan, R; Biswal, J K; Subramaniam, S; Mohapatra, J K; Sharma, G K; Rout, M; Dash, B B; Das, B; Prusty, B R; Sharma, A K; Stenfeldt, C; Perez, A; Rodriguez, L L; Pattnaik, B; VanderWaal, K; Arzt, J

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in October 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (Farm A) and adult dairy cattle (Farm B). Subsequent to the outbreak, FMD virus (FMDV) asymptomatic carriers were identified in both herds by seroreactivity to FMDV non-structural proteins and detection of FMDV genomic RNA in oropharyngeal fluid. Carriers' seroreactivity and FMDV genome detection status were subsequently monitored monthly for 23 months. The mean extinction time of the carrier state was 13.1 ± 0.2 months, with extinction having occurred significantly faster amongst adult dairy cattle at Farm B compared to younger animals at Farm A. The rate of decrease in the proportion of carrier animals was calculated to be 0.07 per month. Seroprevalence against FMDV non-structural proteins decreased over the course of the study period, but was found to increase transiently following repeated vaccinations. These data provide novel insights into viral and host factors associated with the FMDV carrier state under natural conditions. The findings reported herein may be relevant to field veterinarians and governmental regulatory entities engaged in FMD response and control measures.

  7. [Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for virus-like partical vaccine: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Yu; Bo, Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2012-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) is a major viral nucleocapsid protein of HBV. It is a 21-22kD protein consisting of 183-185 amino acids. Because of its easy purification, strong immunogenicity, high expression level, and self-assembles into the virus-like particles (VLP), HBcAg could be an efficient and safe VLP carrier for developing vaccines for various pathogens. Up to now, HBcAg VLP carrier has been an important system to develop novel vaccines and many antigen epitope genes from viruses, bacteria and parasites were expressed successfully using the system.

  8. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J. . E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.

  9. Hot carrier relaxation dynamics in zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehendale, Manjusha

    The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot carriers are monitored in a high-quality ZnSe epilayer grown on GaAs substrate by employing a novel femtosecond pump-probe differential reflectivity technique which exploits the intrinsic interferometric asymmetric Fabry-Perot sample structure. The ultrashort femtosecond pulses used in these timeresolved pump-probe experiments are derived from a hard-apertured Kerr-lens modelocked Ti:sapphire laser. The effect of pump-laser-induced thermal lensing on the stability and operational characteristics of such solid-state Femtosecond lasers is discussed. A theoretical model, which assumes the exponential cooling of electrons and holes towards the band edge and a simple two parabolic band structure, is used to estimate the hot carrier cooling times for various photoexcited carrier densities. This model shows the results to be consistent with the expected characteristic electronic LO-phonon emission time of 35-40 fs and provide evidence for the influence of a non-equilibrium LO-phonon population, known as ``hot phonon effect'', on the electron cooling dynamics for carrier densities higher than 3 × 1017 cm-3. Another model, which is based on a balance equation approach, is used to analyze the experimental data more accurately, by including the effects of various processes such as screened carrier-phonon, carrier-carrier scattering and hot phonon effects on the relaxation dynamics. Comparison of the experimental data with this latter theoretical model indicates that the observed reduction in the electron cooling rate with increasing carrier density is due to both screening of the Fröhlich interaction and hot phonon effect. Finally, a comparison of hot carrier relaxation processes at various lattice temperatures is presented. This study provides an evidence of a more pronounced hot phonon effect at a lattice temperature of 80K than at 300K, which is complicated by temperature-dependent changes in optical and physical properties of the

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila flagella glycosylation: involvement of a lipid carrier.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Fulton, Kelly M; Twine, Susan M; Wilhelms, Markus; Molero, Raquel; Tomás, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous glycan. Mutants unable to produce WecP or Gne enzymes showed altered motility, and the study of their polar flagellin glycosylation showed that the patterns of glycosylation differed from that observed with wild type polar flagellin. This suggested the involvement of a lipid carrier in glycosylation. A gene coding for an enzyme linking sugar to a lipid carrier was identified in strain AH-3 (WecX) and subsequent mutation abolished completely motility, flagella production by EM, and flagellin glycosylation. This is the first report of a lipid carrier involved in flagella O-glycosylation. A molecular model has been proposed. The results obtained suggested that the N-acetylhexosamines are N-acetylgalactosamines and that the heptasaccharide is completely independent of the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, by comparing the mutants with differing degrees of polar flagellin glycosylation, we established their importance in A. hydrophila flagella formation and motility.

