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Sample records for carriers

  1. Carrier rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. A.; Vladimirov, V. V.; Dmitriev, R. D.; Osipov, S. O.

    This book takes into consideration domestic and foreign developments related to launch vehicles. General information concerning launch vehicle systems is presented, taking into account details of rocket structure, basic design considerations, and a number of specific Soviet and American launch vehicles. The basic theory of reaction propulsion is discussed, giving attention to physical foundations, the various types of forces acting on a rocket in flight, basic parameters characterizing rocket motion, the effectiveness of various approaches to obtain the desired velocity, and rocket propellants. Basic questions concerning the classification of launch vehicles are considered along with construction and design considerations, aspects of vehicle control, reliability, construction technology, and details of structural design. Attention is also given to details of rocket motor design, the basic systems of the carrier rocket, and questions of carrier rocket development.

  2. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  3. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  4. Composite carrier bar device

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A composite carrier bar is disclosed for oil well pumping units that utilize sucker rod to operate bottom hole pumps. The bar includes a recessed cavity for receiving a hydraulic ram to operate as a polish rod jack and also a secondary carrier bar for receiving a secondary polish rod clamp for use in respacing bottom hole pumps and serve as a safety clamp during operation.

  5. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  6. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  7. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  8. Yarn carrier with clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  9. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  10. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma; Diana Xiaobing

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  11. 49 CFR 369.2 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract motor carriers of property are grouped into the following three classes: Class I. Carriers having... applying the revenue deflator formula in Note A. Class II. Carriers having annual carrier operating... applying the revenue deflator formula in Note A. Class III. Carriers having annual carrier...

  12. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  13. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  14. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  15. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  16. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  17. Nanostructured lipid carriers: a potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumar, Subramanian; Velmurugan, Ramaiyan

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology having developed exponentially, the aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for cancerous disease chemotherapy. Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. Shortcomings often came across with anticancer mixtures, such as poor solubility, normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and steadiness, as well as the high incidence rate of pharmaceutical resistance and the rapid degradation, need of large-scale output procedures, a fast release of the pharmaceutical from its carrier scheme, steadiness troubles, the residues of the organic solvents utilized in the output method and the toxicity from the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner. PMID:23167765

  18. 49 CFR 369.3 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification of carriers-motor carriers of...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.3 Classification of carriers—motor carriers of passengers....

  19. 49 CFR 369.3 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification of carriers-motor carriers of...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.3 Classification of carriers—motor carriers of passengers....

  20. Stable wafer-carrier system

    DOEpatents

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C

    2013-10-22

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  1. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  2. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  3. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  4. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  5. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  6. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  7. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  8. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  9. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  10. Straddle carrier radiation portal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O. Dennis

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  11. Straddle Carrier Radiation Portal Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O Dennis

    2005-08-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  12. Residual Versus Suppressed-Carrier Coherent Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Million, S.

    1996-07-01

    This article addresses the issue of when to suppress or not to suppress the transmitted carrier in designing a coherent communication system employing a carrier tracking loop for carrier synchronization. Assuming that a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used whenever there exists a residual carrier and a Costas loop is used whenever the carrier is suppressed, the regions of system parameters that delineate these two options are presented based on the desire to minimize the average probability of error of the system.

  13. Carrier sense data highway system

    DOEpatents

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  14. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. 221.204 Section 221.204 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. When one carrier adopts the tariffs of...

  15. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. 221.204 Section 221.204 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. When one carrier adopts the tariffs of...

  16. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. 221.204 Section 221.204 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. When one carrier adopts the tariffs of...

  17. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. 221.204 Section 221.204 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. When one carrier adopts the tariffs of...

  18. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. 221.204 Section 221.204 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier. When one carrier adopts the tariffs of...

  19. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  20. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  1. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  2. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  3. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier(s) shall be paid in full for the cost of the charter transportation (for both legs, if a...

  4. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  5. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  6. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  7. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  8. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... place will be evaluated: (1) For costs attributable to the carrier's flying operations (direct expenses... altitude at which the carrier must fly to the designated hub; and (v) Other operational elements...

  9. Natural Carriers for siRNA Delivery.

    PubMed

    Karunaratne, D Nedra; Jafari, Mousa; Ranatunga, R J K Udayana; Siriwardhana, Asitha

    2015-01-01

    This review is based on carriers of natural origin such as polysaccharides, proteins, and cell derived entities which have been used for delivery of siRNA. To realize the therapeutic potential of a delivery system, the role of the carrier is of utmost importance. Historical aspects of viral vectors, the first carriers of genes are briefly outlined. Chitosan, one of the extensively experimented carriers, alginates and other polysaccharides have shown success in siRNA delivery. Peptides of natural origin and mimics thereof have emerged as another versatile carrier. Exosomes and mini cells of cellular origin are the newest entrants to the area of siRNA delivery and probably the closest one can get to a natural carrier. In many of the carriers, modifications have provided better efficiency in delivery. The salient features of the carriers and their advantages and disadvantages are also reviewed.

  10. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  11. New mitochondrial carriers: an overview.

    PubMed

    Arco, A Del; Satrústegui, J

    2005-10-01

    The transport of metabolites, nucleotides and cofactors across the mitochondrial inner membrane is performed by members of mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). These proteins share marked structural features that have made feasible the functional characterization of numerous MCs in the last years. The MCs responsible for transport activities in mitochondria known for decades such as glutamate uptake or ATP-Mg/Pi exchange have recently been identified as well as novel carriers such as those involved in S-adenosylmethionine or thiamine pyrophosphate uptake. Here, after a brief review of the novel data on structural characteristics and import mechanisms of MCF members, we present an exhaustive compilation of human MC sequences, including previously characterized carriers, together with their respective Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologues, ordered according to the phylogenetic analysis of el Moualij and co-workers [Yeast (1997) 13: 573-581]. We have detected the existence of at least 49 human MC sequences, including those of yet unknown function. An overview of novel MCF members functionally characterized in recent years in mammals and in yeast genomes is presented.

  12. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-07-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  13. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under...

  14. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under...

  15. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under...

  16. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under...

  17. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under...

  18. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus... calendar year, the dollar amounts of total system operating revenues for each such carrier shall be arrayed... total issue traffic revenue is to its total system revenues, and the percent that each carrier's...

  19. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  20. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.2 Carrier's duty. (a) Must file tariffs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... carrier or foreign air carrier, when through service and through rates shall have been established, and... collect or receive a greater or less or different compensation for foreign air transportation or for...

  1. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  2. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21... Industry § 1139.21 Study carriers. (a) For the purposes of this proceeding the “study carriers” shall... and/or charges. (b) To corroborate the selection of the above study carriers, and to provide a...

  3. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21... Industry § 1139.21 Study carriers. (a) For the purposes of this proceeding the “study carriers” shall... and/or charges. (b) To corroborate the selection of the above study carriers, and to provide a...

  4. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  5. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    SciTech Connect

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  7. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  8. Biocheese: a food probiotic carrier.

    PubMed

    Castro, J M; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M; Sandoval, H

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  9. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  10. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Parshad, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Kraemer, K.H.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E. )

    1990-01-01

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families.

  11. Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, K.; Cho, G. C.; Kütt, W.; Kurz, H.; Reitze, D. H.; Dadap, J. I.; Ahn, H.; Downer, M. C.; Malvezzi, A. M.

    1990-08-01

    We present a comprehensive report of pump-probe reflectivity and transmission measurements on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with 50 fs time resolution. The experiments trace the generation, relaxation, and recombination of nonequilibrium carriers in a quasi-two-dimensional semimetallic solid over a wide range of experimental parameters. The fluence of excitation at hν=2.0 eV was varied between 10-6 and 10-2 J/cm2, below the threshold for optical damage, while probe pulses in the photon energy range 1.5carriers cool and recombine in less than 1 ps. Later dynamics reflect the generation and diffusion of heat in the lattice, and are consistent with previous picosecond reflectivity measurements.

  12. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  13. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  14. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  15. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  16. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  17. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  18. 49 CFR 369.1 - Annual reports of motor carriers of property, motor carriers of household goods, and dual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... dual property motor carriers, must file Motor Carrier Annual Report Form M (Form M). Carriers must file... property and class I household goods motor carriers must file Motor Carrier Quarterly Report Form QFR...

  19. Laboratory Studies of DIB Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of the following potential diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are reviewed: unspecified organics, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fullerenes and derivatives, as well as porphyrins and related material. An assessment of each is given, along with suggestions for further experimental studies needed to fully test each candidate. Of the experimental techniques in common use matrix isolation spectroscopy with neon matrices is the most appropriate for the DIBs. The low vapor pressure and high reactivity of these materials preclude gas phase studies on many of these species. At this point, given the type and quality of published data available, carbon chains and PARs are the most promising candidates for a number of the DIBs.

  20. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  1. Charge carrier thermalization in organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    van der Kaap, N. J.; Koster, L. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Charge carrier mobilities of organic semiconductors are often characterized using steady-state measurements of space charge limited diodes. These measurements assume that charge carriers are in a steady-state equilibrium. In reality, however, energetically hot carriers are introduces by photo-excitation and injection into highly energetic sites from the electrodes. These carriers perturb the equilibrium density of occupied states, and therefore change the overall charge transport properties. In this paper, we look into the effect of energetically hot carriers on the charge transport in organic semiconductors using steady state kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For injected hot carriers in a typical organic semiconductor, rapid energetic relaxation occurs in the order of tens of nanoseconds, which is much faster than the typical transit time of a charge carrier throught the device. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of photo-generated carriers on the steady-state mobility. For a typical organic voltaic material, an increase in mobility of a factor of 1.1 is found. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of energetically hot carriers on normal device operation is limited. PMID:26791095

  2. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  3. Carrier Screening: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Komal; Gross, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, preconceptual and prenatal patients have been offered gene-by-gene, disorder-by-disorder carrier screening. Newer techniques allow screening of many disorders at one time. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current practice and future direction of carrier screening within the preconceptual/prenatal setting.

  4. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Industry § 1139.21 Study carriers. (a) For the purposes of this proceeding the “study carriers” shall... charges, derived $500,000 or more in annual operating revenues from the issue traffic, or 1 percent or more of the total annual operating revenues received by all Class I carriers from the issue...

  5. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  6. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  7. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  8. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  9. Calcium regulation of mitochondrial carriers.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Araceli; Contreras, Laura; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial function is regulated by calcium. In addition to the long known effects of matrix Ca(2+), regulation of metabolite transport by extramitochondrial Ca(2+) represents an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism to regulate mitochondrial function. The Ca(2+) regulated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs) are well suited for that role, as they contain long N-terminal extensions harboring EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domains facing the intermembrane space. They fall in two groups, the aspartate/glutamate exchangers, AGCs, major components of the NADH malate aspartate shuttle (MAS) and urea cycle, and the ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi exchangers or short CaMCs (APCs or SCaMCs). The AGCs are activated by relatively low Ca(2+) levels only slightly higher than resting Ca(2+), whereas all SCaMCs studied so far require strong Ca(2+) signals, above micromolar, for activation. In addition, AGCs are not strictly Ca(2+) dependent, being active even in Ca(2+)-free conditions. Thus, AGCs are well suited to respond to small Ca(2+) signals and that do not reach mitochondria. In contrast, ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi carriers are inactive in Ca(2+) free conditions and activation requires Ca(2+) signals that will also activate the calcium uniporter (MCU). By changing the net content of adenine nucleotides of the matrix upon activation, SCaMCs regulate the activity of the permeability transition pore, and the Ca(2+) retention capacity of mitochondria (CRC), two functions synergizing with those of the MCU. The different Ca(2+) activation properties of the two CaMCs are discussed in relation to their newly obtained structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:27033520

  10. Calcium regulation of mitochondrial carriers.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Araceli; Contreras, Laura; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial function is regulated by calcium. In addition to the long known effects of matrix Ca(2+), regulation of metabolite transport by extramitochondrial Ca(2+) represents an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism to regulate mitochondrial function. The Ca(2+) regulated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs) are well suited for that role, as they contain long N-terminal extensions harboring EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domains facing the intermembrane space. They fall in two groups, the aspartate/glutamate exchangers, AGCs, major components of the NADH malate aspartate shuttle (MAS) and urea cycle, and the ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi exchangers or short CaMCs (APCs or SCaMCs). The AGCs are activated by relatively low Ca(2+) levels only slightly higher than resting Ca(2+), whereas all SCaMCs studied so far require strong Ca(2+) signals, above micromolar, for activation. In addition, AGCs are not strictly Ca(2+) dependent, being active even in Ca(2+)-free conditions. Thus, AGCs are well suited to respond to small Ca(2+) signals and that do not reach mitochondria. In contrast, ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi carriers are inactive in Ca(2+) free conditions and activation requires Ca(2+) signals that will also activate the calcium uniporter (MCU). By changing the net content of adenine nucleotides of the matrix upon activation, SCaMCs regulate the activity of the permeability transition pore, and the Ca(2+) retention capacity of mitochondria (CRC), two functions synergizing with those of the MCU. The different Ca(2+) activation properties of the two CaMCs are discussed in relation to their newly obtained structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  11. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS... private carrier, including, but not limited to trucks, railroads, airplanes, vessels, tramp or...

  12. Useful Life Prediction for Payload Carrier Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arieh, David

    2002-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has been identified for use through 2020. Payload carrier systems will be needed to support missions through the same time frame. To support the future decision making process with reliable systems, it is necessary to analyze design integrity, identify possible sources of undesirable risk and recognize required upgrades for carrier systems. This project analyzed the information available regarding the carriers and developed the probability of becoming obsolete under different scenarios. In addition, this project resulted in a plan for an improved information system that will improve monitoring and control of the various carriers. The information collected throughout this project is presented in this report as process flow, historical records, and statistical analysis.

  13. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  14. Multiple sclerosis in an adrenoleukodystrophy carrier

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Thomas; Sarasamma, Priya; Gillett, Godfrey; Coley, Stuart; Sharrack, Basil

    2011-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder, in which accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) results in damage to the central nervous system. As the disease is X-linked, males are affected severely, but female carriers may also present with neurological symptoms. We report the case of a young adult female, who presented with episodic sensorimotor symptoms. Although she was a heterozygous female carrier of X-ALD, subsequent investigations confirmed a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a female X-ALD carrier in which the clinical features were more consistent with co-existent MS than ALD-related pathology. The case serves as a reminder that alternative, more common diagnoses should also be considered in carriers of rare neurological syndromes. PMID:24765366

  15. Precise frequency calibration using television video carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive and quick precise frequency calibration methods is limited. VLF and GPS do offer precise calibration. However, antenna placement, cost of equipment, and calibration time place many restrictions on the user. The USNO maintained line-10 television Time of Coincidence (TOC) of station WTTG, channel 5, Washington, DC requires a frequency stable video carrier. This video carrier, 77.24 MHz is controlled by the same cesium beam standard controlling the TOC of line-10. Excellent frequency comparisons against this video carrier have been accomplished at 95 miles (153 km). With stable propagation and a three foot wire antenna, a part in 10(exp 9) can be determined in a few minutes. Inexpensive field equipment with a synthesized 1 kHz offset from the video carrier offers parts in 10(exp 11) calibrations in a few minutes using an oscilloscope as a phase comparator.

  16. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  17. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport. PMID:25950746

  18. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  19. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-10-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  20. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-01-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  1. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  2. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  3. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  4. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  5. 47 CFR 64.1190 - Preferred carrier freezes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preferred carrier freezes. 64.1190 Section 64.1190 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Changes in Preferred Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1190 Preferred carrier freezes....

  6. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  7. 27 CFR 28.93 - Carrier to be designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrier to be designated... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.93 Carrier to be designated. The name of the carrier or carriers to be used in transporting the distilled spirits from the bonded premises of the distilled...

  8. 27 CFR 28.93 - Carrier to be designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrier to be designated... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.93 Carrier to be designated. The name of the carrier or carriers to be used in transporting the distilled spirits from the bonded premises of the distilled...

  9. 27 CFR 28.93 - Carrier to be designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrier to be designated... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.93 Carrier to be designated. The name of the carrier or carriers to be used in transporting the distilled spirits from the bonded premises of the distilled...

  10. 27 CFR 28.93 - Carrier to be designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrier to be designated... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.93 Carrier to be designated. The name of the carrier or carriers to be used in transporting the distilled spirits from the bonded premises of the distilled...

  11. 27 CFR 28.93 - Carrier to be designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carrier to be designated... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.93 Carrier to be designated. The name of the carrier or carriers to be used in transporting the distilled spirits from the bonded premises of the distilled...

  12. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  13. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... sessions announced on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 285), and elsewhere in today's Federal Register, and to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  15. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  16. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  17. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  18. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section 64.1140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 73.1540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the difference between the visual carrier and the aural carrier or center frequency of each TV and Class A...

  1. Theileria annulata: carrier state and immunity.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, T; Williamson, S; Kirvar, E; Shiels, B; Brown, C G

    1998-06-29

    Recovery from primary infection of Theileria annulata results in the development of a persistent carrier state in the vertebrate host. The carrier state is of great importance in the maintenance of the life cycle by alternate tick/cattle challenge and both contributes to and may be necessary for maintenance of immunity. Therefore, an accurate determination of carrier animals could be useful in determining immune status and may allow the necessary control measures to be implemented. Detailed information on the carrier state of animals following immunization with attenuated cell lines is lacking. In this study, relationship between immune response, persistence of the parasite, and the antibody response has been investigated. Calves were infected with T. annulata sporozoites, low passage (non-attenuated) or high passage (attenuated, vaccine) cell lines and later challenged with a lethal dose of heterologous sporozoites. The presence and persistence of the parasite were monitored by PCR using primers derived from genes coding for ssrRNA and a 30 kDa major merozoite surface protein, by Giemsa stained blood smears to detect the presence of piroplasms and also by attempting to establish infected mononuclear cell cultures from venous blood. Antibody responses were measured by indirect ELISA using a merozoite recombinant antigen and IFAT using piroplasm and macroschizont antigens. Results showed that there was an evident relationship between the persistence of carrier status, antibody response in ELISA and immune response to challenge.

  2. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  3. Carrier relaxation dynamics in heavy fermion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demsar, J.; Tracy, L. A.; Averitt, R. D.; Trugman, S. A.; Sarrao, John L.,; Taylor, Antoinette J.,

    2002-01-01

    The first femtosecond carrier relaxation dynamics studies in heavy fermion compounds are presented. The carrier relaxation time shows a dramatic hundred-fold increase below the Kondo temperature revealing a dramatic sensitivity to the electronic density of states near the Fermi level. Femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy is an excellent experimental alternative to conventional spectroscopic methods that probe the low energy electronic structure in strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, it has been shown that carrier relaxation dynamics are very sensitive to changes in the low energy density of states (e.g. associated with the formation of a low energy gap or pseudogap) providing new insights into the low energy electronic structure in these materials. In this report we present the first studies of carrier relaxation dynamics in heavy fermion (HF) systems by means of femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the carrier relaxation dynamics, below the Kondo temperature (T{sub K}), are extremely sensitive to the low energy density of states (DOS) near the Ferini level to which localized f-moments contribute. Specifically, we have performed measurements of the photoinduced reflectivity {Delta}R/R dynamics as a function of temperature and excitation intensity on the series of HF compounds YbXCu{sub 4} (X = Ag, Cd, In) in comparison to their non-magnetic counterparts LuXCu{sub 4}.

  4. 14 CFR 158.23 - Consultation with air carriers and foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation with air carriers and foreign air carriers. 158.23 Section 158.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... funding by PFC's; (2) The PFC level for each project, the proposed charge effective date, the...

