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Sample records for carroll sue cooke

  1. Dynamics of Carroll particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    We investigate particles whose dynamics are invariant under the Carroll group. Although a single, free such Carroll particle has no non-trivial dynamics (the Carroll particle does not move), we show that non-trivial dynamics exists for a set of interacting Carroll particles. Furthermore, we gauge the Carroll algebra and couple the Carroll particle to these gauge fields. It turns out that for such a coupled system, even a single Carroll particle can have non-trivial dynamics.

  2. Dynamics of Carroll strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Biel; Gomis, Joaquim; Pons, Josep M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.

  3. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  4. Sue U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    Bringing in millions through patents invariably requires university leadership to confront what a patent is: an authorization to sue for infringement. Patents confer the right to exclude others from using a given invention, without the patent holder's permission, for a twenty-year term. Permission, of course, costs money--something universities…

  5. Sue U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    Bringing in millions through patents invariably requires university leadership to confront what a patent is: an authorization to sue for infringement. Patents confer the right to exclude others from using a given invention, without the patent holder's permission, for a twenty-year term. Permission, of course, costs money--something universities…

  6. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  7. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  8. Carroll Cave: a Missouri legend

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carroll Cave is one of the premiere caves of Missouri and the Ozarks region. At over 20 miles of surveyed passage, it is the 2nd longest cave in the state and 33rd longest in the nation. It is also the largest known cave formed in the Ordovician aged (443-485 million years ago) Gasconade Dolomite o...

  9. Interview with Frank Ivy Carroll.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Frank Ivy; Coaker, Hannah

    2013-06-01

    Frank Ivy Carroll received his BS degree in chemistry from Auburn University (AL, USA) in 1957 and was awarded the PhD in chemistry by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (NC, USA) in 1961. He joined the research staff of the Research Triangle Institute (NC, USA) as a Research Chemist and rose steadily to the position of Vice President of the Chemistry and Life Sciences Group, a position he held from 1996-2001. Dr Carroll also served as Director of the Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry from 1975-2007. He is presently Distinguished Fellow for Medicinal Chemistry. Dr Carroll has varied research interests, but since 1990, a major thrust of his research efforts has involved development of pharmacotherapies for substance abuse (cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, opioids and ethanol) and other CNS disorders. Dr Carroll has published 468 peer-reviewed articles, 33 book chapters and 46 patents and has received numerous awards for his research accomplishments; the most recent are: the 2010 North Carolina Award for Science; the 2010 National Institute on Drug Abuse Public Service Award for Significant Achievement; and the 2012 Alfred Burger Award in Medicinal Chemistry from the American Chemical Society. In 2007, he was inducted into the American Chemical Society Medicinal Chemistry Hall of Fame. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  10. Survey and hydrogeology of Carroll Cave

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carroll Cave, located in Camden County, Missouri, is the largest known cave formed in the Gasconade Dolomite of the Salem Plateau. Despite extensive visitation over the last 50 years and multiple survey efforts, a comprehensive map of the cave has never been produced. In 2002, the Carroll Cave Conse...

  11. The Space-Age Legacy of Telescope Designer George A. Carroll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Remembered particularly as a founding member of Stony Ridge Observatory near Mount Wilson, George A. Carroll (1902-1987) was legendary in the Southern California telescope making community. In Texas at the age of sixteen, Carroll built and flew his own aircraft, becoming one of the youngest aviators in the country. He eventually became an employee of Lockheed's "Skunk Works" in Burbank. His earliest known commercial telescopes were high-end amateur instruments built by R. R. Cook. As described in a brochure describing his later telescope work, he had "experience in so many branches of technology that it is unbelievable." By the time Carroll's designs were built by Thomas Tool & Die in Sun Valley, his telescopes were well known in the solar community and in use at National Solar Observatory, Caltech, and at many other domestic and international research institutions. Among the most remarkable were large solar spars for Lockheed Solar Observatory in California and Ottawa River Solar Observatory in Canada. His instrumentation also equipped educational facilities including observatories at UCLA, Westmont College, Pasadena City College, Bevard Community College, and many others. A Carroll telescope boasting a particularly distinguished educational history was a small astrograph built in 1953 for Professor George Moyen of Hollywood and subsequently used for the long-running Summer Science Program in Ojai, California. Later solar instruments built by Carson Instruments were closely derivative of Carroll designs.

  12. Strategic Planning at Carroll Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Guided by clear planning principles, and under the custodial care of a governance council, the model strategic planning process at Carroll Community College is evidence-driven, connected to budget decisions, and continuously refreshed.

  13. Carroll symmetry of plane gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2017-09-01

    The well-known 5-parameter isometry group of plane gravitational waves in 4 dimensions is identified as Lévy-Leblond’s Carroll group in 2+1 dimensions with no rotations. Our clue is that plane waves are Bargmann spaces into which Carroll manifolds can be embedded. We also comment on the scattering of light by a gravitational wave and calculate its electric permittivity considered as an impedance-matched metamaterial.

  14. The symmetries of the Carroll superparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Parra, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by recent applications of Carroll symmetries we investigate, using the method of nonlinear realizations, the geometry of flat and curved (AdS) Carroll space and the symmetries of a particle moving in such a space both in the bosonic as well as in the supersymmetric case. In the bosonic case we find that the Carroll particle possesses an infinite-dimensional symmetry which only in the flat case includes dilatations. The duality between the Bargmann and Carroll algebra, relevant for the flat case, does not extend to the curved case. In the supersymmetric case we study the dynamics of the { N }=1 AdS Carroll superparticle. Only in the flat limit we find that the action is invariant under an infinite-dimensional symmetry that includes a supersymmetric extension of the Lifshitz Carroll algebra with dynamical exponent z = 0. We also discuss in the flat case the extension to { N }=2 supersymmetry and show that the flat { N }=2 superparticle is equivalent to the (non-moving) { N }=1 superparticle and that therefore it is not BPS unlike its Galilei counterpart. This is due to the fact that in this case kappa-symmetry eliminates the linearized supersymmetry. In an appendix we discuss the { N }=2 curved case in three-dimensions only and show that there are two { N }=2 theories that are physically different.

  15. Violence and mental illness: what Lewis Carroll had to say.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Miller, Judy

    2014-12-01

    In 1873 Skeffington Lutwidge, a Lunacy Commission inspector of asylums in England, was killed by an asylum patient. Lutwidge was the uncle and close friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll. One year later, Carroll began writing The Hunting of the Snark, a poem whose meaning has mystified Carroll enthusiasts. In fact, the poem is a description of the Lunacy Commission inspection team and reflects Carroll's personal understanding of, and reaction to, the killing of his uncle by an individual with a severe mental illness. Carroll's close relationship with his uncle also explains the prominence of psychotic thinking in Carroll's work, including the Mad Hatter's tea party.

  16. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

  17. Playing around in Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susina, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mathematician Charles Dodgson's love of play and his need for rules came together in his use of popular games as part of the structure of the two famous children's books, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass," he wrote under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The author of this article looks at the interplay between…

  18. Carroll-type deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C.; Saccomandi, G.; Vergori, L.

    2014-05-01

    Classes of deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics with origins in the pioneering work of Carroll are investigated for a Mooney-Rivlin material subject to body forces corresponding to a nonlinear substrate potential. Exact representations are obtained which, inter alia, are descriptive of the propagation of circularly polarized waves and motions with oscillatory spatial dependence. It is shown that a description of slowly modulated waves leads to a novel class of generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The latter class, in general, is not integrable. However, a procedure is presented whereby integrable Hamiltonian subsystems may be isolated for a broad class of deformations.

  19. Deformed Carroll particle from 2 + 1 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    We consider a point particle coupled to 2 + 1 gravity, with de Sitter gauge group SO (3 , 1). We observe that there are two contraction limits of the gauge group: one resulting in the Poincaré group, and the second with the gauge group having the form AN (2) ⋉ an (2) *. The former case was thoroughly discussed in the literature, while the latter leads to the deformed particle action with de Sitter momentum space, like in the case of κ-Poincaré particle. However, the construction forces the mass shell constraint to have the form p02 =m2, so that the effective particle action describes the deformed Carroll particle.

  20. 8. A VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, FROM CARROLL STREET, OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. A VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, FROM CARROLL STREET, OF THE SOUTH PORTAL OF THE BRIDGE, THE HEIGHT WARNING MEMBER, GUARD RAILS, VERTICAL AND DIAGONAL MEMBERS AND LATTICE WORK. - Wabash County Bridge No. 509, Spanning Wabash River at Carroll & Smith Streets, Wabash, Wabash County, IN

  1. Lewis Carroll and psychoanalysis: why nothing adds up in wonderland.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Each generation of psychoanalyst has found different things to value and sometimes to censure in Lewis Carroll's remarkable fiction and flights of fancy. But what does Carroll's almost 'surrealist' perspective in the Alice stories tell us about the rituals and symbols that govern life beyond Wonderland and Looking-Glass World? Arguing that Carroll's strong interest in meaning and nonsense in these and later works helps make the world strange to readers, the better to show it off-kilter, this essay focuses on Jacques Lacan's Carroll - the writer-logician who stressed, as Lacan did, the difficulty and price of adapting to the symbolic order. By reconsidering Lacan's 1966 homage to the eccentric Victorian, I argue that Carroll's insight into meaning and interpretation remains of key interest to psychoanalysts intent on hearing all that he had to say about psychic life.

  2. Carroll County hands-on elementary science

    SciTech Connect

    Herlocker, H.G.; Dunkleberger, G.L.

    1994-12-31

    Carroll County Hands-on Elementary Science is a nationally recognized Elementary Science Curriculum which has been disseminated in forty states, Puerto Rico, The Virgin Islands, Saipan, and Samoa. The curriculum is a non-textbook, process-based, constructivist approach to teaching science. Unique features of this curriculum include its teacher-written daily lesson plan format, its complete kit of science supplies, and its complete set of Spanish materials. In order to be included by the National Diffusion Network, Hands-on Elementary Science collected data to support the following claims: the program enhances teacher and student attitudes toward science; the program changes both the amount and the type of science instruction; the program is adaptable and transportable; the teacher training component is effective. The poster display will feature sample activities, data which demonstrates the effectiveness of the staff development plan, and samples which show the degree to which the program supports selected state curriculum frameworks.

  3. Hydrology of Lake Carroll, Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, S.E.; Hayes, R.D.; Stoker, Y.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lakeshore property around Lake Carroll has undergone extensive residential development since 1960. This development increased the lake shoreline, altered surface water flow to and from the lake, and may have affected lake-stage characteristics. Some areas of the lake were dredged to provide fill material for lakefront property. Water-balance analyses for 1952-60, a predevelopment period, and 1961-80, a period of residential development, indicate that both net surface water flow to the lake and downward leakage from the lake to the Floridan aquifer were greater after 1960. These changes were due more to changes in the regional climate and related changes in ground-water levels than to changes associated with residential development. Results of water quality analyses in 1980-81 are within State limits for surface waters used for recreation and wildlife propagation. (USGS)

  4. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  5. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  6. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year…

  7. Solar cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  8. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year…

  9. 77 FR 59183 - Jo-Carroll Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jo-Carroll Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 12, 2012, Jo-Carroll Energy, Inc. (NFP) (JCE) 793 U.S. Route 20 West, Elizabeth, Illinois 61028... toll- free, (886) 208-3676 or TYY, (202) 502-8659. \\1\\ Jo-Carroll Energy, Inc. (NFP), 117 FERC ]...

  10. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for... CONTACT: Scott Enander, Central Service Center, Operations Support Group, Federal Aviation Administration...

  11. Carroll Technical Institute and Southwire Company's Educational Renewal Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Jimmy L.

    As part of an effort to meet the specific educational needs of local business and industry, a cooperative educational renewal program was developed between Carroll Technical Institute (CTI) in Carrollton, Georgia, and the Southwire Company, a local producer of aluminum and copper materials. A thorough training needs assessment was conducted and,…

  12. Linda Sue Park: A Writer Found

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles Newbery Award-winning author Linda Sue Park, a special breed of author who writes so convincingly about the past it is as if she herself has actually lived these stories from a time long gone. She has provided such spectacular glimpses into Korea's storied past with books such as "A Single Shard" (Clarion, 2001),…

  13. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Questions to a legal expert discuss athletes' right to sue for injuries occurring in inherently dangerous sports. Proposed legislation could establish that injuries are assumed to have occurred from inherent risks, unless it can be proved that they occurred from defendant negligence. (SM)

  14. Linda Sue Park: A Writer Found

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles Newbery Award-winning author Linda Sue Park, a special breed of author who writes so convincingly about the past it is as if she herself has actually lived these stories from a time long gone. She has provided such spectacular glimpses into Korea's storied past with books such as "A Single Shard" (Clarion, 2001),…

  15. The Population Dynamics of the Spotted Turtle, Clemmys guttata, on Carroll Island.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    FD-Ai33 599 THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE SPOTTED TURTLE CLEMMYS i/i GUTTATA ON CARROLL..(U) ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ABERDEEN...Technical Report TURTLE, Clemmys guttata , ON CARROLL March__82__-_July __82 ISLAND 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...history Clemmys guttata lifespan K-selection Carroll Island adult size population regulation ecology mark-recapture age-structure negative binomial

  16. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  17. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers wa...

  18. Designing Lives and Empowering Clients: The Case of Sue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik, J.

    2003-01-01

    This case response centers on the client Sue, a professional mediator who seeks counseling to resolve a conflict with her employer (M. C. Rehfuss, 2003). The Selective Optimization with Compensation model of human development and Life-Span Theory of Control are used to frame Sue's career development and assist her in making the transition from…

  19. 76 FR 53353 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ..., at the beginning of your comments. You may also submit comments through the Internet at http://www... surface of the earth. * * * * * ACE IA E5 Carroll, IA Arthur N. Neu Airport, IA (Lat. 42 02'46'' N., long...

  20. Classical solutions for the Carroll-Field-Jackiw-Proca electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Santos, Carlos E. H.

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, we investigate classical solutions of the Maxwell-Carroll-Field-Jackiw-Proca (MCFJP) electrodynamics for the cases of a purely timelike and spacelike Lorentz-violating (LV) background. Starting from the MCFJP Lagrangian and the associated wave equations written for the potential four-vector, the tensor form of the Green function is achieved. In the timelike case, the components of the stationary Green function are explicitly written. The classical solutions for the electric and magnetic field strengths are then evaluated, being observed that the electric sector is not modified by the LV background, keeping the Maxwell-Proca behavior. The magnetic field associated with a charge in uniform motion presents an oscillating behavior that also provides an oscillating MCFJ solution (in the limit of a vanishing Proca mass), but does not recover the Maxwell-Proca solution in the limit of vanishing background. In the spacelike case, the stationary Green function is written and also explicitly carried out in the regime of a small background. The electric and magnetic fields reveal to possess an exponentially decaying behavior, that recover the Maxwell-Proca solutions.

  1. Gauging the Carroll algebra and ultra-relativistic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartong, Jelle

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the geometrical framework of Riemannian geometry that underlies general relativity and its torsionful extension to Riemann-Cartan geometry can be obtained from a procedure known as gauging the Poincaré algebra. Recently it has been shown that gauging the centrally extended Galilei algebra, known as the Bargmann algebra, leads to a geometrical framework that when made dynamical gives rise to Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. Here we consider the case where we contract the Poincaré algebra by sending the speed of light to zero leading to the Carroll algebra. We show how this algebra can be gauged and we construct the most general affine connection leading to the geometry of so-called Carrollian space-times. Carrollian space-times appear for example as the geometry on null hypersurfaces in a Lorentzian space-time of one dimension higher. We also construct theories of ultra-relativistic (Carrollian) gravity in 2+1 dimensions with dynamical exponent z < 1 including cases that have anisotropic Weyl invariance for z = 0.

  2. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    MedlinePlus

    ... pieces of food. If you choose a good-quality nonstick pan, you can cook food without using fat. Depending on the recipe, use low-sodium broth, cooking spray or water in place of oil. Searing quickly browns the ...

  3. The Story behind the Modern Language Aptitude Test: An Interview with John B. Carroll (1916-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Reed, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. John Bissell Carroll, who was considered by many to be the premier psychologist in the 20th century in terms of contributions to educational linguistics. In retrospect, this occasion has very special significance, as it was one of the last interviews that Dr. Carroll granted near the end of his…

  4. 76 FR 62497 - Grenada Railway LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Grenada Railway LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll..., Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and Madison Counties, Miss.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service...

  5. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  6. Classroom Space: The Hendricks v Carroll Case and Its Impact on Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Earl; Hochman, Bruce

    The monograph addresses implications of Nicholas Hendricks et al. versus Carroll, a federal court case that requires the provision of comparable classroom space for special education programs for disabled students. The case involved the Carbon Lehigh Intermediate Unit in Pennsylvania, and developed out of the different responsibilities of local…

  7. Mary Carroll Craig Bradford: Providing Opportunities to Colorado's Women and Children through Suffrage and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Heather Kleinpeter

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a historical biography on the life, suffrage and educational contributions of Mary Carroll Craig Bradford, a wife, mother, suffragist, teacher and educational administrator in the state of Colorado. The purpose of this dissertation was to find out exactly what Bradford's contributions were to her state. The initial observation…

  8. Examining the Hydrology of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri Through Groundwater Tracing and Geochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However, the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cav...

  9. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model of Cognition for Clinical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewsbury, Paul A.; Bowden, Stephen C.; Duff, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model is a comprehensive model of the major dimensions of individual differences that underlie performance on cognitive tests. Studies evaluating the generality of the CHC model across test batteries, age, gender, and culture were reviewed and found to be overwhelmingly supportive. However, less research is available…

  10. "Shutting up like a Telescope": Lewis Carroll's "Curious Condensation Method for Evaluating Determinants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Adrian; Torrence, Eve

    2007-01-01

    Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) discovered a "curious" method for computing determinants. It is an iterative process that uses determinants of 2 x 2 submatrices of a matrix to obtain a smaller matrix. When the process ends, the result is the determinant of the original matrix. This article discusses both the algorithm and what may have led Dodgson…

  11. A. G. Vernon Harcourt: A Founder of Chemical Kinetics and a Friend of "Lewis Carroll."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, John

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the life of A. G. Vernon Harcourt, a founder of chemical kinetics, contributor to the purification of coal gas from sulfur compounds, inventor of the percentage chloroform inhaler, friend to Lewis Carroll, and instructor to the Prince of Wales. (CS)

  12. Mary Carroll Craig Bradford: Providing Opportunities to Colorado's Women and Children through Suffrage and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Heather Kleinpeter

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a historical biography on the life, suffrage and educational contributions of Mary Carroll Craig Bradford, a wife, mother, suffragist, teacher and educational administrator in the state of Colorado. The purpose of this dissertation was to find out exactly what Bradford's contributions were to her state. The initial observation…

  13. A. G. Vernon Harcourt: A Founder of Chemical Kinetics and a Friend of "Lewis Carroll."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, John

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the life of A. G. Vernon Harcourt, a founder of chemical kinetics, contributor to the purification of coal gas from sulfur compounds, inventor of the percentage chloroform inhaler, friend to Lewis Carroll, and instructor to the Prince of Wales. (CS)

  14. The Development of a Discipline Code for Sue Bennett College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Sandra F.

    A Student Discipline Code (SDC) was developed to govern student life at Sue Bennett College (SBC), Kentucky, a private two-year college affiliated with the Methodist Church. Steps taken in the process included the following: a review of relevant literature on student discipline; examination of discipline codes from six other educational…

  15. Interview With the 2002 Newbery Medal Winner, Linda Sue Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Linda Sue Park, the 2002 Newbery Medal winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with her. Notes that her diverse writing career began at an early age. Discusses writing Korean "historicals" and researching her other books. Identifies mentors as an important characteristic of both her life and work. (PM)

  16. Cooking with Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Arthur E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests chemistry of cooking and analysis of culinary recipes as subject matter for introducing chemistry to an audience, especially to individuals with neutral or negative attitudes toward science. Includes sample recipes and experiments and a table listing scientific topics with related cooking examples. (JN)

  17. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018. FEMA is embarking on a map modernization program nationwide to: 1. Gather and develop updated data for all flood prone areas in support of flood plain management. 2. Provide maps and data in a digital format for the improvement in the efficiency and precision of the mapping program. 3. Integrate FEMA's community and state partners into the mapping process One of the priorities for FEMA, Region 1, is to develop updated Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) and Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) for Carroll County, New Hampshire. The information provided in this report will be used to develop the scope for the first phase of a multiyear project that will ultimately result in the production of new DFIRMs and FIS for the communities and flooding sources in Carroll County. The average age of the FEMA flood plain maps in Carroll County, New Hampshire is 18 years. Most of these studies were computed in the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-30 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the rivers and streams and their flood plains have changed as a result. In addition, as development has occurred, peak flooding has increased downstream of the development from increased flows across impervious surfaces. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights. Carroll County gained 3,773 residents between 2000 and 2005. This represents a growth of 8.6 percent compared to 6.0 percent for the state as a whole. Carroll County ranks second (from highest to lowest) out of New Hampshire's 10 counties in terms of rate of population increase. Since 1990, Carroll County has gained 12,029 residents

  18. Bathymetric survey of Carroll Creek Tributary to Lake Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Kimbrow, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tuscaloosa, conducted a bathymetric survey of Carroll Creek, on May 12-13, 2010. Carroll Creek is one of the major tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa and contributes about 6 percent of the surface drainage area. A 3.5-mile reach of Carroll Creek was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map, determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations, and compare current conditions to historical cross sections. Bathymetric data were collected using a high-resolution interferometric mapping system consisting of a phase-differencing bathymetric sonar, navigation and motion-sensing system, and a data acquisition computer. To assess the accuracy of the interferometric mapping system and document depths in shallow areas of the study reach, an electronic total station was used to survey 22 cross sections spaced 50 feet apart. The data were combined and processed and a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and contour map were generated. Cross sections were extracted from the TIN and compared with historical cross sections. Between 2004 and 2010, the area (cross section 1) at the confluence of Carroll Creek and the main run of LakeTuscaloosa showed little to no change in capacity area. Another area (cross section 2) showed a maximum change in elevation of 4 feet and an average change of 3 feet. At the water-surface elevation of 224 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), the cross-sectional area has changed by 260 square feet for a total loss of 28 percent of cross-sectional storage area. The loss of area may be attributed to sedimentation in Carroll Creek and (or) the difference in accuracy between the two surveys.

