Science.gov

Sample records for cartels

  1. Curbing Cartel Influence in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    January 25, 2011, the Associated Press released an interesting article suggesting that La Familia , a notoriously violent cartel, in Calderon’s home...Mexican Government: La Familia cartel in retreat,” (January 25, 2011) 43 Associated Press, “Ex-Mexico Prez Suggests Truce with Drug Cartels,” (August 27...Pittsburg Press, 2010), 73 46 George W. Grayson, La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for United States-Mexico Security (Carlisle: Strategic Studies

  2. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  3. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  4. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  5. A Troubled Cartel: The NCAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the claims of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) that it is a champion of amateur athletics and physical fitness in colleges and universities, the NCAA is in fact a business cartel composed of university-firms that have varying desires to restrict competition and maximize profits in the area of intercollegiate athletics.…

  6. A Troubled Cartel: The NCAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the claims of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) that it is a champion of amateur athletics and physical fitness in colleges and universities, the NCAA is in fact a business cartel composed of university-firms that have varying desires to restrict competition and maximize profits in the area of intercollegiate athletics.…

  7. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  8. Mexican Cartels: Threat and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    entrepreneurial networks whose guiding motivation is profit, not ideology. By mischaracterizing this threat, devising a strategy to effectively address the...the cartels in Mexico are not motivated to create a homeland to call their own, substitute their ideology for an existing one, or achieve any...violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies. Terrorism is often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs and

  9. Decline of the oil cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Fieleke, N.S.

    1986-07-01

    A review of the development that led to the current decline in oil prices concludes that sharp relative price changes have been a major source of world economic instability for the past 13 years. The results for oil-importing countries have been cycles of inflation and contraction followed by inflation and rapid growth. Some see the recent price decline as an effort by OPEC to regain enough power to bring about an eventual price rise. Although past price and production relationships indicate that OPEC has operated as a cartel, the author sees current efforts to persuade non-OPEC producers to lower their production as an indication of weakness. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve could help the US cope with any future supply disruption. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Mexican Cartels: The Threat Along Our Southern Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    they could no longer compete with other cartels. They currently continue to struggle for control of territory. 12 La Familia Michoacána (LFM) is a...organization. Unlike the other cartels, La Familia uses religion to encourage discipline. It also acts as a vigilante group protecting the people of...the organization’s key leaders. Infighting within the Tijuana Cartel has allowed for encroachment by the Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacána

  11. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    one another, both the Sinaloa Cartel and the Juarez Cartel have recruited numerous street gangs in Ciudad Juarez . Thus, while the violence between the...46 two rival cartels has abated, violence between competing street gangs continues to be a problem around Ciudad Juarez . While not entirely...number is drastically understated. They estimate 230,000 people have fled the city of Ciudad Juarez and an estimated 6,000 businesses have closed due

  12. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  13. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  14. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  15. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  16. Examining the Rise in Mexican Drug Cartel Related Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    interaction was funded; this program “brought police into elementary schools to perform puppet shows against drug use and domestic violence .”86 Two...EXAMINING THE RISE IN MEXICAN DRUG CARTEL RELATED VIOLENCE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and...Cartel Related Violence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LCDR Michael A. Teixeira 5d. PROJECT

  17. Towards the discovery of citation cartels in citation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Iztok; Fister, Iztok; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-12-01

    In this perspective, our goal is to present and elucidate a thus far largely overlooked problem that is arising in scientific publishing, namely the identification and discovery of citation cartels in citation networks. Taking from the well-known definition of a community in the realm of network science, namely that people within a community share significantly more links with each other as they do outside of this community, we propose that citation cartels are defined as groups of authors that cite each other disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors that work on the same subject. Evidently, the identification of citation cartels is somewhat different, although similar to the identification of communities in networks. We systematically expose the problem, provide theoretical examples, and outline an algorithmic guide on how to approach the subject.

  18. Nurses can send a clear message to politicians about pay cartel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gareth; Llangoed; Mon, Ynys

    2012-11-21

    During an RCN stewards' conference in Birmingham, we were updated on the pay 'cartel' of healthcare trusts in the south west of England that is looking to drive down nurses' pay and rewrite the terms of employment (news November 14).

  19. Greed and Grievance and Drug Cartels: Mexico’s Commercial Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    ten years of sending its military into domestic combat, Mexico’s drug cartels are arguably as powerful, profitable, and violent as they have ever been...threat. The apparent lack of progress has driven many analysts and academics to reconsider both the logic of the violence in Mexico and the effectiveness...Fitzpatrick, US Army, 51 pages. After ten years of sending its military into domestic combat, Mexico’s drug cartels are as powerful, profitable, and

  20. The COIN Approach to Mexican Drug Cartels: Square Peg in a Round Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    binds, as anyone who has ever ridden a bus in Mexico will attest. Mexican cartel members are no more fighting for Santa Muerte than Mexican bus...drug trafficking and lawlessness that we see in northern Mexico does not constitute on insurgency. Drug cartels have no ideology beyond profit, no...Petraeus and James Mattis in 2006, is therefore inappropriate for Mexico . Some COIN principles and practices – what the author calls COIN a la