  5. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Limpens, Rens; Chung, Nguyen Xuan; Schall, Peter; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel, purely spectroscopic approach for investigation of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. Applying this method to silicon nanocrystals in an oxide matrix, we obtain an unambiguous spectral signature of the carrier multiplication process and reveal details of its size-dependent characteristics-energy threshold and efficiency. The proposed method is generally applicable and suitable for both solid state and colloidal samples, as well as for a great variety of different materials. PMID:26852922

  6. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  7. Inorganic Nanomaterials as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhu; Hao, Xiaohong; Liang, Xingjie; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhou, Guoqiang; Shen, Shigang; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    For safe and effective therapy, drugs must be delivered efficiently and with minimal systemic side effects. Nanostructured drug carriers enable the delivery of small-molecule drugs as well as nucleic acids and proteins. Inorganic nanomaterials are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their unique physicochemical properties, such as facile preparation, good storage stability and biocompatibility. Many inorganic nanostructure-based drug delivery platforms have been prepared. Although there are still many obstacles to overcome, significant advances have been made in recent years. This review focuses on the status and development of inorganic nanostructures, including silica, quantum dots, gold, carbon-based and magnetic iron oxide-based nanostructures, as carriers for chemical and biological drugs. We specifically highlight the extensive use of these inorganic drug carriers for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the most important areas in the field that urgently require further study. PMID:27301169

  8. Nonuniform carrier distribution in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evankow, Joseph David, Jr.

    This work discusses the experimental results and theoretical analysis of the longitudinal distribution of the spontaneous emission, amplified spontaneous emission, hole-electron pairs, and gain in semiconductor optical amplifiers. A novel, yet simple, technique was developed enabling, for the first time, the measurement of these distributions. This was accomplished with a high degree of spatial resolution using a single-mode micro-lensed fiber tip positioned perpendicular to the active region and moved longitudinally along the stripe. The cornerstone of this study centers on the theoretical analysis of the small portion of the isotropic spontaneous emission, emanating from the optical cavity, which is captured by the lensed fiber. Spectral as well as integrated power measurements were made along the length of the cavity. These spectral and integrated power measurements provide a direct link to the carrier concentration and gain along the optical cavity. The distribution of this spontaneous emission along the amplifier, and its relationship to other parameters, provide information about the carriers. Since the common mode of operation for linear optical amplifiers is deep in saturation, the devices in this study were analyzed in regimes significantly below the small-signal gain. While large carrier density non- uniformity occur with output powers equal to or greater than Psat, a significant amount can occur in amplifiers even with small input signals. In these amplifiers, the higher carder concentrations produce much higher internal gain coefficients making them more prone to non-uniform carrier density distributions. Moreover, even in semiconductor lasers, where the carrier concentration and the gain are pinned at the onset of lasing to rather pedestrian levels (approximately 1 × 1018 cm-3 and of 3 dB, respectively), previous theoretical analysis for more than a decade postulated that a significant spatial distribution occur. These measurements and analysis

  9. Inherited metabolic diseases affecting the carrier.

    PubMed

    Endres, W

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to those inherited metabolic traits which are potentially harmful also for the carrier, and to outline preventive measures, at least for obligate heterozygotes, i.e. parents of homozygous children. Concerning carriers of food-dependent abnormalities, early vascular disease in homocystinuria, hyperammonaemic episodes in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, presenile cataracts in galactosaemia as well as galactokinase deficiency, spastic paraparesis in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and HELLP syndrome in mothers of babies with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency have to be mentioned. In the group of food-independent disorders, clinical features in carriers may be paraesthesias and corneal dystrophy in Fabry disease, lens clouding in Lowe syndrome, lung and/or liver diseases in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and renal stones in cystinuria type II and III. Finally, two monogenic carrier states are known which in pregnant individuals could possibly afflict the developing fetus, i.e. heterozygosity for galactosaemia and for phenylketonuria. Elevated levels of galactose-1-phosphate have been found in red blood cells of infants heterozygous for galactosaemia born to heterozygous mothers. Aspartame in very high doses is reported to increase blood phenylalanine levels in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria, thus being a risk for the fetus of a heterozygous mother. For some of these carrier states preventive measures can be recommended, e.g. restriction of lactose in parents and heterozygous grandparents of children with galactosaemia and galactokinase deficiency as well as transiently in infants heterozygous for galactosaemia, dietary supplementation with monounsaturated fatty acids in symptomatic carriers for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, avoidance of smoking and alcohol in heterozygotes for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, avoidance of episodes of dehydration in heterozygotes for cystinuria, and

  10. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  11. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  12. Flicker noise in hot carrier semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V.B.; Yakimov, A.V.

    1988-04-01

    Change in electrical flicker noise power in hot carrier semiconductors can be explained by fluctuations in the intensity of impurity scattering, which contradicts the Hooge-Kleinpenning-Vandamme hypothesis, which relates flicker conduction noise to lattice scattering. It has been shown that such noise can be caused by fluctuations in the effective number of neutral scattering centers within the semiconductor volume. This source modulates carrier mobility, i.e., mobility fluctuations are a secondary effect. We offer herein an explanation of known experimental data on 1/f noise in silicon and gallium arsenide.

  13. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING OXALATE TYPE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.; Black, R.P.S.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for dissolving and reprecipitating an oxalate carrier precipitate in a carrier precipitation process for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. Uranous oxalate, together with plutonium being carried thereby, is dissolved in an aqueous alkaline solution. Suitable alkaline reagents are the carbonates and oxulates of the alkali metals and ammonium. An oxidizing agent selected from hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the alkaline solution, thereby oxidizing uranium to the hexavalent state. The resulting solution is then acidified and a source of uranous ions provided in the acidified solution, thereby forming a second plutoniumcarrying uranous oxalate precipitate.

  14. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  15. Extracellular stability of nanoparticulate drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Karen C.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticulate (NP) drug carrier systems are attractive vehicles for selective drug delivery to solid tumors. Ideally, NPs should evade clearance by the reticuloendothelial system while maintaining the ability to interact with tumor cells and facilitate cellular uptake. Great effort has been made to fulfill these design criteria, yielding various types of functionalized NPs. Another important consideration in NP design is the physical and functional stability during circulation, which, if ignored, can significantly undermine the promise of intelligently designed NP drug carriers. This commentary reviews several NP examples with stability issues and their consequences, ending in a discussion of experimental methods for reliable prediction of NP stability. PMID:24214175

  16. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  17. Managing photons and carriers for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, Isabell; Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah; Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Tumkur, Thejaswi; Wang, Wei-Ren; Wray, Parker

    While small plasmonic nanoparticles efficiently generate energetic hot carriers, light absorption in a monolayer of such particles is inefficient, and practical utilization of the hot carriers in addition requires efficient charge-separation. Here we describe our approach to address both challenges. By designing an optical cavity structure for the plasmonic photoelectrode, light absorption in these particles can be significantly enhanced, resulting in efficient hot electron generation. Rather than utilizing a Schottky barrier to preserve the energy of the carriers, our structure allows for their direct injection into the adjacent electrolyte. On the substrate side, the plasmonic particles are in contact with a wide band gap oxide film that serves as an electron blocking layer but accepts holes and transfers them to the counter electrode. The observed photocurrent spectra follow the plasmon spectrum, and demonstrate that the extracted electrons are energetic enough to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. A similar structure can be designed to achieve broadband absorption enhancement in monolayer MoS2. Time permitting, I will discuss charge carrier dynamics in hybrid nanoparticles composed of plasmonic / two-dimensional materials, and applications of photo-induced force microscopy to study photocatalytic processes.

  18. Itaconic acid carrier ampholytes for isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Brenna, O

    1977-04-11

    Commercial carrier ampholytes, obtained by coupling polyethylene polyamines to acrylic acid, exhibit a conductivity minimum in the pH range 5.5-6.5 owing to the lack of appropriate pK values of the polyamine in this pH region. By replacing acrylic with itaconic acid, it has been possible to effect substantial improvements in the pH range 5.5-6.5 as itaconic acid has a pK2 value of 5.45. Upon coupling, the pK of the gramma-carboxyl group remains virtually unaltered. With itoconic acid carrier ampholytes it has been possible to improve the conductivity in the pH range 5.5-6.5 by as much as 400% compared with conventional carrier ampholytes. It is suggected that the commercial products should be supplemented with itaconic acid carrier ampholytes in order to obtain a more uniform conductivity and buffering capacity in the pH range 3-10.

  19. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  20. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  1. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  2. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a channel of communication to and from CMS of information, instructions, and other material...

  3. Carrier recovery techniques on satellite mobile channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vucetic, B.; Du, J.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method and a stored channel model were used to evaluate error performance of uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) trellis coded modulation (TCM) over shadowed satellite mobile channels in the presence of phase jitter for various carrier recovery techniques.

  4. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  5. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  6. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOEpatents

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  7. Prenatal Carrier Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Wood, S Lindsay; Brewer, Fallon; Ellison, Rebecca; Biggio, Joseph R; Edwards, Rodney K

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative genetic disorder, affects 1:5,000 to 1:10,000 infants. Carrier rates are 1:25 to 1:50. We implemented ACOG-endorsed prenatal SMA screening in mid-2014 and sought to assess uptake, observed carrier rate, and providers' knowledge and attitudes toward genetic conditions and carrier screening. Methods Retrospective cohort study of all patients receiving prenatal genetic counseling at our institution from August 2014 to April 2015. Factors associated with screening uptake were assessed. Proportions who accepted screening, were screen-positive, had partners tested, had partners who were screen-positive, and had fetuses tested were calculated. Providers' knowledge and attitudes were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Results Of 1,158 patients offered SMA screening, 224 accepted (19.3%, 95% CI 17.2-21.7). Uptake differed by race, parity, religion, and genetic counselor seen. Five (2.2% or 1:45, 95% CI 0.8-5.3 or 1:19-1:125) women were identified as carriers. Of 3 partners screened, none screened positive (0%, 95% CI 0-5.3). There were no prenatal SMA diagnoses (0%, 95% CI 0-1.4). Of 90 survey respondents, 42% incorrectly answered 1 of 9 knowledge questions. Provider attitudes toward screening were contradictory. Conclusion Despite significant resources utilized, prenatal SMA carrier screening identified no fetal cases. Cost-effectiveness and other barriers should be considered prior to large-scale adoption of more comprehensive genetic screening. PMID:27611803

  8. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  9. Lower frequency of Gaucher disease carriers among Tay-Sachs disease carriers.

    PubMed

    Peleg, L; Frisch, A; Goldman, B; Karpaty, M; Narinsky, R; Bronstein, S; Frydman, M

    1998-01-01

    The heterozygote frequency of Gaucher disease (GD) and Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is distinctly high among Ashkenazi Jews (1:29 for TSD and 1:16 for GD). Two main theories have been suggested to explain this high occurrence: a founder effect with subsequent genetic drift, and a selective advantage of heterozygotes. We compared the frequency of the GD most common mutation (1226A-->G) among carriers of the common TSD mutation (+1277 TATC) with the frequency of this mutation in the general Ashkenazi population. The frequency of GD carriers among 308 TSD heterozygotes was 1:28 which is about half the expected (P = 0.03). These results indicate that carriers of both diseases do not possess additional evolutionary advantage over single mutation carriers. A reasonable interpretation of these findings is that one or both mutations have arisen relatively recently in different regions of Europe and have not yet reached genetic equilibrium. PMID:9781065

  10. Modeling Minority-Carrier Lifetime Techniques That Use Transient Excess-Carrier Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S. W.; Berman, G. M.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    Lifetime spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the characterization of PV materials. This paper combines modeling and experimental results to illustrate the injection-level dependent response of three transient excess-carrier decay techniques.

  11. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  12. Lattice-Matched Hot Carrier Solar Cell with Energy Selectivity Integrated into Hot Carrier Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Dirk; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Conibeer, Gavin

    2012-10-01

    We propose a technologically feasible concept of a hot carrier (HC) solar cell (SC) which fulfills the electronic, optical, and to some extent the phononic criteria required. The energy selective process of HCs is implemented into the hot carrier absorber (HCA). Its electronic properties are investigated by a Monte-Carlo code which simulates random deviations of structure thickness and a normal distribution of random elastic electron (e-) scattering. The structure can be grown epitaxially as a HC-SC test device.

  13. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  14. Thermal-drag carrier cooling in undoped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P. M.; Cardimona, D. A.

    2005-09-01

    An approach for carrier cooling in undoped and contactless semiconductors is proposed by using thermal-drag effects in comparison with other methods, such as direct resonant tunneling, nonresonant thermionic, and junction-tunneling cooling, as well as indirect optothermionic and thermoelectric cooling, of carriers in doped and contacted semiconductors. A four-step microscopic model is proposed for this thermal-drag carrier cooling in undoped semiconductors. Wide-band-gap semiconductors with small lattice specific heat and small exchange specific heat between carriers and phonons are found to achieve the best thermal-drag carrier cooling under near-band-edge interband pumping by a weak field. This indirect carrier cooling is accompanied by the lattice cooling. The carrier temperature is pinned to the lattice temperature due to ultrafast carrier-phonon scattering, and it is dragged down by the reduction of the lattice temperature, i.e., the thermal-drag effects.

  15. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... demonstrate continued eligibility within the 60-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in...

  16. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... within the 60-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in a state that has...

  17. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, A; Zuppardo, M; Gillett, G G; Broome, M A; Almeida, M P; Paternostro, M; White, A G; Paterek, T

    2013-12-01

    The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without direct transfer-or communication-of entanglement. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here, we experimentally entangle two communicating parties sharing three initially separable photonic qubits by exchange of a carrier photon that is unentangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement through noisy environments.

  18. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muranaka, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitake; Yoshizawa, Taku; Shirakawa, Naoki; Akimitsu, Jun

    2008-12-01

    We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al) shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm-3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  19. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2004-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital ONEs or ZEROs. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental natural laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  20. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  1. Carrier heating and negative photoconductivity in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, J. N.; Stein, J. D.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Banman, A. R.; Massari, A. M.; Robinson, J. T.

    2015-01-07

    We investigated negative photoconductivity in graphene using ultrafast terahertz techniques. Infrared transmission was used to determine the Fermi energy, carrier density, and mobility of p-type chemical vapor deposition graphene samples. Time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements using a tunable mid-infrared pump probed these samples at photon energies between 0.35 eV and 1.55 eV, approximately one-half to three times the Fermi energy of the samples. Although interband optical transitions in graphene are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy, we observe negative photoconductivity at all pump photon energies investigated, indicating that interband excitation is not required to observe this effect. Our results are consistent with a thermalized free-carrier population that cools by electron-phonon scattering, but are inconsistent with models of negative photoconductivity based on population inversion.

  2. Chemical Looping Technology: Oxygen Carrier Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siwei; Zeng, Liang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-01-01

    Chemical looping processes are characterized as promising carbonaceous fuel conversion technologies with the advantages of manageable CO2 capture and high energy conversion efficiency. Depending on the chemical looping reaction products generated, chemical looping technologies generally can be grouped into two types: chemical looping full oxidation (CLFO) and chemical looping partial oxidation (CLPO). In CLFO, carbonaceous fuels are fully oxidized to CO2 and H2O, as typically represented by chemical looping combustion with electricity as the primary product. In CLPO, however, carbonaceous fuels are partially oxidized, as typically represented by chemical looping gasification with syngas or hydrogen as the primary product. Both CLFO and CLPO share similar operational features; however, the optimum process configurations and the specific oxygen carriers used between them can vary significantly. Progress in both CLFO and CLPO is reviewed and analyzed with specific focus on oxygen carrier developments that characterize these technologies.

  3. Chemical Looping Technology: Oxygen Carrier Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siwei; Zeng, Liang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-01-01

    Chemical looping processes are characterized as promising carbonaceous fuel conversion technologies with the advantages of manageable CO2 capture and high energy conversion efficiency. Depending on the chemical looping reaction products generated, chemical looping technologies generally can be grouped into two types: chemical looping full oxidation (CLFO) and chemical looping partial oxidation (CLPO). In CLFO, carbonaceous fuels are fully oxidized to CO2 and H2O, as typically represented by chemical looping combustion with electricity as the primary product. In CLPO, however, carbonaceous fuels are partially oxidized, as typically represented by chemical looping gasification with syngas or hydrogen as the primary product. Both CLFO and CLPO share similar operational features; however, the optimum process configurations and the specific oxygen carriers used between them can vary significantly. Progress in both CLFO and CLPO is reviewed and analyzed with specific focus on oxygen carrier developments that characterize these technologies. PMID:25898071

  4. Straddle Carrier Interface and Dispatching System

    2012-09-13

    SCIDS is the Data Dispatching and Transfer Point (DDTP) component of a straddle carrier-based radiation detection system developed for the DOE Megaports Initiative for scanning shipping containers in transshipment ports. Its purpose is to communicate with a Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier (RDSC) developed by Detector Networks International, sending commands to the RDSC and receiving sensor data from the RDSC. Incoming sensor and status data from the RDSC is forwarded to a back-end data storage andmore » display system that is external to SCIDS. SCIDS provides a graphical user interface for port operations personnel that displays location and status of the RDSC and status of each container in the port, and accepts commands from the operator directing the scanning operations of the RDSC.« less

  5. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  6. Carrier cultures of simian foamy virus.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J K; Samuels, J; Dermott, E; Gay, F W

    1970-05-01

    The production of cultures of HEp-2 and BHK-21 cells persistently infected with a type 1 simian foamy virus is described. After infection, HEp-2 cells showed no structural changes, whereas BHK-21 cells lost their normal spindle shape and showed mitochondrial damage, and some cells contained many lysosomes. Thin sections also showed that a few BHK-21 cells contained virus particles in low concentration, and infectious virus could be isolated from both the cells and the supernatant fluid. No virus was seen in thin sections of HEp-2 cells, although infectious virus in low titer could be recovered intermittently from lysed cells. Both carrier cultures were immune to challenge with homologous virus and antigen could be detected in over 90% of the cells even after growth for 9 weeks in the presence of virus-neutralizing serum. The distribution of antigen in carrier cultures of both cell types is described and compared with that seen in cytocidal infections. PMID:4986851

  7. Straddle Carrier Interface and Dispatching System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    SCIDS is the Data Dispatching and Transfer Point (DDTP) component of a straddle carrier-based radiation detection system developed for the DOE Megaports Initiative for scanning shipping containers in transshipment ports. Its purpose is to communicate with a Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier (RDSC) developed by Detector Networks International, sending commands to the RDSC and receiving sensor data from the RDSC. Incoming sensor and status data from the RDSC is forwarded to a back-end data storage and display system that is external to SCIDS. SCIDS provides a graphical user interface for port operations personnel that displays location and status of the RDSC and status of each container in the port, and accepts commands from the operator directing the scanning operations of the RDSC.

  8. Carrier synchronization and detection of polyphase signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Digital communication networks used for the distribution of high-speed digital information are currently the subject of design studies for many civil and military applications. This paper presents results that are useful in such studies as well as in network planning. In particular, the paper is concerned with the problems of carrier synchronization and noisy reference detection of polyphase signals. Reconstruction of coherent references for the detection of polyphase signals is considered and analyzed for three carrier reconstruction loops, namely, Nth power (multiply-and-divide) loops, generalized Costas (I-Q) loops, and extensions of data-aided (modulation wipeoff) loops. General expressions for the error probability are developed when the reconstructed reference signals are noisy.

  9. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2006-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital one's or zero's. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental physical laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  10. Mobility of charge carriers in disordered dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiotnev, A. P.; Boev, S. G.; Sadovnichii, D. N.

    1994-07-01

    We compare experimental data on the mobility of holes (the majority charge carriers) in polyepoxy-propylcarbazole, measured using the time-of-flight technique (drift mobility) and the nonsteady-state radiation-induced electrical conductivity method (effective mobility). We show that these two quantities are quite different in the dispersive transport regime; and while the second quantity is a characteristic of the material, the first quantity depends in a complicated fashion on the ratio of the electric field strength to the sample thickness. The “untreated” data on drift mobility measurements using the time-of-flight technique do not have direct physical meaning and cannot be compared with the conclusions of modern microscopic theories of the mobility of charge carriers in disordered matrices.

  11. Psychiatric diagnoses aboard an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Bohnker, B; McEwen, G; Blanco, J; Feeks, E

    1992-11-01

    A descriptive study was conducted for 150 consecutive patients with a psychiatric diagnosis evaluated over 11 months by the medical staff onboard an aircraft carrier. Patients with sole diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Axis II diagnoses, or personality disorders, were more common (N = 120) than Axis I diagnoses (N = 46). The most common Axis I diagnoses were adjustment disorder and major depression. Axis II diagnoses were significantly more likely (OR = 7.33, 95% CI 4.45-12.16, p = 0.000) in sailors less than 23 years of age compared to ship's population. Suicide behavior was demonstrated in 68% (102/150) of the patient population. This study emphasized the requirement for extensive psychiatric training for the clinical aerospace medicine specialists providing operational support to aircraft carrier crews.

  12. Screening-induced carrier transport in silicene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo

    2015-06-24

    Based on the Boltzmann transport equation in the MRT approximation, we present a theory to investigate low-field carrier transport in dual-gated silicene FETs by taking into account screened charged impurity scattering, which is the most likely scattering mechanism limiting the conductivity. Static RPA dielectric screening is also included in the conductivity calculation to study temperature-dependent silicene transport. It is found that both calculated conductivity and band gap not only depend strongly on carrier sheet density, but also depend strongly on effective offset density. More importantly, screening-induced metal-insulator-transition phenomena in buckled silicene can be observed theoretically, which is similar to that obtained in monolayer graphene.

  13. Insights into the roles of carrier microstructure in adhesive/carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures: Carrier porosity and fine particle content.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Ahmed O; Molokhia, Abdulla M; Elsayed, Mustafa M A

    2015-10-01

    To gain insights into complex interactions in carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures, we studied the relationships between the carrier microstructural characteristics and performance. We used mercury intrusion porosimetry to measure the microstructural characteristics and to also derive the air permeability of eight carriers. We evaluated the performances of inhalation mixtures of each of these carriers and fluticasone propionate after aerosolization from an Aerolizer®. We did not observe a simple relationship between the carrier total porosity and the performance. Classification of the porosity according to pore size, however, provided interesting insights. The carrier nanoporosity, which refers to pores smaller than micronized drug particles, has a positive influence on the performance. Nanopores reduce the carrier effective contact area and the magnitude of interparticulate adhesion forces in inhalation mixtures. The carrier microporosity, which refers to pores similar in size to drug particles, also has a positive influence on the performance. During mixing, micropores increase the effectiveness of frictional and press-on forces, which are responsible for breaking up of cohesive drug agglomerates and for distribution of drug particles over the carrier surface. On the other hand, the carrier macroporosity, which refers to pores larger than drug particles, apparently has a negative influence on the performance. This influence is likely mediated via the effects of macropores on the powder bed tensile strength and fluidization behavior. The air permeability better represents these effects. The inhalation mixture performance improved as the carrier air permeability decreased. Interestingly, as the carrier fine particle content increased, the carrier microporosity increased and the carrier air permeability decreased. This proposes a new mechanism for the positive effect of fine excipient materials on the performance of carrier-based inhalation mixtures. Fine

  14. PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

  15. Cyclic spectrum based carrier recovery for OQPSK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hua; Li, Jing

    2011-10-01

    A union carrier synchronization scheme of feed-forward frequency offset estimation and PLL for OQPSK signals is discussed in this paper. A feed-forward frequency offset estimator is developed based on the cyclic spectrum of the received signal. In order to suppress channel noise, an improved strategy is proposed. Simulations show that the presented scheme can achieve steady state much more quickly than conventional Costas loop. At the same time, the steady error of the union scheme is also smaller.