  19. Science and Cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many chefs are developing new approaches to prepare and present their cuisine using materials common to many physics labs, such as liquid nitrogen, foams, emulsions and hydrogels. In fact, the ingredients and methods of modern cooking can provide a wonderful inspiration to the teaching of introductory science. This talk will explore the physics of cooking and will include demonstrations. The science of several innovative techniques in cooking, including foams and the use of gelation, as well as more common processes, will be explored. The talk is inspired by a course taught at Harvard University through a collaboration of professors and well-known chefs. Presented by David Weitz, Harvard University.

  20. 76 FR 69797 - Grenada Railway LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Grenada Railway LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and Madison Counties, MS. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. Energy losses during cooking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapar, A.; Engira, R.M.; Sohal, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    A major chunk of the thermal energy of the cooking fuel is wasted due to incomplete consumption, unfunctional design of cooking stoves and utensils. Several studies and their findings which are reported in the present paper pertain to: determination of minimum fuel consumption required for cooking of selected dishes under controlled and normal conditions; analysis of relative amounts of heat loss through different techniques during cooking under normal conditions; evaluation of effectiveness of different energy saving techniques with regard to cooking vessel.

  2. Carroll versus Newton and Galilei: two dual non-Einsteinian concepts of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P. M.

    2014-04-01

    The Carroll group was originally introduced by Lévy-Leblond (1965 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 3 1) by considering the contraction of the Poincaré group as c → 0. In this paper an alternative definition, based on the geometric properties of a non-Minkowskian, non-Galilean but nevertheless boost-invariant, spacetime structure is proposed. A ‘duality’ with the Galilean limit c → ∞ is established. Our theory is illustrated by Carrollian electromagnetism.

  3. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  4. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  6. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  7. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  8. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  9. Cooking with Quadratics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  10. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  11. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  12. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  14. Use of LANDSAT data to define soil boundaries in Carroll County, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Bands 4, 5 and 7 false color composite photographs were prepared using data from LANDSAT scenes acquired during April 1977 and April 1981 on computer compatible tapes, and these color composites were compared with band 7 black and white photographs prepared for the entire county. Delineations of soil boundaries at the soil association level were achieved using LANDSAT spectral reflectance data and slope maps for a portion of Carroll County, Missouri. Forty two spectral reflectance classes from April 1977 LANDSAT data were overlaid on digitized slope maps of nine USGS 7.5 minute series topographic quadrangle slope maps to achieve boundary delineations of the soil associations.

  15. Non-analyticity of the induced Carroll-Field-Jackiw term at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assunção, J. F.; Mariz, T.; Petrov, A. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the behavior of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) coefficient kμ arising due to integration over massive fermions, and the modification suffered by its topological structure in the finite-temperature case. Our study is based on the imaginary time formalism and summation over the Matsubara frequencies. We demonstrate that the self-energy of photon is non-analytic for the small-kμ limit, i.e., the static limit (k_0=0,k→ 0) and the long-wavelength limit (k_0→ 0,k= 0) do not commute, while the tensorial structure of the CFJ term holds in both limits.

  16. Construction, lithologic, and hydrologic data for test wells in the Cedar Grove area, Carroll County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Carmichael, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Four test wells were drilled near Cedar Grove in Carroll County, Tennessee, in 1991 to obtain geologic and hydrologic information about the post-Cretaceous strata in the study area. Samples of cuttings and geophysical logs were used to determine the lithology and stratigraphy at the drilling sites. Specific-capacity tests and water-quality analyses were conducted at two test wells completed in the Memphis Sand. Yields of the two test wells were 275 gallons per minute and greater than 350 gallons per minute. The specific capacities for the two wells equalled 17.8 and 10.0 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, respectively.

  17. Laboratory-based limits on the Carroll-Field-Jackiw Lorentz-violating electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Y. M. P.; Malta, P. C.

    2016-07-01

    The C P T -odd and Lorentz-violating Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) modification of electrodynamics is discussed, and we study its effects on the energy spectrum of hydrogen, as well as in the generation of a momentum-dependent electric dipole moment for charged leptons. We also briefly comment on the possibility of the detection of Lorentz violation in measurements of vacuum birefringence in resonant cavities. The bounds found are based on local laboratory experimental limits and are not competitive with the ones coming from astrophysical considerations.

  18. Use of LANDSAT data to define soil boundaries in Carroll County, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Bands 4, 5 and 7 false color composite photographs were prepared using data from LANDSAT scenes acquired during April 1977 and April 1981 on computer compatible tapes, and these color composites were compared with band 7 black and white photographs prepared for the entire county. Delineations of soil boundaries at the soil association level were achieved using LANDSAT spectral reflectance data and slope maps for a portion of Carroll County, Missouri. Forty two spectral reflectance classes from April 1977 LANDSAT data were overlaid on digitized slope maps of nine USGS 7.5 minute series topographic quadrangle slope maps to achieve boundary delineations of the soil associations.

  19. Solar cooking in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping

    1992-12-31

    In the past 20 years, solar cooking has developed rapidly in China. Its popularity is easy to understand since China is a nation with a rural population of 800 million, 30% to 40% of which lack firewood. In recent years a number of scientists and engineers have researched solar cooking and tested solar cookers. The Solar Energy Laboratory has worked on the application of solar energy, especially solar cookers, and has made a number of significant achievements in the following areas: solar cooker theory; methods of designing solar cookers, testing characteristics of thermal efficiency; materials for cooker construction, and technological processes for producing cookers. This paper discusses their achievements and plans for future research.

  20. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. General and Specific Effects on Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composites: Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Cattell-Horn-Carroll Factor Clusters across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Barry, Amberly; Rafael, Fawziya; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Many school psychologists focus their interpretation on composite scores from intelligence test batteries designed to measure the broad abilities from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the broad ability composite scores from one such intelligence test…

  2. Plaintiff cannot sue under ADA if he seeks disability benefits.

    PubMed

    1996-08-23

    [Name removed] sued a New Jersey Disney store for AIDS discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). At the same time, [name removed] applied for disability benefits. A U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that a plaintiff who applies for disability benefits is no longer a qualified individual with a disability and therefore cannot sue for employment discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Disney fired [name removed] on November 18, 1993, after he took $2 from the cash register to buy cigarettes. Confronted with the accusation, [name removed] told his supervisor he had AIDS. He was fired immediately. Although [name removed] alleged Disney used the $2 cash transaction as a pretext to fire him, a Federal judge said [name removed] was barred from suing because of the inconsistency between his statements on the disability applications and on the lawsuit.

  3. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  4. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  5. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  6. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  7. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  8. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  9. Research into Practice: Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Assessment in Practice--Eligibility and Program Development Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Primerano, Diane

    2005-01-01

    In this article we explore the application of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-based cognitive assessment to school psychology practice. We review the theoretical literature to address both identification practices, with a focus on learning disabilities and mental retardation eligibility, and program development, with a focus on linking assessment to…

  10. Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement across the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to…

  11. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  12. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Abilities and Cognitive Tests: What We've Learned from 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews factor-analytic research on individually administered intelligence tests from a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective. Although most new and revised tests of intelligence are based, at least in part, on CHC theory, earlier versions generally were not. Our review suggests that whether or not they were based on CHC theory, the…

  13. The Relative Contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities in Explaining Writing Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement. Drawing from samples that covered the age range of 7 to 18 years, simultaneous multiple regression was used to regress scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) that…

  14. The Relative Contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities in Explaining Writing Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement. Drawing from samples that covered the age range of 7 to 18 years, simultaneous multiple regression was used to regress scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) that…

  15. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  16. Lorentz-violating contributions of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model to the CMB anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Rodrigues, Josberg S.

    2008-12-01

    We study the finite temperature properties of the Maxwell-Carroll-Field-Jackiw (MCFJ) electrodynamics for a purely spacelike background. Starting from the associated finite temperature partition function, a modified black body spectral distribution is obtained. We thus show that, if the CMB radiation is described by this model, the spectrum presents an anisotropic angular energy density distribution. We show, at leading order, that the Lorentz-breaking contributions for the Plank’s radiation law and for the Stefan-Boltzmann’s law are nonlinear in frequency and quadratic in temperature, respectively. Using our results, we set up bounds for the Lorentz-breaking parameter, and show that Lorentz violation in the context of the MCFJ model is unable to yield the known CMB anisotropy (of 1 part in 105).

  17. Vocational Cooking Class. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kathy M.

    A project was conducted to develop a course in cooking skills for high school students interested in preparing for jobs or seeking advanced vocational training in the food service occupations. During the first phase of the project, the course instructor, who is also the head cook at the high school, completed courses in cardiopulmonary…

  18. Vocational Cooking Class. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kathy M.

    A project was conducted to develop a course in cooking skills for high school students interested in preparing for jobs or seeking advanced vocational training in the food service occupations. During the first phase of the project, the course instructor, who is also the head cook at the high school, completed courses in cardiopulmonary…

  19. Cooking up a Culinary Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kongshem, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A program to introduce inner-city students to the fundamentals of French cooking has spread to more than 100 schools in 6 cities. The program awarded $400,000 in scholarships nationwide this year. Highlights a cooking competition of 10 juniors and seniors from the District of Columbia public schools. (MLF)

  20. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E.

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  1. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  2. Cook stove assembly

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  3. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  4. Opportunity at Cook Islands Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity combined images into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover surroundings on March 12, 2009. Cook Islands is visible just below center of this image. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  5. Why Do Students "Cook" Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Lewis, Cecil M., Jr.; Birk, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the reasons for data fabrication among undergraduate and graduate students. Presents several examples of getting misled by the candle and tumbler demonstration. Concludes that presented facts, concepts, or principles increase the incidence of data cooking. (YDS)

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Carroll and Dubies Sewage Disposal, Port Jervis, NY, March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Carroll and Dubies Superfund Site (the Site). This operable unit (OU1) represents the first of two operable units planned for the Site. This operable unit addresses the source areas (lagoons and surrounding impacted soils) at the Site and actions needed to ensure that the source areas do not pose a threat to human health or the environment, including any potential cross media impacts to groundwater.

  7. Music, affect, method, data: reflections on the Carroll versus Kivy debate.

    PubMed

    Konecni, Vladimir J

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive exchange between Noel Carroll and Peter Kivy, which took place in 2007, addressed key issues in the relationship between music and affect. More than in any prior philosophical debate on this topic, experimental psychologists' methods and data played a significant role. However, to a nontrivial extent, the findings-perhaps especially the dubious-were misconstrued or misused, usually without acknowledging the existence of contrary data-based opinion within the psychology of music itself. Therefore, one objective of the present article is to identify the specific problematic features and shed light on the broader context shared by the two disciplines. A complementary goal is to examine contributions to philosophers' transgressions by music psychologists' insufficiently conscientious reporting, frequent overgeneralizations, and unawareness of philosophers' critical arguments. Another objective is to examine the current status of key concepts-the relevant music, basic emotions, mood, expression, induction, movement and dance, and methods (including introspection and experimental procedures)-thus perhaps enabling the discussion of music and affect to proceed with fewer misunderstandings. Finally, the article moves beyond the initial debate and builds on a remarkable agreement of philosophical and psychological opinion on a key issue (the induction of non-basic emotions by absolute music) to reach a new conceptual ground.

  8. Lewis Carroll's Doublets Net of English Words: Network Heterogeneity in a Complex System

    PubMed Central

    Fushing, Hsieh; Chen, Chen; Hsieh, Yin-Chen; Farrell, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Lewis Carroll's English word game Doublets is represented as a system of networks with each node being an English word and each connectivity edge confirming that its two ending words are equal in letter length, but different by exactly one letter. We show that this system, which we call the Doublets net, constitutes a complex body of linguistic knowledge concerning English word structure that has computable multiscale features. Distributed morphological, phonological and orthographic constraints and the language's local redundancy are seen at the node level. Phonological communities are seen at the network level. And a balancing act between the language's global efficiency and redundancy is seen at the system level. We develop a new measure of intrinsic node-to-node distance and a computational algorithm, called community geometry, which reveal the implicit multiscale structure within binary networks. Because the Doublets net is a modular complex cognitive system, the community geometry and computable multi-scale structural information may provide a foundation for understanding computational learning in many systems whose network structure has yet to be fully analyzed. PMID:25517974

  9. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: A real life version of Lewis Carroll's novel.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Patrick; Modestino, Edward Justin

    2017-06-01

    Alice in Wonderland Syndrome was originally coined by Dr. John Todd in 1955. The syndrome is named after the sensations experienced by the character Alice in Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome consists of metamorphopsia (seeing something in a distorted fashion), bizarre distortions of their body image, and bizarre perceptual distortions of form, size, movement or color. Additionally, patients with Alice in Wonderland Syndrome can experience auditory hallucinations and changes in their perception of time. Currently, there is no known specific cause of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome. However, theories point to infections such as the Epstein-Barr virus, medications such as topiramate and associated migraines. Neuroimaging studies have revealed brain regions involved with the manifestation of symptoms. These include the temporo-parietal junction within the temporal lobe and the visual pathway, specifically the occipital lobe. There are no current treatments for Alice in Wonderland Syndrome. Further research is needed to find better treatments for Alice in Wonderland Syndrome and to elucidate the exact cause or causes of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geologic map of the Ponca quadrangle, Newton, Boone, and Carroll Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, and structure contour), and point (i.e., structural attitude, contact elevations) vector data for the Ponca 7 1/2' quadrangle in northern Arkansas. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The Ponca quadrangle is located in Newton, Boone, and Carroll Counties about 20 km southwest of the town of Harrison. The map area is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age that were mildly deformed by a series of normal and strike-slip faults and folds. The area is representative of the stratigraphic and structural setting of the southern Ozark Dome. The Ponca quadrangle map provides new geologic information for better understanding groundwater flow paths and development of karst features in and adjacent to the Buffalo River watershed.

  11. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  12. The Development of Multicultural Counselling Competencies (MCC) Training Module Based on MCC Matrix Model by Sue et al. (1992)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuar, Azad Athahiri; Rozubi, Norsayyidatina Che; Abdullah, Haslee Sharil

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a MCC training module for trainee counselor based on MCC matrix model by Sue et al. (1992). This module encompassed five sub modules and 11 activities developed along the concepts and components of the MCC matrix model developed by Sue, Arredondo dan McDavis (1992). The design method used in this…

  13. Some Considerations of Sue-Kirk Study on Chinese-Americans and Its Applications to Merritt College's Chinese Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jack B.

    A study conducted by Derald Sue and Barbara Kirk in 1972 of Chinese-American students attending the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) is compared with a study and observations of Chinese-American students attending Merritt College. The Sue-Kirk study administered the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), the Strong Vocational Interest…

  14. Relaciones entre el sueño y la adicción

    PubMed Central

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La interacción entre los trastornos del sueño y el abuso de sustancias es ya conocida, pero seguramente más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Existe tanto una relación positiva entre tener un trastorno por uso de substancias y sufrir un trastorno de sueño, como viceversa. Los efectos sobre el sueño dependen de la substancia utilizada, pero se ha demostrado que tanto durante su uso como en período de abstinencia los consumidores tienen diferentes problemas de sueño y fundamentalmente un sueño más fragmentado. Sabemos que hay que tener en cuenta los problemas de sueño para evitar recaídas en la adicción. Investigaciones recientes indican que el sistema hipocretinérgico definido por el neuropéptido hipocretina/orexina (Hcrt/ox), localizado en el hipotálamo lateral e implicado entre otros en la regulación del ciclo sueño-vigilia, jugaría un papel importante en las conductas adictivas. Diferentes estudios han demostrado interacciones entre el sistema hipocretinérgico, los circuitos de respuesta aguda al estrés y los sistemas de recompensa. También sabemos que la activación optogenética selectiva del sistema hipocretinérgico incrementa la probabilidad de la transición del sueño a la vigilia, y también es suficiente para iniciar un comportamiento compulsivo de recaída adictiva. La activación del sistema hipocretinérgico podría explicar la hipervigilia asociada al estrés y a la adicción. El mayor conocimiento de esta interacción permitiría entender mejor los mecanismos de la adicción y encontrar nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de las adicciones. PMID:23241715

  15. Derald Wing Sue: From All of the Places We've Been

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The personal and professional accomplishments of one of psychology's most accomplished and prolific scholars are profiled in this article. Dr. Derald Wing Sue is a familiar name to many who traverse the landscape of multicultural counseling and Asian American psychology issues. Yet this article affords the reader a rare glimpse into the mindset of…

  16. Title IX Covers Whistleblowers, High Court Says: Teachers, Coaches Can Sue under Sex-Bias Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for complaining about illegal sex discrimination against their students will be able to sue their school districts for damages, under a ruling by a sharply divided U.S. Supreme Court. The 5-4 ruling held that the federal law that bars discrimination based on sex in federally financed education programs…

  17. Derald Wing Sue: From All of the Places We've Been

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The personal and professional accomplishments of one of psychology's most accomplished and prolific scholars are profiled in this article. Dr. Derald Wing Sue is a familiar name to many who traverse the landscape of multicultural counseling and Asian American psychology issues. Yet this article affords the reader a rare glimpse into the mindset of…

  18. The Development of a Retention Plan for Use at Sue Bennett College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Sandra F.

    In 1992, a practicum was undertaken to develop a student retention plan for use at Sue Bennett College (SBC), an independent junior college located in London, Kentucky. The college had a retention rate of 33 percent between the freshman and sophmore year in 1990 which was a decline from the 62 percent in 1985. The development of the plan included…

  19. Colleges and Officials Face Huge Costs When Injured Athletes Sue for Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Liability suits against college sports programs can be devastating. Interest in liability insurance, which protects the institution and its personnel if an athlete sues, is on the rise, and half of all college-sports programs now own insurance policies that provide lifetime benefits to athletes who suffer catastrophic injuries. (MLW)

  20. The Development of an Incentive Pay System for Use at Sue Bennett College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Sandra F.

    This paper reports on a study designed to assist in the development of an incentive pay system at Kentucky's Sue Bennett College that would be utilized to recognize merit and performance through increases in faculty salaries. Study procedures to determine the system's elements involved a literature search, a solicitation of input from the Faculty…

  1. Teachers May Sue for Retaliation when They Challenge Title IX Sex Discrimination Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2005-01-01

    In a stunning 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for raising complaints regarding illegal sex discrimination against their students can sue their school districts for damages. This ruling is unprecedented with respect to Title IX enforcement and will likely alter how school officials handle…

  2. Supinator Extender (SUE): a pneumatically actuated robot for forearm/wrist rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Allington, James; Spencer, Steven J; Klein, Julius; Buell, Meghan; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Bobrow, James

    2011-01-01

    The robot described in this paper, SUE (Supinator Extender), adds forearm/wrist rehabilitation functionality to the UCI BONES exoskeleton robot and to the ArmeoSpring rehabilitation device. SUE is a 2-DOF serial chain that can measure and assist forearm supination-pronation and wrist flexion-extension. The large power to weight ratio of pneumatic actuators allows SUE to achieve the forces needed for rehabilitation therapy while remaining lightweight enough to be carried by BONES and ArmeoSpring. Each degree of freedom has a range of 90 degrees, and a nominal torque of 2 ft-lbs. The cylinders are mounted away from the patient's body on the lateral aspect of the arm. This is to prevent the danger of a collision and maximize the workspace of the arm robot. The rotation axis used for supination-pronation is a small bearing just below the subject's wrist. The flexion-extension motion is actuated by a cantilevered pneumatic cylinder, which allows the palm of the hand to remain open. Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of SUE to measure and cancel forearm/wrist passive tone, thereby extending the active range of motion for people with stroke.

  3. The Development of an Incentive Pay System for Use at Sue Bennett College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Sandra F.

    This paper reports on a study designed to assist in the development of an incentive pay system at Kentucky's Sue Bennett College that would be utilized to recognize merit and performance through increases in faculty salaries. Study procedures to determine the system's elements involved a literature search, a solicitation of input from the Faculty…

  4. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  5. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  6. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  7. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  8. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  9. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  10. A Slice of Solar Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    Presents an inquiry activity in which students design a solar cooking apparatus. Students are also asked to write a paragraph that explains the ways in which science knowledge helped them in the design of their cooker. Includes a grading rubric. (SOE)

  11. Orchestrated Instruction: A Cooking Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Violet; And Others

    The Tucson Early Education Program is working with "orchestrated instruction," a cooking experience which is an experimental attempt to pull together the various components of early education. Individual subskills such as arithmetic and language arts are learned for a larger project that the children are interested in, and skills are developed as…

  12. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  13. Cooking in prison--from crook to cook.

    PubMed

    Kjaer Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the principle and practice of self-catering system in a Danish prison. Self-catering is a reflection of the Danish correctional principle of normalisation between prison and community life. Unlike some other jurisdiction, issues of control in meal preparation are subordinate to prisoners' right to choose and prepare their own food. Findings are derived from 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. Overall findings showed that thinking about meals and their preparation is time consuming for prisoners who tend to be positive about the system making connections with their ability to exercise responsibility for making healthily choices. The research concludes that prisoners' possibility for developing cooking competences during incarceration could support prisoners change in social identity from crook to cook. Food is a fundamental need and the ability to choose what to eat and to prepare one's own food should be a right for all people, including prisoners. This research shows that Danish prisoners are very pleased about the system of self-catering. Most prisoners are concerned about preparing their own meals according to their taste and cultural diversity. If the prison offers the opportunity to train as a chef during imprisonment it could support the prisoner's change in social identity from crook to cook on the outside.

  14. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    PubMed

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating.

  15. New prospects in solar cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Klingshirn, A.

    1992-12-31

    Two studies have been completed recently for Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit and German Appropriate Technology Exchange. The first of these studies contains the following: a classification scheme for solar cookers according to collector type, heat transfer mechanism, and type of use; an assessment of the potential interest of different cooker concepts; a catalogue of 160 different solar cookers that have been tested and/or used in the field. The second study highlights the potential advantages of multi-energy (solar plus back-up) cooking and analyzes its particular boundary conditions. A choice of possible concepts for use in institutions is presented. Particular attention is paid to the problem of efficient heat transfer into removable cooking vessels. Social and cultural factors concerning the acceptance of new technologies are also discussed.