  1. The Future of Mexico’s Drug War - Balancing Security and Rule of Law Against Cartel Freedom of Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    Targeted Targeted Effect (Size of Force) Op Michoacan Dec 06 Michoacan La Familia Cartel ops & violence, (4K Mil forces) Op Baja...Cartels such as La Familia have pursued a win-win scenario whereby they co-opt support and effectively out administer the government in providing

  2. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  3. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  4. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  5. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  6. No need for conspiracy: self-organized cartel formation in a modified trust game.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Tiago P; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-25

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  7. Impacts of Weather Shocks on Murder and Drug Cartel Violence in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, E.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Gonzalez, F.; Baysan, C.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate impacts of weather shocks on several dimensions of violence in Mexico during 1990-2010, using disaggregated data at the state-by-month level. Controlling for location and time fixed effects, we show that higher than normal temperatures lead to: (i) higher total murder rates, (ii) higher rates of drug cartel related murders, and (iii) higher suicide rates. The effects of high temperatures on inter-personal violence (murders) and on inter-group violence (drug cartel related murders) are large, statistically significant and similar to those found in other recent settings. The use of panel data econometric methods to examine the effect of weather on suicide incidence is novel. We assess the role of economic channels (i.e., agricultural production affected by weather) and conclude that they cannot account for most of the estimated impacts, suggesting that other mechanisms, including psychological explanations, are likely to be important in this setting.

  8. No Need for Conspiracy: Self-Organized Cartel Formation in a Modified Trust Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  9. Mexican Drug Cartels and al Qaeda: Credible Link or Impracticable Alliance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    facilitate their addition to the FTO list . The cartels do not want to face the added pressure of United States national counter-terrorism assets...has devolved into a decentralized entity. Conversely, the 35 Cruz, Carlos Mauricio Pineda. "Al...2011. http://www.criticalthreats.org/print/1579. Cruz, Carlos Mauricio Pineda. "Al-Qaeda’s Unlikely Allies in Central America." Terrorism

  10. Recent ASA Presidents and 'Top' Journals: Observed Publication Patterns, Alleged Cartels and Varying Careers.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    It has been common for studies presented as about American sociology as a whole to rely on data compiled from leading journals (American Sociological Review [ASR] and American Journal of Sociology [AJS]), or about presidents of the American Sociological Association [ASA], to represent it. Clearly those are important, but neither can be regarded as providing a representative sample of American sociology. Recently, Stephen Turner has suggested that dominance in the ASA rests with a 'cartel' initially formed in graduate school, and that it favors work in a style associated with the leading journals. The adequacy of these ideas is examined in the light of available data on the last 20 years, which show that very few of the presidents were in the same graduate schools at the same time. All presidents have had distinguished academic records, but it is shown that their publication strategies have varied considerably. Some have had no ASR publications except their presidential addresses, while books and large numbers of other journals not normally mentioned in this context have figured in their contributions, as well as being more prominent in citations. It seems clear that articles in the leading journals have not been as closely tied to prestigious careers as has sometimes been suggested, and that if there is a cartel it has not included all the presidents.

  11. Model of the world oil market with an OPEC cartel. [1980 AD to 2040 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Horwedel, J.E.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Haas, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    A world oil market model (WOM) with OPEC treated as a Stackelberg cartel has been developed within the framework of the Generalized Equilibrium Modeling System (GEMS) that is available from Decision Focus, Inc. The US sector of the model is represented by a Liquid Fuels Supply model that was presented previously. The WOM model is described and results obtained with the model for the period 1980 to 2040 are presented. For comparative purposes, results obtained with the model when OPEC is treated as a competitive producer are also presented. By comparing the world oil price as a function of time from the two calculations, the influence that OPEC may have on the oil market by exploiting all of its market power is quantified. The world oil price as obtained with the WOM model is also compared with world oil price projections from a variety of sources. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  15. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  16. Breaking the Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the system we have relied on to produce school leaders is not up to the task. A redesigned system will have a better chance of succeeding if it follows the basic principles Mr. Elmore offers here. (Contains 1 endnote.)

  17. Breaking the Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the system we have relied on to produce school leaders is not up to the task. A redesigned system will have a better chance of succeeding if it follows the basic principles Mr. Elmore offers here. (Contains 1 endnote.)

  18. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    April and Au- gust 2006 were targeted against a “. . . busy restaurant in the Pacific coast town of Petatlán, Mexico . . .” and against “. . . the...understand military concepts, much less perceptions of an opposition force (OPFOR) that engages in proactive offensive operations, drawing upon both...to throwing it into the bar. The grenade was South Korean made and had the same markings as grenades used against the U.S consulate in Monterey

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Brothers (Arizona) Los Zetas Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf) Tijuana Cartel Beltran-Leyva Cartel Juarez Cartel La Familia Michoacana Cartel...MS-13 Arellano-Felix Cartel (Tijuana) Cartel de la Sierra (Sierra Cartel) Sinaloa Cartel La Familia Michoacana Cartel Cardenas-Guillen...Cartel (Gulf) Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf Cartel) Sinaloa Cartel La Familia Michoacana Cartel Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos Partido