  11. Tunable Carrier Multiplication and Cooling in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Crepaldi, Alberto; Cilento, Federico; Zacchigna, Michele; Miwa, Jill A.; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T.; Springate, Emma; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; King, Phil D. C.; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly ($n$-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors ($>$ 3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less ($p$-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

  12. The macro domain as fusion tag for carrier-driven crystallization.

    PubMed

    Wild, Rebekka; Hothorn, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining well-ordered crystals remains a significant challenge in protein X-ray crystallography. Carrier-driven crystallization can facilitate crystal formation and structure solution of difficult target proteins. We obtained crystals of the small and highly flexible SPX domain from the yeast vacuolar transporter chaperone 4 (Vtc4) when fused to a C-terminal, non-cleavable macro tag derived from human histone macroH2A1.1. Initial crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution. Reductive protein methylation of the fusion protein yielded a new crystal form diffracting to 2.1 Å. The structures were solved by molecular replacement, using isolated macro domain structures as search models. Our findings suggest that macro domain tags can be employed in recombinant protein expression in E. coli, and in carrier-driven crystallization.

  13. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Second year accomplishments include: (A) The creation and verification of a theoretical model for oxyferrous state lifetimes in oxygen transport...reduction potential of the bound cofactor and triple the oxyferrous state lifetime. (D) We have incorporated an optimized cofactor binding site and...lifetime. 1.1 Creating and testing a model for the oxyferrous state lifetime. We have developed a new model for oxyferrous state lifetimes

  15. 47 CFR 54.809 - Carrier certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism § 54.809 Carrier certification. (a... mechanism, on or before the filing deadlines set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. All of...

  16. Carrier cooling in colloidal quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Matthew; Ithurria, Sandrine; Schaller, Richard D; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2012-12-12

    It has recently become possible to chemically synthesize atomically flat semiconductor nanoplatelets with monolayer-precision control over the platelet thickness. It has been suggested that these platelets are quantum wells; that is, carriers in these platelets are confined in one dimension but are free to move in the other two dimensions. Here, we report time-resolved photoluminescence and transient-absorption measurements of carrier relaxation that confirm the quantum-well nature of these nanomaterials. Excitation of the nanoplatelets by an intense laser pulse results in the formation of a high-temperature carrier population that cools back down to ambient temperature on the time scale of several picoseconds. The rapid carrier cooling indicates that the platelets are well-suited for optoelectronic applications such as lasers and modulators.

  17. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.

    1983-12-01

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  18. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  19. Precise frequency calibration using television video carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive and quick precise frequency calibration methods is limited. VLF and GPS do offer precise calibration. However, antenna placement, cost of equipment, and calibration time place many restrictions on the user. The USNO maintained line-10 television Time of Coincidence (TOC) of station WTTG, channel 5, Washington, DC requires a frequency stable video carrier. This video carrier, 77.24 MHz is controlled by the same cesium beam standard controlling the TOC of line-10. Excellent frequency comparisons against this video carrier have been accomplished at 95 miles (153 km). With stable propagation and a three foot wire antenna, a part in 10(exp 9) can be determined in a few minutes. Inexpensive field equipment with a synthesized 1 kHz offset from the video carrier offers parts in 10(exp 11) calibrations in a few minutes using an oscilloscope as a phase comparator.

  20. What It Means to be a Carrier

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toolkits Advocacy National Fragile X Foundation Advocacy Day STAR Local Advocacy Agenda and Accomplishments Community Community Support ... premutation carriers were an increased rate of twin births and of premature ovarian failure (POI). .. We now ...

  1. Optical carrier wave shocking: detection and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, P; Radnor, S B P; Tyrrell, J C A; New, G H C

    2007-06-01

    Carrier wave shocking is studied using the pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) technique. We describe the shock detection diagnostics necessary for this numerical study and verify them against theoretical shocking predictions for the dispersionless case. These predictions show a carrier envelope phase and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by the PSSD enables us to independently control the linear and nonlinear dispersion. Customized dispersion profiles allow us to analyze the development of both carrier self-steepening and shocks. The results exhibit a marked asymmetry between normal and anomalous dispersion, both in the limits of the shocking regime and in the (near) shocked pulse wave forms. Combining these insights, we offer some suggestions on how carrier shocking (or at least extreme self-steepening) might be realized experimentally.