  16. SUePDF: a program to obtain quantitative pair distribution functions from electron diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dung Trung; Svensson, Gunnar; Tai, Cheuk-Wai

    2017-01-01

    SUePDF is a graphical user interface program written in MATLAB to achieve quantitative pair distribution functions (PDFs) from electron diffraction data. The program facilitates structural studies of amorphous materials and small nanoparticles using electron diffraction data from transmission electron microscopes. It is based on the physics of electron scattering as well as the total scattering methodology. A method of background modeling is introduced to treat the intensity tail of the direct beam, inelastic scattering and incoherent multiple scattering. Kinematical electron scattering intensity is scaled using the electron scattering factors. The PDFs obtained after Fourier transforms are normalized with respect to number density, nanoparticle form factor and the non-negativity of probability density. SUePDF is distributed as free software for academic users. PMID:28190994

  17. Using prayer in psychotherapy: applying Sue's differential to enhance culturally competent care.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Mimms, Tiffany; Boyd-Franklin, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the application of Sue's cultural competence differential of hypothesis testing, dynamic sizing, and cultural specific expertise as a model for considering cultural factors in the treatment of an African American family. Three cultural dimensions are highlighted: spirituality, womanism, and community exposure to trauma. Given the centrality of spirituality for this African American family, prayer is used to facilitate the therapeutic process. Discussion from a womanist perspective highlights the spiritual, communal, and personal dimensions that the aunt faces as an African American woman. Consideration of the community context and potential exposure to trauma and loss allows for a fuller appreciation of the psychosocial context of the nephew. Sue's differential guides the case discussion. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus' work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools' goals, focussing on pupils' cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools' existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers' use of intervention cooking kits. The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration.

  19. Community Involvement in Law Education: Human Resources in Carroll County, Maryland. Law-Related Education Program for the Schools of Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Donald P.; Vigliotti, Mark A.

    Community resources, learning activities, teaching tips, field trip suggestions, and other sources available in Carroll County, Maryland, for use by K-12 teachers in developing, planning, and implementing citizenship education programs in the social studies classroom are provided. The first chapter examines procedures to be followed by teachers…

  20. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on…

  1. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on…

  2. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement within a Sample of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math…

  3. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement within a Sample of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math…

  4. Organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Algora, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R; Jalón, M; Urieta, I; Macho, M L

    2005-11-02

    The organoarsenical species arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA+), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were determined in 64 cooked seafood products (fish, bivalves, squid, crustaceans) included in a Total Diet Study carried out in the Basque Country (Spain). For cooking, various treatments were employed (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, microwaving). The results obtained show that in cooked seafood AB is the major species, followed by DMA and TMA+. AC and MMA are minor species. The results in cooked seafood were compared with the arsenic species contents obtained for the same product raw. After cooking there was an increase in DMA for sardines and bivalves and an increase or appearance of TMA+ for meagrim, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, and sardine. The data provided add to the very scant information available about organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

  5. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  6. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. PMID:26041356

  7. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat...

  9. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  10. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  11. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  12. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  13. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  14. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  15. 5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND IN FOREGROUND AND NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  16. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  17. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...

  18. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...

  19. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...

  20. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...

  1. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...

  2. On Journalistic Authority: The Janet Cooke Scandal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how the Janet Cooke scandal stimulated journalists to reflect on changes that had occurred in the field since the 1960s and to consider the increasingly visible contradictions of their own authority. Describes how Cooke symbolized both the increased presence of minorities in journalism and changes in reporting conventions. (JD)

  3. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  4. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Solar cooking experiments with different foods

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, R.P.; Jagadeesan, G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper describes studies with a variety of solar cookers at Avinashilingam Deemed University, India. The objective of the studies was to determine the following: the time needed for cooking various foods; the amount of fuel conserved; and suitable menus for use with the cooker. It was concluded that, on bright sunny days, the solar cooker can be used satisfactorily for preparing cereals, legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, bakery items, eggs and groundnuts. Inadequate and intermittent sunshine, fluctuation in wind velocity, clouds, rain and other environmental factors could affect the solar intensity which, in turn, would affect the cooking time. The palatability of solar cooked items was satisfactory when compared to items cooked using firewood, kerosene or gas. Among the various solar cooking devices, the box type cookers were found to have advantages over the basket type due to convenience in handling. However, it is not possible to prepare certain items commonly used in India using the box type cookers.

  6. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality.

  7. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Transfer of risk: "right to sue" legislation and managed care organization stock performance.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W B; Nells, T; Wallace, A E

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether Congress's consideration of legislation that gave consumers the right to sue managed care organizations impacted the performance of these companies' stocks relative to that of the market. For each company examined, the total return related to such legislation was negative and substantially lower than that expected from the market model; losses in market value were from 17 percent to 48 percent for individual companies and 22 percent for a capitalization-weighted portfolio. The study suggests that equity markets responded to the proposed legislation quickly and that the impact of proposed legislation is felt through loss of market value and increased corporate risk.

  11. Update on the debate about the existence and utility of the Big Five: a ten-year follow-up on Carroll's "the Five-Factor Personality Model: how complete and satisfactory is it?

    PubMed

    Merenda, Peter F

    2008-12-01

    This paper is a follow-up comment on John B. Carroll's critique of the Big Five Model and his suggestion years ago on how to design and conduct research properly on the structure of personality and its assessment. The status of research on personality factor models is discussed, and conclusions are reached regarding the likely consequences and further prospects of the failure of personality theorists and practitioners to follow through on Carroll's poignant suggestion for required effort.

  12. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK

    PubMed Central

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Design/methodology/approach Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus’ work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. Findings The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools’ goals, focussing on pupils’ cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools’ existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers’ use of intervention cooking kits. Research limitations/implications The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. Originality/value This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration. PMID:28725120

  14. Relationship of naturally occurring fluoride in Carroll County, Maryland to aquifers, well depths, and fluoride supplementation prescribing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Osso, Diane; Tinanoff, Norman; Romberg, Elaine; Syme, Sheryl; Roberts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Systemic fluorides are effective in the prevention of dental caries but over ingestion can lead to dental fluorosis. Fluoride supplements may be under-prescribed for children residing in areas where drinking water is derived from wells, because of a lack of knowledge of dental providers or the effort required to test wells for fluoride before prescribing supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors associated with fluoride content of well water in a specific county in Maryland, and to determine whether there is a relationship between the amount of naturally occurring fluoride in the well water and the child's fluoride supplementation use. This study analyzed the fluoride prescribing behavior and the fluoride content of wells from a sample of 197 Carroll County, Md residents. Those individuals that answered a questionnaire about well depth and use of fluoride supplements subsequently were mailed a water testing kit. Water samples were tested for fluoride using a fluoride specific ion electrode. Derivations of well water supplies (aquifers) were obtained from a county geologist. Variance in well depth and aquifer type were correlated to the levels of naturally occurring fluoride. Supplementation practices of children residing in the participating sampled households were compared to results of fluoride analyses of individual wells. Results showed that Carroll County well water contains negligible to low levels of fluoride (0.08-0.24 ppm). Pearson r testing showed a positive relationship between well depth and fluoride, r = 0.23 (p < or = .01). ANOVA results showed no significant difference between the 3 aquifers fluoride, p = 0.23. Analysis of the supplementation behavior indicated that the majority (58%) of the children that should have received fluoride supplements were receiving the incorrect dosage or not being supplemented. Fluoride content of well water may be related to well depths. Fluoride supplementation practices generally

  15. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling.

    PubMed

    Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P < 0.05). Cryo-SEM micrographs suggested higher swelling pressure of starch in potatoes cells cooked in contact with water, such as traditional cooking and cook-vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  17. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  18. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  19. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  20. Integrating the switching, inhibition, and updating model of executive function with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model.

    PubMed

    Jewsbury, Paul A; Bowden, Stephen C; Strauss, Milton E

    2016-02-01

    Executive function is an important concept in neuropsychological and cognitive research, and is often viewed as central to effective clinical assessment of cognition. However, the construct validity of executive function tests is controversial. The switching, inhibition, and updating model is the most empirically supported and replicated factor model of executive function (Miyake et al., 2000). To evaluate the relation between executive function constructs and nonexplicitly executive cognitive constructs, we used confirmatory factor reanalysis guided by the comprehensive Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of cognitive abilities. Data from 7 of the best studies supporting the executive function model were reanalyzed, contrasting executive function models and CHC models. Where possible, we examined the effect of specifying executive function factors in addition to the CHC factors. The results suggested that little evidence is available to support updating as a separate factor from general memory factors; that inhibition does not separate from general speed; and that switching is supported as a narrow factor under general speed, but with a more restricted definition than some clinicians and researchers have conceptualized. The replicated executive function factor structure was integrated with the larger body of research on individual difference in cognition, as represented by the CHC model.

  1. Health assessment for Carrol and Dubies, Port Jervis, Orange County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD010968014. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-31

    The Carrol and Dubies site is located in the Neversink River Valley, one mile northeast of the City of Port Jervis, New York. The site was listed in Update 7 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL). The site consists of five inactive lagoons which were used for disposal of septic tank wastes. Two of the lagoons received industrial wastes between 1971 and 1979. Two additional lagoons received septic tank wastes after 1979 until early 1989. Based on information reviewed, the site is judged to be an indeterminate public health hazard because the limited data do not indicate that humans are being exposed or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, data or information are not available for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds and metals may be occurring via direct consumption of contaminated groundwater. Limited data are available about the extent of groundwater contamination and about contamination in the sediments of the former lagoons. This site is not being considered for follow-up health activities at this time.

  2. Cooking Up World-Class Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The Culinary Institute of America (CIA), a training ground for aspiring chefs, is a sophisticated training organization that practices many philosophies and techniques, including team learning, training the whole cook, and training the trainer. (JOW)

  3. Cooking Up World-Class Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The Culinary Institute of America (CIA), a training ground for aspiring chefs, is a sophisticated training organization that practices many philosophies and techniques, including team learning, training the whole cook, and training the trainer. (JOW)

  4. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  5. A successful solar cooking introduction model

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    The author reviews the process he has undertaken to introduce solar cooking in Central America. A slow but increasingly successful acceptance rate is attributed to the following factors: the adaptation of the physical design of the cooker to local conditions; the determination of essential accessories for successful cooking; preliminary assessment of the probability for successful solar cooking; the structure of the oven building workshops; the follow-up program for those who have built their solar ovens. The follow-up program is the emphasis of his current research. The program can be divided into two categories. One is physical maintenance, repair and upgrade needs. The second is education in solar cooking. Another is orientation in the physical use of the oven. While these measures are expected to increase utilization, subsidies will be needed if solar cookers are expected to compete with highly subsidized fuel alternatives such as natural gas and electricity.

  6. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  7. Solar cooking trends--A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, B.L.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses early results of research on trends in solar cooking worldwide and the key factors in those trends. It is based on household interviews in Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua and mail surveys from scattered individuals and promotion projects worldwide. Household interviews from six more countries will be included in future reports. Early data indicate that where solar cooking has been introduced an immediate, rapid increase in awareness and interest in solar cooking is followed by slow, sustained growth in actual solar cooking two or three years later, after an incubation period. Access to information and affordable materials for the cookers are important. Individual users and promoters both identify similar key elements for effective promotion projects, but in current projects many are often missing. Even so, successes of these small-scale efforts verify the benefits and acceptability of solar cooking to families in many regions, and should encourage much broader promotion efforts. Future reports will explore various economic, technical, cultural and environmental factors in solar cooking use as guides for larger efforts.

  8. Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jacky A; Krebs, Kenneth A; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    This study characterized chemicals released into a chamber in the process of cooking microwave popcorn. Seventeen types of microwave popcorn from eight different brands were studied. The work proceeded in two phases: phase one investigated chemicals emitted during popping and opening, phase two investigated chemicals emitted at discrete intervals from 0-40 minutes post-pop opening. The research was performed using a microwave oven enclosed in a chamber with ports for air sampling of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs in the air samples were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PM was characterized using both an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to cover a full range of emitted sizes. The compounds measured during popping and opening included butter flavoring components such as diacetyl, butyric acid, acetoin, propylene glycol, 2-nonanone, and triacetin and bag components such as p-xylene and perfluorinated alcohol 8:2 telomer. The greatest chemical quantity is emitted when the bag is opened post-popping; more than 80% of the total chemical emissions occur at this time.

  9. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill... response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill Superfund Site near Ouray, Colorado. The... via electric mail at rudy.mike@epa.gov and should reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site, the...

  10. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    PubMed

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods.

  11. Implementation of a Cooking Bus Intervention to Support Cooking in Schools in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose…

  12. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  13. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  14. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Who to Sue and Where in ANDA Litigation: Personal Jurisdiction Post-Daimler.

    PubMed

    Weisblatt, H; Frezza, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Historically, courts have afforded patent holders broad discretion to choose where to sue Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) filers. Patent holders' assertions of jurisdiction have typically rested on general personal jurisdiction theories, frequently based on an ANDA filers' conduct within the state, including sales, submission to previous lawsuits, and assignments of agents to accept service of process. Consequently, manyANDA cases have taken place in the Districts of Delaware or New Jersey, or where the patent holder is incorporated, despite the ANDA filer's incorporation in a different state. However, since the Supreme Court's decision in Daimler AG v. Bauman, options for the exercise of personal jurisdiction over ANDA filers have narrowed. This article examines what Daimler means for future ANDA filers, and highlights how many patent holders have failed to take this change into account.

  17. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  18. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  19. Particle emission factors during cooking activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    Exposure to particles emitted by cooking activities may be responsible for a variety of respiratory health effects. However, the relationship between these exposures and their subsequent effects on health cannot be evaluated without understanding the properties of the emitted aerosol or the main parameters that influence particle emissions during cooking. Whilst traffic-related emissions, stack emissions and concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm) in urban ambient air have been widely investigated for many years, indoor exposure to UFPs is a relatively new field and in order to evaluate indoor UFP emissions accurately, it is vital to improve scientific understanding of the main parameters that influence particle number, surface area and mass emissions. The main purpose of this study was to characterise the particle emissions produced during grilling and frying as a function of the food, source, cooking temperature and type of oil. Emission factors, along with particle number concentrations and size distributions were determined in the size range 0.006-20 μm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field. Overall, increased emission factors were observed to be a function of increased cooking temperatures. Cooking fatty foods also produced higher particle emission factors than vegetables, mainly in terms of mass concentration, and particle emission factors also varied significantly according to the type of oil used.

  20. Epicondylitis among cooks in nursery schools

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Shimaoka, M.; Hiruta, S.; Hattori, Y.; Ichihara, G.; Kamijima, M.; Takeuchi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of epicondylitis among cooks in nursery schools in a cross sectional study because they are suspected to have strenuous workloads on the hands and arms. METHODS: Prevalence of epicondylitis among 209 nursery school cooks and 366 control workers aged 40-59 were studied. Both groups consisted of women workers chosen from 1299 subjects who agreed to participate from 1329 social welfare employees in a city. All workers were interviewed with a questionnaire and had a clinical examination of the tenderness to palpation of epicondyles and epicondylar pain provoked by resisted extension and flexion of the wrist. RESULTS: Nursery school cooks had a significantly higher prevalence of epicondylitis (11.5%) than the controls (2.5%). In a logistic regression model, job title of the cook was also found to have a strong association with epicondylitis (odds ratio (OR) 5.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.4 to 11.9) after adjustment for age, body length, and body mass index. Weaker associations were also found between epicondylitis and suspected job stress or workload scores for mechanical workload and psychosocial stressors based on factor analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the hypothesis that nursery school cooks had a higher prevalence of epicondylitis than other workers with less strenuous hand and arm tasks. It was suggested that risk factors of epicondylitis would be multifactorial, including mechanical workload and psychosocial factors.   PMID:9624268

  1. Influence of cooking method on arsenic retention in cooked rice related to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Arifur; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Miah, M A Majid

    2006-10-15

    Arsenic concentration in raw rice is not only the determinant in actual dietary exposure. Though there have been many reports on arsenic content in raw rice and different tissues of rice plant, little is known about arsenic content retained in cooked rice after being cooked following the traditional cooking methods employed by the people of arsenic epidemic areas. A field level experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the influence of cooking methods on arsenic retention in cooked rice. Rice samples were collected directly from a severely arsenic affected area and also from an unaffected area, to compare the results. Rice was cooked according to the traditional methods employed by the population of subjected areas. Arsenic concentrations were 0.40+/-0.03 and 0.58+/-0.12 mg/kg in parboiled rice of arsenic affected area, cooked with excess water and 1.35+/-0.04 and 1.59+/-0.07 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. In non-parboiled rice, arsenic concentrations were 0.39+/-0.04 and 0.44+/-0.03 mg/kg in rice cooked with excess water and 1.62+/-0.07 and 1.74+/-0.05 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Total arsenic content in rice, cooked with limited water (therefore gruel was absorbed completely by rice) were 0.89+/-0.07 and 1.08+/-0.06 mg/kg (parboiled) and 0.75+/-0.04 and 1.09+/-0.06 mg/kg (non-parboiled) for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Water used for cooking rice contained 0.13 and 0.01 mg of As/l for contaminated and non-contaminated areas, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in cooked parboiled and non-parboiled rice and gruel of non-contaminated area were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of contaminated area. The results imply that cooking of arsenic contaminated rice with arsenic contaminated water increases its concentration in cooked rice.

  2. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    PubMed

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  3. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  4. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Advances in solar cooking: Proceedings of the first world conference on solar cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Pejack, E.

    1992-12-31

    Population growth and resource depletion have led to a need for new sources of cooking fuel in developing countries. Many poor villagers spend half of their time, or half of their income obtaining cooking fuel. Solar cooking can meet the needs of many of these people. People from eighteen countries met at this world conference to share experiences with design and performance of cookers, food, nutrition and health issues, and information dissemination strategies. A total of 27 individual papers were indexed separately for the data base.

  6. Cooking in the Classroom: The Doorway to Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, Maryellen Smith

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that teachers can introduce young children to good nutrition and strengthen their well-being by incorporating cooking into the classroom. Also suggests ways for incorporating cooking activities into the classroom. (BB)

  7. Li- and F-bearing alkali amphibole from granitic pegmatite at Hurricane Mountain, Carroll County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Erd, Richard C.; Robie, S.B.; Lichte, F.E.; King, V.T.

    1996-01-01

    At Hurricane Mountain, Carroll County, New Hampshire, bodies of granitic pegmatite in riebeckite granite contain large (up to 10 cm long and 2 cm across) primary crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite in miarolitic cavities, grading to euhedral Li- and F-poor arfvedsonite. Fine-grained, fibrous, light blue-gray riebeckite occurs as a late-stage hydrothermal filling in the miarolitic cavities. The early, Li-rich, fluor-arfvedsonite has: a 9.836(5), b 17.997(7), c 5.316(4) A??, ?? 103.735(4)??, V 914.20(6) A??3; Z = 2, Dmeas. 3.34 g/cm3, Dcalc. 3.353 g/cm3; biaxial (-), 2Vmeas. 44(1)??, 2Vcalc. 46??; ?? 1.681(2), ?? 1.692(2), ?? 1.694(2), inclined dispersion, r > v; X ??? c -7??, Y = b, Z ??? a +7??; X dark blue, Y lavender gray, Z pale yellowish brown; X > Y > Z; X is opaque at 0.03 mm thickness. A structural formula, on the basis of 24 (O,OH,F) atoms is: (Na0.86K0.25)Na2(Fe2+2.54Fe3+1.485Mn0.10Zn 0.02Li0.49Ti0.07)(Si7.71Al 0.07)O22(F1.34OH0.63). Arfvedsonite within the miarolitic cavities contains less Li and F than that of the earlier generation, and the still later riebeckite contains only 0.09 wt.% Li2O and 0.3 wt.% F. The Fe3+:Fe2+ ratio of the early Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite and that of the euhedral arfvedsonite crystals within miarolitic cavities is 0.58. The late, fibrous, cavity-filling riebeckite has an Fe3+:Fe2+ ratio of 0.99. The total iron content of the three amphiboles increases with continued crystallization. These amphiboles are products of peralkaline pegmatites locally derived from peralkaline granite.

  8. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  9. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  10. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  11. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  12. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  13. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A diversity panel of 250 dry bean lines from the Andean gene pool was evaluated for cooking time. Cooking time ranged from 17 to 90 min with an average of 36 min. A faster cooking time was also correlated with a number of other seed characteristics, most notably, higher levels of boron and potassium...

  14. Energy Use and Quality of Foods Cooked by Different Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odland, Dianne; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors compared energy consumption, cooking time, and quality of five foods cooked using electric range surface units and oven, induction cooktop, electric frypan, microwave oven, and toaster oven. The induction cooktop was among the most energy conserving. For most products, cooking treatment had little impact on quality. (Author/CH)

  15. "Savoir Fare": Are Cooking Skills a New Morality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coveney, John; Begley, Andrea; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in cooking skills in a diverse range of fields, such as health, education and public policy. There appears to be an assumption that cooking skills are in decline and that this is having an adverse impact on individual health and well-being, and family wholesomeness. The problematisation of cooking skills…

  16. The Cooking Book: Fostering Young Children's Learning and Delight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colker, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Here is a book that invites teachers to the table--even those of us who don't see ourselves as cooks--to create tasty, wholesome projects with children. Young children certainly love to cook, and cooking experiences give them a chance to see a task through to completion and take pride in a product. As they prepare food, children learn social…

  17. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  18. COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (LR) NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (L-R) NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A), SPILLWAY (MI-98-B), PENSTOCK ENTRANCES, POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C), AND SOUTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-E). VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  19. Cooking Skills Instruction with Severely Multiply Handicapped Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Debbie; Maggs, Alex

    1986-01-01

    Examination of the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of three cooking skills by three multiply and severely handicapped blind adolescents revealed that a "whole task" approach was successful in teaching the subjects to boil an egg, grill cheese, and cook a TV dinner. These skills also generalized to other cooking products. (Author/CB)

  20. Energy Use and Quality of Foods Cooked by Different Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odland, Dianne; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors compared energy consumption, cooking time, and quality of five foods cooked using electric range surface units and oven, induction cooktop, electric frypan, microwave oven, and toaster oven. The induction cooktop was among the most energy conserving. For most products, cooking treatment had little impact on quality. (Author/CH)

  1. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  2. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  3. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  4. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  5. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik and Bialystok, 2006) as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task. Patients also completed the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003) and prepared actual meals that were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on) relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients' Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency. PMID:25228863

  6. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  7. Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

  8. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... OCMI to be necessary for safety. (e) Sea rails, with suitable barriers to prevent accidental...

  9. Size distributions of submicrometer aerosols from cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.S.; Lin, W.H.; Jeng, F.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Although gas stove usage varies from country to country, it is still one of the major indoor combustion sources. In order to assess the health effects of using gas stoves, the physical characteristics of the particle emissions from cooking were conducted in a first-floor apartment in the Taipei area. The particle size distributions from scrambling eggs, frying chicken, and cooking soup were measured in the kitchen by a high resolution particle sizer, which could measure the particles in the size range of 0.01 [mu]m to 1 [mu]m. The concentrations of the submicrometer particles increased significantly from 15,000 cm[sup [minus]3] to 150,000 cm[sup [minus]3] during cooking. Additionally, the ultrafine particles constituted 60%--70% of the total submicron aerosols. The changes in the size distributions and the concentrations of the submicrometer aerosols before, during, and after the aerosol generations were compared. On the average, the median diameters of scrambling eggs, frying chicken, cooking soup, and of the background conditions were 40 nm, 50 nm, 30 nm, and 70 nm, respectively. Regarding the surface area-weighted size distributions, the surface median diameters of the four situations were 180 nm, 300 nm, 150 nm, and 220 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the volume median diameters in the conditions mentioned above were almost similar, namely 300--350 nm. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mutagenic heterocyclic imidazoamines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Shen, N.H.; Wu, Rebekah; Becher, G.