  20. Drug Cartels: A Threat to National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and operational planners. 8 http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/briefings/4_5.htm. Operation Dinero was a DEA operation that began in 1992. The operation...Justice—DEA. Publications Briefing Book – Operation Dinero . On- line.Internet,18Nov97.Available from http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/briefing/ 4_5.htm

  1. Caspases rule the intracellular trafficking cartel.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Catherine; Lavoie, Christine; Denault, Jean-Bernard

    2017-05-01

    During apoptosis, caspases feast on several hundreds of cellular proteins to orchestrate rapid cellular demise. Indeed, caspases are known to get a taste of every cellular process in one way or another, activating some, but most often shutting them down. Thus, it is not surprising that caspases proteolyze proteins involved in intracellular trafficking with particularly devastating consequences for this important process. This review article focuses on how caspases target the machinery responsible for smuggling goods within and outside the cell. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  3. Strict Slaves of Slogans: Response to ''The Social Work Cartel''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The corruption of the social work enterprise is not simply episodic but systemic and long-standing including education, research, governance, and practice. Reform is unlikely since the constituency within the field and outside of it that wishes to change the situation is small and ineffective. The corruption of social work reflects the unfortunate…

  4. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    the southern U.S. and Mexico border with large scale drug trafficking, gun smuggling, human trafficking and smuggling, illegal immigration, and the...threat to U.S. national security. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that Mexico (and the U.S.) face a “narco-terrorist” offensive...of an effective judicial system, promote a culture that lacks transparency and accountability. This in turn creates an environment where corruption

  5. An oil and gas cartel OPEC in evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    More than ever before, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries is faced with a sophisticated and complex market, a highly charged environmental movement, and new calls for energy conservation and alternative fuels. It has lost a member, Ecuador. However OPEC's future evolves, it will be challenged to change. As non-OPEC oil production continues to decline, OPEC's future could brighten considerably. Natural gas presents a great opportunity to OPEC as many industrial and developing countries utilize gas more extensively because of price and environmental advantages. Whether oil or gas, OPEC will require large amounts of capital to satisfy the world's appetite for petroleum. The loss of Ecuador seems a setback to the Organization, but there are burgeoning Soviet Republics with large reserves in need of development assistance to tap into their natural resources more effectively. On the demand side, many companies are seeking hospitable recipients for their exploratory activities and investment capital. OPEC's role might somehow include the embrace of these developments for the betterment of its individual, unique members.

  6. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  7. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  8. [Cartel]: Monthly Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  9. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  10. Strict Slaves of Slogans: Response to ''The Social Work Cartel''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The corruption of the social work enterprise is not simply episodic but systemic and long-standing including education, research, governance, and practice. Reform is unlikely since the constituency within the field and outside of it that wishes to change the situation is small and ineffective. The corruption of social work reflects the unfortunate…

  11. Coming after U.: Why Colleges Should Fear the Accrediting Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the college accreditation process can allow a centralized body of bureaucrats to impose a political agenda through their control of funding. The author provides the example of Aquinas College (Michigan) to show how this process can threaten educational quality by forcing changes in the curriculum and administrative practices to…

  12. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  13. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  14. Fellowship Behavior in Division 17 and the MOMM Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; Erickson, Chris D.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, although the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs lists 64 members, graduates and employees of 4 institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri) heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association Division 17's governing body. Cites examples of barriers to professional…

  15. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  16. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  17. African-American Students and the Financial Aid Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herschel I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…

  18. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  19. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  20. FoxO: a new addition to the ESC cartel.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2011-09-02

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) family is involved in diverse cellular processes such as tumor suppression, stress response, and metabolism. In a recent Nature Cell Biology Letter, Zhang et al. (2011) uncover a novel role for FoxO proteins in regulating the identity of human ESCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Security Through Partnership: Fighting Transnational Cartels in the Western Hemisphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Ciudad Juarez alone.1 in neighboring Guatemala, the government declared an official “state of siege” along its northern border with Mexico to permit...narcotics market in the United States, modern technology, the wide availability of small arms and global economic integration.4 Indeed, some Mexican...compete with one another and with governments for control of territory, markets and influence, and establish fiefdoms for operations and training

  2. Exploiting Weaknesses: An Approach to Counter Cartel Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    justify its violent actions,69 which is gaining popularity among the poorer sectors of Mexico and provides a common ground between potential...completely ruled out utilizing TDI and have learned to adjust their illicit procedures. One popular tactic is to deposit illicit money in U.S. bank...because of piracy and merchandise theft, according to a report from Grupo Multisistemas de Seguridad Industrial, an electronic security services firm

  3. No Oil Producing and Exporting Cartels Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2009-01-12

    01/12/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S311-312) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  5. African-American Students and the Financial Aid Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herschel I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…

  6. Fellowship Behavior in Division 17 and the MOMM Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; Erickson, Chris D.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, although the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs lists 64 members, graduates and employees of 4 institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri) heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association Division 17's governing body. Cites examples of barriers to professional…

  7. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  8. Coming after U.: Why Colleges Should Fear the Accrediting Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the college accreditation process can allow a centralized body of bureaucrats to impose a political agenda through their control of funding. The author provides the example of Aquinas College (Michigan) to show how this process can threaten educational quality by forcing changes in the curriculum and administrative practices to…

  9. Explaining Variation in the Apprehension of Mexican Drug Trafficking Cartel Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    particularly the Attorney General’s Office (Procuraduria General de la Republica , PGR). These reforms have been attempts to eliminate or at least...Seguridad Publica, SSP), the Office of the Attorney General (Procurador General de la Republica , PGR), and the Interior Ministry (Secretaria de...Publishers, Inc.) 2005, 275. 54 Jane’s. Government of Mexico, Primer Informe de Labores (Mexico City: Procuraduria General de la Republica

  10. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. No. 36, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Thirty-two documents are listed in this annotated bibliography which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  11. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.