  16. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-04-15

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non-toxic.

  17. Hot Carrier Extraction with Plasmonic Broadband Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charlene; Cadusch, Jasper J; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gómez, Daniel E

    2016-04-26

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multistack layered configuration to achieve broadband, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localized on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to ∼40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where (i) the photons have energies higher than the Schottky junctions and (ii) the absorption of light is localized on the metal nanoparticles.

  18. Photoinduced carrier annihilation in silicon pn junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    We report analysis of the photo-induced minority carrier effective lifetime (τeff) in a p+n junction formed on the top surfaces of a n-type silicon substrate by ion implantation of boron and phosphorus atoms at the top and bottom surfaces followed by activation by microwave heating. Bias voltages were applied to the p+ boron-doped surface with n+ phosphorus-doped surface kept at 0 V. The values of τeff were lower than 1 × 10-5 s under the reverse-bias condition. On the other hand, τeff markedly increased to 1.4 × 10-4 s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V and then it leveled off when continuous-wave 635 nm light was illuminated at 0.74 mW/cm2 on the p+ surface. The carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{p + } at the p+ surface region was numerically estimated from the experimental τeff. S\\text{p + } ranged from 4000 to 7200 cm/s under the reverse-bias condition when the carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{n + } at the n+ surface region was assumed to be a constant value of 100 cm/s. S\\text{p + } markedly decreased to 265 cm/s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V.

  19. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  20. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  1. 21 CFR 58.113 - Mixtures of articles with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixtures of articles with carriers. 58.113 Section... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.113 Mixtures of articles with carriers. (a) For each test or control article that is mixed with a carrier,...

  2. 21 CFR 58.113 - Mixtures of articles with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of articles with carriers. 58.113 Section... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.113 Mixtures of articles with carriers. (a) For each test or control article that is mixed with a carrier,...

  3. 21 CFR 58.113 - Mixtures of articles with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixtures of articles with carriers. 58.113 Section... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.113 Mixtures of articles with carriers. (a) For each test or control article that is mixed with a carrier,...

  4. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  5. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  6. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  7. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373... BILLS Motor Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.101 Motor carrier bills of lading. Every motor...

  8. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373... BILLS Motor Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.101 Motor carrier bills of lading. Every motor...

  9. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  10. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  11. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  12. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  13. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  14. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  15. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  16. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  17. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1190 - Preferred carrier freezes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... procedures necessary to lift a preferred carrier freeze; an explanation that these steps are in addition to... selection unless he or she lifts the freeze. (iii) An explanation of any charges associated with the... unable to make a change in carrier selection unless she or he lifts the preferred carrier freeze; and...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1190 - Preferred carrier freezes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures necessary to lift a preferred carrier freeze; an explanation that these steps are in addition to... selection unless he or she lifts the freeze. (iii) An explanation of any charges associated with the... unable to make a change in carrier selection unless she or he lifts the preferred carrier freeze; and...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier frequency measurements. 73.1540 Section... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the... departure limits. (c) The primary standard of frequency for radio frequency measurements is the...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carrier frequency measurements. 73.1540 Section... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the... departure limits. (c) The primary standard of frequency for radio frequency measurements is the...

  2. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  3. 19 CFR 113.64 - International carrier bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false International carrier bond conditions. 113.64...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.64 International carrier bond conditions. A bond for international carriers shall contain the conditions listed in this section and may...

  4. 19 CFR 113.64 - International carrier bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International carrier bond conditions. 113.64...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.64 International carrier bond conditions. A bond for international carriers shall contain the conditions listed in this section and may...

  5. 47 CFR 69.601 - Exchange carrier association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchange carrier association. 69.601 Section 69...) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.601 Exchange carrier association. (a) An association... Common Line revenue requirement, pay long term support to association Common Line tariff participants,...

  6. 47 CFR 69.601 - Exchange carrier association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exchange carrier association. 69.601 Section 69...) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.601 Exchange carrier association. (a) An association... Common Line revenue requirement, pay long term support to association Common Line tariff participants,...

  7. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish...

  8. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  9. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  10. 49 CFR 369.1 - Annual reports of motor carriers of property, motor carriers of household goods, and dual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification criteria, see § 369.2. (b) Quarterly Report Form QFR. All class I common motor carriers of... M. All class I and class II common and contract carriers of property, including household goods...

  11. Sterol carrier and lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Scallen, T J; Pastuszyn, A; Noland, B J; Chanderbhan, R; Kharroubi, A; Vahouny, G V

    1985-09-01

    The discovery of the sterol carrier and lipid transfer proteins was largely a result of the findings that cells contained cytosolic factors which were required either for the microsomal synthesis of cholesterol or which could accelerate the transfer or exchange of phospholipids between membrane preparations. There are two sterol carrier proteins present in rat liver cytosol. Sterol carrier protein 1 (SCP1) (Mr 47 000) participates in the microsomal conversion of squalene to lanosterol, and sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) (Mr 13 500) participates in the microsomal conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol. In addition SCP2 also markedly stimulates the esterification of cholesterol by rat liver microsomes, as well as the conversion of cholesterol to 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol - the major regulatory step in bile acid formation. Also, SCP2 is required for the intracellular transfer of cholesterol from adrenal cytoplasmic lipid inclusion droplets to mitochondria for steroid hormone production, as well as cholesterol transfer from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. SCP2 is identical to the non-specific phospholipid exchange protein. While SCP2 is capable of phospholipid exchange between artificial donors/acceptors, e.g. liposomes and microsomes, it does not enhance the release of lipids other than unesterified cholesterol from natural donors/acceptors, e.g. adrenal lipid inclusion droplets, and will not enhance exchange of labeled phosphatidylcholine between lipid droplets and mitochondria. Careful comparison of SCP2 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP) using six different assay procedures demonstrates separate and distinct physiological functions for each protein, with SCP2 participating in reactions involving sterols and FABP participating in reactions involving fatty acid binding and/or transport. Furthermore, there is no overlap in substrate specificities, i.e. FABP does not possess sterol carrier protein activity and SCP2 does not specifically bind or

  12. Reduced macular function in ABCA4 carriers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study retinal function and morphology in ABCA4 carriers to investigate if ABCA4 carriership is associated with any functional or morphological changes and, if so, to explore whether certain mutations may be associated with particularly severe alterations. Methods Eighteen subjects were recruited by means of being the parents of 10 teenagers/young adults with genetically confirmed ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations. The teenagers/young adults are well-known patients and have been followed in our clinic for many years. The eighteen subjects underwent careful ophthalmological examinations, including fundus photography and autofluorescence imaging, Goldmann perimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), multifocal electroretinography (mERG), and ABCA4 gene sequencing. The ffERG and mERG results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results All subjects carried at least one ABCA4 mutation. Two subjects were compound heterozygous and therefore were excluded from the group-wise statistical analysis. Thirteen different ABCA4 mutations were found. C.2894 A>G (5/18) and c.768 G>T (4/18) were most common. Fourteen of 16 ABCA4 carriers demonstrated significantly altered mERG parameters (reduced amplitudes and/or delayed implicit times (ITs)) compared to normal values. In addition, the two subjects with compound heterozygous ABCA4 mutations had altered mERG parameters. A statistical comparison to the control group showed significantly reduced amplitudes and delayed ITs; p≤0.003 for all mERG parameters. FfERG parameters were altered in two ABCA4 carriers and one of the subjects with compound heterozygous ABCA4 mutations (reduced amplitude and delayed IT for the 30 Hz flicker ERG). No significant alterations were found for the whole group of ABCA4 carriers compared to the ffERG control group. Fundus photographs showed subtle to extensive pigmentary changes in several ABCA4 carriers. Conclusions In this study, ABCA4

  13. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers. PMID:26974607

  14. Carrier Transport Mechanism in Single Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Elucidated by Visualized Carrier Motion.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved microscopic second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) measurement was conducted to evaluate temperature dependence of the anisotropic carrier transport process in 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene single crystalline domains for two orthogonal directions. Enhancement of the electric field induced SHG (EFI-SHG) signal at the electrode edge at low temperature suggests the presence of potential drop in the injection process. We directly evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility by taking into account the potential drop, and concluded that the Marcus theory is appropriate to interpret the carrier transport in anisotropic TIPS pentacene thin film. TRM-SHG method is a facile and effective way to directly visualize transport process in anisotropic materials and to evaluate injection and transport processes simultaneously. PMID:27451638

  15. Plasmon-induced hot carriers in metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Liu, Jun G; Kulkarni, Vikram; Nordlander, Peter

    2014-08-26

    Plasmon-induced hot carrier formation is attracting an increasing research interest due to its potential for applications in photocatalysis, photodetection and solar energy harvesting. However, despite very significant experimental effort, a comprehensive theoretical description of the hot carrier generation process is still missing. In this work we develop a theoretical model for the plasmon-induced hot carrier process and apply it to spherical silver nanoparticles and nanoshells. In this model, the conduction electrons of the metal are described as free particles in a finite spherical potential well, and the plasmon-induced hot carrier production is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule. We show that the inclusion of many-body interactions has only a minor influence on the results. Using the model we calculate the rate of hot carrier generation, finding that it closely follows the spectral profile of the plasmon. Our analysis reveals that particle size and hot carrier lifetime play a central role in determining both the production rate and the energy distribution of the hot carriers. Specifically, larger nanoparticle sizes and shorter lifetimes result in higher carrier production rates but smaller energies, and vice versa. We characterize the efficiency of the hot carrier generation process by introducing a figure of merit that measures the number of high energy carriers generated per plasmon. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distribution and directionality of these excitations. The results presented here contribute to the basic understanding of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and provide insight for optimization of the process.

  16. Suppressed carrier full-spectrum combining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogstad, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    A technique to accomplish full spectrum arraying where all the telemetry power is put into the subcarrier sidebands (suppressed carrier) is described. The matched filter needed in each antenna prior to cross correlation for deriving the coherence delay and phase offsets is an open loop version of the telemetry phase lock loop provided in the Advanced Digital Receiver. In analogy with a Costas loop telemetry receiver, a squaring loss is derived, and a signal to noise ratio for the cross correlation loop phase is presented.

  17. Suppressed carrier full-spectrum combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogstad, D. H.

    1991-11-01

    A technique to accomplish full spectrum arraying where all the telemetry power is put into the subcarrier sidebands (suppressed carrier) is described. The matched filter needed in each antenna prior to cross correlation for deriving the coherence delay and phase offsets is an open loop version of the telemetry phase lock loop provided in the Advanced Digital Receiver. In analogy with a Costas loop telemetry receiver, a squaring loss is derived, and a signal to noise ratio for the cross correlation loop phase is presented.

  18. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  19. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that...

  20. Residual and suppressed-carrier arraying techniques for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, M.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.; Million, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three techniques that use carrier information from multiple antennas to enhance carrier acquisition and tracking are presented. These techniques in combination with baseband combining are analyzed and simulated for residual and suppressed-carrier modulation. It is shown that the carrier arraying using a single carrier loop technique can acquire and track the carrier even when any single antenna in the array cannot do so by itself. The carrier aiding and carrier arraying using multiple carrier loop techniques, on the other hand, are shown to lock on the carrier only when one of the array elements has sufficient margin to acquire the carrier on its own.

  1. Colloidal carrier systems for transcutaneous immunization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prem N; Vyas, Suresh P

    2011-04-01

    Recently, the skin has emerged as a potential alternative route for non-invasive delivery of vaccine. It has been recognized as a highly immune-reactive tissue containing an abundance of antigen presenting cells, especially within the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization, introduction of antigen through topical application onto the intact skin, has many practical merits compared to injectable routes of administration. It combines the advantages of needle-free delivery while targeting the immunologically rich milieu of the skin. This simple and non-invasive immunization procedure elicits systemic and cell mediated immune responses and therefore, it provides a viable and cost-effective strategy for disease prevention. Various strategies i.e physical, chemical and novel carrier systems can be explored for trancutaneous immunization. Specially designed vaccine carrier systems are attracting immense attention and these could be potential module for non-invasive antigen delivery. The review covers topical delivery consideration in brief followed by an insight into various novel delivery systems for transcutaneous vaccine delivery.

  2. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-04-28

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:27067002

  3. Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I

    2007-04-15

    When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway. A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.

  4. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, D. Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  5. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, D.; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2015-09-01

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called "nanoribbons" show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  6. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  7. Charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene): Effects of carrier bimolecular recombination and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soci, Cesare; Moses, Daniel; Xu, Qing-Hua; Heeger, Alan J.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the charge-carrier relaxation dynamics in highly ordered poly( p -phenylene vinylene) over a broad time range using fast (t>100ps) transient photoconductivity measurements. The carrier density was also monitored (t>100fs) by means of photoinduced absorption probed at the infrared active vibrational modes. We find that promptly upon charge-carrier photogeneration, the initial polaron dynamics is governed by bimolecular recombination, while later in the subnanosecond time regime carrier trapping gives rise to an exponential decay of the photocurrent. The more sensitive transient photocurrent measurements indicate that in the low excitation regime, when the density of photocarriers is comparable to that of the trapping states (˜1016cm-3) , carrier hopping between traps along with transport via extended states determines the carrier relaxation, a mechanism that is manifested by a long-lived photocurrent “tail.” This photocurrent tail is reduced by lowering the temperature and/or by increasing the excitation density. Based on these data, we develop a comprehensive kinetic model that takes into account the bipolar charge transport, the free-carrier bimolecular recombination, the carrier trapping, and the carrier recombination involving free and trapped carriers.

  8. The effect of uniaxial strain on graphene nanoribbon carrier statistic.

    PubMed

    Johari, Zaharah; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-01

    : Armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) for n=3m and n=3m+1 family carrier statistic under uniaxial strain is studied by means of an analytical model based on tight binding approximation. The uniaxial strain of AGNR carrier statistic models includes the density of state, carrier concentration, and carrier velocity. From the simulation, it is found that AGNR carrier concentration has not been influenced by the uniaxial strain at low normalized Fermi energy for n=3m and n=3m+1. In addition, the carrier velocity of AGNR is mostly affected by strain at high concentration of n≈3.0×107 and 1.0 × 107 m-1 for n=3m and n=3m+1, respectively. The result obtained gives physical insight into the understanding of uniaxial strain in AGNR.

  9. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  10. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  11. Characteristics of participants in a gestational carrier program.

    PubMed

    Braverman, A M; Corson, S L

    1992-08-01

    Genetic parents and gestational carriers in our gestational carrier program were evaluated by psychodiagnostic interview and by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview-2 (MMPI-2), a widely used objective psychological test, to identify psychopathology and describe personality characteristics. Overall, participants exhibited no overt psychopathology. Personality differences were found between gestational carriers and genetic mothers and genetic fathers and mothers. Clinical interviews revealed that gestational carriers tended to be the dominant partner in the relationship, were motivated by a wish to help an infertile couple, enjoyed being pregnant, showed narcissistic needs, and expressed a wish for secondary financial gain. The majority of gestational carriers stated that they had considered becoming a traditional surrogate but felt they could not surrender a child that was genetically theirs. These results indicate that there is not any predisposing psychopathology which attracts participants to the gestational carrier program.

  12. The Group A Streptococcal Carrier State Reviewed: Still an Enigma.

    PubMed

    DeMuri, Gregory P; Wald, Ellen R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the common nature of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections, the carrier state of this organism is not well understood. In this article, we review the historical and recent research on the definition, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the GAS carrier state. In addition, we outline trials of antimicrobial agents in the eradication of the carrier state and discuss indications for providing treatment to patients in the clinical setting. PMID:26625454

  13. Preparing concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Volynskii, L.D.; Garbuzov, V.M.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    A scheme has been devised for processing large amounts of old thorium salts to obtain concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra preparations. The process includes simple regeneration of the original thorium salt. The main stages in concentrating the /sup 228/Ra are precipitation and separation of thorium peroxide, isolating the radium with a carrier, ion-exchange separation of the radium from the carrier, and final purification by electrolysis. The /sup 228/Ra recovery is 70%.

  14. Resonant tunneling of carriers in silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenyova, N. V.; Konakov, A. A.; Burdov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The rates of resonant and nearly resonant tunnel transitions have been calculated within the envelope function approximation for electrons and holes in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. It is shown that, if the nanocrystals are close enough, the rates of resonant tunneling reach the values of the order of 1012-1014 s-1, which considerably exceed the rates of radiative recombination and other basic non-radiative processes, such as the Auger recombination and capture on surface defects. The transition rate is found to be very sensitive to inter-crystallite distance, crystallite size, and effective mass of the carriers in the oxide matrix. Electron tunneling turns out to be faster than the hole one, especially, at greater distances between the nanocrystals. Thus, the tunnel migration in a dense ensemble of nanocrystals is mainly electronic.

  15. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  16. Intratumoral Drug Delivery with Nanoparticulate Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Holback, Hillary

    2011-01-01

    Stiff extracellular matrix, elevated interstitial fluid pressure, and the affinity for the tumor cells in the peripheral region of a solid tumor mass have long been recognized as significant barriers to diffusion of small-molecular-weight drugs and antibodies. However, their impacts on nanoparticle-based drug delivery have begun to receive due attention only recently. This article reviews biological features of many solid tumors that influence transport of drugs and nanoparticles and properties of nanoparticles relevant to their intratumoral transport, studied in various tumor models. We also discuss several experimental approaches employed to date for enhancement of intratumoral nanoparticle penetration. The impact of nanoparticle distribution on the effectiveness of chemotherapy remains to be investigated and should be considered in the design of new nanoparticulate drug carriers. PMID:21213021

  17. Microemulsions as carriers for therapeutic molecules.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Surinder K; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    The thrust for finding newer drug delivery systems for exiting therapeutic molecules has opened a wide window for colloidal systems. Due to the presence of different domains of variable polarity in the microemulsion systems, they show a huge potential to be used as drug delivery vehicles for a variety of drugs. The use of microemulsion as drug delivery vehicles through a number of routes has engaged a large number of research groups in this area. Microemulsion media finds several applications ranging from drug delivery to drug nanoparticle templating due to its ability to enhance solubility, stability and bioavailability. This review on patent articles recounts the patent literature dealing with different kind of microemulsion carriers used via different routes, solubility and permeability enhancement and its use as a template for nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:19807681

  18. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  19. Hydrogen - Energy carrier of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, Joachim; Steeb, Hartmut

    1986-11-01

    The potential of hydrogen as an energy carrier - in conventional burners, in internal-combustion or turbine engines, in fuel cells, in catalytic burners, or in steam generators - is discussed, and the current status of the Hysolar program is reviewed. Hysolar is a cooperative project of the University of Stuttgart, DFVLR, and Saudi Arabia to develop industrial-scale hydrogen-production facilities employing solar-cell arrays and electrolysis. Hysolar calls for basic research in photoelectrochemistry, electrolysis, and fuel-cell technology; studies of hydrogen production systems and application technology; training of personnel; and construction of a 2-kW laboratory installation at Jiddah, a 10-kW experimental installation at Stuttgart, and a 100-kW demonstration installation at Riad (producing about 44,000 N cu m of hydrogen per year). Diagrams, drawings, and tables are provided.

  20. Suspected meningococcal meningitis on an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Farr, Wesley; Gonzalez, Michele J; Garbauskas, Heather; Zinderman, Craig E; LaMar, James E

    2004-09-01

    A suspected case of meningococcal meningitis was diagnosed in a 24-year-old sailor onboard an aircraft carrier at sea in 2003. He was immediately confined to the ship's hospital ward under respiratory isolation precautions and was treated with intravenously administered antibiotics. His illness resolved without sequelae. A total of 99 close contacts from the ship were identified and given antibiotic prophylaxis, with directly observed therapy. British public health authorities were contacted to trace and treat persons identified as close contacts during a port call a few days before presentation. Managing a communicable disease such as meningococcal meningitis in the austere shipboard environment represents a unique challenge to military medical personnel. Successful management is possible through prompt treatment, respiratory isolation, and open communication between primary health care providers and public health officials. The identification of shipboard close contacts and other infection control procedures used by the ship's medical department are reviewed.

