Science.gov

Sample records for cartels

  1. Curbing Cartel Influence in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    Mexico back from achieving its potential in the global market place. Cartel influence hampers legitimate business competition. Violence, combined...system is holding Mexico back from achieving its potential in the global market place. Cartel influence hampers legitimate business competition...east and west coast organizations. However, cartel allegiances are for business first, as they share risks and markets only to protect profits.20

  2. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  3. A Troubled Cartel: The NCAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the claims of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) that it is a champion of amateur athletics and physical fitness in colleges and universities, the NCAA is in fact a business cartel composed of university-firms that have varying desires to restrict competition and maximize profits in the area of intercollegiate athletics.…

  4. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  5. Decline of the oil cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Fieleke, N.S.

    1986-07-01

    A review of the development that led to the current decline in oil prices concludes that sharp relative price changes have been a major source of world economic instability for the past 13 years. The results for oil-importing countries have been cycles of inflation and contraction followed by inflation and rapid growth. Some see the recent price decline as an effort by OPEC to regain enough power to bring about an eventual price rise. Although past price and production relationships indicate that OPEC has operated as a cartel, the author sees current efforts to persuade non-OPEC producers to lower their production as an indication of weakness. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve could help the US cope with any future supply disruption. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Examining the Rise in Mexican Drug Cartel Related Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Calderon administration compounded the ongoing war between the drug cartels and led to the exponential rise in cartel-related violence during the...Calderon administration compounded the ongoing war between the drug cartels and led to the exponential rise in cartel-related violence during the period...professional growth . Most importantly, I would like to thank my wife Jill and children Tommy, Emily, Justin, and Mason for their love and support this year

  7. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  8. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  9. Nurses can send a clear message to politicians about pay cartel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gareth; Llangoed; Mon, Ynys

    2012-11-21

    During an RCN stewards' conference in Birmingham, we were updated on the pay 'cartel' of healthcare trusts in the south west of England that is looking to drive down nurses' pay and rewrite the terms of employment (news November 14).

  10. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  11. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  12. Impacts of Weather Shocks on Murder and Drug Cartel Violence in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, E.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Gonzalez, F.; Baysan, C.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate impacts of weather shocks on several dimensions of violence in Mexico during 1990-2010, using disaggregated data at the state-by-month level. Controlling for location and time fixed effects, we show that higher than normal temperatures lead to: (i) higher total murder rates, (ii) higher rates of drug cartel related murders, and (iii) higher suicide rates. The effects of high temperatures on inter-personal violence (murders) and on inter-group violence (drug cartel related murders) are large, statistically significant and similar to those found in other recent settings. The use of panel data econometric methods to examine the effect of weather on suicide incidence is novel. We assess the role of economic channels (i.e., agricultural production affected by weather) and conclude that they cannot account for most of the estimated impacts, suggesting that other mechanisms, including psychological explanations, are likely to be important in this setting.

  13. No need for conspiracy: self-organized cartel formation in a modified trust game.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Tiago P; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-25

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  14. No Need for Conspiracy: Self-Organized Cartel Formation in a Modified Trust Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  15. The COIN Approach to Mexican Drug Cartels: Square Peg in a Round Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    drug trafficking and lawlessness that we see in northern Mexico does not constitute on insurgency. Drug cartels have no ideology beyond profit, no...Petraeus and James Mattis in 2006, is therefore inappropriate for Mexico . Some COIN principles and practices – what the author calls COIN a la...of Afghanistan and Iraq to Mexico . NOTE: Components of the OPS/JMO Paper are: Standard Form (SF) 298 Cover Page Table of Contents (not

  16. Mexican Drug Cartels and al Qaeda: Credible Link or Impracticable Alliance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    facilitate their addition to the FTO list . The cartels do not want to face the added pressure of United States national counter-terrorism assets...has devolved into a decentralized entity. Conversely, the 35 Cruz, Carlos Mauricio Pineda. "Al...2011. http://www.criticalthreats.org/print/1579. Cruz, Carlos Mauricio Pineda. "Al-Qaeda’s Unlikely Allies in Central America." Terrorism

  17. Recent ASA Presidents and 'Top' Journals: Observed Publication Patterns, Alleged Cartels and Varying Careers.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    It has been common for studies presented as about American sociology as a whole to rely on data compiled from leading journals (American Sociological Review [ASR] and American Journal of Sociology [AJS]), or about presidents of the American Sociological Association [ASA], to represent it. Clearly those are important, but neither can be regarded as providing a representative sample of American sociology. Recently, Stephen Turner has suggested that dominance in the ASA rests with a 'cartel' initially formed in graduate school, and that it favors work in a style associated with the leading journals. The adequacy of these ideas is examined in the light of available data on the last 20 years, which show that very few of the presidents were in the same graduate schools at the same time. All presidents have had distinguished academic records, but it is shown that their publication strategies have varied considerably. Some have had no ASR publications except their presidential addresses, while books and large numbers of other journals not normally mentioned in this context have figured in their contributions, as well as being more prominent in citations. It seems clear that articles in the leading journals have not been as closely tied to prestigious careers as has sometimes been suggested, and that if there is a cartel it has not included all the presidents.

  18. Model of the world oil market with an OPEC cartel. [1980 AD to 2040 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Horwedel, J.E.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Haas, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    A world oil market model (WOM) with OPEC treated as a Stackelberg cartel has been developed within the framework of the Generalized Equilibrium Modeling System (GEMS) that is available from Decision Focus, Inc. The US sector of the model is represented by a Liquid Fuels Supply model that was presented previously. The WOM model is described and results obtained with the model for the period 1980 to 2040 are presented. For comparative purposes, results obtained with the model when OPEC is treated as a competitive producer are also presented. By comparing the world oil price as a function of time from the two calculations, the influence that OPEC may have on the oil market by exploiting all of its market power is quantified. The world oil price as obtained with the WOM model is also compared with world oil price projections from a variety of sources. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology.

  20. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.

  1. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  2. Breaking the Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the system we have relied on to produce school leaders is not up to the task. A redesigned system will have a better chance of succeeding if it follows the basic principles Mr. Elmore offers here. (Contains 1 endnote.)