  2. Hemoglobin-Based Nanoarchitectonic Assemblies as Oxygen Carriers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi; Duan, Li; Li, Junbai

    2016-02-10

    Safe and effective artificial oxygen carriers are the subject of great interest due to the problems of traditional blood transfusion and enormous demand in clinical use. In view of its unique oxygen-transport ability and normal metabolic pathways, hemoglobin is regarded as an ideal oxygen-carrying unit. With advances in nano-biotechnology, hemoglobin assemblies as artificial oxygen carriers achieve great development. Here, recent progress on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers is highlighted in view of two aspects: acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and cellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. These novel oxygen carriers exhibit advantages over traditional carriers and will greatly promote research on reliable and feasible oxygen carriers.

  3. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  4. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N.; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  5. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  6. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  7. Presymptomatic signs in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gigi, Ariela; Vakil, Eli; Kahana, Ester; Hadar, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressing dementia with neurological, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. We focused our study on the familial CJD form among Libyan Jews (the E200K mutation), trying to identify preclinical neuropsychological signs in mutation carriers to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease. A wide range of neuropsychological tests was administered to 27 healthy volunteers, all first-degree relatives of genetic CJD patients. Thirteen of our participants were gene mutation carriers (E200K) and 14 controls. The healthy mutation carriers reported significantly lower Trait and higher State anxiety scores. Repeated Measure analysis showed statistical significance. The Anxiety Index (State-Trait Anxiety Score) progressed with age in the carriers' group but not in the controls. Since this was more pronounced in the older subjects, we suggest that abnormal stress mechanisms precede the clinical onset of CJD. Cognitive differences have also been found between carriers and controls, especially in visual recognition of pictured objects. Both kinds of differences (anxiety levels and cognitive deficits) were most pronounced in elderly subjects. This study is the first to show any dysfunction in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

  8. Radio science measurements with suppressed carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, S.; Divsalar, D.; Oudrhiri, K.; Hamkins, J.

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early deep space missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. The type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of the CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that is presented here. Some numerical results are provided for a coded system.

  9. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  10. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  11. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  12. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 73.1540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the difference between the visual carrier and the aural carrier or center frequency of each TV and Class A...

  14. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  15. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Enhanced attached growth of microalgae Scenedesmus. LX1 through ambient bacterial pre-coating of cotton fiber carriers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Azimi, Yaldah; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Yin-Hu; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-10-01

    The role of bacteria/extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) coated carriers on attached microalgae growth in suspended-solid phase photobioreactor (sspBR) was assessed in this study. The results showed that pre-coating cotton with ambient bacteria and their EPS improved the attached microalgal growth by as much as 230% in terms of attached microalgae density. Additionally, the single cell dry weight, chemical composition and oxygen evolving activity of attached microalgae were significantly affected by the presence of bacteria/EPS coating on the cotton carriers. The protein content of microalgae cells cultivated in the ssPBRs with carriers coated by bacteria and sterilized bacteria were on average 26% and 15% more than uncoated carriers, respectively. Through absorbing and immobilizing nutrients from the bulk medium, the bacteria/EPS coating provided the attached microalgae with nitrogen/phosphorus for protein synthesis, especially during the late stages of batch cultivation.

  18. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  19. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  20. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  1. Spacelab Hitchhiker, a quick reaction carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, E. F.; Moye, J. E.; Lohman, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that NASA is developing a new way to get payloads into orbit in a short time and at a low cost. The 'Spacelab Hitchhiker' is the carrier program which will accomplish this objective. The Spacelab Hitchhiker carrier is a Shuttle payload. The primary application of the considered program will be related to science and technology payloads. Attention is given to the Hitchhiker concept, details regarding the Hitchhiker-G and Hitchhiker-M, aspects of integration and operations, Orbiter resources and STS interfaces, the conduction of Hitchhiker flights as 'flights of opportunity', questions of payload selection, and organizational interfaces.

  2. Carrier molecules for use in veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Volker; Mutwiri, George; Richards, James; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Potter, Andrew A

    2013-01-11

    The practice of immunization of animals and humans has been carried out for centuries and is generally accepted as the most cost effective and sustainable method of infectious disease control. Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in our ability to produce antigens by conventional extraction and purification, recombinant DNA and synthesis. However, many of these products need to be combined with carrier molecules to generate optimal immune responses. This review covers selected topics in the development of carrier technologies for use in the veterinary vaccine field, including glycoconjugate and peptide vaccines, microparticle and nanoparticle formulations, and finally virus-like particles.