  1. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers' module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson's disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes, whereas AD

  2. Potential of hafnium nitride for the hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Simon; Shrestha, Santosh; Xia, Hongze; Gupta, Neeti; Conibeer, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    The Hot Carrier solar cell is a third generation photovoltaic concept which has the potential to achieve high efficiencies, exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit for a conventional p-n junction solar cell. The theoretical efficiencies achievable for the Hot Carrier solar cell is 65% for non-concentrated solar radiation and 85% for maximally concentrated light, very close to the limits of an infinite tandem solar cell. The approach of the Hot Carrier solar cell is to extract carriers generated before thermalisation to the bandgap edge occurs when their excess energy is lost to the environment as heat. To achieve this, the rate of carrier cooling in the absorber must be slowed down sufficiently enough to allow carriers to be collected while they are hot. This work investigates using hafnium nitride as such an absorber to restrict mechanisms of carrier cooling. Hafnium nitride's phononic properties, where a large `phononic band gap' exist can reduce the carrier cooling rate by means of a phonon bottleneck such that optical phonons cannot decay into acoustic phonons by means of the Klemens' mechanism. Optical phonon-electron scattering can maintain a hot electron population while acoustic phonons are irrecoverable and lost as heat. The electronic and phononic properties of hafnium nitride are evaluated for their suitability to be used in a Hot Carrier solar cell absorber. Recent work on the fabrication of hafnium nitride at UNSW is presented.

  3. Executive Dysfunction in Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim M; Kraan, Claudine M; Lozano, Reymundo; Bui, Minh; Fielding, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    There is now growing evidence of cognitive weakness in female premutation carriers (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation gene, including impairments associated with executive function. While an age-related decline in assessments of executive function has been found for male premutation carriers, few studies have explored whether female carriers show a similar trajectory with age. A total of 20 female premutation carriers and 21 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls completed a battery of tasks assessing executive function tasks, including the behavioural dyscontrol scale (BDS), symbol digit modalities test (SDMT), paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), Haylings sentence completion test and the digit span task (forward and backward). Performance was compared between premutation carriers and healthy controls, and the association between task performance and age was also ascertained. Compared to controls, female premutation carriers had significant impairment on the BDS, SDMT, PASAT, and Haylings sentence completion task, all of which rely on quick, or timed, responses. Further analyses revealed no significant association between age and task performance for either premutation carriers or controls. This study demonstrates that a cohort of female premutation carriers have deficits on a range of tasks of executive function that require the rapid temporal resolution of responses. We propose that the understanding of the phenotype of premutation carriers will be advanced through use of such measures. PMID:27126308

  4. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in polycrystalline bismuth telluride nanofilm

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Lin; Ma, Weigang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-06-16

    In this study, the dynamics of energy carriers in polycrystalline bismuth telluride nanofilm are investigated by the ultrafast pump-probe method. The energy relaxation processes are quantitatively analyzed by using the numerical fitting models. The extracted hot carrier relaxation times of photon excitation, thermalization, and diffusion are around sub-picosecond. The initial reflectivity recovery is found to be dominantly determined by the carrier diffusion, electron-phonon coupling, and photo-generated carriers trapping processes. High-frequency and low-frequency oscillations are both observed and attributed to coherent optical phonons and coherent acoustic phonons, respectively.

  5. 50 CFR 14.141 - Consignment to carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS... Consignment to carrier. Species that grow antlers shall not be accepted for transport unless the antlers...

  6. 50 CFR 14.141 - Consignment to carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS... Consignment to carrier. Species that grow antlers shall not be accepted for transport unless the antlers...

  7. A Systems View of the Differences between APOE ε4 Carriers and Non-carriers in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan; Tang, Ling; Zhao, Na; Yang, Wanling; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accounts for 50–65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular biological processes

  8. CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-28

    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  9. European retrievable carrier (Eureca) and evolutionary space carrier for microgravity, Earth observation and technology demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mory, R.; Seibert, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Spacelab relatively short stay-time in orbit has led to consideration of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) concept as a reusable carrier. The EURECA concept is a free-flying carrier of experiments which is launched and recovered by the space shuttle. It is commensurate with the size of payloads that can be economically developed in Europe and combines the advantages of Spacelab (high mass and power capability, recovery) with those of a free flyer (extended operating time in a non-polluted environment). The launch of the first EURECA mission is scheduled for October 1987. The Eureca spacecraft will be deployed from the Shuttle cargo bay in orbit, will operate in a free-flying mode for about six months, and will then be retrieved, together with its payloads, returned to Earth by the Space Shuttle and prepared for the next mission. The first mission of EURECA is dedicated to research in the fields of life sciences and material sciences. The experimental hardware of the first mission consist of a variety of processin chambers for crystal growth and equipment for biological investigations viz plant growth and protein crystallization, and there is the possibility to perform experiments in the field of exobiology.

  10. 28 CFR 25.55 - Responsibilities of insurance carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of insurance carriers... SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.55 Responsibilities of insurance... individual or entity acting as an insurance carrier conducting business within the United States...

  11. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  12. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period lines less revenues recovered through the End User Common Line charge established under § 69.152... charge revenues. (b) If an end-user customer does not have a presubscribed interexchange carrier, the local exchange carrier may collect the PICC directly from the end user. (c) (d) Local exchange...

  13. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period lines less revenues recovered through the End User Common Line charge established under § 69.152... charge revenues. (b) If an end-user customer does not have a presubscribed interexchange carrier, the local exchange carrier may collect the PICC directly from the end user. (c) (d) Local exchange...

  14. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... period lines less revenues recovered through the End User Common Line charge established under § 69.152... charge revenues. (b) If an end-user customer does not have a presubscribed interexchange carrier, the local exchange carrier may collect the PICC directly from the end user. (c) (d) Local exchange...

  15. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period lines less revenues recovered through the End User Common Line charge established under § 69.152... charge revenues. (b) If an end-user customer does not have a presubscribed interexchange carrier, the local exchange carrier may collect the PICC directly from the end user. (c) (d) Local exchange...

  16. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation...-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in a state that has dispute resolution... information must be reported by month and must be submitted to the Commission at the time an...

  17. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  18. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified above... on the issue traffic, and to evaluate the revenue aspects of the non-issue traffic, including that traffic subject to Surface Transportation Board rate regulation but not here at issue, and that...

  19. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified above... on the issue traffic, and to evaluate the revenue aspects of the non-issue traffic, including that traffic subject to Surface Transportation Board rate regulation but not here at issue, and that...

  20. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process. 128.11 Section 128.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXPRESS CONSIGNMENTS Administration § 128.11 Express consignment carrier application process. (a) Facility...

  1. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process... carrier application process. (a) Facility application. Requests for approval of an express consignment... the implementation thereof and must contain the information specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  2. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Express consignment carrier application process... carrier application process. (a) Facility application. Requests for approval of an express consignment... the implementation thereof and must contain the information specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  3. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  4. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  5. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478...-certificated repair facilities, and the air carriers' outsourcing of maintenance. In each of those reports... maintenance outsourcing practices (Recommendation 2). \\3\\ Review of Air Carriers' Use of Aircraft...

  6. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1995-03-28

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  7. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section 252.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air...

  8. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and carrier; compensation. (a) Disclosure of principal. The identity of the shipper must always be... effective tariff(s). No conference or group of common carriers shall deny in the export commerce of the... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange....

  9. 19 CFR 113.64 - International carrier bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 113.64, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false International carrier bond conditions. 113.64...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.64 International carrier...

  10. 19 CFR 113.64 - International carrier bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 113.64, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false International carrier bond conditions. 113.64...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.64 International carrier...

  11. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  12. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  13. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  14. 19 CFR 18.1 - Carriers; application to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to bond. (a)(1) Merchandise to be transported from one port to another in the United States in bond... a common carrier, contract carrier, or freight forwarder may be transported with the use of...) shall be entitled to transport merchandise under this section. (2) Merchandise to be transported...

  15. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Donelson, Richard; Bryson, E. S.

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  16. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Donelson, Richard; Bryson, E. S.

    1995-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  17. 19 CFR 141.111 - Carrier's release order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carrier's release order. 141.111 Section 141.111 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Release of Merchandise § 141.111 Carrier's release order....

  18. 5 CFR 180.106 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims involving carriers and insurers. 180.106 Section 180.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 180.106 Claims involving carriers and insurers....

  19. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Carrier investment of FEHB funds. 1615.470 Section 1615.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... FEHB funds to the special reserve on behalf of the FEHB Program. If a carrier, for any reason, fails...

  20. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and...

  1. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and...

  2. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and...

  3. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and...

  4. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and...

  5. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  6. 9 CFR 325.14 - Certificates, retention by carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificates, retention by carrier. 325.14 Section 325.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.14 Certificates, retention by carrier. All...

  7. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  8. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  9. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  10. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  11. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  12. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  13. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  14. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  20. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  1. Development of a novel carrier optimized for cell sheet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Karasawa, Kaoru; Kyungsook, Jung; Matsuda, Akira; Kojima, Masanori; Watanabe, Jun; Hibi, Toyoji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly advancing technology in the field of regenerative medicine. For the transplantation of cell sheets, a carrier must maintain the shape of a cell sheet from a culture dish to affected sites as well as release the sheet easily onto the lesion. In this study, we examined the utility of a novel, poly(lactic acid)-based carrier for cell sheets transplantation to the cornea of dogs and the skin of rats. The poly(lactic acid)-based carrier easily picked a cell sheet up from the dish, fit to the shape of the transplantation sites, and saved time for cell sheets detachment comparing to a conventional carrier. Thus, the poly(lactic acid)-based carrier would be useful for easy cell sheet transplantations. PMID:25869322

  2. Driving forces for drug loading in drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The loading capacity of a drug carrier is determined essentially by intermolecular interactions between drugs and carrier materials. In this review, the process of drug loading is described in detail based on the differences in the driving force for drug incorporation, including hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, Pi-Pi stacking and van der Waals force. Modifying drug-loading sites of carrier materials with interacting groups aiming at tailoring drug-carrier interactions is reviewed by highlighting its importance for improving in vitro properties such as the loading capacity, release behaviour and stability. Other factors affecting drug loading, methods employed to predict the encapsulation capacity and the techniques to verify intermolecular interactions are also discussed to inform the readers of all-sided information on drug-loading processes and theories. The drug carriers can be designed more reasonably with the better understanding of the nature and interacting mechanism of intermolecular interactions.

  3. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device.

  4. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, H.D.

    1996-04-30

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device. 6 figs.

  5. Carrier detection in childhood: a need for policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Current policy statements discourage identification of disease carrier status in minors on the grounds that carrier information is of mainly reproductive significance. Such policies fail to consider that the carrier state may have important health implications for minors. They also fail to consider that carrier status of newborns is routinely discovered as an incidental finding in newborn screening programs. Finally, such policies fail to take into account that it may not be parents but adolescents who are seeking out this information and that adolescence may be a valid time to learn about one's reproductive risks. Here, I consider the issues that need to be addressed in revising current policies about the carrier detection of minors. PMID:20416117

  6. Bombarding Cancer: Biolistic Delivery of therapeutics using Porous Si Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zilony, Neta; Tzur-Balter, Adi; Segal, Ester; Shefi, Orit

    2013-01-01

    A new paradigm for an effective delivery of therapeutics into cancer cells is presented. Degradable porous silicon carriers, which are tailored to carry and release a model anti-cancer drug, are biolistically bombarded into in-vitro cancerous targets. We demonstrate the ability to launch these highly porous microparticles by a pneumatic capillary gene gun, which is conventionally used to deliver cargos by heavy metal carriers. By optimizing the gun parameters e.g., the accelerating gas pressure, we have successfully delivered the porous carriers, to reach deep targets and to cross a skin barrier in a highly spatial resolution. Our study reveals significant cytotoxicity towards the target human breast carcinoma cells following the delivery of drug-loaded carriers, while administrating empty particles results in no effect on cell viability. The unique combination of biolistics with the temporal control of payload release from porous carriers presents a powerful and non-conventional platform for designing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23975675

  7. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, A.; Florian, M.; Rösner, M.; Lorke, M.; Wehling, T. O.; Gies, C.; Jahnke, F.

    2016-09-01

    When exploring new materials for their potential in (opto)electronic device applications, it is important to understand the role of various carrier interaction and scattering processes. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, the Coulomb interaction is known to be much stronger than in quantum wells of conventional semiconductors like GaAs, as witnessed by the 50 times larger exciton binding energy. The question arises, whether this directly translates into equivalently faster carrier-carrier Coulomb scattering of excited carriers. Here we show that a combination of ab initio band-structure and many-body theory predicts Coulomb-mediated carrier relaxation on a sub-100 fs time scale for a wide range of excitation densities, which is less than an order of magnitude faster than in quantum wells.

  8. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru; Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Machida, Tomoki

    2015-12-14

    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  9. Carrier-dependent temporal processing in an auditory interneuron.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick; Gottlieb, Heather; Pollack, Gerald S

    2008-05-01

    Signal processing in the auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was compared at high- and low-carrier frequencies in three different experimental paradigms. First, integration time, which corresponds to the time it takes for a neuron to reach threshold when stimulated at the minimum effective intensity, was found to be significantly shorter at high-carrier frequency than at low-carrier frequency. Second, phase locking to sinusoidally amplitude modulated signals was more efficient at high frequency, especially at high modulation rates and low modulation depths. Finally, we examined the efficiency with which ON1 detects gaps in a constant tone. As reflected by the decrease in firing rate in the vicinity of the gap, ON1 is better at detecting gaps at low-carrier frequency. Following a gap, firing rate increases beyond the pre-gap level. This "rebound" phenomenon is similar for low- and high-carrier frequencies.

  10. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  11. Bombarding Cancer: Biolistic Delivery of therapeutics using Porous Si Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilony, Neta; Tzur-Balter, Adi; Segal, Ester; Shefi, Orit

    2013-08-01

    A new paradigm for an effective delivery of therapeutics into cancer cells is presented. Degradable porous silicon carriers, which are tailored to carry and release a model anti-cancer drug, are biolistically bombarded into in-vitro cancerous targets. We demonstrate the ability to launch these highly porous microparticles by a pneumatic capillary gene gun, which is conventionally used to deliver cargos by heavy metal carriers. By optimizing the gun parameters e.g., the accelerating gas pressure, we have successfully delivered the porous carriers, to reach deep targets and to cross a skin barrier in a highly spatial resolution. Our study reveals significant cytotoxicity towards the target human breast carcinoma cells following the delivery of drug-loaded carriers, while administrating empty particles results in no effect on cell viability. The unique combination of biolistics with the temporal control of payload release from porous carriers presents a powerful and non-conventional platform for designing new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Long-Lived Hot Carriers in III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Fonseka, H A; Gao, Q; Mura, F; Tan, H H; Rubini, S; Martelli, F; Jagadish, C; Capizzi, M; Polimeni, A

    2016-05-11

    Heat management mechanisms play a pivotal role in driving the design of nanowire (NW)-based devices. In particular, the rate at which charge carriers cool down after an external excitation is crucial for the efficiency of solar cells, lasers, and high-speed transistors. Here, we investigate the thermalization properties of photogenerated carriers by continuous-wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) in InP and GaAs NWs. A quantitative analysis of the PL spectra recorded up to 310 K shows that carriers can thermalize at a temperature much higher than that of the lattice. We find that the mismatch between carrier and lattice temperature, ΔT, increases exponentially with lattice temperature and depends inversely on the NW diameter. ΔT is instead independent of other NW characteristics, such as crystal structure (wurtzite vs zincblende), chemical composition (InP vs GaAs), shape (tapered vs columnar NWs), and growth method (vapor-liquid-solid vs selective-area growth). Remarkably, carrier temperatures as high as 500 K are reached at the lattice temperature of 310 K in NWs with ∼70 nm diameter. While a population of nonequilibrium carriers, usually referred to as "hot carriers", is routinely generated by high-power laser pulses and detected by ultrafast spectroscopy, it is quite remarkable that it can be observed in cw PL measurements, when a steady-state population of carriers is established. Time-resolved PL measurements show that even in the thinnest NWs carriers have enough time (∼1 ns) after photoexcitation to interact with phonons and thus to release their excess energy. Nevertheless, the inability of carriers to reach a full thermal equilibrium with the lattice points to inhibited phonon emission primarily caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio of small diameter NWs.

  13. Long-Lived Hot Carriers in III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Fonseka, H A; Gao, Q; Mura, F; Tan, H H; Rubini, S; Martelli, F; Jagadish, C; Capizzi, M; Polimeni, A

    2016-05-11

    Heat management mechanisms play a pivotal role in driving the design of nanowire (NW)-based devices. In particular, the rate at which charge carriers cool down after an external excitation is crucial for the efficiency of solar cells, lasers, and high-speed transistors. Here, we investigate the thermalization properties of photogenerated carriers by continuous-wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) in InP and GaAs NWs. A quantitative analysis of the PL spectra recorded up to 310 K shows that carriers can thermalize at a temperature much higher than that of the lattice. We find that the mismatch between carrier and lattice temperature, ΔT, increases exponentially with lattice temperature and depends inversely on the NW diameter. ΔT is instead independent of other NW characteristics, such as crystal structure (wurtzite vs zincblende), chemical composition (InP vs GaAs), shape (tapered vs columnar NWs), and growth method (vapor-liquid-solid vs selective-area growth). Remarkably, carrier temperatures as high as 500 K are reached at the lattice temperature of 310 K in NWs with ∼70 nm diameter. While a population of nonequilibrium carriers, usually referred to as "hot carriers", is routinely generated by high-power laser pulses and detected by ultrafast spectroscopy, it is quite remarkable that it can be observed in cw PL measurements, when a steady-state population of carriers is established. Time-resolved PL measurements show that even in the thinnest NWs carriers have enough time (∼1 ns) after photoexcitation to interact with phonons and thus to release their excess energy. Nevertheless, the inability of carriers to reach a full thermal equilibrium with the lattice points to inhibited phonon emission primarily caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio of small diameter NWs. PMID:27104870

  14. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17440630

  15. Charge carrier trapping at passivated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffe, Johannes; Hofmann, Marc; Rentsch, Jochen; Preu, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Surface passivation has become an essential factor for translating high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cell concepts into industrial production schemes. In photovoltaics, a widespread method to determine the surface recombination is to measure the effective charge carrier lifetime from the photoconductance of symmetrically passivated silicon wafers in transient or quasi-static mode. In this work, it is shown how the injection history at the surface influences the transient effective lifetime measurement for several passivation layers. This dependence leads to systematic differences between quasi-static and transient measurements. The influence can be explained by charge trapping in slow surface states at the surface passivation layer. A model including slow surface states is used in a fit procedure to evaluate the capture cross sections of these traps. The observed effect is well-pronounced for silicon-rich passivation layers like a-Si:H, a-SiCx:H or silicon-rich a-SiOxNy:H. For PECVD-AlOx layers and for thermally grown SiO2 layers as well, however, the effective lifetime measurement could be influenced.

  16. Robust steering control of spacecraft carrier rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Adriana Elysa Alimandro; da Rosa, Alex; Ferreira, Henrique Cezar; Ishihara, Joao Yoshiyuki; Borges, Renato Alves; Sheptun, Yuri Dmitrievich

    In the year of 2003 it was established a cooperation agreement between Ukraine and Brazil for utilization of Cyclone-4 launch vehicle at Alcantara Launch Center. The company responsible for the marketing and operation of launch services is the company bi-national Alcantara Cyclone Space (ACS). The Cyclone-4 launch vehicle is the newest version of the Ukrainian Cyclone family launchers developed by Yuzhnoye State Design Office. This family has been used for many successful spacecrafts launches since 1969. This paper is concerned with the yaw stabilization problem around a nominal trajectory for the third stage of a satellite carrier rocket similar to the Cyclone-4. Only the steering machine of the main engine is considered as actuator. The dynamic behavior of the third stage around the nominal trajectory is modeled as a fourthorder time-varying linear system whereas the steering machine is modeled as a linear dynamical system up to third order. The values of the parameters of the steering machine model are unknown, however belonging to known intervals. As the main result, the stabilization problem is solved with a proportional derivative (PD) controller. The proposed tuning approach takes into account the robustness of the controller with respect to the steering machine model uncertainties. The performance of the PD controller is demonstrated by simulation results.