  3. Mexican Cartels: Threat and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    just last summer, two Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operatives were shot and injured while traveling to a Mexican military base. Their assailants...the CIA agents were traveling with a Mexican Navy officer and were in an Embassy vehicle with diplomatic plates47 calls into question whether these...internal business displacement from the violent northern region to the quieter interior is also occurring51. The bloodshed is also impacting tourism and

  4. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Visit our website for other free publication downloads http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil/ To rate this publication click here. Report...presents The Letort Papers. This series allows SSI and USAWC Press to publish papers, retrospectives, speeches , or essays of interest to the defense...USAWC) Press publications may be downloaded free of charge from the SSI website. Hard copies of this report may also be obtained free of charge

  5. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  6. Drug Cartels: A Threat to National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and operational planners. 8 http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/briefings/4_5.htm. Operation Dinero was a DEA operation that began in 1992. The operation...Justice—DEA. Publications Briefing Book – Operation Dinero . On- line.Internet,18Nov97.Available from http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/briefing/ 4_5.htm

  7. Exploiting Weaknesses: An Approach to Counter Cartel Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    up, although the initial vision and goals derive from the top. 12 Figure 1. Los Zetas Organizational Structure -m .__ lione...85 In addition to Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, Los Zetas has also taken over the piracy business in Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz and Puebla ...Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Chiapas, Puebla , Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Zacatecas, Durango, Guerrero, Oaxaca

  8. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  9. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  10. African-American Students and the Financial Aid Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herschel I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…

  11. Fellowship Behavior in Division 17 and the MOMM Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; Erickson, Chris D.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, although the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs lists 64 members, graduates and employees of 4 institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri) heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association Division 17's governing body. Cites examples of barriers to professional…

  12. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  13. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  14. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  15. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  16. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  17. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  18. [Cartel]: Monthly Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  19. FoxO: a new addition to the ESC cartel.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2011-09-02

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) family is involved in diverse cellular processes such as tumor suppression, stress response, and metabolism. In a recent Nature Cell Biology Letter, Zhang et al. (2011) uncover a novel role for FoxO proteins in regulating the identity of human ESCs.

  20. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  1. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send...constructing a model in order to understand a complex problem or situation. It is primarily an investigative process used to gradually make sense of a defined...access the illegal drug consumer market in the U.S. The lucrative nature of cocaine smuggling began the metamorphosis of the Mexican drug

  2. Security Through Partnership: Fighting Transnational Cartels in the Western Hemisphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Ciudad Juarez alone.1 in neighboring Guatemala, the government declared an official “state of siege” along its northern border with Mexico to permit...narcotics market in the United States, modern technology, the wide availability of small arms and global economic integration.4 Indeed, some Mexican...compete with one another and with governments for control of territory, markets and influence, and establish fiefdoms for operations and training

  3. Mexican Cartels: The Threat Along Our Southern Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    the drug smuggling on the Southwest Border its leader, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzmán, made Forbes’ list of the world’s richest individuals in 2009. 4...resources. 46 UCs are decision-making organizations that develop and seek to implement consensual solutions to defeat narco -terrorism at the border as...Benson, R. G. (2011). Is Merida Antiquated? Part Two: Updating US Policy to Counter Threats of Insurgency and Narco -Terrorism. Washington D.C

  4. Strict Slaves of Slogans: Response to ''The Social Work Cartel''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The corruption of the social work enterprise is not simply episodic but systemic and long-standing including education, research, governance, and practice. Reform is unlikely since the constituency within the field and outside of it that wishes to change the situation is small and ineffective. The corruption of social work reflects the unfortunate…

  5. No Oil Producing and Exporting Cartels Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2009-01-12

    01/12/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S311-312) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Coming after U.: Why Colleges Should Fear the Accrediting Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the college accreditation process can allow a centralized body of bureaucrats to impose a political agenda through their control of funding. The author provides the example of Aquinas College (Michigan) to show how this process can threaten educational quality by forcing changes in the curriculum and administrative practices to…

  7. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    industry, as well as in spin-off businesses, construction, the service sector, security, and transportation . Increased impunity and mounting...of other jobs it generates both directly (e.g., transportation , security, banking, and communi- cation) and indirectly (e.g., construction, the...Catalán, 20, who was transporting the weapons. Apazingán, Michoacán March 25, 2010 Federal Police Eight assault weapons; two semi-automatic

  8. Applying Counterinsurgency Doctrine as a Strategy to Defeat the Mexican Cartels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Productivity and Income a Decade after NAFTA , Brief Submitted to The Canadian Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs (Washington, DC: Carnegie...Endowment For International Peace, 2004). Detailing the overall economic downturn to the Mexican economy as a result of NAFTA . 48 Lionel Beehner

  9. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.

    1986-12-01

    An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  10. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  11. Cartel. Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. Vol. III, No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. Items are listed according to: title, author, subject, and publisher/distributor indexes. The following are among the topics covered: (1) African and Afro-American culture; (2) Native American cultures; (3) arts and…

  12. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. No. 36, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Thirty-two documents are listed in this annotated bibliography which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  13. CARTEL: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials No. 12. Cumulative Issue--1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Approximately 400 books, curriculum guides, journals, and educational resource materials published between 1967 and 1973 are listed in this annotated bibliography of bilingual bicultural materials on the Spanish-speaking, American Indians, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Russians. This listing shares with bilingual bicultural project personnel…

  14. Cartel: Annotations and Analyses of Bilingual Multicultural Materials. Winter 1976-77. Vol. IV, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. There are two main sections, annotations and analyses. Annotated entries are arranged under the following headings: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2) bibliographies; (3) classroom resources; (4) English as a second…

  15. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  16. Reframing Financial Sector Identity: Options For Reducing Mexican Drug Cartel Economic Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-18

    Finnegan describes how this perception translates to average Mexican citizens: “The narcos use jets and helicopters, speedboats, and even...18 Hal Brands, “Mexico’s  Narco ‐Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy.” SSI Monograph, Carlisle, PA: U.S.  Army War College Strategic Studies...Targets Colombian Drug Trafficking Organization Tied to Mexican Drug Lord  Chapo  Guzman,” September 21,  2011. http://www.treasury.gov/resource‐center

  17. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    crime in today’s Central America. First, the institution of an Encomienda system of land ownership, which granted Spanish Conquistadors and upper class...2 Britannica on line, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/186567/ encomienda (accessed October 15, 2009). 3 Net Industries, http