    1987-06-01

    Cooking ground beef at 300/sup 0/C produces at least 8 distinct mutagens. All of these compounds fit into a general chemical class called aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs). Our studies suggest that most of this set of AIAs are present in cooked beef, pork, and chicken. Described in this manuscript are two new mutagens that appear to have oxygen atoms in the ring system. The amounts of these very potent bacterial mutagens vary from 20 ppB to <0.1 ppB depending on the mutagen, cooking conditions, and food tested. The production of these mutagens in food depends on the presence of creatine or creatinine and specific amino acids and cooking temperatures between 150 to 300/sup 0/C for an appropriate period of time. In CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, the relative potency of the compounds differed significantly from the bacterial responses. The risk from consuming these compounds is still very unclear because of their relatively low levels in our diet and the lack of consistency in the biological response data. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Arsenic bioaccessibility in cooked rice as affected by arsenic in cooking water.

    PubMed

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Haris, Parvez I

    2012-11-01

    Rice can easily accumulate arsenic (As) into its grain and is known to be the highest As-containing cereal. In addition, the As burden in rice may increase during its processing (such as when cooking using As-polluted water). The health risk posed by the presence of As in cooked rice depends on its release from the matrix along the digestive system (bioaccessibility). Two types of white polished long-grain rice, namely, nonparboiled and parboiled (total As: 202 and 190 μg As kg(-1), respectively), were cooked in excess of water with different levels of As (0, 10, 47, 222, and 450 μg As L(-1)). The bioaccessibility of As from these cooked rice batches was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion process. Rice cooked with water containing 0 and 10 μg As L(-1) showed lower As concentrations than the raw (uncooked) rice. However, cooking water with relatively high As content (≥ 47 μg As L(-1)) significantly increased the As concentration in the cooked rice up to 8- and 9-fold for the nonparboiled and parboiled rice, respectively. Parboiled rice, which is most widely consumed in South Asia, showed a higher percentage of As bioaccessibility (59% to 99%) than nonparboiled rice (36% to 69%) and most of the As bioaccessible in the cooked rice (80% to 99%) was released easily during the first 2 h of digestion. The estimation of the As intake through cooked rice based on the As bioaccessibility highlights that a few grams of cooked rice (less than 25 g dry weight per day) cooked with highly As contaminated water is equivalent to the amount of As from 2 L water containing the maximum permissible limit (10 μg As L(-1)). Studies on As bioaccessibility are needed for determining human As intake from rice for use in accurate risk assessments to establish updated legislation regarding maximum level of As in food. High As bioaccessibility from parboiled rice (consumed by the majority of the people in South Asia), and the findings of high As levels in discarded rice gruel

  12. Exposure to Cooking Oil Fumes and Oxidative Damages: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Military Cooks

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient [β], β= 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and (β= 0.07, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking-oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:22968348

  13. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for the production of...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and...

  14. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for the production of...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and...

  15. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Leonard J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Judd, Kayte M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Cliff, William C.; Pfund, David M.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  16. Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the cooking losses of minerals (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper), various food materials were analyzed before and after cooking, and the following results were obtained. (1) The mineral contents of cooked foods in mass cooking were on an average about 60-70 percent of those in raw or uncooked foods. (2) Cooking losses were particularly high in minerals of vegetables. (3) Among various cooking methods, loss of mineral was largest in squeezing after boil and in soaking in water after thin slice, followed by parching, frying and stewing. (4) Cooking losses of minerals in meals cooked in home brought about the similar results as those by the mass cooking procedures. (5) The measures to prevent cooking loss are (a) eating the boiled food with the soup, (b) addition of small amount of salt (about 1% NaCl) in boiling, (c) avoidance of too much boiling, (d) selection of a cooking method causing less mineral loss (stewing, frying or parching).

  17. Physico-chemical, textural and structural characteristics of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by vacuum, cooking temperature, and cooking time.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Gázquez, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the influence of different factors on sous-vide cooked pork. Pork cheeks were cooked at different combinations of temperature (60°C or 80°C), time (5 or 12h) and vacuum (vacuum or air packaged). Weight losses were lower and moisture content higher in samples cooked for a shorter time (P=0.054) and at a lower temperature (P<0.001). Samples cooked at 60°C showed more lightness (L*) and redness (a*) (P<0.001). Lipid oxidation showed an interaction between cooking time and temperature (P=0.007), with higher TBARs values for samples cooked for 12h at 60°C and lower for those cooked for 12h at 80°C. Samples cooked at 80°C for 12h showed lower (P<0.05) values for most textural parameters than all the other types of samples. Vacuum packaging showed no influence on any of the studied variables. For the treatments evaluated, cooking temperature×time combination seems to be more important than vacuum packaging in the textural and colour parameters of pork cheeks.

  18. Instrumentation of Slow Cook-off Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Harold

    2001-06-01

    Slow cook-off experiments are being conducted with measurements of temperature, pressure, and volume until the onset of reaction; and measurements of case velocity and blast overpressure during reaction. The goal is to relate changes in the energetic material during heating with time and position for onset of reaction plus reaction violence as a function of sample size, confinement, gas sealing, and heating profile. An apparatus in which the sample is confined by spring-loaded rams in a heated cylinder has been evaluated, both experimentally and computationally, with inert samples of Teflon. Experiments on the explosive PBXN-109 will be conducted and predicted without foreknowledge of the results. This effort is in conjunction with characterization of PBXN-109 and cook-off experiments in cylinders with fixed ends at the Naval Air Warfare Center/China Lake, and other characterization measurements as well as modeling at the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Cook-off resistant initiation trains

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, J.L.; Nichols, A.L. III; von Holle, W.G.; Lee, R.S.

    1992-03-26

    We have developed and tested initiation trains which are designed to withstand abnormal thermal environments. The design philosophy is to use a slapper detonator to initiate a small quantity of initiating explosive, whose mass is too small to permit a transition to detonation in a cook-off environment. We have successfully used PETN and HNS as the initiating explosive. The detonation of the initiating explosive drives a thin metal flyer plate onto an ultrafine-particle-size TATB booster which, in turn, initiates a main charge. The booster can be scaled to almost any size without compromising the cook-off resistance by using the ultrafine TATB to initiate a larger charge of LX-17 insensitive explosive as a secondary booster.

  20. New passive solar cooking system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schlussler, L.

    1981-11-01

    The development of a solar cooking system which uses a phase change process to passively transfer heat from a collector to a cooker is presented. In the design of this cooking system steam is produced in the collector and then is used as the heat transfer fluid in the cooker. The most efficient use of the system is to heat food directly by condensing the steam onto the food, whereas a heat exchanger is necessary to heat an oven or a frying pan. A pressure cooker was successfully built and tested using the steam from the collector. Brief discussions on the collector design and performance, and heat storage phase change materials are provided. (BCS)

  1. Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education policies in the United States: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  3. Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series.

    PubMed

    Nickrand, Heather L; Brock, Cara M

    2017-02-01

    Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to address irrational beliefs, feelings of depression or anger, and avoidance or numbing behaviors with a goal of leading the individual to adapting to a life, which no longer includes the lost loved one. As part of the bereavement counseling program in a hospice, a need was identified in individuals who had lost loved ones and were having difficulty with adjusting to meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one. To address this need for grief counseling centered on meal planning, grocery shopping, meal preparations, and eating meals alone, "Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series" was developed with a local Culinary Arts Program. Partnering with a local community college culinary arts program, the Cooking for One Series provides an interactive venue for cognitive behavioral therapy centered on meal planning and meal times. Along with demonstrations and hands-on experiences, participants are engaged in bereavement counseling with hospice staff. Initial reactions to Culinary Grief Therapy have been positive. Many attendees have participated in multiple workshops, and the number of participants grows for each offering. Culinary Grief Therapy is a novel approach to the needs of those experiencing the loss of a loved one and may reduce or prevent complicated grief associated with meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one.

  4. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. PMID:24966268

  5. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  6. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and oxidative damages: a longitudinal study in Chinese military cooks.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde, which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to COF and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient (β), β=0.06, 95% CI 0.001-0.12) and (β=0.07, 95% CI 0.001-0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  7. The structural features of hemicelluloses dissolved out at different cooking stages of active oxygen cooking process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin; Lin, Lu

    2014-04-15

    This work described the morphologic changes of corn stalk and the structural characterization of its hemicelluloses dissolved in yellow liquor at different cooking stages. The results showed that active oxygen cooking process was an efficient method to depolymerize the corn stalk into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as a pretreatment of biomass conversion. This cooking process can also be divided into three phases: bulk delignification, extended delignification, and residual delignification. During the heating-up period 57.67% of hemicelluloses and 62.31% of lignin were removed from the raw material. However, only 15% of hemicelluloses and 23.21% of lignin were removed during at temperature' period. The hemicelluloses from the corn stalk and yellow liquor were composed of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose backbones substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl, 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid, and some methoxyl residues. The backbones of hemicelluloses were gradually cleaved during the cooking process. The acetyl groups substituted with xylopyranosyl residues were completely cleaved during the cooking process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  9. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  10. Does it Make Sense to Speak of Self-Locating Uncertainty in the Universal Wave Function? Remarks on Sebens and Carroll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Following a proposal of Vaidman (Int Stud Philos Sci 12:245-261, 1998) (in: Zalta EN (ed) The Stanford encyclopaedia of philosophy, 2014) (in: Ben-Menahem Y, Hemmo M (ed) The probable and the improbable: understanding probability in physics, essays in memory of Itamar Pitowsky, 2011), Sebens and Carroll (Quantum theory: a two-time success story 2014), (arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.7577 2014) have argued that in Everettian (i.e. purely unitary) quantum theory, observers are uncertain, before they complete their observation, about which Everettian branch they are on. They argue further that this solves the problem of making sense of probabilities within Everettian quantum theory, even though the theory itself is deterministic. We note some problems with these arguments.

  11. Dynamical evolution of shear-free gravitational collapse in the background of generalized Carroll-Duvvuri-Trodden-Turner f(R) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana

    2014-04-01

    In connection to our previous work on the aspect of dynamical instability of gravitational collapse by using well-known f(R) models, here we have adopted the same problem in the framework of generalized Carroll-Duvvuri-Trodden-Turner f(R) model. This model combines both the previous models addressed by Sharif & Kausar and Kausar in spherical and cylindrical symmetry, respectively. In this paper, we also include the worthwhile condition of shear-free dynamical evolution to discuss the instability problem of collapsing stars in the form of adiabatic index. Shear-free condition represents the isotropic relative motion of the departing Galaxies in cosmology whereas in strong gravity it causes the appearance of a naked singularity by violating cosmic censorship hypothesis. Moreover, the obtained generalized results are reduced to some special cases which yield dependence of instability equation on many constraints between effective curvature terms.

  12. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math performance was assessed via math calculation and math reasoning tasks. Instruments include the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Participants were 158 college students with a diagnosed LD in math. Multiple regression analyses found that Processing Speed and Working Memory were related to Math Calculation scores and that Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, and Working Memory were related to Math Reasoning. Implications for the assessment of math LD in the college populations are discussed.

  13. Do the poor sue more? A case-control study of malpractice claims and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Burstin, H R; Johnson, W G; Lipsitz, S R; Brennan, T A

    1993-10-13

    To evaluate whether socioeconomic status is associated with risk of malpractice claims, particularly among those who have suffered medical injury. Case-control study. Fifty-one hospitals in New York State. The presence and severity of medical injury, defined as disability at the time of discharge or prolongation of the hospitalization caused by medical treatment as opposed to the disease process, were assessed through review of approximately 31,000 hospital records in New York in 1984. These sampled records were then linked to formal malpractice claims. To estimate the risk of malpractice claims by age, gender, race, insurance status, and income, we conducted a case-control study of claimant cases matched with nonclaimant controls. The cases were all those patients who filed malpractice claims referring to alleged malpractice during a sampled hospitalization. Physician reviewers had previously judged the level of disability that resulted from the medical injury. Claimants (n = 51) were each matched with five nonclaimant controls on the basis of injury. Noninjured cases were matched with noninjured controls and injured cases were matched with injured controls. We found that poor patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.8) and uninsured patients (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.005 to 0.9) were significantly less likely to file malpractice claims, after controlling for the severity of medical injury. Among patients who suffered medical injury, the elderly (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.9) were also less likely to file claims. Gender and race were not independently associated with risk of malpractice claims. Poor and uninsured patients are significantly less likely to sue for malpractice, even after controlling for the presence of medical injury. Fear of malpractice risk should not be a significant factor in the decision to serve the poor. Tort reforms that would protect physicians who serve the medically indigent from malpractice suits may not be

  14. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples.

  15. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmia, B.; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Sidek, L. M.; Hidayah, B.

    2013-06-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  16. Review of factors impacting emission/concentration of cooking generated particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Unluevcek, Hediye Sumru; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-05-15

    Studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) emitted while cooking is related to adverse human health effects. The level of PM emissions during cooking varies with several factors. This study reviewed controlled studies available in the cooking PM emissions literature, and found that cooking method, type and quality of the energy (heating) source, burner size, cooking pan, cooking oil, food, additives, source surface area, cooking temperature, ventilation and position of the cooking pan on the stove are influential factors affecting cooking PM emission rates and resulting concentrations. Opportunities to reduce indoor PM concentrations during cooking are proposed. Minor changes in cooking habits and manner might result in a substantial reduction in the cook's exposure to the cooking PM. Finally, the need for additional studies is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  18. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A

    2009-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.

  19. Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

    2013-02-01

    The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively.

  20. Simply Great Cooking Instruction. A Manual for Teaching Cooking to Non-Reading Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesto, Cameron

    This manual presents a method of teaching cooking to nonreaders. The language of the method consists of visual symbols, such as drawings of bowls, spoons, and ingredients, and color. The "Simply Great" method consists of three basic formats: the one-step booklet, the full-page format, and the simply written for the student with some…

  1. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  2. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  3. How Do Cooks Actually Cook Vegetables? A Field Experiment With Low-Income Households.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables in the diet contribute to disease prevention. However, low-income households underconsume fresh vegetables, perhaps because of cost and of unavailability at nearby stores. A third reason may lurk behind those barriers: cooks' unfamiliarity with various and appealing ways to prepare vegetables. To illuminate that possibility and to suggest interventions that could be designed more effectively to boost vegetable consumption, this study took the novel step of providing ample, if temporary, supplies of a fresh vegetable to random sets of clients of food pantries. A week later, telephone interviews obtained details about preparations of meals and snacks that household cooks had made with their unexpected bounty. Among the experiment's 10 vegetables, some were used twice as often as others. Even more striking, cooks practiced a narrow repertoire of preparation methods, dominated by boiling and steaming, across most of the vegetables. Fats and salt were often added to boiled and steamed preparations. Implications are drawn to suggest kinds of recipes-pairings of vegetables and of vegetables with underused means of preparation-that could expand cooks' repertoires and add variety in flavors, appearances of dishes, meal textures, and aromas. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Solar cooking in India--Promotion aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, R.P.; Rajagopal, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes efforts to promote the use of solar cookers in India. The advantages of the cookers are presented followed by a description of solar cooking research, education activities, and government programs to promote use of solar energy. Major constraints to solar use are discussed and these include a range of situations: adapting cookers for various types of food preparation; safety factors in leaving cookers outside; weather problems; and expense of equipment. The author concludes with a list of recommendations to promote more efficient use of non-conventional energy sources.

  5. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  6. Instrumentation of Slow Cook-Off Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.; Chambers, G. P.

    2002-07-01

    An arrangement was developed for validating models of slow cook-off. Experiments were conducted on the explosive PBXN-109 with measurements of temperature, pressure, and volume until the onset of reaction; and measurements of case velocity and blast overpressure during reaction. The goal is to relate changes in the energetic material during heating with time and position for onset of reaction plus reaction violence as a function of sample size, confinement, gas sealing, and heating profile. A mild range of reactions occurred as evidenced by fragmentation of the confinement into mostly large pieces; however, at the highest confinement no sample was recovered.

  7. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks.

    PubMed

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben; Svendsen, Kristin; Romundstad, Pål R; Qvenild, Torgunn; Strømholm, Tonje; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00). The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Domestic Cooking and Food Skills: A Review.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2015-11-30

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions (Rees et al. 2012 ; Reicks et al. 2014 ) provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs: qualitative; cross-sectional; and dietary interventions; conducted from 1998-2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data was available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and FV intake were reported; though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g. food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behaviour and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  10. Cook It Up! A community-based cooking program for at-risk youth: overview of a food literacy intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6) completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society. PMID:22085523

  11. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each electric space heater for heating rooms and compartments must be provided with thermal cutouts to...

  12. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each electric space heater for heating rooms and compartments must be provided with thermal cutouts to...

  13. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each electric space heater for heating rooms and compartments must be provided with thermal cutouts to...

  14. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each electric space heater for heating rooms and compartments must be provided with thermal cutouts to...

  15. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  16. Cooking and Eating with Children: A Way to Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Oralie; And Others

    This pamphlet describes ways for children and caregivers to plan, cook, and eat together, blending practical health suggestions with sound educational philosophy. The ideas and concepts children can learn from cooking are outlined (e.g. motor skills, language, mathematics, executive abilities, etc.), and the importance of eating with children,…

  17. A Formative Evaluation of the Cooking with a Chef Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Griffin, Sara G.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Clark, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Cooking with a Chef a culinary nutrition education series teams a chef and nutrition educator during cooking sessions with parents. Pilot program results were shared in the "Journal of Extension" in 2006. This formative evaluation presents data collected through focus groups and individual interviews examining program implementation,…

  18. Microwave Cooking: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of California Foods Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Laura D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)

  19. Microwave Cooking: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of California Foods Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Laura D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)

  20. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  1. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  2. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scientific journals were considered in order to assess the effect of cooking on different phytochemical classes. Changes in phytochemicals upon cooking may result from two opposite phenomena: (1) thermal degradation, which reduces their concentration, and (2) a matrix softening effect, which increases the extractability of phytochemicals, resulting in a higher concentration with respect to the raw material. The final effect of cooking on phytochemical concentration depends on the processing parameters, the structure of food matrix, and the chemical nature of the specific compound. Looking at the different cooking procedures it can be concluded that steaming will ensure better preservation/extraction yield of phenols and glucosinolates than do other cooking methods: steamed tissues are not in direct contact with the cooking material (water or oil) so leaching of soluble compounds into water is minimised and, at the same time, thermal degradation is limited. Carotenoids showed a different behaviour; a positive effect on extraction and the solubilisation of carotenes were reported after severe processing. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  4. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  5. A Formative Evaluation of the Cooking with a Chef Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Griffin, Sara G.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Clark, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Cooking with a Chef a culinary nutrition education series teams a chef and nutrition educator during cooking sessions with parents. Pilot program results were shared in the "Journal of Extension" in 2006. This formative evaluation presents data collected through focus groups and individual interviews examining program implementation,…

  6. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  7. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  8. Characterization of indoor cooking aerosol using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Suspended particles in air are potentially harmful to human health, depending on their sizes and chemical composition. Residential indoor particles mainly come from (a) outdoor sources that are transported indoors, (b) indoor dust that is resuspended, and (c) indoor combustion sources, which include cigarette smoking, cooking, and heating. Jedrychowski stated that chronic phlegm in elderly women was strongly related to the cooking exposure. Kamens et al. indicated that cooking could generate small particles (<0.1 [mu]m), and cooking one meal could contribute [approximately]5 to 18% of total daytime particle volume exposure. Although cooking is a basic human activity, there are not many data available on the properties of particles generated by this activity. Some cooking methods, such as stir-frying and frying, which are the most favored for Chinese and other Far East people, generate a large quantity of aerosols. This research included the following efforts: 1. investigating particle number concentrations, distributions, and their variations with four different cooking methods and ventilation conditions; 2. measuring the chemical composition of cooking aerosol samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  9. Cooking Up a Learning Community with Corn, Beans, and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes using cooking as a vehicle for creating community among three culturally diverse classrooms of prekindergartners and third graders. Notes how the choice of corn, beans, and rice in the cooking exercise planted the roots of understanding, tolerance, and compassion, and an appreciation of diversity. (SD)

  10. Various cooking methods and the flavonoid content in onion.

    PubMed

    Ioku, K; Aoyama, Y; Tokuno, A; Terao, J; Nakatani, N; Takei, Y

    2001-02-01

    Onion is a major source of flavonoids and is cooked in various ways in the world. The major flavonoids in onion are two quercetin glycosides, quercetin 4'-O-beta-glucoside (Q4'G) and quercetin 3,4'-O-beta-diglucosides (Q3,4'G), which are recognized as bioactive substances that are good for our health. We have investigated the effect of cooking procedures on the content of antioxidants. We selected quercetin conjugates, total phenol compounds, and ascorbic acid to estimate the amount of flavonoid ingestion from onion. We examined the following cooking methods: boiling, frying with oil and butter, and microwave cooking. Various cooking methods do not consider the degradation of quercetin conjugates when cooking onion. Microwave cooking without water better retains flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Frying does not affect flavonoid intake. The boiling of onion leads to about 30% loss of quercetin glycosides, which transfers to the boiling water. At that time, the effect of additives on the quercetin conjugates is different according to the compounds. The hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides for daily cooking might occur with the addition of seasonings such as glutamic acid. Additional ferrous ions accelerated the loss of flavonoids.