    1986-12-01

    An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  12. CARTEL: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials No. 12. Cumulative Issue--1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Approximately 400 books, curriculum guides, journals, and educational resource materials published between 1967 and 1973 are listed in this annotated bibliography of bilingual bicultural materials on the Spanish-speaking, American Indians, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Russians. This listing shares with bilingual bicultural project personnel…

  13. Cartel. Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. Vol. III, No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. Items are listed according to: title, author, subject, and publisher/distributor indexes. The following are among the topics covered: (1) African and Afro-American culture; (2) Native American cultures; (3) arts and…

  14. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  15. Cartel: Annotations and Analyses of Bilingual Multicultural Materials. Winter 1976-77. Vol. IV, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. There are two main sections, annotations and analyses. Annotated entries are arranged under the following headings: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2) bibliographies; (3) classroom resources; (4) English as a second…

  16. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  17. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  18. Cartel. Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. Vol. III, No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. Items are listed according to: title, author, subject, and publisher/distributor indexes. The following are among the topics covered: (1) African and Afro-American culture; (2) Native American cultures; (3) arts and…

  19. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. No. 36, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Thirty-two documents are listed in this annotated bibliography which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  20. Applying Counterinsurgency Doctrine as a Strategy to Defeat the Mexican Cartels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Christopher Campbell , Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2005 (Washington D.C.: Department of...University Press, 2010), 53. 12 Lisa J. Campbell , Los Zetas: operational assessment, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21, No 1 (March 2010). 13 Petraeus...insurgents can be found in the British Campaign in Malaysia. John A. Nagl, How To Eat Soup With A Knife (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2002

  1. Reframing Financial Sector Identity: Options For Reducing Mexican Drug Cartel Economic Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-18

    Corporate Camouflage  in Michoacán,” 31 May 2009, www.eluniversal.com.mx/; Mexico City  Reforma , “Los Zetas Also ’Milking’  Pemex.” 7 August 2009...Editorial: "Money Laundering With Impunity,” 17 August 2011.  www.eluniversal.com.mx/.    44 Mexico City  Reforma , “Mexico Imposes Tougher Measures...Mexico City El Universal, “Mexican Currency Exchange Firms Reportedly Vulnerable  to Money Laundering,” www.eluniversal.com.mx/; Mexico City  Reforma

  2. Cartel Next: How Army Design Methodology Offers Holistic and Dissimilar Approaches to the Mexican Drug Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    information on the term „problematization‟, see also: Michel Foucault , Discourse and Truth: The Problematization of Parrhesia (originally covered in six...lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California, Berkeley in October-November, 1983. Published online at: http://foucault.info

  3. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    crime in today’s Central America. First, the institution of an Encomienda system of land ownership, which granted Spanish Conquistadors and upper class...2 Britannica on line, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/186567/ encomienda (accessed October 15, 2009). 3 Net Industries, http

  4. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    the population, social scientists like Carlos Antonio Flores Pérez, an analyst formerly with the Center of Investi- gation and National Security...Zetas/Gulf and Milenio None reported 0 Uruapan Antonio González Rodríguez*** PAN-PANAL Los Zetas/Gulf, La Familia, and Milenio In Aug. 2008...Maribel Martínez, secretary of the municipality was kidnapped. 14 Zitácuaro Juan Antonio Ixtlahuac Orihuela PRI Los Zetas/Gulf In March, the

  5. Competing with the Cartels: How Mexico’s Government Can Reduce Organized Crime’s Economic Grip on its People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    company Petroleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX ). The government has finally realized that it cannot rely solely on oil exports to grow the economy, but will have...to diversify.46 In an effort to reform its energy sector, President Calderon convinced the Mexican Congress to allow PEMEX to partner with private

  6. The Evolution of Los Zetas in Mexico and Central America: Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    even closer cooper- ation in thwarting money laundering through actions of Mexico’s Finance Ministry’s Financial Intelligence Unit ( Unidad de...CNNExpansión, avail- able from www.cnnexapnsion.com/economia/2012/02/24/Mexico- menos-desempleo-mas-informales; and www.inegi.org.mx/ sistemas / glosario

  7. Mexico Burning: Does America Stand Idly By?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the Gulf cartel, La Familia , Los Zetas, the Beltrán Leyva organization, the Sinaloa cartel, the Carrillo Fuentes syndicate (a.k.a. the Juarez...the Sinaloa cartel, the Gulf cartel, and La Familia —which collectively formed the New Federation in February 2010—against a loose pattern of