  18. Cartel Next: How Army Design Methodology Offers Holistic and Dissimilar Approaches to the Mexican Drug Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    information on the term „problematization‟, see also: Michel Foucault , Discourse and Truth: The Problematization of Parrhesia (originally covered in six...lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California, Berkeley in October-November, 1983. Published online at: http://foucault.info

  19. Explaining Variation in the Apprehension of Mexican Drug Trafficking Cartel Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Carrillo in connection with the abduction. MFJP agents confronted Caro- Quintero at the Guadalajara airport. Following a brief standoff between Caro...jams that slowed business along the border for both countries. In a second incident, Raphael Carlo- Quintero , a drug trafficker wanted for his possible...Instead of being held for questioning in connection with Camarena’s death as the U.S. DOJ had requested, Carlo- Quintero was allowed to board his

  20. The Evolution of Los Zetas in Mexico and Central America: Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Mazatlecos, a gang in Mazatlán, Sinaloa. They have followed the same ex- change with La Resistencia , a violent gang that has given them access to Jalisco. El...with La Resistencia , are important players in Mexico’s third largest city, known as the “Pearl of the West” by residents and a money-laundering...Intelligence: Southern Pulse,” May 10, 2011, "Petroleum Rustling," Verónica Sánchez, “Registrar desde 2009 liga entre INM-narco” (“Recognized since

  1. Competing with the Cartels: How Mexico’s Government Can Reduce Organized Crime’s Economic Grip on its People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    company Petroleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX ). The government has finally realized that it cannot rely solely on oil exports to grow the economy, but will have...to diversify.46 In an effort to reform its energy sector, President Calderon convinced the Mexican Congress to allow PEMEX to partner with private

  2. The Future of Mexico’s Drug War - Balancing Security and Rule of Law Against Cartel Freedom of Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    different approach because law enforcement and interdiction regime efforts cannot constrain the multi-billion dollar influence of the drug market ...legalizing the drugs as an indirect way to undercut the profits that sustain the illicit drug trade market . In return, monies can be invested in less...costly education and treatment programs. Unfortunately while the argument for undercutting the illegal profits that drive the market has great merit

  3. Departmental Takeover and the Peculiar Property Rights of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1989-01-01

    The academic department is viewed as a form of cartel, a model of monopolistic behavior characterized by control over a particular differentiated product. The development and operation of this academic cartel is explored. (MSE)

  4. Drugs and Terror: A Threat to U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-23

    Panama, Castro in Cuba, the M-19, and Colombia’s Medellin drug cartel. These allegations involved money laundering, gun sales, and 6 narcotics...funded by the Medellin cartel. The M-19 took more than 300 hostages, including many judges from Colombia’s highest court. Their mission was to destroy...involved Noriega, Castro, Ortega, and the Medellin cartel. It cannot be a coincidence of the links that involve Cuba with the international narcotics

  5. Experiential Learning through Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…

  6. Secure Borders: An Arrival Zone Counterdrug National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    46; Amparo Trejo, “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel: Sources Detail Meeting of 5 Major Groups,” The Washington Post, 9 April 2001, sec. A, p...Hezbollah, Feds Say." Harrisburg (PA) Patriot News , 2 September 2002, sec. A1, p.1. Trejo, Amparo . “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel

  7. Bordering on Failure: Mexican Instability, Drug Wars, and the Threat to U.S. Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-19

    late 2011, the Mexican government announced that between December 1, 2006 and September 30, 2011 Mexico experienced 47,515 narco -related homicides...Joaquin Guzman Loera (aka “El Chapo ”), (3) the Juarez Cartel to the Carrillo Fuentes family (CFO), and (4) the Gulf Cartel to Juan Garcia Abrego.22...might have dissolved and El Chapo might be at war again with the Gulf cartel.”44 Likewise, by the time a reader views this paper the entire DTO picture

  8. Drug Trafficking within Mexico: A Law Enforcement Issue or Insurgency?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, Narco -Insurgency, Cartels, Street-gangs, Drug Smuggling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...of the Narco -Insurgency ....................................................................... 94 Recommendations...101 The U.S. Military Officer and the Narco -insurgency ................................................. 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  9. Mexican Marine Corps in the Struggle for Scalable Security and Its Potential as a Guarantor of the Mexican Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    7 See Osorio, Diego Enrique. El cartel de Sinaloa: Una historia del uso político del narco.. México: Random House Mondadori... historia del uso político del narco. México: Random House Mondadori, 2009. 31 (The Zetas bloodiest leader, killed in action on November 2012, the latter...Maritime Prepositioning Force 3-32 Osorio, Diego Enrique. El cartel de Sinaloa: Una historia del uso político del narco. México: Random House

  10. Beyond the Border: Mexico’s Internal Conflict Is the United States’ Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    When enforcement efforts intensified in South Florida and the Caribbean in the early 1990s, the Medellín and Cali cartels in Colombia organized...them illegal in the 1970s via the Controlled Substance 66I say “so-called” because formally, a cartel is an arrangement where firms, or countries or...citizens live below the poverty line.72 Paul Collier’s violent recruitment pool profile seems to hold true even amongst non- 69Controlled Substance

  11. Drug Trafficking in Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Toboada of the Medellin cartel before a U.S. Senate Foreign Rela tions Committee in April 1994. In 1987 alone, the police commander, Lieutenant...indictment alleges that Francois was trusted to courier millions of dollars in illicit profits from Medellin , Baranquilla, and Cali cartels to pay off...government’s legitimacy and deepened the economic crisis as offshore assembly factories closed and tourism collapsed. It became impossible to pass new

  12. Domestic Security Cooperation: A Unified Approach to Homeland Security and Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    The Sinaloa cartel controls almost one-half of the drug trade in Mexico.33 Led by Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman, the cartel is organized into a...its current mission of supporting law enforcement agencies in the conduct of counterdrug/counter- narco -terrorism operations in NORTHCOM’s area of...Such an organization would enhance the comprehensive approach necessary for preventing narco -terrorism along the U.S.-Mexican border. Key to

  13. A Probabilistic Model of Illegal Drug Trafficking Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana Mid–Atlantic MDMA New England Methamphetamine New York/New Jersey Pacific Southeast Southwest West Central Los Zetas Cocain Florida...Caribbean Marijuana Great Lakes Southeast Southwest Gulf Cartel Cocaine Florida/Caribbean Marijuana Mid–Atlantic New England New York/New Jersey Southeast...Southwest Juárez Cartel Cocaine Great Lakes Marijuana New York/New Jersey Pacific Southeast Southwest West Central BLO Cocaine Southeast Heroin