  11. Cooking Up a Learning Community with Corn, Beans, and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes using cooking as a vehicle for creating community among three culturally diverse classrooms of prekindergartners and third graders. Notes how the choice of corn, beans, and rice in the cooking exercise planted the roots of understanding, tolerance, and compassion, and an appreciation of diversity. (SD)

  12. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  13. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna K.; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J.; Jones, Trevor R.; Wigley, Paul; Cross, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs’ ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public’s preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%–52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%–98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  14. Genotoxicity of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Ko, Y C; Lee, H

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The induction factors of the SOS chromotest in Escherichia coli PQ 37 were dependent on the concentrations of lard and soybean cooking oil extracts without S9 mix. In addition, when CHO-K1 cells were exposed to condensates of cooking oil fumes for 12 h, SCEs showed a dose-related increase in extracts of lard and soybean oil fumes. This result provides experimental evidence and is in accordance with the findings of epidemiologic studies that women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at an increase risk of contracting lung cancer. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Monique; van den Top, Hester; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Lopez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-12-15

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83-100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cooking losses of thiamin in food and its nutritional significance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Fujiwara, M

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the discrepancy between values of thiamin intake reported in national nutrition survey in Japan and judgment which was concluded by medical and biochemical examination in our field survey, thiamin of various daily foods were analyzed pre and post cooking in the various cooking methods, the following results were obtained. (1) The thiamin contents in cooked daily meals were 50-60 percent of the calculated values on an average. (2) The cooking losses of thiamin were particularly large in rice and green vegetables. (3) The loss of thiamin largest in boiling, followed by baking, parching and frying. (4) High temperature, pH, and chlorine on the public water accelerated thiamin losses. (5) The decrease of thiamin in cooked foods is caused by both of getting away of thiamin from foods and cleavage of thiamin of foods.

  18. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  19. Volatile compounds profile of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by cooking conditions (vacuum packaging, temperature and time).

    PubMed

    del Pulgar, Jose Sanchez; Roldan, Mar; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2013-10-10

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  20. Effects of high-temperature pressure cooking and traditional cooking on soymilk: Protein particles formation and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Feng; Peng, Xingyun; Shi, Xiaodi; Guo, Shuntang

    2016-10-15

    This study focused on the effect of high-temperature pressure cooking on the sensory quality of soymilk. Soymilk was prepared by high-temperature pressure cooking (105-125°C and 0.12-0.235MPa) and traditional cooking (97°C and 0.1MPa). The size distribution and composition of protein particles and the rheological properties of soymilk were compared. Results showed that the content of protein particles and the average size of soymilk particles were higher in high-temperature pressure cooking than in traditional cooking (p<0.05). High-temperature pressure cooking affected soymilk protein denaturation and favored protein aggregation. Similar to traditional soymilk, soymilk cooked at 115°C was categorized as a Newtonian fluid but was found with increased viscosity in the rheological test. Soymilk cooked at 115°C for 10min exhibited a homogeneous, smooth, and creamy texture with a high acceptability in the sensory test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of infrared radiation, solar cooking and microwave cooking on alpha-amylase inhibitor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    PubMed

    Mulimani, V H; Supriya, D

    1994-10-01

    Three domestic cooking methods were studied in alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in sorghum grains. In all the treatments, overnight soaked seeds lost amylase inhibitory activity much faster. All the three treatments reduced the inhibitory activity. Use of solar cooker for reducing amylase inhibitory activity works out very economically and efficiently. Microwave cooking eliminates amylase inhibitory activity within 5 minutes.

  2. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) Methodologies for School Facilities: A Case Study of the V. Sue Cleveland High School Post Occupancy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Marcel; Larroque, Andre; Maniktala, Nate

    2012-01-01

    The New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority (NMPSFA) is the agency responsible for administering state-funded capital projects for schools statewide. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is the tool selected by NMPSFA for measuring project outcomes. The basic POE process for V. Sue Cleveland High School (VSCHS) consisted of a series of field…

  3. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) Methodologies for School Facilities: A Case Study of the V. Sue Cleveland High School Post Occupancy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Marcel; Larroque, Andre; Maniktala, Nate

    2012-01-01

    The New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority (NMPSFA) is the agency responsible for administering state-funded capital projects for schools statewide. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is the tool selected by NMPSFA for measuring project outcomes. The basic POE process for V. Sue Cleveland High School (VSCHS) consisted of a series of field…

  4. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  5. Individuals with severe mental illnesses have improved eating behaviors and cooking skills after attending a 6-week nutrition cooking class.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alena; Bezyak, Jill; Testerman, Nora

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed current meal planning/cooking behaviors and dietary intake of individuals with severe mental illnesses and determined differences after a 6-week nutrition education cooking class. Eighteen individuals with severe mental illnesses participated in a 6-week nutrition education cooking class and completed pre- and posttest 24-hr recalls and a postretrospective survey. Paired samples t tests were used. Participants met their calories needs, but they consumed high amounts of sodium and fat and low amounts of fiber. Significant increases in calcium, vitamin D, grains, and fruit occurred from pre- to posttest (p < .05). Self-efficacy in cooking and grocery shopping skills improved. Participants desire nutrition education programming that includes simple messages, hands-on cooking demonstrations, and health-related incentives. More research is needed to determine how nutrition education programs lead to sustained knowledge and behavior change within this specialized population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Mutagens from heated Chinese and U.S. cooking oils.

    PubMed

    Shields, P G; Xu, G X; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F; Trivers, G E; Pellizzari, E D; Qu, Y H; Gao, Y T; Harris, C C

    1995-06-07

    The lung cancer incidence in Chinese women is among the highest in the world, but tobacco smoking accounts for only a minority of the cancers. Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Chinese women have implicated exposure to indoor air pollution from wok cooking, where the volatile emissions from unrefined cooking oils are mutagenic. This study was conducted to identify and quantify the potentially mutagenic substances emitted from a variety of cooking oils heated to the temperatures typically used in wok cooking. Several cooking oils and fatty acids were heated in a wok to boiling, at temperatures (for the cooking oils) that ranged from 240 degrees C to 280 degrees C (typical cooking temperatures in Shanghai, China). The oils tested were unrefined Chinese rapeseed, refined U.S. rapeseed (known as canola), Chinese soybean, and Chinese peanut in addition to linolenic, linoleic, and erucic fatty acids. Condensates of the emissions were collected and tested in the Salmonella mutation assay (using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA104). Volatile decomposition products also were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Aldehydes were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy. 1,3-Butadiene, benzene, acrolein, formaldehyde, and other related compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively detected, with emissions tending to be highest for unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil and lowest for peanut oil. The emission of 1,3-butadiene and benzene was approximately 22-fold and 12-fold higher, respectively, from heated unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil than from heated peanut oil. Lowering the cooking temperatures or adding an antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, before cooking decreased the amount of these volatile emissions. Among the individual fatty acids tested, heated linolenic acid produced the greatest quantities of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and acrolein. Separately, the mutagenicity of individual

  7. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  8. Energy-Efficient Cooking of Spaghetti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Akash

    2011-03-01

    Spaghetti is a dual-career family dinner favorite. But how much energy is consumed in the process, and how can it be optimized? I performed an experiment to test two methods for preparing a spaghetti meal. In both cases, the water was rapidly heated to the boiling point. The flame was kept at maximum for the first experiment until the spaghetti was cooked. In the second experiment, the flame was reduced and the top covered, such that the water was kept at 100C. The two methods are compared in terms of the total time required to prepare the meal and amount of energy required. A discussion of potential savings for the latter method--and possible uses for that savings--is discussed.

  9. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (P<0.001), being lower in foal steaks cooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (P<0.001) by thermal treatment, since the smallest WHC values were observed in samples from microwave treatment. Thermal treatment also caused a significant (P<0.001) increase in the force needed to cut the foal steaks. Regarding colour parameter, cooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  11. Aging: physical difficulties and safety in cooking tasks.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N I; Davies, S

    2012-01-01

    It is known that many older people have difficulties in performing daily living activities such as cooking. These are due to the demands of the tasks and the changes in functional capabilities of the older people. This study examines cooking tasks performed by the aged that includes preparing and cooking meals, and storing kitchen tools in the kitchen. The objectives are to investigate the cooking difficulties encounter by older people and the safety concerning cooking tasks. This study focuses on individuals of age 65 years and above who can cook for themselves and/or family. Data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires and role play methods. The findings revealed that the common problems were due to the awkward body position where subjects had to bend down to take things from lower shelves, taking/storing things on higher shelves and cleaning the cooker. Moreover, the safety concerns were the layout of work centres (storage, cooker and sink), the use of cooker and opening packaging. It can be concluded that cooking difficulties are caused by inappropriate kitchen design and the decline of functional capabilities in older people.

  12. Food, cooking skills, and health: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, a major shift in North American food practices has been taking place. However, the literature on this topic is lacking in several areas. Some available research on food and cooking practices in the current context is presented, with a focus on how these are affecting health and how they might be contributing to health inequalities within the population. First, cooking and cooking skills are examined, along with the ambiguities related to terms associated with cooking in the research literature. Food choice, cooking, and health are described, particularly in relation to economic factors that may lead to health inequalities within the population. The importance of developing an understanding of factors within the wider food system as part of food choice and cooking skills is presented, and gaps in the research literature are examined and areas for future research are presented. Cooking practices are not well studied but are important to an understanding of human nutritional health as it relates to cultural, environmental, and economic factors.

  13. Representation of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities in the Factor Structure of the Dutch-Language Version of the WAIS-IV.

    PubMed

    van Aken, Loes; van der Heijden, Paul T; van der Veld, William M; Hermans, Laureen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2017-06-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has been guiding in the revision of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV). Especially the measurement of fluid reasoning (Gf) is improved. A total of five CHC abilities are included in the WAIS-IV subtests. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a five-factor model based on these CHC abilities is evaluated and compared with the four index scores in the Dutch-language version of the WAIS-IV. Both models demonstrate moderate fit, preference is given to the five-factor CHC model both on statistical and theoretical grounds. Evaluation of the WAIS-IV according to CHC terminology enhances uniformity, and can be important when interpreting possible sources of index discrepancies. To optimally assemblage CHC and WAIS-IV, more knowledge of the interaction of abilities is needed. This can be done by incorporating intelligence testing in neuropsychological assessment. Using this functional approach contributes to a better understanding of an individual's cognitive profile.

  14. An alternative Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor structure of the WAIS-IV: age invariance of an alternative model for ages 70-90.

    PubMed

    Niileksela, Christopher R; Reynolds, Matthew R; Kaufman, Alan S

    2013-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) is by the far the most popular intelligence test for the assessment of adults in clinical and neuropsychological practice. Despite a number of studies examining the factor structure of the WAIS-IV from a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective (Benson, Hulac, & Kranzler, 2010; Ward, Bergman, & Hebert, 2012), a CHC interpretation of the WAIS-IV for individuals ages 70 and above has been absent from the literature. The exclusion of individuals ages 70 and above in previous research is likely due to the absence of several key supplemental subtests used to create a full CHC model. We provide an alternative five-factor CHC model of the WAIS-IV which includes only the subtests administered to individuals ages 70 and above in the standardization sample. Our results show (a) the alternative CHC model fits the data well; (b) this alternative CHC model met criteria for partial strict measurement invariance across the life span (only Similarities showed noninvariance) using strict criteria; (c) the five factors for ages 70-90 measure the same five CHC broad abilities identified in previous analyses reported for ages 16-69; and (d) the five-factor CHC solution for ages 70-90 is valid for the entire WAIS-IV age range and can be used whenever examiners administer the core battery but opt not to administer supplemental subtests. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Predictive Value of Traditional Measures of Executive Function on Broad Abilities of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    van Aken, Loes; van der Heijden, Paul T; Oomens, Wouter; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropsychological construct of executive functions (EFs), and the psychometric Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities are both approaches that attempt to describe cognitive functioning. The coherence between EF and CHC abilities has been mainly studied using factor-analytical techniques. Through multivariate regression analysis, the current study now assesses the integration of these latent constructs in clinical assessment. The predictive power of six widely used executive tasks on five CHC measures (crystallized and fluid intelligence, visual processing, short-term memory, and processing speed) is examined. Results indicate that executive tasks-except for the Stroop and the Tower of London-predict overall performance on the intelligence tests. Differentiation in predicting performance between the CHC abilities is limited, due to a high shared variance between these abilities. It is concluded that executive processes such as planning and inhibition have a unique variance that is not well-represented in intelligence tests. Implications for the use of EF tests and operationalization of CHC measures in clinical practice are discussed.

  16. The effects of different cooking regimes on the cook yield and tenderness of non-injected and injection enhanced forequarter beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Walsh, H; Martins, S; O'Neill, E E; Kerry, J P; Kenny, T; Ward, P

    2010-03-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of different cooking regimes on the cook yield and tenderness of non-injected and brine injected (0.5% residual NaCl) bovine M. triceps brachii caput longum (TB), M. supraspinatus (SP) and M. pectoralis profundus (PP). Injected and non-injected TB, SP and PP muscle sections (400 g) were (a) conventionally oven cooked to 72 degrees C or cooked slowly (using a Delta10 programme) to 72 degrees C or (b) cooked in a water bath to 72 degrees C or cooked in a water bath to 55 degrees C and held at this temperature for 2 h before heating to 72 degrees C. In addition, injected PP muscle sections were oven cooked to 69 degrees C and held at this temperature for up to 12 h. Slow cooking using a Delta10 programme had no significant (P<0.05) effect on WBSF values of injected or non-injected SP and TB muscles but significantly (P<0.05) decreased the WBSF values of injected and non-injected PP muscles when compared to conventional cooking. Slow cooking significantly (P<0.05) increased % cook yield of injected PP, SP and TB muscles. Staged cooking significantly (P<0.05) decreased the WBSF values and had no significant effect on sensory tenderness ratings of non-injected TB, SP and PP muscles and injected PP muscles. Staged cooked injected or non-injected PP, SP and TB muscles had lower % cook yield values than those cooked straight to 72 degrees C. Increasing the cooking time of injected PP muscles at 69 degrees C to 8 and 12 h decreased % cook yield, decreased WBSF values and increased sensory tenderness ratings. It also alleviated the problem of residual chewiness which was evident in PP muscles cooked using the other regimes.

  17. The home that the Woman's Building built: Cheri Gaulke and Sue Maberry construct a visual narrative of the lesbian family.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Artists Cheri Gaulke and Sue Maberry's feminist activism learned at the Woman's Building, combined with their lesbianism, radicalized them to create ongoing documentation of their family. This article examines how Gaulke has intertwined her domestic, private imagery and narrative with her artistic, public work in a way that reveals a useful mode for her to examine the range of experiences as lesbian, parent, and artist. Thus, these two bodies of work co-exist and inform each other in her oeuvre and in her art with partner Maberry. They have created a kind of sexualized display sometimes inverting heteronormative conventions while other times presenting the family as a single unit, transgressive in its happiness and unity.

  18. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    PubMed

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  19. Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Korasapati, Nageswara Rao; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X.

    Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant advantages to cooking of meat and poultry products include extension of shelf life, desirable organoleptic properties, enhanced economic value, and assurance of safety of the products.

  20. Cooking with Kids positively affects fourth graders' vegetable preferences and attitudes and self-efficacy for food and cooking.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Lohse, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp (2) of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention.

  1. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  2. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    PubMed

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P < 0.05) when analyzed immediately after cooling; however, gel chewiness, cohesiveness and firmness indicated by Kramer force benefited from 24 h at 4 °C gel setting when stored post-cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P < 0.05) effect on texture when directly analyzed and most changes occurred in no-set gels. There were significant (P < 0.05) changes between directly analyzed and post-cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  4. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  5. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  6. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  7. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  8. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described in...

  9. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described in...

  10. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described in...

  11. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described in...

  12. Effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake in Bangladesh: results of field surveys and rice-cooking experiments.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Matsuo, Y; Kimura, T; Yanase, T; Rahman, M H; Magara, Y; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rice-cooking water to the daily arsenic intake of Bangladeshi people was investigated. At the first field survey, uncooked rice and cooked rice of 29 families were collected. Their arsenic concentrations were 0.22+/-0.11 and 0.26+/-0.15 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In 15 families, arsenic concentration in rice increased after cooking. Good correlation (R(2)=0.89) was observed between arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. In the second survey, we collected one-day duplicated food of 18 families. As a result, we estimated that six of 18 families likely used the arsenic contaminated water for cooking rice even they drank less arsenic-contaminated water for drinking purpose. We also conducted rice-cooking experiments in the laboratory, changing arsenic concentration in rice-cooking water. Clear linear relationships were obtained between the arsenic in rice-cooking water and the difference of arsenic concentration in rice by cooking. Factors that affect arsenic concentration in cooked rice are suggested as follows: (1) arsenic concentration in uncooked rice, (2) that in rice-cooking water, (3) difference in water content of rice before and after cooking, and (4) types of rice, especially, the difference between parboiled and non-parboiled rice.

  13. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ventilation. (b) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook and eat in a common facility... adequate for the intended use of the facility; and (5) adequate sinks with hot and cold water under...

  14. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ventilation. (b) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook and eat in a common facility... adequate for the intended use of the facility; and (5) adequate sinks with hot and cold water under...

  15. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ventilation. (b) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook and eat in a common facility... adequate for the intended use of the facility; and (5) adequate sinks with hot and cold water under...

  16. Heterocyclic amines: occurrence and prevention in cooked food.

    PubMed Central

    Robbana-Barnat, S; Rabache, M; Rialland, E; Fradin, J

    1996-01-01

    This article deals with the mutagenic heterocyclic amines, especially the aminoimidazoazaarenes family, isolated from cooked foods. The conditions which lead to their occurrence in foods are discussed. This formation primarily depends on the characteristics of the food, such as the type of the food and the presence of precursors, water, and lipids. Secondarily, it depends on the cooking modes where the temperature is considered to be the most important factor involved in their formation. As their formation during cooking represents a health risk, we present some ways and means to limit their formation by alternative cooking methods that tend to decrease heterocyclic amine concentrations in foods as they are implicated in cancer risks. PMID:8919766

  17. 13. VIEW, KITCHEN FIREPLACE (COOKING), SOUTHWEST ROOM (NOTE LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW, KITCHEN FIREPLACE (COOKING), SOUTHWEST ROOM (NOTE LADDER TO CRAWLSPACE, TWO FLUES AND TWO HEARTHS - ONE BEHIND STOVE) - Belleview, 3201 Steed Road, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, September, 1969 VIEW OF COOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, September, 1969 VIEW OF COOKING (KITCHEN) FIREPLACE, SOUTH WALL OF NORTHEAST ROOM FIRST FLOOR. - Augustus Lucas House, 40 Division Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. 19. Topside facility, crew kitchen, view towards cook's office. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Topside facility, crew kitchen, view towards cook's office. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  20. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    PubMed

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  1. 47. Spring 1935 Harold J. Cook, photographer "Summit Road construction. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Spring 1935 Harold J. Cook, photographer "Summit Road construction. Early stage of road tunnel construction, while tunnel was being driven on Summit Road, Scotts Bluff National Monument." - Scotts Bluff Summit Road, Gering, Scotts Bluff County, NE

  2. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium.

  3. 1. Photocopy of an engravingca, 18501859 DANFORTH, COOKE, & Co's. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of an engraving--ca, 1850-1859 DANFORTH, COOKE, & Co's. LOCOMOTIVE & MACHINE WORKS: PATERSON, NEW JERSEY - Danforth Locomotive & Machine Company, Market Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  4. The Janet Cooke Tragedy: A Lesson for J-Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Don

    1981-01-01

    The profession of journalism and journalism teachers need to dim the spotlight on the big stories and begin stressing and rewarding what "Washington Post" reporter Janet Cooke's disillusioned colleague described as "consistent craftsmanship." (HOD)

  5. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska January 31, 2006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-02-02

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory AVO has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. This image is from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  6. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska January 12, 2006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-02-02

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory AVO has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. This image is from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  7. 24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR CLOSED - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  8. 23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR OPEN - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  9. Cooking frequency may enhance survival in Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the association between cooking behaviour and long-term survival among elderly Taiwanese. Cohort study. The duration of follow-up was the interval between the date of interview and the date of death or 31 December 2008, when censored for survivors. Information used included demographics, socio-economic status, health behaviours, cooking frequencies, physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness, eating out habits and food and nutrient intakes. These data were linked to death records. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate cooking frequency on death from 1999 to 2008 with related covariate adjustments. Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1999-2000. Nationally representative free-living elderly people aged ≥65 years (n 1888). During a 10-year follow-up, 695 participants died. Those who cooked most frequently were younger, women, unmarried, less educated, non-drinkers of alcohol, non-smokers, without chewing difficulty, had spouse as dinner companion, normal cognition, who walked or shopped more than twice weekly, who ate less meat and more vegetables. Highly frequent cooking (>5 times/week, compared with never) predicted survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·47; 95 % CI, 0·36, 0·61); with adjustment for physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness and other covariates, HR was 0·59 (95 % CI, 0·41, 0·86). Women benefited more from cooking more frequently than did men, with decreased HR, 51 % v. 24 %, when most was compared with least. A 2-year delay in the assessment of survivorship led to similar findings. Cooking behaviour favourably predicts survivorship. Highly frequent cooking may favour women more than men.

  10. Market opportunities in electric residential cooking. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassill, S.

    1996-03-01

    At present, gas ovens and ranges are garnering an increasing share of the electric cooking market. This report evaluates the marketplace and explains the technological and educational reasons that an increasing number of consumers, dealers, builders, contractors, and original equipment manufacturers are opting for gas appliances. The report then identifies opportunities for the electric utility industry to regain residential electric cooking market shares by promoting the development and benefits of new electrotechnologies.

  11. Naval Weapon Cook-Off Improvement Concepts and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    developed that would predict reacting times to cook-off of an explosively loaded ordnance item immersed in a JP-5 fuel fire. The model operates with an... plastisol , or modern hot melt) and embedded desensitizer. In general, liners should have good thermoviscoelastic properties (see Section F) and be...previous tests. A plastisol (35% s-trithiane-65% Denflex) yielded the longest cook-off time of 9 minutes. F. Liner Pyrolysis 6 Vetter proposed a failure

  12. An evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking.

    PubMed

    Raber, Margaret; Chandra, Joya; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schick, Vanessa; Strong, Larkin L; Durand, Casey; Sharma, Shreela

    2016-12-01

    Eating out of the home has been positively associated with body weight, obesity, and poor diet quality. While cooking at home has declined steadily over the last several decades, the benefits of home cooking have gained attention in recent years and many healthy cooking projects have emerged around the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking behavior in relation to chronic disease prevention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using broad search terms. Studies analyzing the impact of cooking behaviors across a range of disciplines were included. Experts in the field reviewed the resulting constructs in a small focus group. The model was developed from the extant literature on the subject with 59 studies informing 5 individual constructs (frequency, techniques and methods, minimal usage, flavoring, and ingredient additions/replacements), further defined by a series of individual behaviors. Face validity of these constructs was supported by the focus group. A validated conceptual model is a significant step toward better understanding the relationship between cooking, disease and disease prevention and may serve as a base for future assessment tools and curricula.