  17. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Štáfková, Jitka; Mach, Jan; Biran, Marc; Verner, Zdeněk; Bringaud, Frédéric; Tachezy, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key product of glycolysis that regulates the energy metabolism of cells. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, the fate of pyruvate varies dramatically during the parasite life cycle. In bloodstream forms, pyruvate is mainly excreted, whereas in tsetse fly forms, pyruvate is metabolized in mitochondria yielding additional ATP molecules. The character of the molecular machinery that mediates pyruvate transport across mitochondrial membrane was elusive until the recent discovery of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in yeast and mammals. Here, we characterized pyruvate import into mitochondrion of T. brucei. We identified mpc1 and mpc2 homologs in the T. brucei genome with attributes of MPC protein family and we demonstrated that both proteins are present in the mitochondrial membrane of the parasite. Investigations of mpc1 or mpc2 gene knock-out cells proved that T. brucei MPC1/2 proteins facilitate mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Interestingly, MPC is expressed not only in procyclic trypanosomes with fully activated mitochondria but also in bloodstream trypanosomes in which most of pyruvate is excreted. Moreover, MPC appears to be essential for bloodstream forms, supporting the recently emerging picture that the functions of mitochondria in bloodstream forms are more diverse than it was originally thought. PMID:26748989

  18. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Peng, Sydney; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. PMID:26389879

  19. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sprowl, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interaction of oncology drugs with SLC have been restricted to the use of exploratory in vitro model systems, emerging evidence suggests that several SLCs, including OCT2 and OATP1B1, contribute to clinically important phenotypes associated with those agents. Recent literature has indicated that modulation of SLC activity may result in drug-drug interactions, and genetic polymorphisms in SLC genes have been described that can affect the handling of substrates. Alteration of SLC function by either of these mechanisms has been demonstrated to contribute to interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity associated with several oncology drugs. In this report, we provide an update on this rapidly emerging field. PMID:24378324

  20. Charge carrier mobility in hybrid halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Carlo; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Sanvito, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The charge transport properties of hybrid halide perovskites are investigated with a combination of density functional theory including van der Waals interaction and the Boltzmann theory for diffusive transport in the relaxation time approximation. We find the mobility of electrons to be in the range 5–10 cm2V−1s−1 and that for holes within 1–5 cm2V−1s−1, where the variations depend on the crystal structure investigated and the level of doping. Such results, in good agreement with recent experiments, set the relaxation time to about 1 ps, which is the time-scale for the molecular rotation at room temperature. For the room temperature tetragonal phase we explore two possible orientations of the organic cations and find that the mobility has a significant asymmetry depending on the direction of the current with respect to the molecular axis. This is due mostly to the way the PbI3 octahedral symmetry is broken. Interestingly we find that substituting I with Cl has minor effects on the mobilities. Our analysis suggests that the carrier mobility is probably not a key factor in determining the high solar-harvesting efficiency of this class of materials. PMID:26235910

  1. HDL drug carriers for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Suo, Rong; Xiong, Sheng-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2013-01-16

    Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly and inversely associated with cardiovascular risk. HDL is not a simple lipid transporter, but possesses multiple anti-atherosclerosis activities because it contains special proteins, signaling lipid, and microRNAs. Natural or recombinant HDLs have emerged as potential carriers for delivering a drug to a specified target. However, HDL function also depends on enzymes that alter its structure and composition, as well as cellular receptors and membrane micro-domains that facilitate interactions with the microenvironment. In this review, four mechanisms predicted to enhance functions or targeted therapy of HDL in vivo are discussed. The first involves caveolae-mediated recruitment of HDL signal to bind their receptors. The second involves scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) mediating anchoring and fluidity for signal-lipid of HDL. The third involves lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) concentrating the signaling lipid at the surface of the HDL particle. The fourth involves microRNAs (miRNAs) being delivered in the blood to special targets by HDL. Exploitation of these four mechanisms will promote HDL to carry targeted drugs and increase HDL's clinical value. PMID:23063777

  2. Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

    2013-09-01

    Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

  3. Mineral Soils as Carriers for Rhizobium Inoculants

    PubMed Central

    Chao, W.-L.; Alexander, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Mineral soil-based inoculants of Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium phaseoli survived better at 4°C than at higher temperatures, but ca. 15% of the cells were viable at 37°C after 27 days. Soil-based inoculants of R. meliloti, R. phaseoli, Rhizobium japonicum, and a cowpea Rhizobium sp. applied to seeds of their host legumes also survived better at low temperatures, but the percent survival of such inoculants was higher than peat-based inoculants at 35°C. Survival of R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and cowpea rhizobia was not markedly improved when the cells were suspended in sugar solutions before drying them in soil. Nodulation was abundant on Phaseolus vulgaris derived from seeds that had been coated with a soil-based inoculant and stored for 165 days at 25°C. The increase in yield and nitrogen content of Phaseolus angularis grown in the greenhouse was the same with soil-and peat-based inoculants. We suggest that certain mineral soils can be useful and readily available carriers for legume inoculants containing desiccation-resistant Rhizobium strains. PMID:16346460

  4. Is metal nanofluid reliable as heat carrier?

    PubMed

    Nine, Md J; Chung, Hanshik; Tanshen, Md Riyad; Osman, N A B Abu; Jeong, Hyomin

    2014-05-30

    A pre- and post experimental analysis of copper-water and silver-water nanofluids are conducted to investigate minimal changes in quality of nanofluids before and after an effective heat transfer. A single loop oscillating heat pipe (OHP) having inner diameter of 2.4mm is charged with aforementioned nanofluids at 60% filling ratio for end to end heat transfer. Post experimental analysis of both nanofluids raises questions to the physical, chemical and thermal stability of such suspension for hazardless uses in the field of heat transfer. The color, deposition, dispersibility, propensity to be oxidized, disintegration, agglomeration and thermal conductivity of metal nanofluids are found to be strictly affected by heat transfer process and vice versa. Such degradation in quality of basic properties of metal nanofluids implies its challenges in practical application even for short-term heat transfer operations at oxidative environment as nano-sized metal particles are chemically more unstable than its bulk material. The use of the solid/liquid suspension containing metal nanoparticles in any heat exchanger as heat carrier might be detrimental to the whole system.

  5. Carrier-based dry powder inhalation: Impact of carrier modification on capsule filling processability and in vitro aerodynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Faulhammer, Eva; Wahl, Verena; Zellnitz, Sarah; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of carrier characteristics and dosator capsule filling operation on the in vitro deposition of mixtures containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) and lactose and mannitol as model carrier materials. The carrier surfaces of lactose and mannitol were modified via wet decantation. The impact of the decantation process on the properties of carriers was investigated by laser diffraction, density and powder flow measurements, N2 physisorption, small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences in carrier type and untreated and decanted materials were identified and the SAXS measurements proved to be a promising technology confirming the successful removal of fines. Adhesive carrier API mixtures with carrier-to-API ratio of 99:1 wt% were prepared, mixture homogeneity was tested and subsequently the mixtures were filled into capsules at different process settings. Finally, the influence of the decantation process on the in vitro performance of the adhesive mixtures was tested with a next generation impactor. For lactose, the decantation decreased the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS, whereas the FPF of mannitol as a carrier was only affected by the capsule filling process. In summary, the DPI formulation based on untreated lactose, especially by capsule filling using a dosing chamber to powder layer (compression) ratio of 1:2, proved to be superior in terms of the dosing accuracy (RSD<0.8%) and the in vitro aerodynamic performance (FPF of 12%).

  6. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shih-Wei Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  7. 49 CFR 397.2 - Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Federal motor carrier safety regulations. A motor carrier or other person to whom this part is...

  8. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resale-based international common carriers. 63... Supplements § 63.23 Resale-based international common carriers. The following conditions apply to carriers authorized to resell the international services of other authorized carriers: (a) A carrier authorized...

  9. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resale-based international common carriers. 63... Supplements § 63.23 Resale-based international common carriers. The following conditions apply to carriers authorized to resell the international services of other authorized carriers: (a) A carrier authorized...

  10. 47 CFR 61.28 - International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International dominant carrier tariff filing... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Tariff Rules for International Dominant Carriers § 61.28 International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements. (a) Any carrier classified as dominant for...

  11. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resale-based international common carriers. 63... Supplements § 63.23 Resale-based international common carriers. The following conditions apply to carriers authorized to resell the international services of other authorized carriers: (a) A carrier authorized...

  12. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. Objective: The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. Materials and Methods: B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. Results: The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of −31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. Conclusion: B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. SUMMARY Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity

  13. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. Objective: The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. Materials and Methods: B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. Results: The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of −31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. Conclusion: B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. SUMMARY Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity

  14. Intrinsic information carriers in combinatorial dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Russ; Danos, Vincent; Feret, Jérôme; Krivine, Jean; Fontana, Walter

    2010-09-01

    self-consistent descriptors of system dynamics in that their time-evolution is governed by a closed system of kinetic equations. Taken together, fragments are endogenous distinctions that matter for the dynamics of a system, which warrants viewing them as the carriers of information. Although fragments can be thought of as multisets of molecular species (an extensional view), their self-consistency suggests treating them as autonomous aspects cut off from their microscopic realization (an intensional view). Fragmentation is a seeded process that depends on the choice of observables whose dynamics one insists to describe. Different observables can cause distinct fragmentations, in effect altering the set of information carriers that govern the behavior of a system, even though nothing has changed in its microscopic constitution. In this contribution, we present a mathematical specification of fragments, but not an algorithmic implementation. We have described the latter elsewhere in rather technical terms that, although effective, were lacking an embedding into a more general conceptual framework, which we here provide.

  15. Clinical and Genetic Characterization of Manifesting Carriers of DMD Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Soltanzadeh, Payam; Friez, Michael J.; Dunn, Diane; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Gurvich, Olga L.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Sampson, Jacinda B.; Pestronk, Alan; Connolly, Anne M.; Florence, Julaine M.; Finkel, Richard S.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Medne, Livija; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Wong, Brenda L.; Sussman, Michael D.; Zonana, Jonathan; Kovak, Karen; Gospe, Sidney M.; Gappmaier, Eduard; Taylor, Laura E.; Howard, Michael T.; Weiss, Robert B.; Flanigan, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Manifesting carriers of DMD gene mutations may present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the absence of a family history of dystrophinopathy. We review the clinical and genetic features in fifteen manifesting carriers identified among 860 subjects within the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a large clinical dystrophinopathy cohort whose members undergo comprehensive DMD mutation analysis. We defined manifesting carriers as females with significant weakness, excluding those with only myalgias/cramps. DNA extracted from peripheral blood was used to study X chromosome inactivation patterns. Among these manifesting carriers, age at symptom onset ranged from 2 to 47 years. Seven had no family history and eight had male relatives with Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD). Clinical severity among the manifesting carriers varied from a DMD-like progression to a very mild Becker muscular dystrophy-like phenotype. Eight had exonic deletions or duplications and six had point mutations. One patient had two mutations (an exonic deletion and a splice site mutation), consistent with a heterozygous compound state. The X chromosome inactivation pattern was skewed toward nonrandom in four out of seven informative deletions or duplications but was random in all cases with nonsense mutations. We present the results of DMD mutation analysis in this manifesting carrier cohort, including the first example of a presumably compound heterozygous DMD mutation. Our results demonstrate that improved molecular diagnostic methods facilitate the identification of DMD mutations in manifesting carriers, and confirm the heterogeneity of mutational mechanisms as well as the wide spectrum of phenotypes. PMID:20630757

  16. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R.

    1995-11-20

    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. [A survey of HTLV-1 carrier clinics in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishitsuka, Kenji; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Utsunomiya, Atae; Uchimaru, Kaoru

    2015-06-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Currently, mother-to-child transmission via breastfeeding and sexual intercourse are considered to be the two major routes for HTLV-1 infection. We surveyed four clinics in Japan (two HTLV-1 carrier clinics in non-endemic areas and one in an endemic area, and one hematology clinic in a highly endemic area) and reviewed the management of carriers. In HTLV-1 carrier clinics, more than half of visitors had learned of their infections based on an examination conducted either for blood donation or pregnancy. Although half of visitors had known of their infection more than 2 years prior to their visit, they became to visit the clinics probably due to recent awareness of HTLV-1 in public and of carrier clinics. They requested a detailed explanation, and check-ups for infection and its related diseases. In contrast, most visitors in highly endemic areas had apparently received good explanations from their primary care physicians. It is noteworthy that neither parent of more than half of the carriers who visited the two clinics in the non-endemic area had been born outside of Kyushu, a highly endemic area, indicating that carriers will disperse from known endemic areas. Configuring an appropriate and efficient system to support carriers is necessary, especially in non-endemic areas. PMID:26256877

  18. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Le, H. T.; Jantarat, N.

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. PMID:27525274

  19. Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.

  20. Plasmon-induced Hot Carriers in Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Kulkarni, Vikram; Nordlander, Peter; LANP Team

    2015-03-01

    Plasmon-induced hot carrier formation is attracting an increasing research interest due to its potential for applications in photocatalysis, photodetection and solar energy harvesting. Here we develop a theoretical model for the plasmon-induced hot carrier process and apply it to spherical silver nanoparticles and nanoshells. We show that the inclusion of many-body interactions has only a minor influence on the results. Using the model we calculate the rate of hot carrier generation, finding that it closely follows the spectral profile of the plasmon. Our analysis reveals that particle size and hot carrier lifetime play a central role in determining both the production rate and the energy distribution of the hot carriers. We characterize the efficiency of the hot carrier generation process by introducing a figure of merit that measures the number of high energy carriers generated per plasmon. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distribution and directionality of these excitations. A. M. acknowledges financial support from the Welch foundation through the J. Evans Attwell-Welch Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of the Smalley Institute of Rice University (Grant No. L-C-004).

  1. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, H T; Jantarat, N; Khanitchaidecha, W; Ratananikom, K; Nakaruk, A

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. PMID:27525274

  2. Analysis of Ionospheric Delay Estimates from GNSS Carrier Phase Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang

    2016-07-01

    There is an increased demand for more precise ionospheric information such as ionospheric augmentation for fast ambiguity convergence and resolution in real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP). More precise ionospheric information is also highly desired to improve the understanding of the space weather dynamics and its impacts on various applications such as aviation and communication systems. Carrier phase measurements from GNSS offer the best precision for precise applications. Current ionospheric models, however, are mostly derived from code or carrier-smoothed code measurements. Ionopsheric models based on carrier phase measurements are expected to provide improved accuracy and should be investigated. In this contribution, various data analyses will be conducted on ionospheric estimates from carrier phase measurements. Since carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and they are also affected by fractional biases, proper observation model is necessary and will be developed. With proper observation model, the analysis results are used to investigate the differences and characteristics of the ionospheric estimates between the code and carrier phase derived estimates and subsequently to help develop methods for precise estimation of the biases in carrier phase measurements and the recovery of the ionospheric effects. Data acquired at different geographic locations and under different ionospheric conditions will be processed for numerical analysis.

  3. Liposomes as drug carriers for oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Harsanyi, B B; Hilchie, J C; Mezei, M

    1986-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the potential of liposomes as drug carriers to the ulcerated oral mucosa. Radioactive triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (3H-TRMAp) was encapsulated in large multilamellar lipid vesicles and served as the test lotion. 3H-TRMAp in solution served as control. Forty-six hamsters were divided into three groups. In group I, multiple confluent ulcers in both cheek pouches were treated by topical application. In group II, single ulcers on the cheeks were treated by intramucosal injection. In group III, multiple confluent ulcers were produced in the cheek pouch on one side, with a single ulcer in the contralateral cheek pouch; no drug was applied, and the tissues were prepared for histology. Hamsters were killed at three and 24 hours, respectively, after treatment. Pouches were divided into ulcerated and intact adjacent mucosa. Cheeks were divided into ulcerated mucosa and distant mucosa. Drug levels in the four mucosal portions as well as in the blood, liver, spleen, brain, and thalamic region were determined by radioactive tracer technique. At three hours, liposomal drug concentrations were lower than in control animals in the brain and the thalamic region. At 24 hours, liposomal drug values were higher than in control animals in the ulcerated mucosa and lower than in control animals in the thalamic region. Mean drug concentrations in the ulcerated mucosa were higher in group II than group I. The results parallel those of Mezei and Gulasekharam (1980, 1982); liposomes increase local and decrease systemic drug concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jian

    Time transfer (TT) is the process of transmitting a timing signal from one place to another place. It has applications to the formation and realization of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), telecommunications, electrical power grids, and even stock exchanges. TT is the actual bottleneck of the UTC formation and realization since the technology of atomic clocks is almost always ahead of that of TT. GPS carrier-phase time transfer (GPSCPTT), as a mainstream TT technique accepted by most national timing laboratories, has suffered from the day-boundary-discontinuity (day-BD) problem for many years. This makes us difficult to observe a remote Cesium fountain clock behavior even after a few days. We find that day-BD comes from the GPS code noise. The day-BD can be lowered by ˜40% if more satellite-clock information is provided and if a few GPS receivers at the same station are averaged. To completely eliminate day-BD, the RINEX-Shift (RS) and revised RS (RRS) algorithms have been designed. The RS/RRS result matches the two-way satellite time/frequency transfer (TWSTFT) result much better than the conventional GPSCPTT result. With the RS/RRS algorithm, we are able to observe a remote Cesium fountain after half a day. We also study the BD due to GPS data anomalies (anomaly-BD). A simple curve-fitting strategy can eliminate the anomaly-BD. Thus, we achieve continuous GPSCPTT after eliminating both day-BD and anomaly-BD.

  5. Genomic studies in fragile X premutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The FMR1 premutation is defined as having 55 to 200 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1). The clinical involvement has been well characterized for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). The behavior/psychiatric and other neurological manifestations remain to be specified as well as the molecular mechanisms that will explain the phenotypic variability observed in individuals with the FMR1 premutation. Methods Here we describe a small pilot study of copy number variants (CNVs) in 56 participants with a premutation ranging from 55 to 192 repeats. The participants were divided into four different clinical groups for the analysis: those with behavioral problems but no autism spectrum disorder (ASD); those with ASD but without neurological problems; those with ASD and neurological problems including seizures; and those with neurological problems without ASD. Results We found 12 rare CNVs (eight duplications and four deletions) in 11 cases (19.6%) that were not found in approximately 8,000 controls. Three of them were at 10q26 and two at Xp22.3, with small areas of overlap. The CNVs were more commonly identified in individuals with neurological involvement and ASD. Conclusions The frequencies were not statistically significant across the groups. There were no significant differences in the psychometric and behavior scores among all groups. Further studies are necessary to determine the frequency of second genetic hits in individuals with the FMR1 premutation; however, these preliminary results suggest that genomic studies can be useful in understanding the molecular etiology of clinical involvement in premutation carriers with ASD and neurological involvement. PMID:25170347

  6. Evaluation of carrier agents for hyperpolarized xenon MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesh, A. K.; Zhao, L.; Balamore, D.; Jolesz, F. A.; Albert, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Several biocompatible carrier agents, in which xenon is highly soluble and has a long T(1), were tested, and injected in living rats. These included saline, Intralipid suspension, perfluorocarbon emulsion and (129)Xe gas-filled liposomes. The T(1) of (129)Xe in these compounds ranged from 47 to 116 s. Vascular injection of these carrier agents was tolerated well, encouraging their use for further experiments in live animals. In vivo spectra, obtained from gas-filled liposomes and perfluorocarbon solutions, suggest that these carrier agents have potential for use in angiography and perfusion imaging. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Picosecond dynamics of photoexcited carriers in interacting silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kořínek, Miroslav; Trojánek, František; Hiller, Daniel; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Kübel, Christian; Malý, Petr

    2016-07-01

    The non-radiative Auger carrier recombination plays an important role in physics and the application of semiconductor nanocrystals. Here we report on the effect of inter-nanocrystal carrier interaction on Auger recombination. We prepared a special set of samples containing silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide with well-defined geometry. The picosecond carrier recombination rate measured by femtosecond pump and probe technique was found to be strongly dependent on the inter-nanocrystal separation. The observed decrease of the decay rate with nanocrystal separation on the nanometer scale is interpreted in terms of the wave function overlap appearing in the relevant matrix element describing the recombination process.

  8. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  9. New energy saving system for future LNG carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Kahara, Susumu; Suetake, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Junshiro; Hiraoka, Kazuyoshi

    1994-12-31

    Steam turbine plant, which burns BOG (Boil-Off Gas) as fuel, has bene installed for LNG carriers with the necessity of disposing BOG safely. Are other plants unpractical for LNG carriers? To answer to this question, this paper evaluates (1) dual fuel diesel, (2) diesel with reliquefaction plant, (3) diesel with auxiliary boiler and power assist motor, (4) gas turbine/steam turbine and (5) steam turbine with CRP (Contra Rotating Propeller) from several aspects, such as safety and reliability, maintainability and operability, economy and effect on environment. Based on the above studies, this paper proposes Steam turbine with CRP plant as a new energy saving system for future LNG carriers.

  10. Affinity Adsorbents Based on Carriers Activated by Epoxy-compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyashchitskii, B. A.; Kuznetsov, P. V.

    1984-10-01

    The review is devoted to the synthesis and applications of affinity adsorbents based on carriers activated by epoxy-compounds. The methods for the introduction of epoxy-groups into carriers of different chemical types are discussed and conditions for the immobilisation of three-dimensional spacers and low-molecular-weight and polymeric ligands on carriers containing epoxy-groups are considered. Data are presented on the properties and applications of adsorbents of this type in affinity chromatography. The bibliography includes 144 references.

  11. Carrier-envelope-phase stabilization via dual wavelength pumping.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Marcus; Brons, Jonathan; Lücking, Fabian; Pervak, Vladimir; Apolonski, Alexander; Udem, Thomas; Pronin, Oleg

    2016-04-15

    A power-scalable concept for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization is presented. It takes advantage of simultaneous pumping of the zero- and first-phonon absorption line of Yb:YAG at 969 and 940 nm. The concept was implemented to lock the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a 45 W average power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator. The lock performance is compared to previous experiments where carrier-envelope-stabilization was realized by means of cavity loss modulation.