  14. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: Matching Strategy to Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Transnational Organized Crime,” 15. 62 Ginger Thompson, “U.S. Widens Role in Battle Against Mexican Drug Cartels,” New York Times, August 6, 2011. 63 Ibid...Congress, Congressional Research Service, August 15, 2011), 2. 65 Ibid., 19. 66 Ibid., 36 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid., 37. 69 Ginger Thompson and Mark

  15. The Gang’s All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    youth Skinhead activity (Spergel 1995). What is unique is that distinctively US-style gangs are being exported to other countries, especially Latin...cartels. Also, this’study will not focus on prison or hate-oriented gangs (i.e. Skinhead groups). Gang activity in the US has been extensively studied

  16. Bringing a Global Perspective to Economics. Field Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Eight lessons on integrated global economics provide detailed instructional materials on world food and energy systems, international cartels, and the nature and process of foreign investments. The materials are designed to help high school social studies teachers develop student understanding of key economic systems and activities and reinforce…

  17. Institutional Struggles for Recognition in the Academic Field: The Case of University Departments in German Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munch, Richard; Baier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the application of New Public Management (NPM) and the accompanying rise of academic capitalism in allocating research funds in the German academic field have interacted with a change from federal pluralism to a more stratified system of universities and departments. From this change, a tendency to build cartel-like…

  18. Counterinsurgency and the Mexican Drug War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    prompted the angered governor to call it “an occupation.” 25 The governor’s brother, a member of the lower house of Mexico’s congress, is also a senior...send a message, to reinforce the plata o plomo (silver or lead) policy. Take the money or take the bullet, cooperate with the cartels or die. In

  19. OPEC behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  20. The Use of Special Operations Forces in Support of American Strategic Security Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    efforts. Throughout the final decades of the 20th century, Colombia was a hotbed for drugs and violence punctuated by the operations of Pablo Emilio... Escobar , the drug lord in charge of the infamous Medellín Cartel. Following limited success in counter-narcotic operations during the early 1990s

  1. The Reluctant Hegemon Counterdrug Efforts in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    because their movement had been taken over by Pablo Escobar, the notorious late drug lord of the ruthless Medellin Cartel. Carlos Castano, today’s...the Henao Montoya organization, which according to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), is the most powerful drug trafficking group to emerge since the

  2. Honduran-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Carteles mexicanas azotan a Honduras,” La Prensa (Honduras), August 27, 2008; “Los Zetas hondureños, nueva pesadilla para los inmigrantes,” Tiempo

  3. The U. S., Its Press, and the New World Information Order. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wete, Francis N.

    Criticisms of the one-way flow of international information were first voiced in the 1940s, when, in the name of free flow of information and worldwide access to news, the United States launched an offensive to dismantle European news cartels. At a UNESCO conference in 1945, the United States was chiefly responsible for making the free flow of…

  4. Educating and Organizing Globally: Perspectives on the Internet and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allport, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Explores benefits and dangers of electronic learning and the globalization of higher education, focusing on the strategic response of Australian institutions to international cartels in partnership arrangements that cross national boundaries and involve for-profit media or information technology companies in curriculum development and delivery.…

  5. Core-Periphery Relationships of Resource-Based Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Courtland L.; Steel, Brent S.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Oregon communities, 1949-1989, show dramatic changes in income between urban centers and rural communities at the periphery. Coping strategies for rural areas include cartels, self-sufficiency, community sustainability, harmonized interests with urban cores, and changing community identity. (Author/SK)

  6. Selected Compendium of Student Research. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Colombian government against drug organizations. The Medellin Cartel, a grouping of select trafficking organizations, was the primary opponent. The...sources of supply and to expand tourism , its economic difficulties are unlikely to be resolved in the near future. With the usual trickle of illegal

  7. Potential Metrics Models for Determining the Actions and Status of Tools of National Power for Homeland and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    Medellin cartel, al Qaeda, etc.) which are active internationally, as compared to state entities (US, Russia, Italy, India, etc.). 2005 10th... Tourism (old model); financial, information, technology, manufacturing, etc. --Organization image! --Take care of the basics! Figure 1 - Reference Model

  8. National Drug Control Strategy: What Should the Military Objectives Be

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-11

    34$6 billion annually, more than agriculture and second only to tourism ."" Compare this to the fact that Florida’s drug business is 150 percent more...political systems."° "Massacres are common in Medellin , home to one of the country’s cocaine rings.ൻ Medellin and Cali cartels control the Andean

  9. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  10. Bigger Is Not Always Better - The United States Support to Security Force Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    claimed over 200,000 lives.3 Colombia, producer of90% of the cocaine coming into the U.S., was also tom asunder by criminal drug cartels vying for control...With 80 to 90 percent of the cocaine consumed in the United States coming from one country, the narcotics issue was at the top of the bilateral

  11. Illegal Immigration in the United States: Implications for Rule of Law and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic paper are those of the...alien smuggling can lead to collateral crimes including kidnapping, homicide, high speed flight, identity theft and the manufacturing/ distribution ...law enforcement, mere proximity to an American sister city enables cartels to quickly inject illicit drugs into a robust U.S. distribution 11

  12. Combating Narco-Terrorism in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-15

    stability of nation. ’>uhvcning government institmion:-. through corruption and harmjng citizen ~ worldwide. Tran~national criminal organizarions...permissive environment for drug cartels and terrorists to operate and find haven. West Africa’s strategic location, lack of governance , high...lack effective government institutions coupled with corruption. Poverty and lack of opportunities for West African youth have enabled drug traffickers

  13. The Hammer and the Anvil: The Need for A Comprehensive Southwest Border Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-02

    to shrink the illicit travel networks used by human smugglers, narco -traffickers, and other transnational criminals whose activities foster...the most wanted drug smuggler in Mexico, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman. The Gulf Cartel, based in Tamaulipas, is notoriously violent, involved in...1 Hal Brands, Mexico’s Narco -Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy, (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies

  14. The Diversification of Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations and its Effects on Spillover Violence in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Mexican TCOs .............................................. 43 Corruption and Narco -Politics...Joaquin El Chapo (Spanish meaning short, referring to his 5’8 stature) Guzman, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most powerful of all the TCOs operating in...Additionally, an understanding of the Mexican political environment and what role narco -politics play in the ability of TCOs to operate, contributes to

  15. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  16. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  17. Manifestations of the MOMM Phenomenon II: Relevant Data on Professional Darwinism and Membership Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    Horan (1989) reported that graduates and employees of four institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri - the "MOMM Cartel") heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association's Division 17 governing body. Goldman (1990) provided additional data indicating that egregious exclusion…

  18. Are Special Operations Imperatives Applicable to Counterdrug Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-04

    interdiction has forced the cartels’operations to transfer to the southwestern United States. 2. La Cosa Nostra (LCN) and the Sicilian Mafia. There are 25...descending order: OPIUM - Burma - Mexico - Pakistan - Thailand COCAINE - Bolivia - Colombia - Ecuador - Peru MARIJUANA - Belize - Columbia 9 - Costa...Rica - Mexico - Panama - Jamaica Methods of Infiltration Border penetrations are not limited to any specific geographical area. Methods of

  19. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  20. An Empire of Schools. Japan's Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Robert L.

    This book addresses issues of American-Japanese relations by focusing on how the Japanese educational system molds the Japanese people and culture. It identifies the vital determining issue in U.S.-Japan communications in the fact that all Japanese leaders emerge from the same educational treadmill or "cartels of the mind." This system,…

  1. Convergence And Exploitation: Transnational Organized Crime, Terrorism And The Threat To America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    York City , America has been fighting terrorist organizations on the distant battlefields of the Middle East and Africa. Yet, increasingly, these...Bibliography 18 iii Paper Abstract Since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City ...Senator McCain’s statement that the Mexican cartel networks stretch to at least “1,200 American cities ,” 48 sequestration cuts to the aforementioned

  2. Selected Compendium of Student Research. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Peter J. (Haaga) OCT 1989 Columbian Cocaine and US Overseas Drug Policies This paper discusses Columbian cocaine cartels and the threat posed by...programs designed to figlt the cocaine trade. Also discussed is the size of the Colombian cocaine business and the problems created for the US and Colombian...11 governments when trying to implement various programs to control the cocaine trade. This report views the Colombian cocaine industry from the

  3. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    125,000 refugees (many from prisons and asylums)15 fled to the U.S. through the port of Mariel , Cuba. Again, in 1994, Castro declared an open migration...event of Cuban governmental change. A change in Cuban leadership could mean a change in the type of government that the Cuban people embrace. Cuba’s...continue further deterioration, we could possibly see large-scale crime, drug cartels, and boatlifts that would make Mariel appear miniscule. A

  4. Narcoterrorism - A Threat to the United States?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-21

    many facets. This war is no different. A phenomenon that has evolved from drug marketing and abuse is narcoterrorism. Many claim that narcoterrorism is...hydrochloride (HCL). The capital of the nation is Bogota. There are five major cities in the country. Two of them, Medellin and Cali, are narcotrafficker...nations by the U.S. In 1989 the leaders of the Medellin organization (cartel), called the Extraditables, were responsible for the shooting death of

  5. Applying Operational Art to the War on Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    product ( cocoa leaf or cocaine); and consumer demand. An analysis of ongoing counter-drug operations, the narco- trafficking cycle and the principals of...activities, use their unique status to negotiate with the cartels for higher wages for the cocoa leaf farmers in hopes of gaining the peasants’ popular...and both Peru and Bolivia have made progress in instituting alternative cocoa leaf substitution 4 programs, although there continues to be some

  6. Prolegomena to a Theory of Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-12-10

    of loyalty, the " espirit de corps," corruption, the fact that ~~me leadersof organizations seem to be able to obtain a greater effect than others...such as a cartel, labor union , etc., the cost-profit principle is immediately seen to be in grave jeopardy. We shall return to this below. But f1rst...the first case; the difficulties some highly concentrated European econo- mies have encountered may be illustrations for the second case. However

  7. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-05

    workers, and, along with other economic factors, led to a significant decline in the overall quality of life in Guyana.59 The poor, limited by welfare and...there have been long-running tensions over the exploitation and export of the resource postponing the possibility of getting better conditions of life ...decades-long violent conflict involving outlawed armed groups, drug cartels and gross violations of human rights .31 During the 1990s the 40-year conflict

  8. Colombia: Learning Institutions Enable Integrated Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    publica - tions of the “human rights cartel.” The frames whereby the parastates assessed the conflict remained virtually unchanged, and in some cases...Politica de Defensa y 144 | FRoM the FIeld PRISM 1, no. 4 Seguridad Democratica, requires slightly more pages for its presentation but is identical...capability” to “establish security force presence throughout the country” (lograr presencia fuerza publica en todo territorio nacional). Though a

  9. Contracting: Creating Gaps in Expeditionary Warfighting Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher...Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an...drug cartel related violence is estimated to be approximately 28,000.3 Violence against Americans in border towns like Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez

  10. Crossing Our Red Lines About Partner Engagement in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional...College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street... market prices. The Tijuana, Sinaloa, Juarez and Gulf Cartels, La Familia Michoacana/Los Caballeros Templarios and Los Zetas are loosely federated

  11. Reforming the Police in Post-Soviet States: Georgia and Kyrgyzstan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    is highly com- petitive. While in 2006 there were five applicants for each spot, in 2012 the number of candidates increased to 50 per spot. Female ...police should be able to prevent violence generated by criminal syn- dicates, drug cartels, and violent entrepreneurs . As part of these efforts...republics, see Vadim Volkov, Violent Entrepreneurs : The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Uni- versity Press, 2002

  12. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  13. The Balloon Effect and Mexican Homeland Security: What it Means to be the Weakest Link in the Americas’ Security Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Direccion de Comunicacion Social SEMAR, 2011b), arresting 19 cartel members and seizing guns, money, and communication systems (Direccion de... Comunicacion Social SEMAR, 2011a). 51 Table 1. Selected Equipment and Training Delivered to Mexico and Central America Under the Merida...history (3rd ed.). New York: Algora Publishing. Direccion de Comunicacion Social SEMAR. (2011a). Asegura la Armada a 19 Presuntos Integrantes del