  8. Defining Mara Salvatrucha’s Texas Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Zetas, Gulf, Sinaloa, and La Familia Michoacãna cartels that originate in Mexico.11 All four cartels have networks that stretch into Texas.12 Their...states that MS 13 has partnerships with Los Zetas Cartel, Gulf Cartel, Sinaloa cartel, and La Familia Michoacãna cartel.147 In 2014, MS 13 expanded...documented Narco-war and has been for some time. Cartels such as Los Zetas, Gulf, Sinaloa, and La Familia 44 Michoacãn are all based in Mexico and have

  9. Departmental Takeover and the Peculiar Property Rights of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1989-01-01

    The academic department is viewed as a form of cartel, a model of monopolistic behavior characterized by control over a particular differentiated product. The development and operation of this academic cartel is explored. (MSE)

  10. Departmental Takeover and the Peculiar Property Rights of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1989-01-01

    The academic department is viewed as a form of cartel, a model of monopolistic behavior characterized by control over a particular differentiated product. The development and operation of this academic cartel is explored. (MSE)

  11. Are We Approaching the Real Defeat of the FARC in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    organization passing from having some communist ideology, to becoming a very strong drug cartel . Today the most important fronts are dedicated to attend the...issue raised by these actions in 6 whether FARC is a drug cartel ”. “There were talks between the government and FARC, but they did not even agree on an...ERG, AUC)14 and the drug trafficking organizations (Medellin cartel and Cali cartel ) transformed the country into an insecure place, and created a high

  12. Domestic Security Cooperation: A Unified Approach to Homeland Security and Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Cartel, La Familia De Michoacan, the Juarez cartel, the Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO), and the Tijuana cartel. These organizations compete with each...to “expand operations into the territories of other cartels—and further challenge the sovereignty of the Mexican state.”35 The La Familia cartel...gains control of the populace and furthers its aims by infiltrating social, political, and religious organizations. La Familia uses religion to portray

  13. Violent Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations in Texas: Political Discourse and an Argument for Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-15/world/cartels.terror_1_beltran-leyva-cartels- familia - michoacana?_s=PM:WORLD. 10 President of the United...La Familia Michoacána VMTCO entered a crowded discothèque and lobbed five severed heads onto the dance floor.32 This marked the first time in...Gulf Cartel in 2010 to form a separate cartel. 32 George W. Grayson, La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security (Carlisle, PA

  14. Colombia and the United States - The Partnership: But What Is the Endgame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    from being a teenage thug and grave robber who stole gold teeth from cadavers to heading the powerful and successful Medellin cartel . He became...Colombians knew he was a drug lord.4 In another example of excessive lifestyle, one of the Cali cartel kingpins, “Chepe” Santacruz Londono, was refused...and the laws of supply 3 and demand. Drug smuggling was so profitable that the Cali cartel cooperated with the Colombian government in the early

  15. The Search for Accountability and Transparency in Plan Colombia: Reforming Judicial Institutions - Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    Samper and some of his closest associates had received millions of dollars in campaign contributions from the Cali drug cartel . After Valdivieso brought...note 31, p. 947. 50. Douglas Farah, “U.S.-Colombia Ties Strained Over Drugs; Americans See Pervasive Cartel Influence,” The Washington Post, January...7, 1996, p. A21. 51. Ibid. This attempt to change the jurisdiction of the court was a veiled attempt to shield leaders of the Cali Cartel from

  16. Seizing the Strategic Communication Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    the vast spread of the narcotics trade in the 1980s as the powerful cartels achieved complicity from law enforcement, the judicial system, and...governance through bribery. The corruption even reached as high as a former president. The downfall of the cartels did not end the corruption; it...his election, “when it was discovered that his political campaign had received contributions from the Cali drug cartel .” The FARC never earned the

  17. Introducing Reputation Systems to the Economics of Outsourcing Computations to Rational Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-20

    detection probability (p) are the same for all workers. noncooperative games. For example, they are often used in games that model cartels [18, 4], where... cartel members use these strategies, e.g., by selling goods at lower prices for a period of time to maintain higher prices overall. In our setting...Briggs, III, H.: Optimal cartel trigger strategies and the number of firms. Review of Industrial Organization 11(4), 551–561 (1996) Reputation Systems and

  18. Drugs and Terror: A Threat to U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-23

    Panama, Castro in Cuba, the M-19, and Colombia’s Medellin drug cartel. These allegations involved money laundering, gun sales, and 6 narcotics...funded by the Medellin cartel. The M-19 took more than 300 hostages, including many judges from Colombia’s highest court. Their mission was to destroy...involved Noriega, Castro, Ortega, and the Medellin cartel. It cannot be a coincidence of the links that involve Cuba with the international narcotics

  19. Using Center of Gravity Analysis to Defeat Violent Extremist Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    two significant historical case studies to demonstrate Strange’s theory retroactively in the defeat of the Medellin and Cali drug cartels and the...case studies to demonstrate Strange’s theory retroactively in the defeat of the Medellin and Cali drug cartels and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil...dismantling of two Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs), the Medellin and Cali drug cartels, by the Columbian and American governments.13 Joe