  12. Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present the increased light emission for Si p-i-n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size decreases the leakage of minority carriers in the injector regions, availing more carriers for effective radiative recombination in the intrinsic volume of the device. A comparison is made between reference large-scale and nano-size injector p-i-n diodes.

  13. Genetic Carrier Screening in the Twenty-first Century.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruofan; Goetzinger, Katherine R

    2016-06-01

    Historically, carrier screening for a small number of autosomal recessive disorders has been offered to targeted populations based on ethnicity and family history. These chosen disorders are associated with severe morbidity or mortality, have a well-established carrier frequency in the targeted population, and have an acceptably high detection rate to make screening efficient. With advancing genetic technology, expanded panels rapidly are being designed and offered to the panethnic general population. This article reviews current recommendations for ethnicity-specific carrier screening for common disorders as well as the limitations and counseling complexities associated with expanded panels. PMID:27235912

  14. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    SciTech Connect

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. ); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. ); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. ); Natowicz, M.R. ); Grebner, E.E. ); Navon, R.R. ); Welch, J.P. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. 76 FR 48940 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. TIME AND DATE: August... Development. BILLING CODE 4910-EX-P...

  16. 75 FR 71792 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. TIME AND DATE... Development. BILLING CODE 4910-EX-P...

  17. 75 FR 65551 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. Time and Date... Development. BILLING CODE 4910-EX-P...

  18. Carrier Plus: A Sensor Payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Cheryl; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet; Brewer, Dana

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. Living with a Star (LWS) program: space environment testbed (SET); natural space environment. 2. Carrier plus: goals and benefits. 3. ON-orbit sensor measurements. 4. Carrier plus architecture. 5. Participation in carrier plus.

  19. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies. PMID:27334385

  20. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi

    2016-10-01

    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies.

  1. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous. PMID:26809017

  2. The Use of Synthetic Carriers in Malaria Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Powles, Liam; Xiang, Sue D; Selomulya, Cordelia; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vaccine research has been ongoing since the 1980s with limited success. However, recent improvements in our understanding of the immune responses required to combat each stage of infection will allow for intelligent design of both antigens and their associated delivery vaccine vehicles/vectors. Synthetic carriers (also known as vectors) are usually particulate and have multiple properties, which can be varied to control how an associated vaccine interacts with the host, and consequently how the immune response develops. This review comprehensively analyzes both historical and recent studies in which synthetic carriers are used to deliver malaria vaccines. Furthermore, the requirements for a synthetic carrier, such as size, charge, and surface chemistry are reviewed in order to understand the design of effective particle-based vaccines against malaria, as well as providing general insights. Synthetic carriers have the ability to alter and direct the immune response, and a better control of particle properties will facilitate improved vaccine design in the near future.

  3. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, A.; Florian, M.; Rösner, M.; Lorke, M.; Wehling, T. O.; Gies, C.; Jahnke, F.

    2016-09-01

    When exploring new materials for their potential in (opto)electronic device applications, it is important to understand the role of various carrier interaction and scattering processes. In atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, the Coulomb interaction is known to be much stronger than in quantum wells of conventional semiconductors like GaAs, as witnessed by the 50 times larger exciton binding energy. The question arises, whether this directly translates into equivalently faster carrier–carrier Coulomb scattering of excited carriers. Here we show that a combination of ab initio band-structure and many-body theory predicts Coulomb-mediated carrier relaxation on a sub-100 fs time scale for a wide range of excitation densities, which is less than an order of magnitude faster than in quantum wells.

  4. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  5. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  6. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  7. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the... shall be used in the generation of radio frequency currents by power line carrier systems to...

  8. Hot carrier relaxation in highly excited III V compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, H.; Kuett, W.; Seibert, K.; Strahnen, M.

    1988-04-01

    The transition from nonthermal to thermalized carrier distributions and their subsequent cooling via phonon emission is investigated in III-V compounds by time resolved optical measurements with femtosecond laser pulses.

  9. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  10. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... Lifeline service in a manner reasonably designed to reach those likely to qualify for the service....

  11. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... Lifeline service in a manner reasonably designed to reach those likely to qualify for the service....

  12. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensed users of the radio spectrum. The signals from this operation shall be contained within the frequency band 9 kHz to 490 kHz. A power line carrier system shall operate on an unprotected,...

  13. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in GaN nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi-Yuan; Chia, Chih-Ta; Chen, Hung-Ying; Gwo, Shangjr; Lin, Kung-Hsuan

    2014-11-24

    We present ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy on GaN nanorods at room temperature. The studied GaN nanorods, with diameters of ∼50 nm and lengths of ∼400 nm, were grown on the silicon substrate. After femtosecond optical pulses excited carriers in the GaN nanorods, the carriers thermalized within a few picoseconds. Subsequently, the electrons are trapped by the surface states on the order of 20 ps. After the surface electric field was reformed in the GaN nanorods, we found the lifetime of the residue carriers in GaN nanorods is longer than 1.7 ns at room temperature, while the lifetime of carriers in GaN thin film is typically a few hundred picoseconds. Our findings indicate that GaN nanorods have higher electrical quality compared with GaN thin film.

  14. 9. VIEW OF CLOSED CARRIER LINES FOR MOVING CONTAMINATED PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CLOSED CARRIER LINES FOR MOVING CONTAMINATED PROCESS FILTERS AND TRANSPORTING SOLID AND LIQUID MATERIAL SAMPLES. (9/10/96) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Consideration of the gestational carrier: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Gestational carriers have a right to be fully informed of the risks of the surrogacy process and of pregnancy, should receive psychological evaluation and counseling, and should have independent legal counsel.

  16. 19 CFR 128.11 - Express consignment carrier application process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... set forth in § 128.13. (5) A list of principal company officials or officers. (6) A projected start-up... facility and notify that office whenever a new carrier or operator begins to use the facility or whenever...

  17. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  18. Polymeric carriers: role of geometry in drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Eric A; Dziubla, Thomas D; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2009-01-01

    The unique properties of synthetic nanostructures promise a diverse set of applications as carriers for drug delivery, which are advantageous in terms of biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, targeting and controlled drug release. Historically, more traditional drug delivery systems have focused on spherical carriers. However, there is a growing interest in pursuing non-spherical carriers, such as elongated or filamentous morphologies, now available due to novel formulation strategies. Unique physiochemical properties of these supramolecular structures offer distinct advantages as drug delivery systems. In particular, results of recent studies in cell cultures and lab animals indicate that rational design of carriers of a given geometry (size and shape) offers an unprecedented control of their longevity in circulation and targeting to selected cellular and subcellular locations. This article reviews drug delivery aspects of non-spherical drug delivery systems, including material selection and formulation, drug loading and release, biocompatibility, circulation behavior, targeting and subcellular addressing. PMID:19040392

  19. 47 CFR 73.1545 - Carrier frequency departure tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier offset, including those stations licensed with a maximum effective radiated power and/or antenna... offset. See Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration, In the Matter of Establishment of a Class...

  20. Plasmonic Hot Carrier Transport and Collection in Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Adam; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William; Atwater, Harry; Joint CenterArtificial Photosynthesis Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic resonances provide a promising pathway for efficiently capturing photons from solar radiation and improving photo-catalytic activity via hot carrier generation. Previous calculations have provided the prompt energy-momentum distributions of hot carriers, but have left open the question of their transport to collection surfaces [Accepted in Nature Communications]. As the overall efficiency of plasmonic devices is dependent not just on how many carriers are collected but also on their energy distribution, a transport model which tracks this distribution is of key importance. Here, we provide a first-principles model of this transport based upon at the linearized Boltzmann equation with the diffusive and ballistic regimes handled separately, and investigate the role of geometry on plasmonic hot carrier collection.

  1. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled {sup 75}Ge and {sup 70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [{sup 74}Ge]/[{sup 70}Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  2. Discriminator aided phase lock acquisition for suppressed carrier signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A discriminator aided technique for acquisition of phase lock to a suppressed carrier signal utilizes a Costas loop which is initially operated open loop and control voltage for its VCXO is derived from a phase detector that compares the VCXO to a reference frequency thus establishing coarse frequency resolution with the received signal. Then the Costas loop is closed with the low-pass filter of the channel having a bandwidth much greater (by a factor of about 10) than in the I channel so that a frequency discriminator effect results to aid carrier resolution. Finally, after carrier acquisition, the Q-channel filter of the Costas loop is switched to a bandwidth substantially equal to that of the I-channel for carrier tracking.

  3. Discriminator aided phase lock acquisition for suppressed carrier signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E.

    1982-06-01

    A discriminator aided technique for acquisition of phase lock to a suppressed carrier signal utilizes a Costas loop which is initially operated open loop and control voltage for its VCXO is derived from a phase detector that compares the VCXO to a reference frequency thus establishing coarse frequency resolution with the received signal. Then the Costas loop is closed with the low-pass filter of the channel having a bandwidth much greater (by a factor of about 10) than in the I channel so that a frequency discriminator effect results to aid carrier resolution. Finally, after carrier acquisition, the Q-channel filter of the Costas loop is switched to a bandwidth substantially equal to that of the I-channel for carrier tracking.

  4. 1. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF CARRIER JOHN F. KENNEDY (JFK) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF CARRIER JOHN F. KENNEDY (JFK) IN DRYDOCK NO. 5 FOR SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION PROGRAM (SLEP). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 6. BRIDGE OF CARRIER JFK SURROUNDED BY SCAFFOLDING FOR REHABILITATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BRIDGE OF CARRIER JFK SURROUNDED BY SCAFFOLDING FOR REHABILITATION UNDER SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION PROGRAM (SLEP). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 2 Kids an Hour Hurt in Strollers, Infant Carriers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smartphone while pushing a stroller or using a infant carrier, as even a split second of distraction can lead to a misstep, trip or fall resulting in a traumatic brain injury cervical spine or cord injury to your child -- ...

  7. 19 CFR 18.1 - Carriers; application to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 18.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected...” means a common carrier of merchandise owning or operating a railroad, steamship, pipeline, or...

  8. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  9. Coherent receiver employing nonlinear coherence detection for carrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear coherence employed in carrier tracking to improve telecommunications efficiency is disclosed. A generic tracking loop for a coherent receiver is shown having seven principle feedback signals which may be selectively added and applied to a voltage controlled oscillator to produce a reference signal that is phase coherent with a received carrier. An eighth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are coherent with the phase detected and filtered carrier may also be added to exploit the sideband power of the received signal. A ninth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are also coherent with the quadrature phase detected and filtered carrier could be additionally or alternatively included in the composite feedback signal to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  10. NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft 911's Final Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA 911, one of NASA's two modified Boeing 747 space shuttle carrier aircraft, flew its final flight Feb. 8, a short hop from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to the ...

  11. Carrier screening in preconception consultation in primary care.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2012-07-01

    Discussing carrier screening during preconception consultation in primary care has a number of advantages in terms of promoting autonomy and enabling the greatest range of reproductive choices. For those with a family history of an inherited condition, this ought to be a routine discussion; however, this can be expanded to include the wider population, especially for those conditions for which carrier frequencies are considered relatively common. There is published literature from around the world regarding experiences with carrier screening in primary care for cystic fibrosis, haemoglobinopathies, fragile X syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease and spinal muscular atrophy, although many of these have tended to focus on consultations during rather than before pregnancy. Overall, these studies reveal that population carrier screening is well received by the participants with apparent minimal psychosocial harms; however, challenges exist in terms of approaches to ensure couples receive adequate information to make personally relevant decisions and for ongoing health professional engagement. PMID:22183783

  12. Peacetime surgery in the aircraft carrier battle group.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R A; Dunn, W D

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective study of surgery and anesthesia performed aboard U.S. Navy aircraft carriers covering the period July 1, 1987 to June 30, 1988 was conducted. Eight of 14 carriers provided data for this report. The variety of surgical cases in this unique population is outlined to provide epidemiology for education and planning of fleet surgical resources. The optimum deployment time during which a surgeon may provide maximum service to the crew and minimize loss of proficiency is formulated.

  13. Association between macroorchidism and intelligence in FMR1 premutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Summers, Scott; Lozano, Cristina; Mu, Yi; Hessl, David; Nguyen, Danh; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2014-09-01

    Characteristics of fragile X syndrome include macroorchidism and intellectual disability, which are associated with decreased FMRP levels. FMRP is highly expressed in many tissues, but primarily in the brain and testis. The relationship between these two characteristics has not previously been studied in the premutation or carrier state. To examine this among premutation carriers and a possible association with IQ, we evaluated macroorchidism status among 213 males including 142 premutation carriers and 71 controls. The prevalence of macroorchidism among premutation carriers was 32.4% (46 out of 142), and 5.6% among controls (4 out of 71, P < 0.0001). Among premutation carriers, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of macroorchidism was significantly increased with increasing FMR1 mRNA (OR 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-3.25; P = 0.035). With respect to the association between macroorchidism and IQ, after adjustment for number of CGG repeats and age, premutation carriers with macroorchidism had lower verbal IQ (104.67 ± 15.86, P = 0.0152) and full scale IQ (102.98 ± 15.78, P = 0.0227) than premutation carriers without macroorchidism (verbal IQ 112.38 ± 14.14, full scale IQ 110.24 ± 14.21). Similar associations were observed for both verbal IQ (P = 0.034) and full scale IQ (P = 0.039) after being adjusted for age and FMR1 mRNA. These preliminary data support a correlation between macroorchidism and lower verbal and full scale IQ in a relevant proportion of premutation carrier males. Whether this is due to higher levels of FMR1 mRNA or to lower FMRP levels it remains to be established. PMID:24903624

  14. Compact models for carrier-injection silicon microring modulators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Chen, Chin-Hui; Fedeli, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Maryse; Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Beausoleil, Raymond G

    2015-06-15

    We propose compact DC and small-signal models for carrier-injection microring modulators that accurately describe the DC characteristics (resonance wavelength, quality factor, and extinction ratio) and the high frequency performance. The proposed theoretical models provide physical insights of the carrier-injection microring modulators with a variety of designs. The DC and small-signal models are implemented in Verilog-A for SPICE-compatible simulations.

  15. Two Important Polysaccharides as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Yingli; Li, Yue; Huang, Dan; Han, Jie; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan can be used to prepare the carriers, such as nanoparticles (NPs), intelligent gels, microspheres, nano/microencapsulation, and so on. Its applications in the drug delivery are more broad. Dextran can be combined with drugs by non-covalent crosslinking method or covalent modification mode in the course of delivery. The applications of chitosan and dextran as carriers for drug delivery were summed up herein. PMID:26156418

  16. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  17. Dispersion and polarization dependence of mobile carrier optical nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, K. C.

    1984-06-01

    Based on the author's earlier work, it is shown that the proper inclusion of carrier scattering should strongly modify the frequency and polarization dependence of optical nonlinearities due to mobile carriers in semiconductors. When the momentum relaxation is much faster than the energy relaxation, the intensity dependent refractive index is enhanced, the induced birefringence becomes a sharp function of the difference frequency ωa-ωb, and a collision induced stimulated Raman effect becomes important.

  18. Carrier-mediated ion transport in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Laprade, R; Grenier, F; Pagé-Dansereau, M; Dansereau, J

    1984-08-01

    The electrical properties predicted by a widely accepted model for carrier-mediated ion transport in lipid bilayers are described. The different steps leading to ion transport and their associated rate constants are reaction at the interface between an ion in the aqueous phase and a carrier in the membrane (kRi), followed by translocation of the ion-carrier complex across the membrane interior (kis) and its dissociation at the other interface (kDi) after which the free carrier crosses back the membrane interior (ks). Results on glyceryl monooleate (GMO) membranes for a family of homologue carriers, the macrotetralide actin antibiotics (nonactin, monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and a variety of ions (Na+, Cs+, Rb+, K+, NH4+, and Tl+) are presented. Internally consistent data obtained from steady-state electrical measurements (zero-current potential and conductance, current-voltage relationship) allow us to obtain the equilibrium permeability ratios for the different ions and show that for a given carrier kRi is relatively invariant from one ion to the other, except for Tl+ (larger), which implies that the ionic selectivity is controlled by the dissociation of the complex. The values of the individual rate constants obtained from current relaxation experiments are also presented and confirm the findings from steady-state measurements, as well as the isostericity concept for complexes of different ions with the same carrier (kis invariant). These also allow us to determine the aqueous phase membrane and torus membrane partition coefficients. Finally, the observed increase in kis from nonactin to tetranactin and, for all homologues, from GMO-decane to solvent-free GMO membranes, together with the concomitant decrease in kDi, can be explained in terms of modifications of electrostatic energy profiles induced by variations in carrier size and membrane thickness.

  19. [Progress in the research of carbon nanotubes as drug carriers].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-gang; Huang, Ke-long; Yang, Qiao-qin; Liu, Su-qin; Tang, Jin-chun

    2008-10-01

    Research and development of new drug carriers are crucial to the research of drugs. Due to their unique hollow structure and nano-diameter, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as drug carriers. Functionalization of CNTs with peptides, proteins, nucleic acids or even drug molecules, the so obtained functionalized CNTs can be used as carriers to deliver bioactive molecules into cells without causing any toxicity. The research progress of CNTs as drug carriers in recent years is summarized, and the CNTs' cytotoxicity and their ability to penetrate cells are discussed, and the methods of functionalizing carbon nanotubes are also mentioned in the paper. Along with the advancement of CNTs in drug carriers system, the relationship between the way to functionalize CNTs and the so obtained modified CNTs' ability to penetrate into cells, including the effect of dimension, should be further studied. Preparation of functionalized CNTs with high solubility and low toxicity as drug carriers will be the main research areas in the near future. PMID:19127860

  20. Mechanisms of carrier transport induced by a microswimmer bath.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as "carrier") exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of a V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanism itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modeling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  1. Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: a 21-year experience.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, G; McCann, C L; Hedrick, J; Fairley, C; Nagel, H L; Kushner, J D; Kessel, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a community-based carrier screening program for Tay-Sachs disease, initiated on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus in 1978. The Madison Community Tay-Sachs Screening Program (MCTSSP) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary program that organizes and conducts periodic screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) for the purpose of identifying Tay-Sachs carriers. We present and analyze data on carrier detection with regard to various demographics, including family history of TSD, ancestry, gender, medication exposure, and illness. Individuals participating in the MCTSSP between 1978 and 1999 were primarily of the target population, and the carrier rate was within the expected range (1/25). Despite aggressive publicity efforts and a well-established program, attendance at the screens has declined. A recent survey of Jewish undergraduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison showed poor recall of family screen history and carrier status and reinforced the perception that utilization of the Madison screening program has been low. Ways to increase awareness of and interest in carrier screening for TSD are explored.

  2. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier. PMID:22931500

  3. Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tontini, M; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Balducci, E; Micoli, F; Balocchi, C; Santini, L; Masignani, V; Berti, F; Costantino, P

    2016-07-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides. PMID:27317455

  4. A carrier protein strategy yields the structure of dalbavancin

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Nahoum, Virginie; Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Zentner, Isaac J.; Townsend, Tracy M.; Bhuiya, Mohammad W.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Many large natural product antibiotics act by specifically binding and sequestering target molecules found on bacterial cells. We have developed a new strategy to expedite the structural analysis of such antibiotic-target complexes, in which we covalently link the target molecules to carrier proteins, and then crystallize the entire carrier/target/antibiotic complex. Using native chemical ligation, we have linked the Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala binding epitope for glycopeptide antibiotics to three different carrier proteins. We show that recognition of this peptide by multiple antibiotics is not compromised by the presence of the carrier protein partner, and use this approach to determine the first-ever crystal structure for the new therapeutic dalbavancin. We also report the first crystal structure of an asymmetric ristocetin antibiotic dimer, as well as the structure of vancomycin bound to a carrier-target fusion. The dalbavancin structure reveals an antibiotic molecule that has closed around its binding partner; it also suggests mechanisms by which the drug can enhance its half-life by binding to serum proteins, and be targeted to bacterial membranes. Notably, the carrier protein approach is not limited to peptide ligands such as Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala, but is applicable to a diverse range of targets. This strategy is likely to yield structural insights that accelerate new therapeutic development. PMID:22352468

  5. Diseases caused by defects of mitochondrial carriers: a review.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    A strikingly large number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found to be the cause of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation defects. These mitochondrial disorders were the first to be investigated after the small mtDNA had been sequenced in the 80s. Only recently numerous diseases resulting from mutations in nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins have been characterized. Among these, nine are caused by defects of mitochondrial carriers, a family of nuclear-coded proteins that shuttle a variety of metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane. Mutations of mitochondrial carrier genes involved in mitochondrial functions other than oxidative phosphorylation are responsible for carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier deficiency, HHH syndrome, aspartate/glutamate isoform 2 deficiency, Amish microcephaly, and neonatal myoclonic epilepsy; these disorders are characterized by specific metabolic dysfunctions, depending on the physiological role of the affected carrier in intermediary metabolism. Defects of mitochondrial carriers that supply mitochondria with the substrates of oxidative phosphorylation, inorganic phosphate and ADP, are responsible for diseases characterized by defective energy production. Herein, all the mitochondrial carrier-associated diseases known to date are reviewed for the first time. Particular emphasis is given to the molecular basis and pathogenetic mechanism of these inherited disorders. PMID:18406340

  6. Three-dimensional transient model for time-domain free-carrier absorption measurement of excess carriers in silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shengdong; Huang, Qiuping; Li, Bincheng

    2013-12-28

    A three-dimensional transient model for time-domain (modulated) free-carrier absorption (FCA) measurement was developed to describe the transport dynamics of photo-generated excess carriers in silicon (Si) wafers. With the developed transient model, numerical simulations were performed to investigate the dependences of the waveforms of the transient FCA signals on the electronic transport parameters of Si wafers and the geometric parameters of the FCA experiment. Experimental waveforms of FCA signals of both n- and p-type Si wafers with resistivity ranging 1–38 Ω·cm were then fitted to the three-dimensional transient model to extract simultaneously and unambiguously the transport parameters of Si wafers, namely, the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity via multi-parameter fitting. A basic agreement between the extracted parameter values and the literature values was obtained.