  3. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING OXALATE TYPE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.; Black, R.P.S.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for dissolving and reprecipitating an oxalate carrier precipitate in a carrier precipitation process for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. Uranous oxalate, together with plutonium being carried thereby, is dissolved in an aqueous alkaline solution. Suitable alkaline reagents are the carbonates and oxulates of the alkali metals and ammonium. An oxidizing agent selected from hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the alkaline solution, thereby oxidizing uranium to the hexavalent state. The resulting solution is then acidified and a source of uranous ions provided in the acidified solution, thereby forming a second plutoniumcarrying uranous oxalate precipitate.

  4. Transient carrier transfer in tunnel injection structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalaev, V. G.; Tomm, J. W.; Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Gösele, U.; Novikov, B. V.; Sokolov, A. S.; Samsonenko, Y. B.; Egorov, V. A.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2008-07-01

    InGaAs tunnel injection nanostructures consisting of a single quantum well as injector and a quantum dot layer as emitter are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The quantum dot photoluminescence undergoes substantial changes when proceeding from direct quantum dot excitation to quantum well excitation, which causes an indirect population of the dot ground states. This results in a lowered effective carrier temperature within the dots. Results on the carrier transfer versus barrier thickness are discussed within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Deviations for barrier thicknesses <5nm are assigned to the formation of nanobridges that are actually detected by transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples.

  6. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  7. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a channel of communication to and from CMS of information, instructions, and other material...

  8. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier's duty. 221.2 Section 221.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC..., and provide and keep open to public inspection, tariffs showing all fares, and charges for foreign...

  9. 76 FR 63561 - Common Carriers; Editorial Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...] [Pages 63561-63563] [FR Doc No: 2011-26515] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [DA 11-1649... Disabilities; Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers, Order (Order), document DA 11-1649, adopted September 30, 2011, and released September 30, 2011. The full text of document DA 11-1649 and copies of...

  10. 14 CFR 223.6 - Carrier's rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION General Provisions § 223.6 Carrier's rules. (a) Each air... interchange of free and reduced-rate transportation passes or a statement describing those practices. (b)...

  11. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  12. Carrier recovery techniques on satellite mobile channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vucetic, B.; Du, J.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method and a stored channel model were used to evaluate error performance of uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) trellis coded modulation (TCM) over shadowed satellite mobile channels in the presence of phase jitter for various carrier recovery techniques.

  13. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  14. Nuclear Submarines and Aircraft Carriers | Radiation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-23

    Nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers are powered by onboard nuclear reactors. Heat from the nuclear reaction makes the steam needed to power the submarine. When a nuclear vessel is taken out of service, its radioactive parts are disposed of and monitored.

  15. Suppressed Carrier Synchronizers for ISI Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Simon, Marvin K.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate a class of suppressed carrier synchronization loops that are motivated by MAP estimation theory and in the presence of ISI outperform the conventional I-Q loop which is designed on the basis of zero ISI (wideband assumption). The measure of comparison used is the so-called.

  16. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  17. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  18. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS:...

  19. 48 CFR 1602.170-1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Carrier. 1602.170-1 Section 1602.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP...

  20. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  1. Terahertz carrier dynamics and dielectric properties of GaN epilayers with different carrier concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Tang, S. H.

    2009-09-01

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex conductivity and dielectric function of n-type GaN with various carrier concentrations on sapphire substrate. The measured complex conductivity, which is due to the free carriers, is well fitted by simple Drude model. The contribution from the lattice vibration to the complex dielectric function increases with the decrease in free carrier concentration. A better fitting of the frequency-dependent complex dielectric response was obtained by considering both of the Drude and the classical damped oscillator model.

  2. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOEpatents

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  3. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle in south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tong, Q; Hu, X Z; Yang, L G; Zhong, X Q; Yu, Y; Wu, J J; Liu, W J; Li, X; Hua, G H; Zhao, H Q; Zhang, S J

    2011-10-13

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a recently described monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle that causes premature birth, aborted fetuses and stillborn calves. Guanine is substituted by thymine (G>T) in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 gene (SLC35A3). A valine is changed to a phenylalanine at position 180 of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine transporter protein. CVM is expected to occur in many countries due to the widespread use of sire semen. We developed a created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR) method to diagnose CVM in dairy cows. This was tested on 217 cows and 125 bulls selected randomly from a Holstein cattle population in south China. Five Holstein cows and five Holstein bulls were identified to be CVM carriers; the percentages of CVM carriers were estimated to be 2.3, 4.0 and 2.9% in the cows, bulls and entire Holstein cattle sample, respectively.