  20. Convergence: Illicit Networks and National Security in the Age of Globalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the community they by necessity dominate.44 La Familia , Los Cabelleros Templarios, the Sinaloa Cartel, and even Los Zetas have embraced this role...manwaringeng.htm>. 52 Michoacán was an early example of emerging cartel political action. In that state, La Familia forged a parallel government...and security functions. See George W. Grayson, La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War

  1. Domestic Security Cooperation: A Unified Approach to Homeland Security and Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    based TCO’s are: Sinaloa Cartel, Los Zetas, Gulf Cartel, La Familia De Michoacan (LFM), Juarez Cartel, the Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO), and the...aims is La Familia . By infiltrating social, political, and religious organizations, the La Familia continues to increase their power-holdings over drug...divine justice.”82 By using religion as a means to justify nefarious acts, the La Familia is similar to Islamist organizations such as Al Qaeda

  2. Fighting Narcotraffic in Latin America: Mexico and El Salvador - A Comparative Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Gulf cartel and the Zetas began an open war which led to alliances with old enemies; the Gulf cartel allied with La Familia , while the Sinaloa cartel...Igancio “Nacho” Colonel; La Familia Michoacana—Nazario Moreno; and the arrest of Eduardo Teodoro “El Teo” Garcia Simental amongst others.77 Despite the...Michoacan has furtherer weakened their power, as La Familia and Los Zetas have expanded their activities in Michoacan neighboring states. Early in the

  3. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 11-12, November 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    worst attack on a multinational company in Mexico in recent years. Members of the Knights Templar, an offshoot of the La Familia cartel, set fire...Templar, a relatively small splinter criminal group of the La Familia cartel that routinely relies on extortion revenues, unlike the larger cartels...Drug traff icking gangs, such as Los Zetas, La Familia , and the Knights Templar, engage in retal iat ion and intimidation kidnappings against r

  4. Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    for CSIS, Dr. Grayson has written La Familia Michoacana (Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010), Mexico: Narco-Violence and a...rely heavily on the armed forces to fight the Sinaloa Cartel, the Gulf Cartel, the Juárez Cartel, the Beltrán Leyva brothers, La Familia Michoacana...Édgar “La Barbie” Valdéz Villarrreal (Indepen- dent Cartel), and Nazario “The Most Crazy” Moreno González (La Familia Michoacana). Such successes

  5. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    ground vis-à-vis the Mexican Cartels. The Cali Cartel was a major contributor to the campaign of PRI presidential candidate Ernesto Zedillo in 1994...the Methamphetamine Problem in the United States. Statement of Rogelio E. Guevara , Chief of Operations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Before the

  6. Experiential Learning through Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…

  7. Secure Borders: An Arrival Zone Counterdrug National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    46; Amparo Trejo, “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel: Sources Detail Meeting of 5 Major Groups,” The Washington Post, 9 April 2001, sec. A, p...Hezbollah, Feds Say." Harrisburg (PA) Patriot News , 2 September 2002, sec. A1, p.1. Trejo, Amparo . “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel

  8. Experiential Learning through Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…

  9. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    cartel, La Familia Michoacana, now succeeded by the Knights Templar (Caballeros Templarios), view themselves as resistance fighters against crime...war-on-drugs-mexican-cartels/. Kan quotes one observer who calls La Familia Michoacana a “faith-based, right-wing populist socialist movement” run by

  10. Crossing Our Red Lines About Partner Engagement in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    market prices. The Tijuana, Sinaloa, Juarez and Gulf Cartels, La Familia Michoacana/Los Caballeros Templarios and Los Zetas are loosely federated...Develop and employ soft power.  Law 5: Cultivate community support or acquiescence. Ibid., 25-32. 6 It is true that a few cartels (e.g., La Familia

  11. The Threat of Convergence of Terror Groups with Transnational Criminal Organizations in Order to Utilize Existing Smuggling Routes and Techniques to Aid in the Covert Entry of Operatives into the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Peroxide, a powerful explosive, marksmanship instruction for the Kalashnikov rifle, sending and receiving encrypted messages electronically , and...drug cartels, to Lebanese cigarette smuggling rackets, and so forth. Drugs still move across the border extensively. Smuggling networks for human...

  12. Drug Trafficking in Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Toboada of the Medellin cartel before a U.S. Senate Foreign Rela tions Committee in April 1994. In 1987 alone, the police commander, Lieutenant...indictment alleges that Francois was trusted to courier millions of dollars in illicit profits from Medellin , Baranquilla, and Cali cartels to pay off...government’s legitimacy and deepened the economic crisis as offshore assembly factories closed and tourism collapsed. It became impossible to pass new

  13. Mexico: The Accidental Narco?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    the Sinaloa cartel, Ignacio Coronel was killed in 2010. The leader of La Familia , Nazario Moreno Gonzalez, could not escape the reach of Mexican...cartel, La Familia , had proposed truces with the government and promised a reduction in violence if the government focuses more on targeting its...adversaries. At the end of 2010, La Familia sought to disband under certain guarantees from the Mexican government.21 However, the successor group to La