  14. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  15. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  16. What We’re Getting Wrong About Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    type of violence used by Colombia’s Medellin cartel in the 1980s when Pablo Escobar directed an attack on the Palace of Justice and was responsible... Escobar declared war against the Colombian government and attacked an array of civilian and state targets. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the...authorities face are equivalent to that encountered by US soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, to include improvised explosive devices. The introduction

  17. Crisis in Mexico: Assessing the Merida Initiative and its Impact on Us-Mexican Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    strategic narcotics transportation routes in seven Mexican states. 14 The Sinaloa Cartel, headed by Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman Loera, operates from...further blurred the lines between civilian and military roles since September 11, 2001, with the introduction of the term “ narco -terrorism.” 71 In 2006...have evolved from the communist and autocratic rule of 25 years ago to the terrorism, narco -trafficking, money laundering, gunrunning, and human

  18. Ciudad Juarez: A Feral City Threat on our Doorstep?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    a helpless victim of this narco -criminal activity. With 3,000 recorded murders in 20104F5, Ciudad Juarez was labeled the murder capital of the...generation gangs research: the rise of criminal ( narco ) city networks and BlackFor, realizes the possibility of feral cities based on the proliferation of... Chapo " Guzman. Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman and The Sinaloa Cartel The hostile takeover of Ciudad Juarez was simply another business acquisition

  19. Ungoverned Spaces in Mexico: Autodefensas, Failed States, and the War on Drugs in Michoacan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    different forms. In México, not all drug cartels operate in the same way; some more violent than others, and each interacts differently with the authorities...Malkin states, “to ensure success for drug -trafficking organizations they will have to consolidate themselves as a social group.”50 3. Geographic...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS UNGOVERNED SPACES IN MEXICO: AUTODEFENSAS, FAILED STATES, AND THE WAR ON DRUGS IN

  20. Net-Warlords: An Information Analysis of the Caballeros Templarios in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Social Movement At its height, La Familia is believed to have had close to 9000 members who, in addition to conducting normal drug trafficking...until spring 2014, the Caballeros Templarios drug cartel was the de-facto ruler of the Mexican state of Michoacán. This thesis will show how, through...describe the structure of the Templarios, their doctrinal and ideological characteristics, and the implications these have for Mexico and the drug

  1. The War on Drugs -- Can an Operational Artist Help Win It?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-06

    Bolivia, Peru , Panama, Burma, Bahamas, and Turkey), and the domestic and foreign organized crime and narcotics cartels. The United States "...America’s...MariJuana 4,6940 United States Columbia Mexico Jamaica Belize Cocaine 73 Bolivia Peru Columbia Ecuador Heroin 6 Burma Afghanistan Iran Laos Mexico The...cocaine used in U.S. and as much as 70% of the marijuana7 ), Mexico, Bolivia, Peru , Belize, and Burma. The major transit countries are Mexico, Hong

  2. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    defense indicated the im- and religious minorities, and inefficient portance of supporting host-nation forces civil and judicial adinidstrations. Given as...Lawlessness is a manifestation of civil created international drug cartels which disorder and may include examples from have undermined the social and...be used to ex- specific objectives. tort political favors, to sway public opinion, or to give the appearance of In- stability and lack of civil

  3. National Strategy for the Southwest Border: Having the Desired Effect?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    government victories against the DTOs include the December 2009 killing of Arturo Beltrán Leyva and January 2010 capture of Teodoro Garcia Simental, the...http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2010/august/southwest- border3/border-violence (accessed February 12, 2011). 6 Bob Killebrew and Jennifer Bernal , Crime...2011), 1. 9 Killebrew and Bernal , Crime Wars: Gangs, Cartels and U.S. National Security, 16. 10 June S. Beittel, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence

  4. The Military War on Drugs: Too Many Assets, Too Few Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    until the early 1960s. Organized crime controlled drug trafficking within the United from the 1950s to the 1970s. The Cosa Nostra (Mafia) controlled...Colombia, Mexico , and other countries control illegal drug trafficking. These drug cartels produce and distribute heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine...demand. The United States has 12,300 miles of shoreline, 300 ports of entry and more than 7,500 miles of border with Mexico and Canada.55 It is

  5. The Closest Alligator to the Boat: Mexico’s Drug-Fueled Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-28

    organizations such as Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Venezuela and other enemies abroad. The reason for exploring these ties is to show...an extremely muscular , cult-like Christian-based program that serves the cartel leader‟s purposes.18 Using his Christian based manifesto, González...members and deserters from the Mexican Army‟s 15 elite Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE) who were organized as an enforcement arm of the Gulf

  6. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  7. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  8. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  9. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  10. Resource Diplomacy: The Role of Natural Resources in International Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    that such commodities as tin, aluminum, coffee, co:^er, and phosphate , to mention a few, represent major commodities where cartels are trying to be...165 .35 Boron 110000 1G000 6.88 Bromine 12500 9500 1.32 Cadmium 584 763 .77 Cesium 43 2 21.50 Chromium 132000 96000 1.38 Cobalt 2730 1180 2.31...Beryl 1ium Bismuth Boron (e) Bromine Cadmium Cesium Chromium Cobalt Columbium (e) .ux^ m/uu (a) .05 Copper 79i*n i

  11. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs.

  12. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    southern and northern borders of the U.S., to prevent DTOs from entering the U.S . . Background Mexican DTOs first entered the U.S. market in the mid...seek alternate routes into the U.S. The proximity of the U.S., one of the largest markets for illicit drugs, and the poor economic state of Mexico...Nuevo Laredo, the Zetas operate a parallel network in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman. 9 The Juare~ Cartel operates in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

  13. Violent Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations in Texas: Political Discourse and an Argument for Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    crimes, including 1,620 homicides and 3,682 sexual assaults, to 98,188 “career criminal alien defendants.”310 Operation Border Star also monitors...weighs more upon the object of the violence (person or building) rather than the type of violence used (use of a weapon, physical or sexual altercation...McKinley, Jr., “Mexican Cartels Lure American Teens As Killers,” New York Times, June 22, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/23/us/23killers.html

  14. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  15. Narco-Terrorism: An Increasing Threat to U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    put in going after Joaquin "El Chapo " Guzman and every other narco -terrorist threatening U.S. national security. The U.S. is at war with terrorists...To) 12-06-2009 Master’s Thesis 21-07-2008 to 12-06-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Narco -Terrorism: An increasing threat to US...telTorism will continue to be a threat to the U.S. for the foreseeable future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Narco -terrorism, terrorism, narcotics, cartels