  7. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's two Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are seen here nose to nose at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The front mounting attachment for the Shuttle can just be seen on top of each. The SCAs are used to ferry Space Shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are; three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached, and two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back

  8. APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia and minimal amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Monsell, Sarah E.; Kukull, Walter A.; Roher, Alex E.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G.; Caselli, Richard J.; Montine, Thomas J.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a cardinal neuropathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet over a third of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) non-carriers with the clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia may not meet positron emission tomography (PET) criteria for significant cerebral amyloidosis. Objective This study sought to clarify the percentage of APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with the primary clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia near the end of life and minimal Aβ plaques at autopsy—and the extent to which these cases are associated with appreciable neurofibrillary degeneration or a primary neuropathologic diagnosis other than AD. Design Participants in this study were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set (UDS). Setting The UDS comprises longitudinal clinical assessments performed at the Alzheimer's Disease Centers funded by the National Institute on Aging. Neuropathology data is available for the subset of expired participants. Participants Exactly 100 APOE4 non-carriers and 100 carriers had the primary clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia at their last visit, known APOE4 genotype, died within the ensuing 24 months, and underwent neuropathologic evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures Standardized histopathologic assessments of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologic changes were the primary measures of interest in this study, specifically CERAD neuritic plaque density score, diffuse plaque density score, and Braak stage for neurofibrillary degeneration. Results 37% of APOE4 non-carriers and 13% of carriers with the primary clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia had nonexistent or sparse neuritic plaques. 44% of the carriers and non-carriers with minimal neuritic plaques had Braak stage III–VI ratings and 38% met neuropathological criteria for other dementia-related diseases. Conclusions and relevance

  9. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's two Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are seen here nose to nose at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The front mounting attachment for the Shuttle can just be seen on top of each. The SCAs are used to ferry Space Shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are; three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached, and two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back

  10. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  11. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1403-6 - Criteria-Self-propelled personnel carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Self-propelled personnel carriers. 75... § 75.1403-6 Criteria—Self-propelled personnel carriers. (a) Each self-propelled personnel carrier..., each track-mounted self-propelled personnel carrier should: (1) Be provided with a suitable...

  13. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities-based international common carriers... Supplements § 63.22 Facilities-based international common carriers. The following conditions apply to authorized facilities-based international carriers: (a) A carrier authorized under § 63.18(e)(1) may...

  14. 49 CFR 397.101 - Requirements for motor carriers and drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 10 CFR part 73, each carrier who accepts for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY..., considering operating necessity and safety, a carrier or any person operating a motor vehicle that contains...

  15. 49 CFR 397.101 - Requirements for motor carriers and drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 10 CFR part 73, each carrier who accepts for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY..., considering operating necessity and safety, a carrier or any person operating a motor vehicle that contains...

  16. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9200-1 - Deduction for motor carrier operating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for motor carrier operating authority... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9200-1 Deduction for motor carrier... motor carrier operating authorities on July 1, 1980, or later acquired a motor carrier...

  18. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  19. 49 CFR 390.27 - Locations of motor carrier safety service centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locations of motor carrier safety service centers... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL General Requirements and Information §...

  20. Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brongersma, Mark L.; Halas, Naomi J.; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 set the foundation for over 125 years of hot carrier science and technology. In the early 1900s it played a critical role in the development of quantum mechanics, but even today the unique properties of these energetic, hot carriers offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and applications. Measurement of the kinetic energy and momentum of photoejected hot electrons can provide valuable information on the electronic structure of materials. The heat generated by hot carriers can be harvested to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes. Their kinetic energy can be used to harvest solar energy or create sensitive photodetectors and spectrometers. Photoejected charges can also be used to electrically dope two-dimensional materials. Plasmon excitations in metallic nanostructures can be engineered to enhance and provide valuable control over the emission of hot carriers. This Review discusses recent advances in the understanding and application of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and highlights some of the exciting new directions for the field.

  1. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  2. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10{sup 18} and 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  3. Efficient optical extraction of hot-carrier energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, S.; de Jong, E. M. L. D.; Dohnalova, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2014-08-01

    Light-induced generation of free charge carriers in semiconductors constitutes the physical basis of photodetection and photovoltaics. To maximize its efficiency, the energy of the photons must be entirely used for this purpose. This is highly challenging owing to the ultrafast thermalization of ‘hot’ carriers, which are created by absorption of high-energy photons. Thermalization leads to heat generation, and hence efficiency loss. To circumvent this, dedicated schemes such as photovoltaic hot-carrier cells are being explored. Here we consider optical extraction of the excess energy of hot carriers by emission of infrared photons, using erbium ions in combination with silicon nanocrystals. We determine the external quantum yield of the infrared photon generation by the erbium ions, and demonstrate that cooling of the hot carriers induces a steep, step-like, increase in erbium-related external quantum yield by up to a factor of 15 towards higher excitation energies. Finally, we comment on the potential of our findings for future photovoltaics in the form of an optical ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral converter.

  4. Efficient optical extraction of hot-carrier energy.

    PubMed

    Saeed, S; de Jong, E M L D; Dohnalova, K; Gregorkiewicz, T

    2014-08-13

    Light-induced generation of free charge carriers in semiconductors constitutes the physical basis of photodetection and photovoltaics. To maximize its efficiency, the energy of the photons must be entirely used for this purpose. This is highly challenging owing to the ultrafast thermalization of 'hot' carriers, which are created by absorption of high-energy photons. Thermalization leads to heat generation, and hence efficiency loss. To circumvent this, dedicated schemes such as photovoltaic hot-carrier cells are being explored. Here we consider optical extraction of the excess energy of hot carriers by emission of infrared photons, using erbium ions in combination with silicon nanocrystals. We determine the external quantum yield of the infrared photon generation by the erbium ions, and demonstrate that cooling of the hot carriers induces a steep, step-like, increase in erbium-related external quantum yield by up to a factor of 15 towards higher excitation energies. Finally, we comment on the potential of our findings for future photovoltaics in the form of an optical ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral converter.

  5. Non-equilibrium hot carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Prineha; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Jermyn, Adam; Cortes, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A.; Goddard, William A., III

    Decay of surface plasmons to hot carriers is a new direction that has attracted considerable fundamental and application interest, yet a fundamental understanding of ultrafast plasmon decay processes and the underlying microscopic mechanisms remain incomplete. Ultrafast experiments provide insights into the relaxation of non-equilibrium carriers at the tens and hundreds of femtoseconds time scales, but do not yet directly probe shorter times with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we report the first ab initio calculations of non equilibrium transport of plasmonic hot carriers in metals and experimental observation of the injection of these carriers into molecules tethered to the metal surface. Specifically, metallic nanoantennas functionalized with a molecular monolayer allow for the direct probing of electron injection via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the original and reduced molecular species. We combine first principles calculations of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates with Boltzmann transport simulations to predict the ultrafast dynamics and transport of carriers in real materials. We also predict and compare the evolution of electron distributions in ultrafast experiments on noble metal nanoparticles.

  6. Investigations of radiation-induced and carrier-enhanced conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.; Parker, L. W.; Yadlowski, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A steady-state carrier computer code, PECK (Parker Enhanced Carrier Kinetics), that predicts the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced in a dielectric by an electron beam was developed. The model, which assumes instantly-trapped holes, was then applied to experimental measurements on thin Kapton samples penetrated by an electron beam. Measurements at high bias were matched in the model by an appropriate choice for the trap-modulated electron mobility. A fractional split between front and rear currents measured at zone bias is explained on the basis of beam-scattering. The effects of carrier-enhanced conductivity (CEC) on data obtained for thick, free-surface Kapton samples is described by using an analytical model that incorporates field injection of carriers from the RIC region. The computer code, LWPCHARGE, modified for carrier transport, is also used to predict partial penetration effects associated with CEC in the unirradiated region. Experimental currents and surface voltages, when incorporated in the appropriate models, provide a value for the trap modulated mobility that is in essential agreement with the RIC results.

  7. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    PubMed

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  8. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  9. Unpressurized Logistics Carriers for the International Space Station: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, William W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station has been in development since 1984, and has recently begun on orbit assembly. Most of the hardware for the Space Station has been manufactured and the rest is well along in design. The major sets of hardware that are still to be developed for Space Station are the pallets and interfacing hardware for resupply of unpressurized spares and scientific payloads. Over the last ten years, there have been numerous starts, stops, difficulties and challenges encountered in this effort. The Space Station program is now entering the beginning of orbital operations. The Program is only now addressing plans to design and build the carriers that will be needed to carry the unpressurized cargo for the Space Station lifetime. Unpressurized carrier development has been stalled due to a broad range of problems that occurred over the years. These problems were not in any single area, but encompassed budgetary, programmatic, and technical difficulties. Some lessons of hindsight can be applied to developing carriers for the Space Station. Space Station teams are now attempting to incorporate the knowledge gained into the current development efforts for external carriers. In some cases, the impacts of these lessons are unrecoverable for Space Station, but can and should be applied to future programs. This paper examines the progress and problems to date with unpressurized carrier development identifies the lessons to be learned, and charts the course for finally accomplishing the delivery of these critical hardware sets.

  10. Fundamental Limitations to Plasmonic Hot-Carrier Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Schatz, George C

    2016-05-19

    Detailed balance between photon-absorption and energy loss constrains the efficiency of conventional solar cells to the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, if solar illumination can be absorbed over a wide spectrum by plasmonic structures, and the generated hot-carriers can be collected before relaxation, the efficiency of solar cells may be greatly improved. In this work, we explore the opportunities and limitations for making plasmonic solar cells, here considering a design for hot-carrier solar cells in which a conventional semiconductor heterojunction is attached to a plasmonic medium such as arrays of gold nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms and fundamental limitations of this cell are studied using a nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the numerical results indicate that this cell can significantly improve the absorption of solar radiation without reducing open-circuit voltage, as photons can be absorbed to produce mobile carriers in the semiconductor as long as they have energy larger than the Schottky barrier rather than above the bandgap. However, a significant fraction of the hot-carriers have energies below the Schottky barrier, which makes the cell suffer low internal quantum efficiency. Moreover, quantum efficiency is also limited by hot-carrier relaxation and metal-semiconductor coupling. The connection of these results to recent experiments is described, showing why plasmonic solar cells can have less than 1% efficiency. PMID:27136049

  11. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  12. Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, Mark L; Halas, Naomi J; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 set the foundation for over 125 years of hot carrier science and technology. In the early 1900s it played a critical role in the development of quantum mechanics, but even today the unique properties of these energetic, hot carriers offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and applications. Measurement of the kinetic energy and momentum of photoejected hot electrons can provide valuable information on the electronic structure of materials. The heat generated by hot carriers can be harvested to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes. Their kinetic energy can be used to harvest solar energy or create sensitive photodetectors and spectrometers. Photoejected charges can also be used to electrically dope two-dimensional materials. Plasmon excitations in metallic nanostructures can be engineered to enhance and provide valuable control over the emission of hot carriers. This Review discusses recent advances in the understanding and application of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and highlights some of the exciting new directions for the field. PMID:25559968

  13. Benefits and limitations of composites in carrier-based aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcerlean, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    There are many unique aspects of Navy air missions that lead to the differentiation between the design and performance of ship and shore-based aircraft. The major aspects are discussed from which essentially all Navy aircraft design requirements derive. (1) Navy aircraft operate from carriers at sea imposes a broad spectrum of physical conditions, constraints, and requirements ranging from the harsh sea environment, the space limitations of a carrier, takeoff and landing requirements as well as for endurance at long distances from the carrier. (2) Because the carrier and its airwing are intended to be capable of responding to a broad range of contingencies, mission flexibility is essential (maximum weapon carriage, rapid reconfiguration, multiple mission capability). (3) The embarked aircraft provides the long range defense of the battle group against air, surface and subsurface launched antiship missiles. (4) The carrier and its aircraft must operate independently and outside of normal supply lines. Taking into account these aspects, the use of composite materials in the design and performance of naval aircraft is outlined, also listing advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Dangers of immunosuppressive therapy in hepatitis B virus carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Lueg, E; Heathcote, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk of hepatic failure in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers given intermittent immunosuppressive therapy. DATA SOURCES: The key words "immunosuppression" and "hepatitis B" were used to search MEDLINE for relevant articles in English published from 1970 to 1990; the bibliographies of these articles were reviewed for additional publications. Also included were articles published in 1991. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included if they documented the use of immunosuppressive drugs to treat chronic hepatitis B or another condition in patients at high risk for the HBV carrier state. RESULTS: Long-term immunosuppressive therapy has not improved the survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The withdrawal of such therapy from HBV carriers has resulted in a flare-up of potentially fatal hepatitis in 20% to 50%, regardless of whether underlying liver disease was present. The presence of replicating viral DNA in the serum of HBV carriers may identify those who are at high risk of the deleterious effects of immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term immunosuppressive therapy is not advised for liver disease in HBV carriers. For other conditions in such people continuous rather than intermittent therapy is safer. Patients at high risk for hepatitis B should be screened for this virus when immunosuppressive therapy is contemplated. PMID:1393929

  15. Reduced fecundity in male ALS gene-carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.G.; Lustenberger, A.; Lucek, P.R.

    1995-11-06

    In order to study genetic aspects in multicase families, 89 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 214 Parkinson disease (PD) kindreds were analyzed in parallel studies. Obligate gene-carriers were identified as described previously. There were fewer children per gene-carrier male (2.42) than per gene-carrier female (3.25, Student`s t-test, P<.0003) for ALS but not for other diseases. The data taken together suggest that fecundity in ALS gene-carriers was reduced in males, possibly as a result of reduced fertility. Since childbearing is usually accomplished well before the onset of neurological symptoms in ALS, and since reduced fecundity was found in male ALS gene-carriers, these findings raise the possibility that an ALS gene might have a pleiotrophic effect on fertility in males occurring decades before the onset of neurological symptoms. Evidence is presented linking reactive oxygen species to reduced fertility in males. Alternatively, decreased or nonfunctional androgen receptors could play a role. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, Mark L; Halas, Naomi J; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 set the foundation for over 125 years of hot carrier science and technology. In the early 1900s it played a critical role in the development of quantum mechanics, but even today the unique properties of these energetic, hot carriers offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and applications. Measurement of the kinetic energy and momentum of photoejected hot electrons can provide valuable information on the electronic structure of materials. The heat generated by hot carriers can be harvested to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes. Their kinetic energy can be used to harvest solar energy or create sensitive photodetectors and spectrometers. Photoejected charges can also be used to electrically dope two-dimensional materials. Plasmon excitations in metallic nanostructures can be engineered to enhance and provide valuable control over the emission of hot carriers. This Review discusses recent advances in the understanding and application of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and highlights some of the exciting new directions for the field.

  17. Fundamental Limitations to Plasmonic Hot-Carrier Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Schatz, George C

    2016-05-19

    Detailed balance between photon-absorption and energy loss constrains the efficiency of conventional solar cells to the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, if solar illumination can be absorbed over a wide spectrum by plasmonic structures, and the generated hot-carriers can be collected before relaxation, the efficiency of solar cells may be greatly improved. In this work, we explore the opportunities and limitations for making plasmonic solar cells, here considering a design for hot-carrier solar cells in which a conventional semiconductor heterojunction is attached to a plasmonic medium such as arrays of gold nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms and fundamental limitations of this cell are studied using a nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the numerical results indicate that this cell can significantly improve the absorption of solar radiation without reducing open-circuit voltage, as photons can be absorbed to produce mobile carriers in the semiconductor as long as they have energy larger than the Schottky barrier rather than above the bandgap. However, a significant fraction of the hot-carriers have energies below the Schottky barrier, which makes the cell suffer low internal quantum efficiency. Moreover, quantum efficiency is also limited by hot-carrier relaxation and metal-semiconductor coupling. The connection of these results to recent experiments is described, showing why plasmonic solar cells can have less than 1% efficiency.

  18. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOEpatents

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  19. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  20. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di

    2016-07-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  1. Profiling the local carrier concentration across a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Walrath, J. C.; Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Huang, S.; Goldman, R. S.

    2015-05-11

    We profile the local carrier concentration, n, across epitaxial InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) consisting of 3D islands on top of a 2D alloy layer. We use scanning thermoelectric microscopy to measure a profile of the temperature gradient-induced voltage, which is converted to a profile of the local Seebeck coefficient, S. The S profile is then converted to a conduction band-edge profile and compared with Poisson-Schrodinger band-edge simulations. Our combined computational-experimental approach suggests a reduced carrier concentration in the QD center in comparison to that of the 2D alloy layer. The relative roles of free carrier trapping and/or dopant expulsion are discussed.

  2. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.

  3. Augmenting drug–carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug–carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug–carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery. PMID:27071376

  4. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in nanostructures for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jason B; Richter, Christiaan; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Sunlight can be used to drive chemical reactions to produce fuels that store energy in chemical bonds. These fuels, such as hydrogen from splitting water, have much larger energy density than do electrical storage devices. The efficient conversion of clean, sustainable solar energy using photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic systems requires precise control over the thermodynamics, kinetics, and structural aspects of materials and molecules. Generation, thermalization, trapping, interfacial transfer, and recombination of photoexcited charge carriers often occur on femtosecond to picosecond timescales. These short timescales limit the transport of photoexcited carriers to nanometer-scale distances, but nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios can enable both significant light absorption and high quantum efficiency. This review highlights the importance of understanding ultrafast carrier dynamics for the generation of solar fuels, including case studies on colloidal nanostructures, nanostructured photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes sensitized with molecular chromophores and catalysts. PMID:24423371

  5. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  6. Implications of carrier identification in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, E; Clarke, A; Bradley, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the psychosocial implications for families whose infant was identified as a cystic fibrosis carrier by newborn screening. Design: Prospective psychosocial assessment. Setting: Primary care. Respondents: Study: (a) families of an affected infant identified by screening (n = 9); (b) families of a carrier infant identified by screening (n = 10). Control: group of mothers from the general population (n = 82). Interventions: Questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Main outcome measures: Attitude to screening, assessments of the mother/baby relationship, anxiety, wellbeing. Results: All families were in favour of screening, with no evidence that the mother/baby relationship, anxiety or wellbeing had been adversely affected. Parents, however, did identify problems in terms of the service delivery protocol and genetic counselling practice. Conclusion: Six months after disclosure, carrier identification was not perceived by parents to be problematic. PMID:14602692

  7. The Rotational Excitation Temperature of the 6614 DIB Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cami, J.; Salama, F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of high spectral resolution observations of the lambda6614 DIB line profile show systematic variations in the positions of the peaks in the substructure of the profile. These variations can only be understood in the framework of rotational contours of large molecules, where the variations are caused by changes in the rotational excitation temperature. We show that the rotational excitation temperature for the DIB carrier is of the order 10-40 K - much lower than the gas kinetic temperature - indicating that for this particular DIB carrier angular momentum buildup is not very efficient. The rotational constant indicates that the carrier of this DIB is smaller than previously assumed:7-22 C atoms, depending on the geometry.

  8. Topical delivery of enoxaparin using nanostructured lipid carrier.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aakanchha; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Nahar, Manoj; Jain, N K

    2013-01-01

    Topical application of enoxaparin (ENX; low molecular weight heparin) prevents the occurrence of thrombosis at traumatic anastomosis site. Particulate carrier system like nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) could notably improve skin penetration of ENX. ENX-loaded NLCs were prepared by the solvent diffusion technique. The effect of formulation and process variables on the physicochemical properties of prepared NLCs was studied and characterized. In vitro skin permeation studies revealed better passage of enoxaparin by NLCs than of plain drug. The in vivo skin retention was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The prepared NLCs when stored for 120 days were found to be more stable at 4 ± 2 °C than room temperature. The overall results of the study demonstrated the importance of carrier composition on the physicochemical properties, morphology, skin irritation and consequently the effectiveness of particulate system as a vehicle for topical delivery of enoxaparin. PMID:23534492

  9. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di

    2016-09-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Zenghu; Li, Chengquan; Moon, Eric

    2011-12-06

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  11. [Liposomes as non-viral carriers for genetic drugs].