  13. Influence of Heating Temperature on Cooking Curve of Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Akutsu, Atsuko; Otake, Ayumi; Moritaka, Hatsue

    The swelling behavior of a rice grain in water and an aqueous NaCl and acetic acid solution was investigated as a function of temperature. We observed that the rice grain in water shows an abrupt change in shape and size at 61 °C. The transition temperature Tv became higher in an order: sodium chloride aqueous solution > water > acetic acid aqueous solution. In order to clarify Tv, we also investigated kinetics on cooking of rice grains by the rheological measurement. The time development of compliance of rice grains in compression (cooking curve) from 5 to 1440 min was measured in the range of cooking temperatures from 61 to 80°C. We found that Tv is the onset temperature to complete the cooking of rice. The cooking curve at the cooking temperature neighborhood Tv was approximated by the first order reaction with the two different rate constants. The faster and slower reactions were explained as indicating the plasticizing effect of water on rice grains, and mainly the gelatinization of the starch in rice grains, respectively.

  14. Electric commercial cooking appliance development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Shukla, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to identify electric commercial cooking appliance development needs, to investigate technologies that can be used to increase the market penetration of electric cooking equipment, and to present conceptual designs of some advanced electric cooking appliances. Results of the study will assist the electric utility industry in formulating development programs for advanced electric cooking equipment. Data on shipments, inventory, and energy consumption for six major gas and electric appliance categories--ranges, ovens, broilers, fryers, griddles, and steam equipment--were obtained to determine trends in the appliance market. A survey of end users and equipment manufacturers was performed to identify factors that affect the energy choice for commercial cooking equipment and to determine the market needs of advanced electric equipment. Development goals for three focus appliances--rangetops, ovens, and broilers--were established based on the survey and upon examination of factors affecting the purchase decision of buyers. In general, the recommended enhancements include higher efficiency, faster response, higher cooking speed, higher production rate, improved uniformity, improved reliability and durability, and reduced equipment and operating costs. Evaluation of various electrotechnologies to meet these goals and some examples of conceptual designs are presented.

  15. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  16. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    PubMed

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  17. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to cooked mammalian meats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y H; Sheu, S C; Bridgman, R C

    1998-04-01

    Detection of species adulteration in ground meat products is important for consumer protection and food-labeling law enforcement. This study was conducted to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of any cooked mammalian meats in cooked poultry products. Soluble muscle proteins extracted from cooked pork (heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min) were used as the antigen to immunized mice for developing the MAb. One that was developed, MAb 2F8 (IgG2b class), strongly reacted with cooked meat of five mammalian species (beef cattle, hogs, sheep, horse, and deer) but did not react with any cooked poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) or raw meats. At least 0.5% by weight of pork, beef, lamb, and horse meats in a chicken-based mixture could not detect using the indirect ELISA with MAb 2F8. The MAb 2F8 is useful in a single initial screening test to detect the presence of five nonpoultry meat adulterants in cooked poultry products.

  18. Gas cooking and reduced lung function in school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Neuberger, Manfred

    RationaleOutdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) is associated with reduced respiratory health. This could be due to a unique biological effect of this gaseous pollutant or because it serves as a surrogate of fine particles from incineration sources. Cooking with gas in small kitchens produces high concentrations of gaseous irritants (mainly nitrogen dioxide), but not fine particles. ObjectivesTo study the relative impact of cooking with gas on lung function parameters in a cross sectional study of school children. MethodsNearly all elementary school children (2898 children aged 6-10 years) living in the city of Linz (capital of Upper Austria) underwent lung function testing. In a questionnaire administered simultaneously to their parents, information on household conditions including cooking and tobacco smoke exposure was collected. Impact of cooking with gas on lung function controlling for various confounders was analyzed using loglinear multiple regression. ResultsGas cooking reduced lung function parameters ranging from 1.1% (not significant) for MEF 25 up to 3.4% ( p=0.01) for peak expiratory flow (PEF). ConclusionsGas stoves can have an adverse impact on children's respiratory health. Parents and caretakers should be advised to insure good ventilation while and after cooking, especially in small and poorly ventilated rooms. This study adds to the growing evidence that gaseous pollutants from incineration sources affect respiratory health directly.

  19. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  20. Solar Concentration for Electricity and Cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mike; Fourt, Connor; Schwartz, Pete; Lee, Michael; Frostholm, Taylor; Fernandes, Josh; Tower, Jared

    2012-11-01

    Over 8000 Schefflers exist worldwide, mostly in Africa and Asia. Having constructed the first Scheffler reflector in North America 2 years ago, the next goal was to make it less expensive. The original model took 4 students 2 months and about 1000. In order to lower the cost and construction time the design was minimized, less expensive materials were used, and the construction process was automated. The original complex frame took 1000 people-hours and it was minimized to a day. Instead of using aluminum for the reflective dish, we turned to using aluminized Mylar, which cut the cost by over 90%. A thermal storage unit was added to extend cooking time well into the evening. Finally, a concentrated solar module of High Efficiency Photo Voltaics (HEPV) is to be placed at the focus of the concentrator to generate electricity and water as a byproduct. The final cost is estimated to be about 200 (0.10 per thermal watt) including the HEPV, an 80% cost reduction. Such technology is practical in the U.S. as well as developing nations.

  1. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of several families of phytochemicals in different pre-cooked convenience vegetables: effect of lifetime and cooking.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Flores, M Isabel; Hernández-Sánchez, Francisco; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, J Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Phytochemicals content, including several families such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones, flavonols, isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, was determined in pre-cooked convenience vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). It was observed that there is not a common behavior of the individual concentration of phytochemicals during the lifetime and cooking of the matrix, and compounds change their concentration without a specific trend. It was observed that neither lifetime nor cooking process have significant effects on the total content of phytochemicals except in broccoli, although some changes in the individual content of the target compounds were observed, suggesting that interconversion processes could be performed during the lifetime and/or cooking process of the product.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder of Carroll and Davidson.

    PubMed

    Bobes, J; García-Calvo, C; Prieto, R; García-García, M; Rico-Villademoros, F

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to validate the Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV General Anxiety Disorder of Carroll and Davidson for use in research and clinical practice in Spain for screening and assessing specific anxiety symptoms of patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Observational, prospective, multisite, study comparing between patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD (group A), starting or switching treatment (group A1) or stable patients (group A2), followed-up for 6 months (group A1) or 2 weeks (group A2) versus healthy control subjects (group B), assessed in a single visit. Among 223 valuable subjects the scale showed: a) adequate feasibility with a mean time of administration: 6.53 and 4.49 min (TD: 5.48 and 3.56) in groups A and B, and percentage of patients without response <5 %; b) adequate reliability (Kuder-Richardson coefficient: 0.85 and 0.79 in groups A1 and A2, and CCI coefficient: 0.89 in group A2); c) adequate validity, showing capability for discriminating between patients and controls, with area under curve AUC: 0.9713 (IC 95 %: 0.9510-0.9917), and obtaining a high correlation with HARS (r=0.88) and CGI-G (r=0.87) scales, y d) adequate sensitivity to clinical changes from start and end of treatment (SES: -1.6, -3.1 and -3.8 after 1, 3 and 6 months), spite of the high percentage of patients with highest score in group A1 (38.6 %). The Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV GAD showed adequate psychometric properties for use in research and clinical practice in Spain as well as an screening as evaluative measure for patients with GAD, spite of the ceiling effect showed in severe patients.

  4. Interpretation of KABC-II scores: An evaluation of the incremental validity of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor scores in predicting achievement.

    PubMed

    McGill, Ryan J

    2015-12-01

    This study is an examination of the incremental validity of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor scores from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (KABC-II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-second edition (KTEA-II). The participants were children and adolescents, ages 7-18, (N = 2,025) drawn from the KABC-II standardization sample. The sample was nationally stratified and proportional to U.S. census estimates for sex, ethnicity, geographic region, and parent education level. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to assess for factor-level effects after controlling for the variance accounted for by the full scale Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) score. The results were interpreted using the R2/ΔR2 statistic as effect size indices. Consistent with similar incremental validity studies, the FCI accounted for statistically and clinically significant portions of KTEA-II score variance, with R2 values ranging from .30 to .65. KABC-II CHC factor scores collectively provided statistically significant incremental variance beyond the FCI in all of the regression models, although the effect size estimates were consistently negligible to small (Average ÄRCHC2 = .03). Individually, the KABC-II factor scores accounted for mostly small portions of achievement variance across the prediction models, with none of the individual CHC factors accounting for clinically significant incremental prediction beyond the FCI. Additionally, most of the unique first-order predictive variance was captured by the Crystallized Ability factor alone. The potential clinical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking... antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of top-of-the- stove stainless steel cooking ware from... effective date of the revocation of the antidumping duty order on imports of top-of-the-stove...

  6. Is it ever justified for doctors to sue their patients whose allegations against them have been dismissed by the courts or the Health Professions Council of South Africa?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2015-11-09

    Doctors should be cautious about suing their patients, because it may generate bad publicity. Where a criminal or civil case or complaint to the Health Professions Council of South Africa by a patient about a doctor's professional conduct is withdrawn or dismissed, a doctor may only sue the patient for defamation if it can be proved that the patient acted from malice, spite or an improper motive. Doctors may only sue patients for malicious prosecution or abuse of civil proceedings if such patients acted with 'malice' and 'without reasonable and probable cause'. If a doctor successfully defends a case against a patient, the court will usually order the patient to pay the doctor's costs.

  7. How To Identify Johnson-Cook Parameters From Machining Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrot, Aviral; Bäker, Martin

    2011-05-01

    The Johnson-Cook material model is a robust material model which has demonstrated its usefulness in describing material behaviour over large ranges of strains, strain rates and temperatures. During machining the material in the shear zone undergoes strains of more than 200%, strain-rates of the order of 106 per second or more and a temperature rise of several hundreds of degrees Celsius. The determination of the Johnson-Cook parameters, which are needed to describe the material behaviour in the severe conditions found during machining, has proved to be challenging, even using the state-of-the-art experimental methods. Recent experimental methods rely on data obtained from strains of around 50% and strain rates of the order of 103 per second. In this paper, an inverse method for determining the Johnson-Cook parameters from machining simulations is described. To demonstrate the concept, a finite element model of orthogonal cutting is created and a particular Johnson-Cook parameter set is used for the simulation. It has been shown earlier that multiple Johnson-Cook parameter sets exist which give rise to almost indistinguishable chips and cutting forces for a single set of cutting parameters. In order to eliminate some of these different sets, machining simulations are carried out for two different rake angles. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimisation algorithm, the original Johnson-Cook parameter set is re-identified. In order to achieve this, the chip morphology and the cutting force are used to construct the objective function for minimisation. To determine the direction of the steepest descent, the Jacobian matrix is determined numerically with respect to the Johnson-Cook parameters.

  8. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins.

  9. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  10. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  11. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  13. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    PubMed

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  14. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Rachel N.; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W.; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E.; Wrangham, Richard W.; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago. PMID:26979798

  15. [Survival of Salmonella in spices and growth in cooked food].

    PubMed

    Urabe, Yurie; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    Contamination of spices with pathogens has been reported worldwide, and Salmonella might result in foodborne infections. In this study, we investigated the survival of Salmonella in black pepper and red pepper, and the growth of the surviving Salmonella in cooked food. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into spices, and their survival during storage was examined. In black pepper, S. Enteritidis was no longer viable after storage for 28 days, but S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg remained viable. In red pepper, S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg survived for 28 days although S. Enteritidis was not viable after 7 days. Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into cooked food, and their survival during storage was determined. In potato salad, egg salad, namul and kimchi as cooked foods, both pathogens grew at 30 degrees C, but not at 10 degrees C. Our results indicate that cooked food should be stored at low temperature after addition of spices, such as black pepper and red pepper, following the cooking.

  16. Global incidence of rhabdomyolysis after cooked seafood consumption (Haff disease).

    PubMed

    Diaz, James Henry

    2015-06-01

    Haff disease is a syndrome of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that occurs after consuming cooked seafood. (1) To identify the most common seafood vectors of Haff disease worldwide. (2) To describe and to compare the most commonly recurring clinical and laboratory manifestations of Haff disease. (3) To compare the Haff disease toxidrome with other similar toxidromes. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords, and selected articles were stratified by reporting Old World or New World nations. Continuous variables were reported as means with standard deviations; categorical values were reported as proportions. Over 1,000 cases of Haff disease were initially described in Eastern Europe and Sweden during and following the ingestion of several species of cooked freshwater fish including burbot, pike, freshwater eel, and whitefish. More recent case reports followed consumption of cooked freshwater pomfret and boiled crayfish in China, and cooked or raw boxfish in Japan. There were 29 case reports of Haff disease in the United States with most following consumption of buffalo fish, crayfish, or Atlantic salmon. The consumption of several species of cooked fish has caused Haff disease outbreaks worldwide. The bioaccumulation of a new heat-stable, fresh, and/or brackish/ salt-water algal toxin in seafood, similar to palytoxin, but primarily myotoxic and not neurotoxic, is suspected for causing Haff disease.

  17. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E; Wrangham, Richard W; Kelso, Janet

    2016-04-13

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago.

  18. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    PubMed

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P < 0.05). Roast weights ≥1 kg had lesser cooking loss, more uniform internal color and tender compared to 0.5 kg (P < 0.05). Consequently, roasting at low temperature without searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  19. Kinetics of hydration properties of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in hydration properties such as cooking loss and water-holding capacity during smokehouse cooking. Press juice, consumer cook test and emulsion stability of cooked product were also determined. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  20. Impact of a school-based cooking curriculum for fourth-grade students on attitudes and behaviors is influenced by gender and prior cooking experience.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Lohse, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    To compare effects of the Cooking With Kids (CWK) cooking and tasting curriculum (CWK-CT) with a less-intense, tasting-only curriculum (CWK-T) and to conduct a non-treatment comparison on fourth graders' cooking self-efficacy (SE), cooking attitudes (AT), and fruit and vegetable preferences (FVP). Pre-post, quasi-experimental, 2 cohorts. Eleven low-income public schools in a Southwestern city. Fourth-grade students, 50% female and 84% Hispanic. School-based experiential nutrition education program of 5 2-hour cooking and/or 5 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting lessons throughout the school year. Cooking self-efficacy, AT, and FVP were assessed with 3 tested, validated scales administered in a 37-item survey pre- and post-classroom intervention. General linear modeling with gender and prior cooking experience were fixed factors. Among 961 students, CWK positively affected FVP, especially in CWK-CT students and males (P = .045 and .033, respectively); vegetable preference drove this outcome. Independent of treatment, students without cooking experience (61% male) had more than twice the gains in cooking self-efficacy (P = .004) and an improved AT response (P = .003). Cooking With Kids increased FVP, especially with vegetables. Greatest gains in preferences and self-efficacy were seen in boys without prior cooking experience. For fourth graders, experiential nutrition education improved cognitive behaviors that may mediate healthful food choices. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of selected cooking procedures on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in inoculated steaks cooked on a hot plate or gas barbecue grill.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Devos, J; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2014-06-01

    Beef steaks (2 cm thick) were each inoculated at three sites in the central plane with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 5.9 ± 0.3 log CFU per site. Temperatures at steak centers were monitored during cooking on a hot plate or the grill of a gas barbeque. Steaks were cooked in groups of five using the same procedures and cooking each steak to the same temperature, and surviving E. coli O157:H7 at each site was enumerated. When steaks cooked on the hot plate were turned over every 2 or 4 min during cooking to between 56 and 62°C, no E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from steaks cooked to ≥58 or 62°C, respectively. When steaks were cooked to ≤71°C and turned over once during cooking, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from steaks in groups turned over after ≤8 min but not from steaks turned over after 10 or 12 min. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in similar numbers from steaks that were not held or were held for 3 min after cooking when steaks were turned over once after 4 or 6 min during cooking. When steaks were cooked on the grill with the barbeque lid open and turned over every 2 or 4 min during cooking to 63 or 56°C, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from only those steaks turned over at 4-min intervals and cooked to 56°C. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from some steaks turned over once during cooking on the grill and held or not held after cooking to 63°C. E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from steaks turned over after 4 min during cooking to 60°C on the grill with the barbeque lid closed or when the lid was closed after 6 min. Apparently, the microbiological safety of mechanically tenderized steaks can be assured by turning steaks over at intervals of about 2 min during cooking to ≥60°C in an open skillet or on a barbecue grill. When steaks are turned over only once during cooking to ≥60°C, microbiological safety may be assured by covering the skillet or grill with a lid during at least the final minutes of cooking.

  2. Carboxyhaemoglobin in women exposed to different cooking fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Behera, D; Dash, S; Yadav, S P

    1991-01-01

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels were estimated by double wavelength spectrophotometry in non-smoking women living in Chandigarh and its environs and related to the cooking fuel they used. Twenty nine used kerosene, 28 biomass fuel, and 30 liquified petroleum gas; the 27 control subjects had not done any cooking for seven days. The carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in the women using the three types of fuel (mean (SEM) concentration 7.49% [corrected] (0.67%) for kerosene, 15.74% (0.83%) for biomass fuel, and 17.16% (0.62%) for liquified petroleum gas, compared with 3.52% (0.33%) in the control subjects. It is concluded that cooking with any of the three fuels causes indoor air pollution. It is important to have better designed houses with adequate ventilation and stove vents that are cleaned regularly if pollution is to be reduced. PMID:2068690

  3. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of cooked bone using TEM imaging of bone collagen.

    PubMed

    Koon, Hannah E C

    2012-01-01

    Mild heating (≤100° C, 1 h)-typical of cooking-does not lead to detectable changes in any biochemical parameter yet measured; consequently bones that have been cooked, but which have not reached a temperature that will induce charring go undetected. We have used a microscopy based approach to investigate changes in the organization of the bone protein, collagen, as it is heated, using bone from heating experiments, short term burials, and archaeological sites. The work has revealed that the presence of a mineral matrix stabilizes the collagen enabling the damage to accumulate, but preventing it from causing immediate gelatinization. Once the mineral is removed, the damage can be observed using appropriate visualization methods. This chapter describes the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique that has been used to detect cooked bone by visualizing minor heat-induced damage at the level of the collagen fibril.

  5. Carboxyhaemoglobin in women exposed to different cooking fuels.

    PubMed

    Behera, D; Dash, S; Yadav, S P

    1991-05-01

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels were estimated by double wavelength spectrophotometry in non-smoking women living in Chandigarh and its environs and related to the cooking fuel they used. Twenty nine used kerosene, 28 biomass fuel, and 30 liquified petroleum gas; the 27 control subjects had not done any cooking for seven days. The carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in the women using the three types of fuel (mean (SEM) concentration 7.49% [corrected] (0.67%) for kerosene, 15.74% (0.83%) for biomass fuel, and 17.16% (0.62%) for liquified petroleum gas, compared with 3.52% (0.33%) in the control subjects. It is concluded that cooking with any of the three fuels causes indoor air pollution. It is important to have better designed houses with adequate ventilation and stove vents that are cleaned regularly if pollution is to be reduced.

  6. Effect of consumer cooking on furan in convenience foods.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Crews, C; Grundy, H; Mills, C; Matthews, W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of domestic preparation regimes on the level of the heat-formed toxicant furan was studied to provide useful information for exposure assessment and advice for manufacturers and consumers. Foods were cooked in a saucepan on a gas hob or microwaved and furan was determined by headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, furan levels did not decrease as much when foods were cooked in a microwave oven when compared with the same foods cooked in a saucepan. Furan levels decreased in most canned and jarred foods after heating in a saucepan. Low levels of furan in soups in cartons were not changed by any procedure. Furan decreased slightly in foods on standing before consumption, but did so more rapidly on stirring. The levels also decreased slightly when foods were left to stand on plates; this observation is attributed to the volatility of furan.

  7. Quality evaluation of cook-chilled chicory stems (Cichorium intybus L., Catalogna group) by conventional and sous vide cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; Giannino, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and innovative (sous vide) methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties (Galatina and Molfettese) of southern Italy (Puglia region). Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect (redness, yellowness and hue angle) or had the least impact on (lightness and total colour difference) quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods. Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol (TP) content and antioxidant activity (AA) compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA (though associated with higher weight loss), while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming. The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  10. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    PubMed

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity (56.65%), cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than microwave cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly (p<0.05) highest, whereas, oven cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) highest gumminess and chewiness values. Steam cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  11. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity (56.65%), cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than microwave cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly (p<0.05) highest, whereas, oven cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) highest gumminess and chewiness values. Steam cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content. PMID:28747827

  12. Cookery method and endpoint temperature can affect the Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, and internal cooked color of beef semimembranosus and infraspinatus steaks.