  14. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 9. September 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    the Ti juana Cartel , the Juarez Cartel , Los Zetas and La Familia , not to mention several new offshoot organizations, are f luid...administration was focused on Los Zetas and La Familia , in large part because these two groups were the most intent on executing indiscriminate acts...turf from Veracruz to Guadalajara to Acapulco. La Familia , a pseudo-religious group based in the central state of Michoacan which preached wholesome

  15. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-22

    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  16. Drug and Immigration Issues in the Mexico-US Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    norms of international law. Jorge Vargas. Manual de Derecho Internacional para Oficiales de la Armada de Mexico. Politica Internacional Mexicana. 41...p.10. 8o Univision. May 14/94. By Armando Guzman. Peru and Brlibia Increase their Drug Production. 81 Leonidas Gomez 0. Cartel. Historia de la Droga...they will remain intoxicated for at least two hours, and they would be paying $1 person-hour for the 83 Leonidas Gomez 0. Cartel Historia de la Droga. p

  17. Ciudad Juarez: A Feral City Threat on our Doorstep?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    south, Mexico , has been under siege from violent drug cartels whose prominence continues to grow domestically and internationally. The seemingly...uninhibited growth of drug cartel power poses a serious risk to the United States due to our mutually beneficial relationship with Mexico . Mexico is...goods that cross between the two borders; Mexico is home to almost one million Americans and 30 million Americans are of Mexican descent, directly

  18. A Probabilistic Model of Illegal Drug Trafficking Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana Mid–Atlantic MDMA New England Methamphetamine New York/New Jersey Pacific Southeast Southwest West Central Los Zetas Cocain Florida...Caribbean Marijuana Great Lakes Southeast Southwest Gulf Cartel Cocaine Florida/Caribbean Marijuana Mid–Atlantic New England New York/New Jersey Southeast...Southwest Juárez Cartel Cocaine Great Lakes Marijuana New York/New Jersey Pacific Southeast Southwest West Central BLO Cocaine Southeast Heroin

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    information on the seven DTOs that remain at the forefront of the cocaine trade in Mexico: the Gulf Cartel, Los Zetas, La Familia , the Sinaloa Cartel...remains at large, along with his number two, Trevino Morales (“Z-40”).11 La Familia La Familia emerged as an independent group in 2006 with the...its creation, however, La Familia has systematically morphed into a DTO, becoming especially notorious for what it refers to as “social work”— the

  20. The Effective Business Practices of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    139 The cartels publicized these killings to scare citizens and local police into submission. For instance, in 2006, La Familia cartel dumped five...Information and Publishing, August 3, 2012), 21–27. 140 George W. Grayson, “La Familia : Another Deadly Mexican Syndicate,” Zimbio, February 19, 2009...www.zimbio.com. 141 Grayson, “La Familia .” 142 Campbell, “Los Zetas: Operation Assessment,” 21. 143 Campbell, Drug War Zone, 18. 144 Kenney, “The

  1. Army Aviation in Operation Just Cause

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    and La Palma . The operations would also counter suspected drug cartels in the area. Operations were hampered by the lack of maps, since much of this...compon1ents du to corrosion. Most Army Aviation units aro not knowledgeable of proper corrosion control procedures and techniques. We need additional

  2. Manifestations of the MOMM Phenomenon II: Relevant Data on Professional Darwinism and Membership Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    Horan (1989) reported that graduates and employees of four institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri - the "MOMM Cartel") heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association's Division 17 governing body. Goldman (1990) provided additional data indicating that egregious exclusion…

  3. Engaging the Borderlands: Options for the Future of U.S.-Mexican Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    Trafficking and the Southwest Border, “drug cartels reportedly are buying semiautomatic versions of AK-47 and AR-15 style assault rifles, and other...29, 2009 edition of Narcosphere, “Legal U.S. Arms Exports May Be Source of Narco Syndicates Rising Firepower”, which suggests that military- grade

  4. The Role of Religion in the Mexican Drug War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    folk heroes and false “saints” not part of any organized religion. 37 Presidencia de La Republica ...latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2011/07/20/patterned-after- knights-templar-drug-cartel-issues-code-conduct/ Presidencia de La Republica , Estados Unidos

  5. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Caribbean & Prospects for Cooperation: A Jamaican Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    and peasants, as opposed to the wealthy drug cartels. Hundreds of thousands of campesinos work in the coca and opium fields, and eradication of...Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. France , the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the United States are also member states

  6. Bringing a Global Perspective to Economics. Field Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Eight lessons on integrated global economics provide detailed instructional materials on world food and energy systems, international cartels, and the nature and process of foreign investments. The materials are designed to help high school social studies teachers develop student understanding of key economic systems and activities and reinforce…

  7. Selected Compendium of Student Research. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Colombian government against drug organizations. The Medellin Cartel, a grouping of select trafficking organizations, was the primary opponent. The...sources of supply and to expand tourism , its economic difficulties are unlikely to be resolved in the near future. With the usual trickle of illegal

  8. Potential Metrics Models for Determining the Actions and Status of Tools of National Power for Homeland and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    Medellin cartel, al Qaeda, etc.) which are active internationally, as compared to state entities (US, Russia, Italy, India, etc.). 2005 10th... Tourism (old model); financial, information, technology, manufacturing, etc. --Organization image! --Take care of the basics! Figure 1 - Reference Model