    PubMed

    Meissner, Justyna M; Toporkiewicz, Monika; Matusewicz, Lucyna; Machnicka, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Methods in cancer therapy particularly in recent years, are rapidly changing, due to the need of design of new, more effective therapeutic strategies. Very promising approach to treatment of the neoplastic diseases is antisense gene therapy. Due to the low toxicity of treatment and eliminating not only the symptoms but also the molecular causes of the disease it may represent a breakthrough in cancer therapies. Delivery of a therapeutic DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to the target cells in vivo requires suitable carrier system. Non-viral drug carriers are increasingly used in new systems of targeted gene therapy. This review presents new generation of non-viral carriers, and is focused on immunoliposomes finding potential application in targeted gene therapy.

  12. Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Nathaniel M; Song, Justin C W; Ma, Qiong; Nair, Nityan L; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Levitov, Leonid S; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2011-11-01

    We report on the intrinsic optoelectronic response of high-quality dual-gated monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junction devices. Local laser excitation (of wavelength 850 nanometers) at the p-n interface leads to striking six-fold photovoltage patterns as a function of bottom- and top-gate voltages. These patterns, together with the measured spatial and density dependence of the photoresponse, provide strong evidence that nonlocal hot carrier transport, rather than the photovoltaic effect, dominates the intrinsic photoresponse in graphene. This regime, which features a long-lived and spatially distributed hot carrier population, may offer a path to hot carrier-assisted thermoelectric technologies for efficient solar energy harvesting.

  13. On the road toward a hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. C.; Fields, J. D.; Collins, R. T.

    2015-09-01

    We suggest a new paradigm for solar cells that uses a nanostructured crystalline collector (silicon) in an amorphous absorber matrix (hydrogenated amorphous silicon). Previously amorphous absorbers have received no serious consideration because of their low carrier mobilities. Specifically, we demonstrate that carriers generated in the amorphous region are transported out of this region before losing their energy to heat. This result establishes the possibility of using a wide range of nanostructured amorphous matrices to dramatically increase the efficiencies of solar cells. The use of an amorphous absorber provides a highly desirable and flexible approach to producing low-cost, hot carrier solar cells. Since amorphous materials can be grown over a much wider composition space than crystalline materials, this surprising result greatly broadens the absorbing materials that can be used to dramatically increase the efficiencies of solar cells.

  14. Early cognitive deficits in Swedish gene carriers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita; Lundin, Anders; Dear, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to examine whether there is early neuropsychological impairment in presymptomatic Huntington's disease (HD). A broad neuropsychological assessment battery was administered to 24 asymptomatic gene carriers (HD+) and 31 noncarriers (HD-). The gene carriers revealed inferior cognitive functioning as compared with the noncarriers in memory and executive functions. When the gene carriers were assigned to 2 groups based on predicted years to onset (with 15 and over being HD+ late and under 15 being HD+ near), the HD+ near group performed significantly worse than the HD+ late group in all domains but ability to shift conceptually and visuospatial memory. Results suggest that early cognitive deficits are detectable prior to motor symptoms, first in memory functions and then in executive functions and perceptual motor speed. PMID:17201528

  15. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  16. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-04-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level.

  17. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  18. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J M

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery. PMID:27071376

  19. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    PubMed Central

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level. PMID:27040365

  20. Augmenting drug–carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, Francois; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphael; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjorkoy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; et al

    2016-04-13

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug–carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug–carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug’s hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, wemore » applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug’s compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Lastly, our results help elucidate nanomedicines’ in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.« less

  1. Density variations of plastic carriers in metallic glasses during aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    Thermally induced deformation in metallic glasses was investigated by sampling the potential energy landscape (PEL) and probing the changes in the atomic properties (e.g. energy, displacement, stress). We demonstrate that there exists a universal plastic carrier in amorphous materials, which corresponds to the hopping between local minima on PEL. However very interestingly, the density of plastic carrier is largely affected by the aging history of the glasses. The higher fictive temperature (i . e . fast cooling rate), the larger density of plastic carrier is contained in the system. In particular, we observe a scaling of ρ~exp(- α/Tfic) , which is consistent with the prediction of shear transformation zone theory. The work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Vaccination Strategies against Malaria: novel carrier(s) more than a tour de force.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rajeev K; Garg, Neeraj K; Sahu, Tejram

    2012-08-20

    The introduction of vaccine technology has facilitated an unprecedented multi-antigen approach to develop an effective vaccine against complex systemic inflammatory pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. that cause severe malaria. The capacity of multi subunit DNA vaccine encoding different stage Plasmodium antigens to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interferon-γ responses in mice, monkeys and humans has been observed. Moreover, genetic vaccination may be capable of eliciting both cell mediated and humoral immune responses. The cytotoxic T cell responses are categorically needed against intracellular hepatic stage and humoral response with antibodies targeted against antigens from all stages of malaria parasite life cycle. Therefore, the key to success for any DNA based vaccine is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient delivery system. This has encouraged the development of non-viral DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques such as liposome, virosomes, microsphere and nanoparticles. Efficient and relatively safe DNA transfection using lipoplexes makes them an appealing alternative to be explored for gene delivery. Also, liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been deployed and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer. In this review we discussed various aspects that could be decisive in the formulation of efficient and stable carrier system(s) for the development of malaria vaccine.

  3. Carrier rate of Canavan disease among Ashkenazi Jewish individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, R.; Kaul, R.; Michals, K.

    1994-09-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a severe leukodystrophy prevalent among people of Ashkenazi Jewish extraction. The incidence of CD is unknown although it has been stated to be rare. The human aspartoacylase gene has been cloned and mutation determined in 50 Jewish patients with CD. Four mutations were identified in 99 of 100 alleles. A missense mutation, E285A, accounted for 83% of the alleles; a second mutation, Y231X, was found in 13% of the alleles; two other mutations accounted for 3 alleles. In non-Jewish individuals with CD, 52 alleles were examined and 11 mutations were observed. In order to determine the rate of carriers in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 2,700 blood specimens from unrelated healthy individuals were studied using a panel of 4 mutations found in Jewish individuals. Genomic DNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed for single strand conformation polymorphism. The mutations identified were confirmed by restriction digestion. Sixty carriers were identified, suggesting a carrier rate of 1:45. Of the 60 carriers, 52 had E285A mutation and 8 had Y231X. The proportion of E285A and Y231X mutations in the Jewish population was 86.7% and 13.3%, respectively, in agreement with the relative distribution seen in patients with CD. These studies are being expanded to a larger sample so that other mutations are identified. Our data suggest higher than expected carrier rate for CD in Ashkenazi Jews. It seems that carrier testing for preventive counseling should be applied in the risk population.

  4. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. ); Boogen, C. )

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  5. The transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.

    PubMed

    Kunji, Edmund R S; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; King, Martin S; Majd, Homa; Ashton, Valerie L; Cerson, Elizabeth; Springett, Roger; Kibalchenko, Mikhail; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Crichton, Paul G; Ruprecht, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix, which are key transport steps for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic organisms. The transport protein belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family, a large transporter family in the inner membrane of mitochondria. It is one of the best studied members of the family and serves as a paradigm for the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial carriers. Structurally, the carrier consists of three homologous domains, each composed of two transmembrane α-helices linked with a loop and short α-helix on the matrix side. The transporter cycles between a cytoplasmic and matrix state in which a central substrate binding site is alternately accessible to these compartments for binding of ADP or ATP. On both the cytoplasmic and matrix side of the carrier are networks consisting of three salt bridges each. In the cytoplasmic state, the matrix salt bridge network is formed and the cytoplasmic network is disrupted, opening the central substrate binding site to the intermembrane space and cytosol, whereas the converse occurs in the matrix state. In the transport cycle, tighter substrate binding in the intermediate states allows the interconversion of conformations by lowering the energy barrier for disruption and formation of these networks, opening and closing the carrier to either side of the membrane in an alternating way. Conversion between cytoplasmic and matrix states might require the simultaneous rotation of three domains around a central translocation pathway, constituting a unique mechanism among transport proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  6. "I'm Healthy, It's Not Going To Be Me": Exploring experiences of carriers identified through a population reproductive genetic carrier screening panel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Beard, Catherine A; Amor, David J; Di Pietro, Louisa; Archibald, Alison D

    2016-08-01

    Advancing genetic testing technologies mean that population-based carrier screening for multiple inherited conditions is now available. As the number of genetic conditions being screened increases, there is a need for research into how people experience these screening programs. This research aimed to explore how women experience simultaneous carrier screening for three inherited conditions: cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). A qualitative approach was adopted using in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten female participants: five SMA carriers, three CF carriers, and two FXS premutation carriers. Eight participants were pregnant when offered screening by their general practitioner or obstetrician and the decision to have screening was described as straightforward. Participants reported experiencing emotional responses such as anxiety and stress while waiting for either their partner's carrier screen result (CF or SMA carriers) or the pregnancy's CVS result (FXS carrier) and sought additional information about the relevant condition during this time. Most participants were in favor of population carrier screening for these conditions, preferably prior to conception. Genetic counselors played an essential role in supporting couples after they received a carrier result given the variable consent processes undertaken when screening was offered. Further research should focus on the development of reliable online information tailored to people receiving carrier results and strategies for raising awareness of the availability of population carrier screening within the community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Widely Tunable Infrared Antennas Using Free Carrier Refraction.

    PubMed

    Lewi, Tomer; Iyer, Prasad P; Butakov, Nikita A; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A; Schuller, Jon A

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate tuning of infrared Mie resonances by varying the carrier concentration in doped semiconductor antennas. We fabricate spherical silicon and germanium particles of varying sizes and doping concentrations. Single-particle infrared spectra reveal electric and magnetic dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole resonances. We subsequently demonstrate doping-dependent frequency shifts that follow simple Drude models, culminating in the emergence of plasmonic resonances at high doping levels and long wavelengths. These findings demonstrate the potential for actively tuning infrared Mie resonances by optically or electrically modulating charge carrier densities, thus providing an excellent platform for tunable metamaterials.

  8. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  9. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Daniel W.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  10. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles for hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Piras, Anna Maria; Dessy, Alberto; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo; Farina, Claudio; Ramelli, Massimiliano; Della Valle, Elena

    2008-10-01

    This article reports on the current status of the research on blood substitutes with particular attention on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). Insights on the physiological role of hemoglobin are reported in the view of the development of both acellular and cellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Attention is then focused on biocompatible polymeric materials that find application as matrices for cellular based HBOCs and on the strategies employed to avoid methemoglobin formation. Results are reported regarding the use of bioerodible polymeric matrices based on hemiesters of alternating copolymer (maleic anhydride-co-butyl vinyl ether) for the preparation of hemoglobin loaded nanoparticles.

  12. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

    2010-06-02

    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  13. [Study of Dermanyssus gallinae as a carrier of Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Petrov, D

    1975-01-01

    Microbiologic studies and biologic experiments revealed that Pasteurella multocida persists in the body of Dermanyssus gallinae mites after these engorge with blood from infected birds. Depending on the temperature of the environment the carrier status was shown to last from 42 to 64 days. It is reported that the red mite acts as a vector and does not transmit Pasteurellae directly. However, the parasite is potentially hazardous in maintaining and passing on the infection through other indirect routes. Carrier status has been established in naturally infected Dermanyssus gallinae mites.

  14. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, K.L.; Topolewski, J.

    1987-10-02

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probe includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe. 1 fig.

  15. Quantitative carrier lifetime images optically measured on rough silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Martin C.; Pingel, Sebastian; The, Manuel; Warta, Wilhelm

    2007-06-01

    Results of optical carrier lifetime measurements like carrier density imaging significantly depend on surface conditions of the sample under test. Rough or textured surfaces have a severe impact on the measurement quality since they cause blurring and overestimation of the lifetime measurement. We propose a correction method for both, the adjustment of the absolute value and the restoration of the spatial distribution of the recombination lifetime. The absolute value is corrected by taking the emissivity of the sample into account. The unblurred signal distribution is obtained by mathematical deconvolution via Wiener filtering. For this purpose an appropriate point spread function is experimentally determined.

  16. Incident response: crew scheduling and rerouting of hazmat carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherali, Hanif D.; Subramanian, Shivaram; Kachroo, Pushkin

    1998-01-01

    Incident response strategies deal with the resource allocation and minimum risk re-routing of hazardous material carriers in response to traffic incidents. Such strategies also address the effect of loss in coverage due to the non- availability of response vehicles. In addition, the effect of an incident on hazmat carriers that are presented in the local vicinity is that the resulting traffic congestion considerably increases the risk of exposure for motorists. In such a situation, the hazmat carrier needs to be re- routed through a safer path. We have proposed mathematical models that address each of the two problems. The incident response model identifies an optimal allocation of response agency units and their routing in the even of traffic incidents in real-time, while also taking into consideration the response requirements for future demands. The hazmat re- routing model determines an optimal diversion route in a network using multiple risk-based objective functions to re- route Hazmat carriers in the event of an incident occurring along the prescribed route. Mathematical programming formulations are presented for each case, and solution procedures are outlined. Some computational experience is also provided.

  17. High carrier frequency of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Phedonos, A A P; Shammas, C; Skordis, N; Kyriakides, T C; Neocleous, V; Phylactou, L A

    2013-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. The carrier frequency of CYP21A2 mutations has been estimated to be 1:25 to 1:10 on the basis of newborn screening. The main objective of this study was to determine the carrier frequency in the Cypriot population of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Three hundred unrelated subjects (150 males and 150 females) from the general population of Cyprus were screened for mutations in the CYP21A2 gene and its promoter. The CYP21A2 genotype analysis identified six different mutants and revealed a carrier frequency of 9.83% with the mild p.Val281Leu being the most frequent (4.3%), followed by p.Qln318stop (2.5%), p.Pro453Ser (1.33%), p.Val304Met (0.83%), p.Pro482Ser (0.67%) and p.Met283Val (0.17%). The notable high CYP21A2 carrier frequency of the Cypriot population is one of the highest reported so far by genotype analysis. Knowledge of the mutational spectrum of CYP21A2 will enable to optimize mutation detection strategy for genetic diagnosis of 21-OHD not only in Cyprus, but also the greater Mediterranean region.

  18. Excited carrier dynamics and transport in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Jermyn, Adam; Atwater, Harry; Goddard, William, III

    Surface plasmon resonances provide a pathway to efficiently capture electromagnetic radiation in sub-wavelength structures for energy conversion and photodetection at the nano scale. The complete mechanism involves several microscopic steps spanning length scales from atomic dimensions to tens or hundreds of nanometers, posing challenges for experimental characterization and for first-principles predictions. To provide the basis for predicting and optimizing the complex interplay of materials and geometric effects in plasmon decay-induced excited carrier phenomena, we combined ab initio electronic structure calculations, electromagnetic simulations and Boltzmann transport models. In Au, Ag, Cu and Al nanostructures, we find that initial carrier distributions as well as their subsequent transport, relaxation and thermalization are sensitive to electronic structure, exhibiting strong asymmetries between electrons and holes. We predict energy-dependent spatially-resolved carrier distributions collected in plasmonic nanostructures with strong field inhomogeneities, and explore the possibility of tailoring materials and geometry to collect the carrier distributions needed for such applications as photochemically driven CO2 reduction and water splitting. This material is based upon work performed by JCAP, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993.

  19. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO IDENTIFY Neisseria meningitidis IN ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    RIZEK, Camila F.; LUIZ, André Machado; de ASSIS, Gracilene Ramos; COSTA, Silvia Figueiredo; LEVIN, Anna Sara; LOPES, Marta Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is a cause of several life-threatening diseases and can be a normal commensal in the upper respiratory tract of healthy carriers. The carrier rate is not well established especially because there is no standard method for the isolation of N. meningitidis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare identification methods for the carrier state. Two swabs were collected from 190 volunteers: one was cultured and the other had DNA extracted directly from the sample. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to determine species and serogroups and compared the results between the methods. PCR for species determination used two pairs of primers and when there was only one amplicon, it was sequenced. The culture technique was positive in 23 (12.1%) subjects while the direct extraction method was positive in 132 (69.5%), p < 0.001. Among the 135 subjects with positive N. meningitides tests, 88 (65.2%) were serogroup C; 3 (2.2%) serogroup B; 5 (3.7%) were positive for both serogroup B and C, and 39 (28.9%) did not belong to any of the tested serogroups. In this study, PCR from DNA extracted directly from swabs identified more N. meningitidis asymptomatic carriers than the culture technique. PMID:27680165

  20. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... carrying hazardous materials required to be placarded or marked in accordance with 49 CFR 177.823 and not... containing explosives in Class 1, Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50 and 173.53... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing....

  1. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... carrying hazardous materials required to be placarded or marked in accordance with 49 CFR 177.823 and not... containing explosives in Class 1, Divisions 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50 and 173.53... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing....

  2. 39 CFR 310.4 - Responsibility of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... make sure that their carriage of matter is lawful within the definition, exceptions, suspension, and... inform their customers of the contents of these regulations so that only proper matter is tendered to them for carriage. Carriers should desist from carrying any matter when the form of shipment,...

  3. 39 CFR 310.4 - Responsibility of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... make sure that their carriage of matter is lawful within the definition, exceptions, suspension, and... inform their customers of the contents of these regulations so that only proper matter is tendered to them for carriage. Carriers should desist from carrying any matter when the form of shipment,...

  4. 42 CFR 71.32 - Persons, carriers, and things.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Health Measures at U.S. Ports: Communicable Diseases § 71.32 Persons, carriers... or has been exposed to any of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order, as...

  5. 42 CFR 71.32 - Persons, carriers, and things.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Health Measures at U.S. Ports: Communicable Diseases § 71.32 Persons, carriers... or has been exposed to any of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order, as...

  6. 42 CFR 405.833 - Record of carrier hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record of carrier hearing. 405.833 Section 405.833 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Appeals Under the Medicare Part B Program §...

  7. Views of Shuttle Carrier Aircraft refueling stop at Ellington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Views of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 905 during a refueling stopover at Ellington Air Force Base. Its crew of Dick Scobee, copilot; Joseph Algranti, pilot; and Louis E. Guidry, flight engineer are seen standing on the runway just in front of the aircraft (33392); Crew is seen at their stations inside the aircraft (33393).

  8. Carrier signal technology applied to solar collector field control

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and operational performance are described of a control system designed specifically for solar distributed collector field systems. Carrier technology is employed to eliminate costly field constructed control wiring and allows the control system quality to be controlled at system suppliers' plants. Prototype hardware has been built and tested in the field with excellent operating results.

  9. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (PICC). 69.153 Section 69.153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... § 69.153 Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC). (a) A charge expressed in dollars and cents... maximum of $4.31 per line per month. In the event the ceilings on the PICC prevent the PICC...

  10. The Carrier Dome Controversy: Rewriting the Town-Gown Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    On December 16, 1986, a new Syracuse city administration and the university announced an agreement exempting the Syracuse University Carrier Dome from real estate taxes; in return the city would receive a share of ticket proceeds from nonacademic Dome events. This settled a controversy that began when the city demanded payment of city taxes in…

  11. 29 CFR 15.25 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evidence pertinent to the matter. (e) The claimant shall assign to the United States, to the extent of any... against the United States is based. After payment of the claim by the United States, the claimant shall, upon receipt of any payment from a carrier or insurer, pay the proceeds to the United States to...

  12. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  13. 9 CFR 381.192 - Penalties inapplicable to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receipt, carriage, holding, or delivery, in the usual course of business, as a carrier, of poultry or... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Transportation; Exportation; or Sale...

  14. Improving Student Naval Aviator Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Thomas H.; Foster, T. Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of human performance technology (HPT) to improve qualification rates for learning to land onboard aircraft carriers. This project started as a request for a business case analysis and evolved into a full-fledged performance improvement project, from mission analysis through evaluation. The result was a significant…

  15. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarder and carrier; compensation. 515.42 Section 515... Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice Freight Forwarding Fees and Compensation § 515.42...

  16. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the requirement of their home governments, or as provided in a treaty or agreement with the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION...

  17. Novel polyelectrolyte multilayer micro- and nanocapsules as magnetic carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Andreas; Buske, Norbert; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Antipov, Alexei A.; Leporatti, Stefano; Lichtenfeld, H.; Bäumler, Hans; Donath, Edwin; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2001-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are introduced as versatile magnetic carrier systems. Superparamagnetic magnetite is mounted to the multilayer shell itself or is a component of the capsule interior. The PEM is formed at different (decomposable) colloidal templates, e.g. melamine formaldehyde resin, glutaraldehyde fixed red blood cells, emulsion oil droplets. The results are illustrated by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  18. OPA1 and mitochondrial solute carriers in bioenergetic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is required to maintain cristae structure and for ATP synthase assembly. Our recent work demonstrates that OPA1 dynamically regulates these processes by sensing changes in nutrient availability through mitochondrial solute carriers and adjusting the metabolic output of mitochondria accordingly. This is a critical survival process as its inhibition leads to cell death. PMID:27308447

  19. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Ansari, Azizullah N.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Redvanly, Carol S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1976-01-01

    The method of labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 comprising the steps of condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the .sup.123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce .sup.123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG.

  20. 19 CFR 192.4 - Liability of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of carriers. 192.4 Section 192.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Exportation of Used Self-Propelled Vehicles, Vessels, and Aircraft §...