    PubMed

    Yancey, J W S; Apple, J K; Wharton, M D

    2016-10-01

    Steaks from USDA Select inside rounds (Exp. 1) and shoulder clods (Exp. 2) were used to test the interactive effect of cookery method and endpoint temperature on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and internal cooked color. Pairs of 2.5-cm-thick semimembranosus (SM) or infraspinatus (INF) steaks ( = 360/muscle) were cut from each subprimal, labeled, vacuum packaged, and frozen at -30°C in the dark for approximately 60 d before being cooked to 65.5, 71.1, or 76.6°C using 1) a forced-air convection oven (FAC); 2) a forced-air impingement oven (IMP); 3) a gas-fired, open-hearth charbroiler (CHAR); 4) an electric countertop griddle (GRID); or 5) a clam-shell grill (CLAM). Thawed steaks were cooked to their assigned endpoint temperature × cookery method combination, and, after a 5-min cooling period, steaks were weighed to calculate cooking loss percentage and subsequently sliced perpendicular to the cut surface to measure instrumental cooked color. Then, 6 cores were removed for measurement of WBSF. Cooking losses of SM steaks increased ( < 0.05) with each increase in endpoint temperature, whereas INF steaks cooked on a CHAR had the greatest ( < 0.05) cooking losses and cooking INF steaks with the GRID and the CLAM resulted in lesser ( < 0.05) cooking losses than cooking with the FAC and the IMP. Cooking SM steaks on the CHAR resulted in greater ( < 0.05) WBSF values than all other cookery methods when cooked to 65.5 and 76.6°C and greater ( < 0.05) WBSF values than those cooked on the FAC, GRID, and CLAM when cooked to 71.1°C. Shear force values were greater ( < 0.05) for INF steaks cooked to 71.1 and 76.6°C than those cooked to 65.5°C, but INF WBSF values were similar ( = 0.55) among cookery methods. At 65.5°C, FAC-cooked SM steaks were redder ( < 0.05) than those cooked with the GRID and the IMP and, at 71.1°C, CLAM-cooked SM steaks were redder ( < 0.05) than FAC- and IMP-cooked SM steaks; however, a* values were similar ( > 0.05) among cookery methods when

  13. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  14. Construct validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition with a referred Irish sample: Wechsler and Cattell-Horn-Carroll model comparisons with 15 subtests.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Good, Rebecca; James, Kate; James, Trevor

    2017-09-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV(UK) ; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV(UK) standardization sample have not yet been reported. Watkins et al. (2013, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 1, 102) found support for a bifactor structure with a large sample (N = 794) of Irish children who were administered the 10 WISC-IV(UK) core subtests in clinical assessments of learning difficulties and dominance of general intelligence. Because only 10 subtests were available, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC; McGrew, 1997, 2005, Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues, New York, NY: Guilford; Schneider & McGrew, 2012, Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues, New York, NY, Guilford Press) models could not be tested and compared. The present study utilized confirmatory factor analyses to test the latent factor structure of the WISC-IV(UK) with a sample of 245 Irish children administered all 15 WISC-IV(UK) subtests in evaluations assessing learning difficulties in order to examine CHC- and Wechsler-based models. One through five, oblique first-order factor models and higher order versus bifactor models were examined and compared using CFA. Meaningful differences in fit statistics were not observed between the Wechsler and CHC representations of higher-order or bifactor models. In all four structures, general intelligence accounted for the largest portions of explained common variance, whereas group factors accounted for small to miniscule portions of explained common variance. Omega-hierarchical subscale coefficients indicated that unit-weighted composites that would be generated by WISC-IV(UK) group factors (Wechsler or CHC

  15. DOE/EA-1498: Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky (January 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) is a cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to demonstrate advanced coal-based power generation technologies. Through the CCPI, candidate technologies are demonstrated at commercial-scale facilities to foster widespread application. The goals of the program are to realize environmental and economic benefits through DOE and industry partnerships, as well as to move promising, yet commercially risky, advanced coal energy systems to market. DOE proposes to provide funding, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF), Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), for the design, construction, and operation of an advanced coal ash beneficiation processing plant at Kentucky Utilities (KU) Ghent Power Station in Carroll County, Kentucky. The proposed project would contribute to CCPI program goals by demonstrating a means to reduce the net costs of particulate control technologies through the conversion of ash into salable products. DOE would provide $4,492,008, approximately 50 percent of total project cost. The proposed demonstration plant would process 200,000 tons per year of fly ash generated at the Ghent Power Station into: 156,000 tons per year of pozzolan for concrete; 16,000 tons per year of high-quality block sand; 16,000 tons per year of graded fill sand; 1,500 tons per year of high-quality polymer filler; and 8,000 tons of carbon fuel. Because the proposed project would utilize an existing waste to produce concrete and masonry materials, which could replace Portland cement, overall CO2 emissions resulting from concrete manufacturing could be reduced. Furthermore, the need for additional storage areas for fly ash would be reduced. The findings of this Environmental are that no significant impacts to human health and safety or the environment from construction and operation of the proposed demonstration plant are anticipated. Because the

  16. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    PubMed

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  17. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  18. Effect of erythorbic acid on cooked color in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A L; Mancini, R; Sun, Q; Lynch, M P; Faustman, C

    2001-01-01

    Consumers often use the color of cooked ground beef as an indicator of doneness. For safety reasons, it is recommended that the center of ground beef products be heated to 71°C. In some instances beef may appear done before reaching 71°C, a condition termed premature browning (PMB). Ground beef (15% fat), with added erythorbic acid (ERY) at 0.04 and 0.06% was formed into patties, wrapped in oxygen permeable film, and stored in the dark at 4°C. Patties were stored for either 10 h or 58 h and then cooked to internal end point temperatures of 60, 66, 71 or 77°C. Internal cooked color L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values were measured. For beef patties stored 10 h, there was no effect of ERY on internal cooked color. After 58 h storage, ground beef with 0.04 and 0.06% ERY had higher a(∗) values than controls at 60°C (P<0.05). Beef with 0.04% ERY cooked to an internal temperature of 66°C had higher a(∗) values than 0.06% ERY and controls (P<0.05). There was no effect of ERY on color of beef patties cooked to 71 or 77°C. The presence of 0.04% ERY in ground beef patties stored 58 h appeared to maintain red color at internal temperatures of 60 and 66°C.

  19. Understanding diffusion theory and Fick's law through food and cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion theory and Fick's first law. These exercises are part of a 10-wk undergraduate course that uses food and cooking to teach fundamental concepts in physiology and biophysics to students, including nonscience majors. Consistent demonstration of practical applications in a classroom setting has the potential to fundamentally change how students view the role of science in their lives (15).

  20. The fusion of lipid droplets is involved in fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras".

    PubMed

    Théron, L; Astruc, T; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Molette, C; Vénien, A; Peyrin, F; Vitezica, Z G; Fernandez, X

    2011-12-01

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main quality issue in processing plants. To better understand this phenomenon, a histological and ultrastructural study was conducted. The aim was to characterize changes in lipid droplets of duck "foie gras" related to fat loss during cooking. Ten fatty livers were sampled before and after cooking and prepared for optical and transmission electron microscopy. In raw livers, the lipid droplets were nearly spherical while after cooking, they were larger and lost their spherical shape. We also observed a decrease in the number of droplets after cooking, probably due to droplet fusion caused by the heat treatment. Before cooking, there were fewer lipid droplets and a higher osmium tetroxyde staining intensity in the fatty liver, which later gave a lower technological yield. Fat loss during cooking was higher when there was more fusion of lipid droplets before cooking.

  1. Emissions and indoor concentrations of particulate matter and its specific chemical components from cooking: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, Karimatu L.; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-06-01

    It has long been known that cooking can create high concentrations of aerosol indoors. Increasingly, it is now being reported that cooking aerosol is also a significant component of outdoor particulate matter. As yet, the health consequences are unquantified, but the presence of well known chemical carcinogens is a clear indication that cooking aerosol cannot be benign. This review is concerned with current knowledge of the mass concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol generated from typical styles of cooking as reported in the literature. It is found that cooking can generate both appreciable masses of aerosol at least within the area where the cooking takes place, that particle sizes are largely within the respirable size range and that major groups of chemical compounds which have been used to characterise cooking aerosol include alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, lactones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanones and sterols. Measured data, cooking emission profiles and source apportionment methods are briefly reviewed.

  2. SOURCE STRENGTHS OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES DUE TO COOKING WITH A GAS STOVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cooking, particularly frying, is an important source of particles indoors. Few studies have measured a full range of particle sizes, including ultrafine particles, produced during cooking. In this study, semicontinuous instruments with fine size discriminating ability were us...

  3. SOURCE STRENGTHS OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES DUE TO COOKING WITH A GAS STOVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cooking, particularly frying, is an important source of particles indoors. Few studies have measured a full range of particle sizes, including ultrafine particles, produced during cooking. In this study, semicontinuous instruments with fine size discriminating ability were us...

  4. [Effect of various cooking methods on the contents of major flavonoids in vegetables].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang; Yang, Jijun

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various cooking methods on the contents of major flavonoids in vegetables, and to provide basic data for researches on the relationship between flavonoid and health. Nine kinds of vegetables obtained from Tianjin market were cooked by frying, boiling, stewing, microwave cooking respectively, then the contents of flavonoids in vegetables and soups after cooking were determined by HPLC. The reserving rates of flavonoids after frying, boiling, stewing and microwave cooking ranged from 54.6% to 115.6%, 33.6% to 107.8%, 31.7% to 100.5%, and 43.1% to 109.6% respectively. Parts of flavonoids were also transfered to the soup after cooking. The transferring rate ranged from 1.4% to 55.8%. Cooking often affected the flavonoids in vegetables in some degree, and various cooking methods exerted different effects on the content of flavonoids.

  5. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. 25.45-2 Section 25.45-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying...

  6. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  7. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. 25.45-2 Section 25.45-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying...

  8. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  9. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  10. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  11. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. 25.45-2 Section 25.45-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying...

  12. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  13. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  14. 76 FR 2920 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...-steel cooking ware from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from...

  15. 76 FR 12369 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to lead to continuation... 2011), entitled Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 298 (Third...

  16. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by...

  17. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet...

  18. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet...

  19. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet...

  20. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet...

  1. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet...

  2. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by a...

  3. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  4. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  5. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour... defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is a product prepared as follows: Food quality cottonseed is delinted and decorticated; the...

  6. Influence of jet-cooking corn bran on its antioxidant activities, phenolic contents and viscoelastic properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn bran was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking with or without alkaline treatment. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the soluble solids from jet-cooked corn bran without alkaline treatment. Jet-cooking under alkaline conditions resulted in a soluble fraction having the highest phe...

  7. Kitchen Magic: A Nutrition and Cooking Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crist, Mary Jo; And Others

    This handbook on nutrition and cooking is one of a series written especially for parents and other caregivers. Contents include: (1) the importance of nutrition, (2) the four basic food groups in terms of serving size, menu planning, and major nutrients, (3) ways to build healthy attitudes toward food, (4) unsafe foods which have the potential to…

  8. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  9. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation reduced fumonisin concentrations and toxicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion cooking involves forcing material through a heated barrel under high pressure using one (single-screw configuration) or two (twin-screw configuration) augers. We previously demonstrated (Bullerman et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:2400-2405, 2008; Voss et al., Journal o...

  10. Library Media Skills Cook with Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bunnie

    2005-01-01

    Cooking, sewing, baby-sitting, and storytelling are all units included in Family and Consumer Science classes. This article describes a lesson designed by a consumer science teacher to incorporate media skills into some of these units. The library media specialist and the classroom teacher collaborated on the development of the instructional…

  11. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  12. Baseline data on the oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Regional relationships between river hydrology, sediment transport, circulation and coastal processes were analyzed utilizing aircraft, ERTS-1 and N.O.A.A. -2 and -3 imagery and corroborative ground truth data. The use of satellite and aircraft imagery provides a means of acquiring synoptic information for analyzing the dynamic processes of Cook Inlet in a fashion not previously possible.

  13. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  14. Before You Cook in Matrics. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Joan

    This document contains individualized units of study for use in classroom learning centers to teach intermediate and junior high school students about the metric system. The unit was developed by teachers. Upon completion of the units students should be able to demonstrate the correct use of the metric terms and symbols used in cooking and be able…

  15. Effects of pan cooking on micropollutants in meat.

    PubMed

    Planche, Christelle; Ratel, Jérémy; Blinet, Patrick; Mercier, Frédéric; Angénieux, Magaly; Chafey, Claude; Zinck, Julie; Marchond, Nathalie; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Marchand, Philippe; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Guérin, Thierry; Debrauwer, Laurent; Engel, Erwan

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the effects of pan cooking on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, pesticides and trace elements in meat from a risk assessment perspective. Three different realistic cooking intensities were studied. A GC×GC-TOF/MS method was set up for the multiresidue analysis of 189 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 16 pesticides whereas Cd, As, Pb and Hg were assayed by ICP-MS. In terms of quantity, average PCB losses after cooking were 18±5% for rare, 30±3% for medium, and 48±2% for well-done meat. In contrast, average PCDD/F losses were not significant. For pesticides, no loss occurred for aldrin, lindane, DDE or DDD, whereas losses exceeding 80% were found for dieldrin, sulfotep or phorate. Losses close to the margin of error were observed for trace elements. These results are discussed in light of the physicochemical properties of the micropollutants as well as of water and fat losses into cooking juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  17. What's Cooking in the School Library Media Center?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which cooking and food can be used to integrate school library media programs into the curriculum. Topics include gender consciousness; family literacy; alternative formats for special physical or learning challenges; history and social studies applications; world cultures; and cookbooks and literature. (LRW)

  18. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel... A-22.5.b, respectively. (ii) Ovens must be equipped with a flame failure switch in accordance...

  19. Glycemic index of sweetpotato as affected by cooking methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the effect of cooking on glucose availability will aid in the recommendation for including sweet potatoes as a regular component in American diets. Heating breaks down starch granules to allow amylopectin and amylose to be more readily digested by pancreatic amylase, which theoreticall...

  20. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    PubMed

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  1. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  2. Vandalism Survey and Report. Suburban Cook County School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Region of Cook County, Chicago, IL.

    The statistics on vandalism compiled in this report were obtained from a survey of all 717 schools in suburban Cook County and give a broad overview of the extent, frequency, and financial costs incurred as a result of vandalism in the schools. The survey includes information on methods of protection and surveillance such as security personnel,…

  3. Before You Cook in Matrics. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Joan

    This document contains individualized units of study for use in classroom learning centers to teach intermediate and junior high school students about the metric system. The unit was developed by teachers. Upon completion of the units students should be able to demonstrate the correct use of the metric terms and symbols used in cooking and be able…

  4. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  5. [The question of nickel release from stainless steel cooking pots].

    PubMed

    Vrochte, H; Schätzke, M; Dringenberg, E; Wölwer-Rieck, U; Büning-Pfaue, H

    1991-09-01

    For three items of foods (rhubarb, spinach, sauerkraut) the possible release of nickel (by means of AAS) was analysed, a release which may be caused by a possible corrosive effect of the concerned (oxalic-, milk-, vinegar-) acids (as well as common salt) within a normal domestic food-preparation. For this analysis stainless steel cooking pots of different manufacturers, various types and in a representative selection and quantity were taken into consideration; the detailed analyses were extended so far that clear statistical evaluations were possible. This method complies regulations for accuracy to determine traces of heavy metal. For all three analysed food-stuffs an identical result was reached that no nickel release from the stainless steel cooking pots into the food was found. Differences of the various stainless steel cooking pots with regard to their surfaces' quality or their origin (manufacturers) were not yielded, either. All detected concentrations of nickel are within the reach of the natural nickel content of the analysed food-stuffs and their amount is even much lower than other food's content of nickel. This leads up to the conclusion that the former view of a possible nickel release of stainless steel cooking pots has to be revised because these assumptions were not confirmed in the presented results of this analysis and therefore have to be regarded as not correct.

  6. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  7. Dillard's Cook Put Hearts and Minds To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Rock, C. C.

    1997-01-01

    Dr. Samuel DuBois Cook, retiring president of Dillard University (Louisiana) is credited for substantial development of the private, historically black institution, stressing fiscal responsibility and academic excellence. During his tenure, endowment increased eightfold, curriculum was revised, two scholars programs were established, and…

  8. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  9. [Effects of cooking methods on iodine content in iodized salt].

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Zhou, R; Wang, G

    1998-11-30

    Effects of cooking methods and variety of foods on the retention of iodine content in food with iodized salt were studied. Vegetables from market and usual cooking methods were selected, including procedures of various cooking methods. The samples were fixed by potassium carbonate, ashed with zinc sulfate at 550 degrees C, then determined by colorimetric method with Ce-As-I catalytical reaction. The different cooking methods had different effects on the retention of iodine, in general, the retention of iodine by stewing of steaming was higher than by stir-frying. The effect of various vegetables on the retention of iodine was also different. The retention of iodine after stir-frying was 84.2%, 56.9%, 44.5%, 36.6% for fruit-bearing vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and beans. The retention of iodine after stewing was 66.1%, 53.4%, 47.0%, and 43.2% for fruit-bearing vegetables, roots, beans and meat. The stability of organic iodine in food is higher than that of inorganic iodine.

  10. Cooking Up World History: Multicultural Recipes and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marden, Patricia C.; Barchers, Suzanne I.

    This interdisciplinary resource presents 140 recipes from 22 countries and regions around the world. Research questions connect culture and food to history. Cooking safety tips are given. Brief discussions about the role of food in culture precede recipes from: (1) Africa; (2) Australia; (3) Canada; (4) China; (5) Commonwealth of Independent…

  11. Cooking and Science. Ideas in Science. Notes for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    Presented are seven articles (reprinted from "The Exploratorium" magazine) which focus on the scientific explanations for the specific (and oftentimes peculiar) instructions and procedures called for in many recipes. "Baking, Boiling, and Other Hot Topics" (Joel Myerson) discusses different methods of cooking. "The…

  12. Kitchen Magic: A Nutrition and Cooking Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crist, Mary Jo; And Others

    This handbook on nutrition and cooking is one of a series written especially for parents and other caregivers. Contents include: (1) the importance of nutrition, (2) the four basic food groups in terms of serving size, menu planning, and major nutrients, (3) ways to build healthy attitudes toward food, (4) unsafe foods which have the potential to…

  13. The Functions of Invented Sentences: A Reply to Guy Cook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Reacts to Cook's (2001) essay on invented sentences, which argues that sentences such as "the philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen," have the valuable language teaching functions of providing useful language data for the student, promoting noticing and memorability, and allowing he teacher to create new sentences. (Author/VWL)

  14. 75 FR 9015 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation project in... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I-290) located in...

  15. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for... purposes must comply with subpart 58.16 of this chapter. (d) Each electric space-heater must be...

  16. The Cooking Teacher: Investigating Gender Stereotypes in a Korean Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Liz; Ha, Sang-Jin

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses some findings from a small-scale investigation of children's gendered beliefs and behaviours in a Korean kindergarten which was attempting to challenge gender stereotyping through the anti-bias intervention of a "cooking curriculum". A sample of 14 children, some with "working" mothers and some with…

  17. Cooking and Science. Ideas in Science. Notes for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    Presented are seven articles (reprinted from "The Exploratorium" magazine) which focus on the scientific explanations for the specific (and oftentimes peculiar) instructions and procedures called for in many recipes. "Baking, Boiling, and Other Hot Topics" (Joel Myerson) discusses different methods of cooking. "The…

  18. Chilling and cooking rate effects on some myofibrillar determinants of tenderness of beef.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Dikeman, M E; Wheeler, T L; Kastner, C L; Koohmaraie, M

    2003-06-01

    Our objectives were to examine the effects of prerigor excision and rapid chilling vs. conventional carcass chilling of two muscles on proteolysis and tenderness during the postmortem storage, as well as the effects of fast and slow rates of cooking on myofibrillar characteristics and tenderness. The longissimus thoracis (LT) and triceps brachii (TB), long head muscles were removed 45 min after exsanguination from the left side of 12 carcasses and chilled in an ice bath to induce cold shortening (excised, rapidly chilled). At 24 h postmortem, the corresponding muscles were removed from the right side (conventionally chilled). All muscles were cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and assigned to one of two postmortem times (1 or 14 d), and to raw and cooking treatments. Steaks were cooked at 260 degrees C (FAST) or 93 degrees C (SLOW) in a forced-air convection oven to an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. Cooking loss, cooking time, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were measured on cooked steaks. Sarcomere length (SL) and the extent of proteolysis of desmin were measured on raw and cooked steaks. As expected, the excised, rapidly chilled muscles had a much more rapid (P < 0.05) temperature decline than those that were conventionally chilled. The excised, rapidly chilled treatment resulted in shorter (P < 0.05) SL, and SL was shorter (P < 0.05) in LT than in TB steaks. Raw steaks had longer (P < 0.05) SL than cooked steaks, regardless of chilling treatment. The FAST cooking resulted in shorter (P < 0.05) SL than SLOW cooking in conventionally chilled steaks, but cooking rate had no effect (P > 0.05) on SL of rapidly chilled steaks. Generally, TB steaks required longer (P < 0.05) cooking times and had higher (P < 0.05) cooking losses than LT steaks, and FAST-cooked steaks had greater (P < 0.05) cooking losses than SLOW-cooked steaks. Rapidly chilled steaks had less (P < 0.05) degradation of desmin than conventionally chilled steaks (31 vs. 41%). Aging for 14 d

  19. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.07); breakdown was also negatively correlated with those TPA parameters (P < 0.09); final viscosity and setback were negatively correlated with the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.05); setback was correlated with the adhesiveness as well (r = -0.63, P = 0.02). Onset gelatinization temperature (To ) was significantly positively correlated with all the texture profile parameters, and peak temperature (Tp ) was moderately correlated with cohesiveness, whereas neither conclusion temperature (Tc ) nor enthalpy correlated with the texture of cooked quinoa.

  20. Food mutagens: The role of cooked food in genetic changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Of all the toxic substances producing during cooking, the most important are likely to be the heterocyclic amines. For 17 years, LLNL researchers have been identifying these food mutagens, measuring their abundance in cooked foods typical of the Western diet, working to understand how they can trigger malignant tumors in laboratory animals that have been exposed to high mutagen doses, and estimating the importance of human exposures. Our success is largely a function of the interdisciplinary approach we have taken to quantify food mutagens and to study their biological effects. LLNL investigators were the first to identify five of the most important mutagens in heated food, including PhIP and DiMeIQx. We have shown that fried beef may be the most important single source of heterocyclic amines in the human diet and the PhIP accounts for most of the combined mass of mutagens in fried beef cooked well-done. Most nonmeat foods contain low or undetectable levels of these types of compounds, but some cooked protein-containing foods, such as those high in wheat gluten, have significant levels of unknown aromatic amine mutagens. Cooking time and temperature significantly affect the amounts of mutagens generated. For example, reducing the frying temperature of ground beef from 250 to 200{degrees}C lowers the mutagenic activity by six- to sevenfold. Microwave pretreatment of meat and discarding the liquid that is formed also greatly reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines. Our related work on dose and risk assessment will be described in a forthcoming article.

  1. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  2. Adolescent Cooking Abilities and Behaviors: Associations With Nutrition and Emotional Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between cooking and selected indicators of diet quality, mental well-being, and family relationships. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative health and well-being survey. Secondary schools in New Zealand. A total of 8,500 students. Cooking ability and frequency of cooking, nutritional behaviors, mental well-being, depressive symptoms, and family connections. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between cooking ability/frequency and indicators of health and well-being, controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics of students. Approximately 80% of students reported that they can cook a meal from basic ingredients either fairly or very easily. Reported cooking ability was positively associated with better nutritional indicators, better mental health indicators, and stronger family connections (P = .01). For example, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities were approximately twice as likely to meet the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.8). Likewise, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms (P < .01) and greater mental well-being (P < .01) than those with less cooking ability. However, greater cooking ability was also associated with higher body mass index (P < .01). Overall, similar statistically significant relationships were observed with frequency of cooking, although not for young people who cook most days. Learning to cook and having the opportunity to cook may provide a unique means for adolescents to develop life skills and contribute positively to their families. Future research examining the relationships between cooking and health may include measures beyond nutrition, such as social relationships and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Cooking and coughing: Estimating the effects of clean fuel for cooking on the respiratory health of children in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Capuno, Joseph J; Tan, Carlos Antonio R; Javier, Xylee

    2016-07-04

    Household air pollution (HAP) arising from the use of solid fuels for cooking is known to have adverse health effects including acute respiratory infections in children, which remains a major public health concern in developing countries. Hence, various interventions to reduce HAP have been advocated or piloted in many countries. To provide additional evidence on the effectiveness and applicability of the interventions in various settings, we investigate the effects of clean fuel for cooking on the risks of respiratory illness of children below five years old in the Philippines. We apply the propensity score matching method on a subsample of households culled from the 2013 round of the National Demographic and Health Survey to account for the systematic differences in their characteristics that could influence their choices of cooking fuel. We find that the use of electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas or biogas can lower by 2.4 percentage points the incidence of severe coughing with difficulty in breathing in young children. Our results support worldwide initiatives to promote the household use of clean fuels for cooking and heating to reduce HAP and its undesirable impacts on population health.