  4. Biomedical applications of gold nanorod-based multifunctional nano-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shao, Mingqian; Zhang, Song; Liu, Xinli

    2013-09-01

    Due to the good biocompatibility, ease of modification and unique optical properties, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted more and more attentions in biomedical fields. In particular, through surface functionalization, AuNRs can be used as nano-carriers for drugs, probes, nucleic acids, and proteins in cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in biomedical applications of AuNRs-based nano-carriers including those in detection, biocatalysis, imaging, drug, and gene delivery. We also discuss the bioeffects of AuNRs such as in vivo distribution, translocation, localization, metabolism, and toxicity. Finally, we highlight some challenges in future biomedical applications of AuNRs-based nano-carriers.

  5. TMEM106B protects C9ORF72 expansion carriers against frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Mullen, Bianca; Nicholson, Alexandra M.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Heckman, Michael G.; Baker, Matthew C.; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Finch, NiCole A.; Brown, Patricia H.; Murray, Melissa E.; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Stewart, Heather; Karydas, Anna M.; Finger, Elizabeth; Kertesz, Andrew; Bigio, Eileen H.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Strong, Michael J.; Beach, Thomas G.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Lippa, Carol; Caselli, Richard; Petrucelli, Leonard; Josephs, Keith A.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Seeley, William W.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Variants in transmembrane protein 106 B (TMEM106B) modify the disease penetrance of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in carriers of progranulin (GRN) mutations. We investigated whether TMEM106B is also a genetic modifier of disease in carriers of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) expansions. We assessed the genotype of 325 C9ORF72 expansion carriers (cohort 1), 586 FTD patients lacking C9ORF72 expansions (with or without motor neuron disease [MND]; cohort 2), and a total of 1,302 controls for TMEM106B variants (rs3173615 and rs1990622) using MassArray iPLEX and Taqman genotyping assays. For our primary analysis, we focused on functional variant rs3173615, and employed a recessive genotypic model. In cohort 1, patients with C9ORF72 expansions showed a significantly reduced frequency of carriers homozygous for the minor allele as compared to controls (11.9% versus 19.1%, odds ratio (OR): 0.57, p=0.014; same direction as carriers of GRN mutations). The strongest evidence was provided by FTD patients (OR: 0.33, p=0.009) followed by FTD/MND patients (OR: 0.38, p=0.017), whereas no significant difference was observed in MND patients (OR: 0.85, p=0.55). In cohort 2, the frequency of carriers homozygous for the minor allele was not significantly reduced in patients as compared to controls (OR: 0.77, p=0.079); however, a significant reduction was observed when focusing on those patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP; OR: 0.26, p<0.001). Our study identifies TMEM106B as the first genetic factor modifying disease presentation in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. Homozygosity for the minor allele protects carriers from developing FTD, but not from developing MND; similar effects are seen in FTLD-TDP patients with yet unknown genetic causes. These new findings show that the protective effects of TMEM106B are not confined to carriers of GRN mutations, and might be relevant for prognostic testing, and as a promising

  6. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  7. Specialized common carriers: Long distance alternatives for military installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, S. L.

    1984-03-01

    Specialized Common Carriers, communications carriers which came into existence offering private line microwave service, are now significant competitors in the long distance telecommunications industry. This thesis provides military installation telecommunications managers with a basic knowledge of how Specialized Common Carriers entered the telecommunications market, what services Specialized Common Carriers offer, and how to obtain these services for a military installation. It includes a case study evaluation of the potential use of long distance services of two of these competing common carriers at Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California. A computer program used to calculate the costs of using these two alternative long distance carriers is included as part of the case study.