  16. A Global Overview of Narcotics-Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Sergeant Derci Barroso told Rio de Janeiro’s daily Jornal do Brasil that members of the Arab community own properties scattered throughout Alto...Galhardo Enviado, “Paraguai pede a prisão de libanês no Brasil ” (Paraguay Sentences a Lebanese in Brazil to Prison), O Globo, November 6, 2001. Library...Eleonora Gosman, “Temen una guerra entre bandas de narcos en Brasil ” (Cartel Wars Are Feared), Clarín.com, April 24, 2001. 161 “The FARC-Tijuana Axis

  17. Counter-Narcoterrorism Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Operations Areas from 1970 through 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    order to be able to patrol the rivers and shoreline effectively.26 In the case of the labs that were deep in the jungle, it was highly likely that...they were built near a river or creek since the drug making process needed large amounts of water. The rivers and creeks became not only a part of...allow the government forces to take away the supply routes from the drug leaders. By denying the cartels the use of the rivers , the government forces

  18. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  19. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  20. Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ghislandi, Simone

    2011-12-01

    By introducing n (>1) firms with infinite cross-price elasticity (i.e. generic drugs), we explore the effects of competition on the optimal pricing strategies under a Reference Pricing Scheme (RPS). A two-stage model repeated infinite number of times is presented. When stage 1 is competitive, the equilibrium in pure strategies exists and is efficient only if the reference price (R) does not depend on the price of the branded product. When generics collude, the way R is designed is crucial for both the stability of the cartel among generics and the collusive prices in equilibrium. An optimally designed RPS must set R as a function only of the infinitely elastic side of the market and should provide the right incentives for competition.

  1. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  2. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  3. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  4. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  5. The key to better times is Opec pricing discipline

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1989-02-01

    According to the author, 1988 proved again that Opec's ability to control world oil markets in tenuous at best. Oil analysts had trouble determining direction of the cartel, with forecasts showing a wide range of possibilities for oil prices. In the last half of the year, concern about a long-term collapse in oil prices sent many U.S. producers to the sidelines with drilling activity languishing at 911 rigs running at the end of November. Most active rigs were looking for natural gas, further complicating U.S. oil reserve replenishment. Opec gradually lost control of world oil markets in 1988. Opec impotence will continue unless non-Opec producers cooperate to cut output, global oil demand increases significantly, or members finally begin to seriously address the critical issue of adhering strictly to production quotas. The author discusses the status of OPEC and U.S. petroleum in regard to current U.S. and worldwide economic conditions.

  6. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change.

  7. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  8. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  9. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  10. Necropolitics, narcopolitics, and femicide: gendered violence on the Mexico-U.S. border.

    PubMed

    Wright, Melissa W

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, a group of women shocked Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, with the news that dozens of girls and women had been murdered and dumped, like garbage, around the city during the year. As the numbers of murders grew over the years, and as the police forces proved unwilling and unable to find the perpetrators, the protestors became activists. They called the violence and its surrounding impunity "femicide," and they demanded that the Mexican government, at the local, state, and federal levels, stop the violence and capture the perpetrators. Nearly two decades later, the city's infamy as a place of femicide is giving way to another terrible reputation as a place of unprecedented drug violence. Since 2006, more than six thousand people have died in the city, as have more than twenty-eight thousand across the country, in relation to the violence associated with the restructuring of the cartels that control the production and distribution of illegal drugs. In response to the public outcry against the violence, the Mexican government has deployed thousands of troops to Ciudad Juárez as part of a military strategy to secure the state against the cartels. In this essay, I argue that the politics over the meaning of the drug-related murders and femicide must be understood in relation to gendered violence and its use as a tool for securing the state. To that end, I examine the wars over the interpretation of death in northern Mexico through a feminist application of the concept of necropolitics as elaborated by the postcolonial scholar Achille Mbembe. I examine how the wars over the political meaning of death in relation both to femicide and to the events called "drug violence" unfold through a gendering of space, of violence, and of subjectivity. My objective is twofold: first, to demonstrate how the antifemicide movement illustrates the stakes for a democratic Mexican state and its citizens in a context where governing elites argue that the violence devastating Ciudad Ju

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  12. Analysis of México's Narco-War Network (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves.

  13. Recent developments within OPEC: economic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Y.H.

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the behavior of the OPEC members to determine the reasons behind their conflicts, examining the characteristics of the different members. (These characteristics are: income per capita, expected oil reserve life, absorptive capacity, balance of payments on current accounts, and capacity utilization rate.) Based on these characteristics, subgroupings of OPEC are identified (two sub-groups are formed, the saver group and the spender group). Furthermore, it is established that the saver group has the ability to influence the oil market by the virtue of its special characteristics. Finally, using a dominant firm model of resource allocation over time with a backstop resource (which is taken to be shale oil) in conjunction with the characteristics of the two groups we give economic content to the conflict over the price of oil. It is found that the special characteristics of the saver group combined with its market power result in a pricing policy which is completely different from the pricing policy preferred by the spender group. Therefore, it is concluded that there are more fundamental reasons behind the conflicts over oil price within OPEC than those brought about by cartelization (i.e., incentives to cheat).

  14. Classrooms in Peace Within Violent Contexts: Field Evaluation of Aulas en Paz in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; Barrera, Madeleine; Molano, Andrés; Velásquez, Ana María; Castellanos, Melisa; Chaparro, Maria Paula; Bustamante, Andrea

    2017-02-11

    Classrooms in Peace (Aulas en Paz) is an elementary school-based multicomponent program for prevention of aggression and promotion of peaceful relationships. Inspired by international programs and socio-emotional research, it includes (1) a classroom universal curriculum, (2) parent workshops and home visits to parents of the 10% most aggressive children, and (3) extracurricular peer groups of two aggressive and four prosocial children. Activities seek to promote socio-emotional competencies such as empathy, anger management, creative generation of alternatives, and assertiveness. A 2-year quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted with 1154 students from 55 classrooms of seven public schools located in neighborhoods with the presence of youth gangs, drug cartels, and high levels of community violence in two Colombian cities. Despite several implementation (e.g., about half of the activities were not implemented) and evaluation (e.g., randomization problems, large number of missing data, and changes between treatment and control groups) challenges, positive results were found in prosocial behavior and in reduction of aggressive behavior, according to teacher reports, and in assertiveness and reduction of verbal victimization, according to student reports. Furthermore, implementation cost (25 US dollars per student per year) was very low compared to other programs in developed countries. This study shows that the Classrooms in Peace program has an important potential to generate positive results and highlights the challenges of implementing and evaluating prevention programs in highly violent environments.