  4. Effects of process variables on some quality properties of meatballs semi-cooked in a continuous type ohmic cooking system.

    PubMed

    Icier, Filiz; Sengun, Ilkin Yucel; Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Arserim, Ender Hikmet

    2014-03-01

    Ohmic cooking of meatballs was conducted in a continuous type ohmic cooker using different voltage gradients (15, 20 and 25 V/cm) and holding times (0, 15 and 30 s). The color and textural properties and log reductions in total microbial count of the meatballs were assessed. The effects of process variables on these responses were evaluated by linear and quadratic mathematical models. Desirability function was used to determine the optimum ohmic pre-cooking condition by considering the criteria of minimizing hardness ratio, and maximizing chewiness ratio, resilience ratio, log reduction in microbial load, outside chroma ratio, inside chroma ratio and in range of springiness, gumminess and inside L ratios. The optimum ohmic pre-cooking condition was found to be a 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient with no holding time. It is concluded that application of the optimum condition in the related ohmic system offers potential for the production of high quality and safe semi-cooked meat products.

  5. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  6. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  7. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  8. The impact of video technology on learning: A cooking skills experiment.

    PubMed

    Surgenor, Dawn; Hollywood, Lynsey; Furey, Sinéad; Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate of ochratoxin a during cooking of naturally contaminated polished rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Chan; Kim, Young-Bae

    2005-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin widespread in cereals, occurs in polished rice that is consumed as cooked rice after washing and steaming. Cooking decreases OTA levels in food to varying extents, but little is known about how cooking changes the biological activity of this mycotoxin. We therefore evaluated the fate of OTA during rice cooking to determine the OTA residues and cytotoxic potential in vitro. Water-washed rice, ordinary cooked rice, and pressure-cooked rice were prepared from three polished rice lots naturally contaminated with OTA. Residual OTA in each sample was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whereas in vitro cytotoxicity of OTA to C6 glioma cells, susceptible to low levels (nanograms per milliliter) of OTA, was used to confirm the chemical analysis. OTA concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the cooked rice by both types of cookers was significantly lower than (59 to 75%) in the raw polished rice and water-washed rice. The cytotoxicity of the OTA that remained in the pressure-cooked rice from three lots was markedly decreased (approximately 20%, P < 0.05) when compared with other samples in respective lots. This confirms that cooking lowers OTA residues. Although washing polished rice with water had little effect on OTA levels, pressure steaming appeared to be the critical cooking step not only to reduce OTA residues in polished rice before reaching the consumer as the dietary staple of cooked rice, but also to diminish cytotoxicity of OTA.

  10. Effect of cooking procedures and storage on starch bioavailability in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Landa-Habana, Lorena; Piña-Hernández, Ariana; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Tovar, Juscelino; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    Common commercial beans were cooked using two procedures: under pressure (autoclaving) and traditional cooking. Total starch extraction was higher in beans cooked with the traditional procedure (41.69-42.81%) than in the autoclaved samples (37.04-38.16%) and did not change during storage at 4 degrees C. However, available and total resistant starch levels in vitro were not influenced by the cooking procedure or storage. Retrograded resistant starch content was higher in beans cooked with the traditional process (2.65-2.79%) than in autoclaved beans (1.62-1.94%). The initial in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate in freshly cooked beans was higher in the autoclaved preparation than in the beans cooked by the traditional process, but final hydrolysis indices (90 min) were similar for both samples. None of the bean samples showed statistical differences in alpha-amylolysis behavior (alpha = 0.05) after storage at 4 degrees C for 96 hour.

  11. Effect of age and cut on cooking loss, juiciness and flavour of South African beef.

    PubMed

    Schönfeldt, H C; Strydom, P E

    2011-03-01

    The juiciness and flavour characteristics of 15 aged primal beef cuts of electrically stimulated carcasses, from three different age groups, were assessed (n=61). Cooking losses were determined and proximate analyses (moisture, fat, nitrogen and ash) were performed. Tender cuts were cooked by a dry heat method, and less tender cuts were cooked by moist heat methods. A trained panel (n=10) evaluated sensory quality characteristics including initial and sustained juiciness, aroma and flavour. Flavour intensity was the biggest discriminant between the three age groups and declined with an increase in age. Initial impression of juiciness decreased with increased age of the animal and cooking losses increased nonlinearly with age, irrespective of the muscle. In contrast sustained juiciness increased with increased age. Cuts cooked according to a dry heat cooking method were reported juicier (both initial and sustained) than those cooked by moist heat methods.

  12. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    PubMed

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  14. Seasonal shorebird use of intertidal habitats in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal shorebird use of intertidal habitats of Cook Inlet, Alaska, was studied from February 1997 to February 1999 using aerial surveys as the principal method of assessment. On-ground studies were conducted to validate aerial survey results and to assess shorebird use of vegetated habitats, especially during the breeding season. Twenty-eight species of shorebirds were recorded using the area, ranging from all being present during spring to a single species present during winter. The annual pattern of use was characterized by the sudden occurrence and rapid increase in numbers of birds during early May and their abrupt departure in mid- to late-May. During this period, survey totals frequently exceeded 150,000 birds per day. Comparatively little use occurred during summer and autumn, but use was significant from late autumn to early spring when Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) resided in the Inlet. A single species, the Western Sandpiper (C. maun), was by far the numerically dominant shorebird, accounting for three-fourths of all birds recorded. The Pacific flyway population of this species numbers 2-3 million birds of which we estimated 20-47% used Cook Inlet embayments, especially southern Redoubt Bay. Cook .Inlet also supported between 11 and 21% of the Pacific flyway population of Dunlin (C. alpina pacifica) and what may be the entire population (ca. 20,000 birds) of the nominate race of the Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis). Several areas along the west side of Cook Inlet proved to be extremely important to shorebirds. Southern Redoubt Bay supported 73% of all shorebirds during spring (average 32,000 per day) while Susitna Flats accounted for 82% of use during winter (8,400 per day). International criteria used to assess the conservation importance of particular wetland sites to shorebirds not only place Cook Inlet at the highest level of recognition but afford similar recognition to several individual embayments therein. The large human population

  15. Factors affecting Cook Gunther Tulip and Cook Celect inferior vena cava filter retrieval success.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Roan J; Novak, Zdenek; Matthews, Thomas C; Patterson, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Success rates vary for the retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs). The optimal retrieval time and factors influencing retrieval success remain unproven. This study aims to determine optimal time and evaluate factors related to successful IVCF retrieval. An institutional prospectively maintained database was reviewed for all IVCF retrieval attempts from 2006 to 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, IVCF type, presence of angulation, and time to retrieval were evaluated with respect to success or failure of retrieval. Statistical analyses (t-test, χ(2), correlations, and Kaplan-Meier plots) were performed comparing successful and unsuccessful retrievals. Of 121 attempted IVCF retrievals, 92 (76%) were successful and 29 (24%) were unsuccessful. There were no significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in terms of patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, or IVCF type, which included 93 Celect (77%) and 28 Gunther Tulip (23%). Time since IVCF placement was significantly different (P = .025) between the successful and unsuccessful retrieval groups (medians were 105 [7-368] and 162 [43-379] days, respectively). Time since IVCF placement greater than 117 days correlated significantly with unsuccessful IVCF retrieval (R = 0.218; P = .017; odds ratio, 2.88; P = .02). Angulation greater than 20 degrees on anteroposterior radiograph was noted in seven of 29 (24%) unsuccessful retrievals compared with seven of 92 (8%) successful retrievals and was significant (P = .012). Cook Gunther Tulip and Celect IVCF retrieval is most likely to be successful within 3 to 4 months of placement. Unsuccessful retrieval attempts are more likely to occur when IVCF position is angulated. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of eliminating the carcass chilling step in the production of pre-cooked chicken breast meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-cooked chicken meat provides convenience to consumers and is growing in popularity globally. Poultry meat destined for pre-cooked meat products typically undergoes chilling on the carcass skeletal frame and deboning before cooking. However, compared to immersion chilling with antimicrobial, cook...

  17. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Antidumping... of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan... antidumping duty order is porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan that does not have self-...

  18. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak.

    PubMed

    Savell, J W; Lorenzen, C L; Neely, T R; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top sirloin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top sirloin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Top sirloin steaks, regardless of city, were consistently cooked to well done or higher degrees of doneness. Dry-heat methods such as outdoor grilling, broiling, and indoor grilling were the most frequent cooking methods used. Four significant interactions existed for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x cooking method (P = .02), city x cooking method (P = .0001), city x degree of doneness (P = .01), and cooking method x degree of doneness (P = .009). Greater differences were found between cooking methods within USDA quality grade than between USDA quality grades within cooking method. Consumers in Houston rated steaks cooked by outdoor grilling higher than those from the other cities, and steaks cooked by indoor grilling were rated the highest among all cooking methods by consumers in Chicago. In Chicago, steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness tended to receive higher ratings, but few differences between degrees of doneness in the other three cities were detected. For outdoor grilling, broiling, and pan-frying, the trend was for OLIKE ratings to decline as degree of doneness increased. The lowest customer satisfaction ratings tended to be given to top sirloin steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness, and consumers most frequently cooked steaks to at least the well done stage. Consumer information programs or the development of postmortem techniques that would ensure acceptable palatability of top sirloin steaks may need to be developed.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to cooking from 'scratch' using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique M; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted an ambiguity in understanding cooking related terminology and a number of barriers and facilitators to home meal preparation. However, meals prepared in the home still include convenience products (typically high in sugars, fats and sodium) which can have negative effects on health. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore: (1) how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and (2) their barriers and facilitators to cooking with basic ingredients. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (aged 18-58 years) living on the island of Ireland, eliciting definitions of 'cooking from scratch' and exploring the reasons participants cook in a particular way. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 10 was used for an inductive thematic analysis. Our results highlighted that although cooking from 'scratch' lacks a single definition, participants viewed it as optimal cooking. Barriers to cooking with raw ingredients included: 1) time pressures; (2) desire to save money; (3) desire for effortless meals; (4) family food preferences; and (5) effect of kitchen disasters. Facilitators included: 1) desire to eat for health and well-being; (2) creative inspiration; (3) ability to plan and prepare meals ahead of time; and (4) greater self-efficacy in one's cooking ability. Our findings contribute to understanding how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and barriers and facilitators to cooking with raw ingredients. Interventions should focus on practical sessions to increase cooking self-efficacy; highlight the importance of planning ahead and teach methods such as batch cooking and freezing to facilitate cooking from scratch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of boneless skinless white meat cooked from a frozen or thawed state.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hong; Savage, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality attributes of cooked boneless skinless white meat, broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state or prepared from a thawed state. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carcasses 6-8 h postmortem) were procured from a local commercial processing plant and stored in a -20°C freezer until use. On the sensory evaluation date, fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78°C either directly from the frozen state (thawing during cooking) or after the frozen samples were thawed in a refrigerator (2°C) overnight (thawing before cooking). Cook loss and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force were used as indicators for instrumental quality measurements. Sensory quality measurements were conducted by trained descriptive panelists using 0 to 15 universal intensity scales for 8 texture and 10 flavor attributes. Results show that there were no differences (P > 0.05) in measurements for sensory descriptive flavor attributes of cooked fillets between the 2 sample thawing methods, indicating that the sensory flavor profiles of both methods were similar to each other. However, WB shear force (36.98 N), cook loss (21.2%), sensory texture attributes of cohesiveness (intensity score was 5.59), hardness (5.14), rate of breakdown (5.50), and chewiness (5.21) of the breast fillets cooked directly from the frozen state were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the breast meat cooked after being thawed (30.56 N, 19.0%, 5.19, 4.78, 5.29, and 5.02, respectively). These results indicate that cookery directly from frozen boneless skinless white meat can result in different measurement values of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive texture attributes compared with cookery after frozen fillets are thawed.

  1. Comment on “An unconfined groundwater model of the Death Valley Regional Flow System and a comparison to its confined predecessor” by R.W.H. Carroll, G.M. Pohll and R.L. Hershey [Journal of Hydrology 373/3–4, pp. 316–328

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Provost, Alden M.; Hill, Mary C.; Belcher, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    Carroll et al. (2009) state that the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model, which is based on MODFLOW, is “conceptually inaccurate in that it models an unconfined aquifer as a confined system and does not simulate unconfined drawdown in transient pumping simulations.” Carroll et al. (2009) claim that “more realistic estimates of water availability” can be produced by a SURFACT-based model of the DVRFS that simulates unconfined groundwater flow and limits withdrawals from wells to avoid excessive drawdown. Differences in results from the original MODFLOW-based model and the SURFACT-based model stem primarily from application by Carroll et al. (2009) of head limits that can also be applied using the existing MODLOW model and not from any substantial difference in the accuracy with which the unconfined aquifer is represented in the two models. In a hypothetical 50-year predictive simulation presented by Carroll et al. (2009), large differences between the models are shown when simulating pumping from the lower clastic confining unit, where the transmissivity is nearly two orders of magnitude less than in an alluvial aquifer. Yet even for this extreme example, drawdowns and pumping rates from the MODFLOW and SURFACT models are similar when the head-limit capabilities of the MODFLOW MNW Package are applied. These similarities persist despite possible discrepancies between assigned hydraulic properties. The resulting comparison between the MODFLOW and SURFACT models of the DVRFS suggests that approximating the unconfined system in the DVRFS as a constant-saturated-thickness system (called a “confined system” by Carroll et al., 2009) performs very well.

  2. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans.

  3. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    PubMed

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Search for seamounts in the southern Cook and Austral region

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeck, K.; Coleman, R.

    1982-04-01

    The existence of uncharted seamounts in the Cook-Austral region of the South Pacific has been investigated using GEOS 3 and SEASAT radar altimeter observations. Three previously uncharted submarine seamounts, provisionally named GEOS A to GEOS C, have been located between Mauke and Rimatara and a fourth, GEOS D, has been located east of Rurutu. This confirms that the Aitutaki-Mauke islands of the Southern Cooks are a continuation of the Austral chain. A second group of uncharted seamounts has been provisionally located some 200 km south of Rimatara and Maria and this is suggestive of a second seamount chain, south of the first, that includes Raratonga and Mangaia. Fabert Bank, to the south of Mangaia, appears to be mislocated by about 2/sup 0/ in longitude.

  5. Magnetovariational measurements in the Cook Strait region of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Malcolm R.

    1985-08-01

    Magnetovariational measurements have been made at 10 sites on the northern side of the Cook Strait, New Zealand. Single-station transfer functions have been calculated for the sites and indicate that the effect of induction in the shallow water of the Cook Strait is most important at around 1000 s period. At longer periods the effect of induced currents in the Pacific Ocean predominates. A two-dimensional electrical conductivity model including local conductivity structure has been shown to satisfy the measured responses at sites about 60-80 km distance from the strait. Closer to the strait the inductive process is strongly three-dimensional. A simple d.c. line current model of current flow has been shown to reproduce some of the features of the observed responses. Induction arrows indicate the existence of conductivity anomalies associated with a known lateral seismic boundary and with one of the two principal faults in the region.

  6. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents some of the background behind the installation and use of a microcomputer for census processing and briefly reviews the results of the 1981 census in the light of the Cook Islands' special demographic situation. Since independence from New Zealand in 1965, the Cook Islands has gradually developed a capacity for statistics gathering in general and census taking in particular. The 1981 quinquennial census represents a watershed in the development of local personnel without the aid of external advisors; it was the 1st census to be processed within the Cook Islands by means of a computer. Both the installation of the microcomputer and the processing of the 1981 census are counted as successes. This is due to a number of factors, namely: a long period of careful planning procedures which preceded the choice of system and installation; the enthusiasm of the local staff closely involved in the planning; the emphasis on training; tests of the equipment before installation by computer practitioners with knowledge of local needs and capacities; reasonable goal setting; and the supply, with the system, of adequate spare parts tools and maintenance and training manuals. Like many island populations, that of the Cook Islands is characterized by considerable instability as illustrated by the 1981 census results. As the rate and direction of population change varies from island to island, generalizations across the nation as a whole are difficult. For example, while some of the northern atolls experienced population decline during the latest intercensal period, most had their popultion increase in 1981. All the southern islands declined during the 1976-81 period at annual rates varying from 0.6% to 3.2%. The explanation for these patterns of change lies primarily in the different rates and direction of external migration on each island, as Cook Islanders are exempt from immigration regulations to New Zealand and Australia. In recent years, women have formed a

  7. Effect of aging on volatile compounds in cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Kamada, G; Imanari, M; Shiba, N; Yonai, M; Muramoto, T

    2015-09-01

    Volatiles in the headspace of beef cooked at 180 °C were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the effects of aging were evaluated. Seventy volatile substances including non-aromatic, homocyclic, and heterocyclic compounds were identified. A significant positive regression model for storage could be adopted for toluene, benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-formylfuran, pyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylthiazole, and 2-formyl-3-methylthiophene. Increases in the quantity of these compounds, with the exception of toluene, suggest the importance of the Strecker and Maillard reactions in cooked meat previously aged under vacuum conditions. As such, the aging process may lead to an increase not only in the amount of compounds related to the taste of meat, but also in the quantity of odor-active compounds. The increased quantity of toluene during storage seemed to be influenced by lipid oxidation.

  8. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  10. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  11. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  12. Changes in potassium content of different potato varieties after cooking.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Ramer, Nicholas J

    2008-11-01

    We sought to determine analytically the potassium content of different varieties of raw potatoes, and to estimate the amount of potassium that can be extracted or leached from raw potatoes by cooking. Six different varieties of fresh potatoes were obtained from the Whole Foods Market in Manhasset, New York. Two different cooking methods (normal cooking [NC] and double cooking [DC]) were applied to each potato. Potassium was extracted from the ash of dried samples. The potassium content of aqueous extractions was ascertained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean potassium content was highest in the purple Viking potato (448.1 +/- 60.5 mg [11.5 +/- 1.6 mEq]/100 g [values are mean +/- SD unless otherwise noted]), and lowest in the Idaho potato (295 +/- 15.7 mg [7.6 +/- 0.4 mEq]/100 g). All raw potatoes had a mean potassium content of about 300 mg (7.7 mEq)/100 g or greater. The DC method resulted in a greater reduction in potassium from raw potatoes than the NC method. All potatoes retained a mean potassium content greater than 200 mg (5.1 mEq)/100 g, using the NC versus the DC method. The potassium content of the raw potatoes studied varied considerably, with most tubers retaining a moderate amount of potassium after leaching. This study showed that the DC method appears to be more effective than the NC method in leaching potassium from the potatoes studied. Our findings provide useful information for dietitians involved in menu planning for people on potassium-restricted diets.

  13. [Effect of cooking on the purine content of foods].

    PubMed

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-12-01

    The total purine content and the content of purines bound in RNA and DNA was determined in selected food (veal meat, pork meat, pork liver, pork spleen, soja meat). Raw and boiled food samples were analysed. During preparation of food the total purine content is changed by losses of water or of purines into cooking water. Simultaneously, a great part of nucleic acids is hydrolysed.

  14. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi(2) crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (<12 years) and/or teen (13-18 years) learners had significantly greater numbers of, and confidence in, their cooking and food skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to

  15. A semi-automatic annotation tool for cooking video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo; Margherita, Roberto; Marini, Gianluca; Gianforme, Giorgio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In order to create a cooking assistant application to guide the users in the preparation of the dishes relevant to their profile diets and food preferences, it is necessary to accurately annotate the video recipes, identifying and tracking the foods of the cook. These videos present particular annotation challenges such as frequent occlusions, food appearance changes, etc. Manually annotate the videos is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone task. Fully automatic tools that integrate computer vision algorithms to extract and identify the elements of interest are not error free, and false positive and false negative detections need to be corrected in a post-processing stage. We present an interactive, semi-automatic tool for the annotation of cooking videos that integrates computer vision techniques under the supervision of the user. The annotation accuracy is increased with respect to completely automatic tools and the human effort is reduced with respect to completely manual ones. The performance and usability of the proposed tool are evaluated on the basis of the time and effort required to annotate the same video sequences.

  16. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  17. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T

    1986-01-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required. PMID:3530738

  18. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  19. Volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural transitions in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beget, J.; Gardner, C.; Davis, K.

    2008-01-01

    The 1883 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced a tsunami when a debris avalanche traveled into the waters of Cook Inlet. Older debris avalanches and coeval paleotsunami deposits from sites around Cook Inlet record several older volcanic tsunamis. A debris avalanche into the sea on the west side of Augustine Island ca. 450??years ago produced a wave that affected areas 17??m above high tide on Augustine Island. A large volcanic tsunami was generated by a debris avalanche on the east side of Augustine Island ca. 1600??yr BP, and affected areas more than 7??m above high tide at distances of 80??km from the volcano on the Kenai Peninsula. A tsunami deposit dated to ca. 3600??yr BP is tentatively correlated with a southward directed collapse of the summit of Redoubt Volcano, although little is known about the magnitude of the tsunami. The 1600??yr BP tsunami from Augustine Volcano occurred about the same time as the collapse of the well-developed Kachemak culture in the southern Cook Inlet area, suggesting a link between volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural changes in this region of Alaska. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cooked sausage batter cohesiveness as affected by sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Wieliczko, K; Lim, R; Turnwald, S; Macdonald, G A

    2002-05-01

    In the first trial, m. semitendinosus and m. biceps femoris were held at 0, 10 and 35 °C until they entered rigor, and in the second trial, minced m. semitendinosus was washed in water for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. The samples from both the trials were then used to make a finely comminuted sausage batter. Soluble sarcoplasmic protein (SSP) levels decreased with increasing rigor temperature (P < 0.05) or washing (P < 0.01). Cooked batter shear stress was not affected by SSP level, but batter shear strain decreased with the decreasing SSP level associated with an increasing rigor temperature (P < 0.05) or washing (P < 0.01). Reducing the SSP content lowered the cook yield (P < 0.05) and emulsion stability (P < 0.01) of the batter from the washed samples compared to that of controls. The results suggest that sarcoplasmic proteins are important in determining the strain values (cohesiveness) of cooked sausage batter.