  8. The effect of carrier surface and bulk properties on drug particle detachment from crystalline lactose carrier particles during inhalation, as function of carrier payload and mixing time.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, B H J; de Boer, A H; Lambregts, D; Frijlink, H W

    2003-09-01

    The effect of carrier payload and mixing time on the redispersion of drug particles from adhesive mixtures during inhalation for two different drugs (budesonide and disodium cromoglycate) has been investigated. A special test inhaler which retains carrier crystals during inhalation was used at 30 and 60 l/min. The special inhaler enabled the analysis of residual drug on the carrier yielding so called carrier residue (CR) values. Mixtures with carrier size fractions of 32-45; 150-200 and 250-355 microm, derived from marketed lactose brands, with increasing carrier payload (0.4-6.0% w/w of drug) were prepared. It was found that with increasing carrier payload, the CR increases for the coarse carrier fraction, decreases for the fine fraction and remains roughly constant for the intermediate fraction at 30 l/min. At 60 l/min, the CR decreased for all carrier fractions with increasing payload. The effect of powder bulk properties on the adhesive forces between drug and carrier (during mixing) as well as changes in the balance between adhesion and separation forces (during inhalation) explain the results found. An improved understanding of the different effects is obtained through the recently introduced force distribution concept. The ratio of (mean) separation force to (mean) adhesion force increases with the flow rate. The adhesive forces (during mixing) increase with increasing carrier diameter (higher press-on and kneading forces) and longer mixing time.

  9. Modeling Minority-Carrier Lifetime Techniques That Use Transient Excess-Carrier Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S. W.; Berman, G. M.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    Lifetime spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the characterization of PV materials. This paper combines modeling and experimental results to illustrate the injection-level dependent response of three transient excess-carrier decay techniques.

  10. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Fabio; González‐Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR‐FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult‐onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal‐dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR‐FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease‐modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR‐FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation‐specific predictive genetic testing in first‐degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR‐FAP and the structured clinical follow‐up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353–360, 2016 PMID:27273296

  11. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.

  12. Human insulin microcrystals with lactose carriers for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Hwan; Park, Hye Won; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kwon, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2009-12-01

    Dry powder formulations for pulmonary delivery are attractive because many issues of solubility and stability can be minimized. Human insulin microcrystals with lactose carriers were produced for pulmonary delivery. The average particle diameter was 2.3 microm, with a narrow, monodispersed size distribution. The percentages of high molecular weight proteins (%HMWPs), other insulin-related compounds (%OIRCs), and A-21 desamido insulin (%D(es)) were very low throughout the microcrystal preparation process. Administration of the microcrystal powder by intratracheal insufflation significantly reduced the blood glucose levels of Sprague-Dawley rats. The percent minimum reductions of the blood glucose concentration (%MRBG) produced by the insulin microcrystal powder and by an insulin solution reached 40.4% and 33.4% of the initial glucose levels respectively, and their bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection (F) was 15% and 10% respectively. These results confirm that the insulin microcrystal powder prepared is suitable for pulmonary delivery in an effective dosage form.

  13. Carrier dynamics in III-nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai

    In the past decade, III-nitride semiconductors had a considerable impact in solid state lighting and high speed high power electronics. As technology develops, high Al content III-nitride semiconductors lead the edge of research. It opens the door to many applications especially portable ones: from homeland security, bio-analytical, medical diagnostic, air and water disinfection, sterilization, chemical sensing systems, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications, to high-density optical data storage. In this thesis, we first study GaN epilayers, as well as more complicate high Al content AlGaN/AlGaN MQW structures used as active media for deep UV LEDs. We theoretically study the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics in high quality GaN epilayers by establishing a new decay model. In our model, surface recombination, diffusion, and re-absorption are taken into account. Our model is in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained by time-resolved PL. Our results show that the carrier diffusion and surface recombination play key roles in the PL decay. For high Al content AlGaN/AlGaN MQW structures, we first present the investigation of built-in electric fields in AlxGa1-xN/Al yGa1-yN MQWs embedded into p-i-n structure by using photoluminescence experiments. By comparison of the Stark shifts induced by the p-i-n structure and by photo-excited free carrier screening, we evaluate the intrinsic electric field induced by piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore we investigate carrier dynamics in sets of identically grown Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al 0.49Ga0.51N MQW structures with well widths varying from 1.65 to 5.0 nm by TR-PL and LITG techniques. We observed screening of the built-in electric field by free non-equilibrium carriers and localization governed PL kinetics at different decay stages. A decrease of carrier lifetime with increasing well width is observed and attributed to the carrier localization occurring due to well width fluctuations of the quantum well

  14. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  15. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that bl