  15. Battle of the Seabed

    SciTech Connect

    McMenamin, M.

    1981-07-06

    Flaws in the proposed Law of the Sea Treaty will put two-thirds of world mineral wealth under Third World control and will establish a global bureaucracy to exercise that control as a cartel. The general agreements of the treaty appear reasonable, but the law goes beyond traditional issues to form a supranational authority designed to maintain world-mineral prices. State Deparment negotiators with no understanding of economics are faulted. A supply-side approach will introduce the model of low tax rates, minimal central planning, and hard money that produced the US economy and could do the same for the Third World. Treaty supporters point out that the US must accept the entire package and not pull out seabed mining for special treatment. This position is challenged as an effort to close off debate. At issue is whether the concept of common heritage allows exploitation outside areas of national jurisdiction and whether past efforts to trade off mining for navigational rights should be dropped. US policies should avoid the traps of thinking that national security will be lost, that anarchy will prevail, or that the country is selling out to business when debating these issues. (DCK)

  16. Competition policy for health care provision in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-02-01

    We review the role of competition among healthcare providers in Portugal, which has a public National Health Service (NHS) at the core of the health system. There is little competition among healthcare providers within the NHS. Competition among NHS primary care providers is hindered by excess demand (many residents in Portugal do not have a designated family doctor). Competition among NHS hospitals has been traditionally limited to cases of maximum guaranteed waiting time for surgery being exceeded. The Portuguese Competition Authority enforces competition law. It has focused on mergers between private hospitals and abuse of market power (including cartel cases) by private healthcare providers. The Healthcare Regulation Authority produced several reports on particular areas of activity by private healthcare providers. The main conclusion of these reviews was lack of conditions for effective competition, with the exception of dentistry. Within the NHS, the use of tendering procedures was able to create "competition for the market" in particular areas though it was not problem free. Details in the particular design adopted matter a lot. Overall, the scope for competition policy and for competition among healthcare providers to have a main role in a health system based on a public National Health Service seems limited, with more relevance to "competition for the market" situations than to "competition in the market".

  17. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  18. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  19. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC.

  20. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  1. Building the world's supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goss, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Quinine, a naturally occurring alkaloid from the Cinchona tree, was one of the first drugs produced and sold by a global pharmaceutical industry during the nineteenth century. Factories in Europe and North America dominated the manufacturing industry, and between 1890 and 1940, Cinchona plantations on Java supplied most of the bark for the quinine pharmaceutical business. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Dutch colonial state kept a hands-off approach to the Cinchona enterprises, in keeping with its liberal orientation. But the persistent low-price for bark, which led to the near ruin of the Cinchona planters, eventually pushed the colonial state to actively protect the Cinchona plantations. Colonial officials sought to stabilize the colonial Cinchona export-business by encouraging the integration of the quinine industry on a global scale. Most important was the colonial state's sponsorship in 1913 of the Quinine Agreement, establishing a set price for Cinchona bark, which created the world's first pharmaceutical cartel. In the interwar period, an alliance of Dutch government officials, planters, scientists, doctors and drug-makers, working in both the motherland and the colony, actively promoted the expansion of quinine consumption, as well as the merit of the Quinine Agreement, which they argued supplied guaranteed a steady supply of quinine, all for the wellbeing of global humanity.

  2. Analysis of México’s Narco-War Network (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves. PMID:25993657

  3. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  4. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  5. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  6. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  7. [Colombia: out of the eye of the hurricane, but still close].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Colombia is not the same country of the 80s and 90s of last century. The big drug cartels disappeared, but their heirs diversified their activities, created alliances with guerrillas and paramilitaries, and increased the number of minors associated with criminal behaviours. The country has not been systematic in its drug abuse data collection, and there is a remarkable imbalance in the investments made on drug supply and drug demand: 98% and 2%, respectively. However, the official reports assert that there are at least 300,000 people in need of treatment. Regarding drug abuse, Colombia is in the "middle range" in Latin America, together with Peru and Mexico; Chile, Argentina and Uruguay are above them, and Ecuador and Bolivia below. Drug consumption was decriminalized in 1994, and the implication was that those involved in drug abuse problems had to find their way out by themselves; this implication contributed to the poor development of the state treatment system. In spite of a new law imposing the obligation of free treatment to everyone asking for it, the health system is on the border of collapse and won't be able to face those requirements.

  8. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  9. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states.

  10. The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles and weapons of mass destruction and the emerging role of tactical missile defenses in Israel, Syria and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) and weapons of mass destruction has become one of the more serious security threats to post-Cold War peace. This dissertation examines the history of proliferation within the Middle East by focusing primarily on three trend-setting countries: Israel, Syria and Iran. Building on the theoretical framework established by Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, this dissertation examines why and how Israel, Syria and Iran have procured SSMs and weapons of mass destruction. The author also includes an analysis of tactical missile defenses and their impact on proliferation trends. The final section investigates the numerous arms control treaties and supplier cartels designed to halt or slow the pace of unconventional weapons proliferation. In many instances, Iraq serves as the primary example of how well-intentioned nonproliferation efforts have fallen short. This dissertation reveals some of the major flaws in these regimes while proposing necessary improvements if nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. In conclusion, this dissertation returns to the expanded Dunn-Kahn nuclear proliferation model. By categorizing the various reasons as to why countries choose to procure unconventional weapons, a more successful nonproliferation policy can be constructed. However, this dissertation warns that without political solutions to long-term disputes in the region, western-imposed nonproliferation regimes will fail. Thus, nonproliferation policies must be accompanied or preceded by a vigorous diplomatic and political effort to solve seemingly intractable differences.

  11. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  12. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions.

  13. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  14. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  15. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  16. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242

  17. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  18. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  19. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  20. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  1. The use of ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of illicit drugs on clandestine records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II

    1995-01-01

    Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to

  2. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Danilo J.; Poyer, David A.

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  3. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  4. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  5. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  6. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    -se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.