  9. National Drug Control Strategy: What Should the Military Objectives Be

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-11

    34$6 billion annually, more than agriculture and second only to tourism ."" Compare this to the fact that Florida’s drug business is 150 percent more...political systems."° "Massacres are common in Medellin , home to one of the country’s cocaine rings.ൻ Medellin and Cali cartels control the Andean

  10. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  11. Latin American Countries’ Debt and Its Influence on their Armed Forces as they Attempt to Maintain the Stability and Security of the Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-21

    Cartel. Colombian Attorney General Alfonso Gomez Mendez, in statements to the press, has reported the infiltration of organized crime into the armed forces...Revolution - M-19 - Armed Forces of National Liberation -Army of Popular Revolution in Colombia, Alfaro Vive Carajo in Ecuador, Chinchoneros 32 in Honduras

  12. Institutional Struggles for Recognition in the Academic Field: The Case of University Departments in German Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munch, Richard; Baier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the application of New Public Management (NPM) and the accompanying rise of academic capitalism in allocating research funds in the German academic field have interacted with a change from federal pluralism to a more stratified system of universities and departments. From this change, a tendency to build cartel-like…

  13. An Empire of Schools. Japan's Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Robert L.

    This book addresses issues of American-Japanese relations by focusing on how the Japanese educational system molds the Japanese people and culture. It identifies the vital determining issue in U.S.-Japan communications in the fact that all Japanese leaders emerge from the same educational treadmill or "cartels of the mind." This system,…

  14. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  15. Educating and Organizing Globally: Perspectives on the Internet and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allport, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Explores benefits and dangers of electronic learning and the globalization of higher education, focusing on the strategic response of Australian institutions to international cartels in partnership arrangements that cross national boundaries and involve for-profit media or information technology companies in curriculum development and delivery.…

  16. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  17. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  18. OPEC behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  19. The U. S., Its Press, and the New World Information Order. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wete, Francis N.

    Criticisms of the one-way flow of international information were first voiced in the 1940s, when, in the name of free flow of information and worldwide access to news, the United States launched an offensive to dismantle European news cartels. At a UNESCO conference in 1945, the United States was chiefly responsible for making the free flow of…

  20. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  1. Core-Periphery Relationships of Resource-Based Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Courtland L.; Steel, Brent S.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Oregon communities, 1949-1989, show dramatic changes in income between urban centers and rural communities at the periphery. Coping strategies for rural areas include cartels, self-sufficiency, community sustainability, harmonized interests with urban cores, and changing community identity. (Author/SK)

  2. Institutional Struggles for Recognition in the Academic Field: The Case of University Departments in German Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munch, Richard; Baier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the application of New Public Management (NPM) and the accompanying rise of academic capitalism in allocating research funds in the German academic field have interacted with a change from federal pluralism to a more stratified system of universities and departments. From this change, a tendency to build cartel-like…

  3. A Survivability Assessment of the Transformable Craft in an Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    spreading to neighboring Ecuador, Peru , and Venezuela. With their considerable arsenal and forces, the objective of the San José Cartel and the CFLC is to...parallel. In addition, the CFLC has systematically destroyed most of the transportation infrastructure west of the Cordillera (Andes Mountains). The few

  4. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  5. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: Matching Strategy to Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Transnational Organized Crime,” 15. 62 Ginger Thompson, “U.S. Widens Role in Battle Against Mexican Drug Cartels,” New York Times, August 6, 2011. 63 Ibid...Congress, Congressional Research Service, August 15, 2011), 2. 65 Ibid., 19. 66 Ibid., 36 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid., 37. 69 Ginger Thompson and Mark

  6. A Road Map for Beating Latin America’s Transnational Criminal Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    organizations such as the church, schools, and the media . Both wheels, he claimed, need to move at the same speed, with law enforcement being necessary but...12, 2011; “Narcos pagan a policias municipales mexicanos 100 millones de dolares al mes,” Agencia EFE, August 6, 2010; E. Eduardo Castillo, “Cartel

  7. The Use of Special Operations Forces in Support of American Strategic Security Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    efforts. Throughout the final decades of the 20th century, Colombia was a hotbed for drugs and violence punctuated by the operations of Pablo Emilio... Escobar , the drug lord in charge of the infamous Medellín Cartel. Following limited success in counter-narcotic operations during the early 1990s

  8. The Gang’s All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    youth Skinhead activity (Spergel 1995). What is unique is that distinctively US-style gangs are being exported to other countries, especially Latin...cartels. Also, this’study will not focus on prison or hate-oriented gangs (i.e. Skinhead groups). Gang activity in the US has been extensively studied

  9. U.S. - Mexico Military to Military Cooperation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    efforts. The highly publicized death of Amado Carrillo Fuentes (notorious cartel boss) on the operating room table in an attempt to change his appearance...traffickers. The image of immunity to corruption suffered a substantial blow, however, when General Jesus Gutierrez Rebollo (Director of the

  10. The U. S., Its Press, and the New World Information Order. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wete, Francis N.

    Criticisms of the one-way flow of international information were first voiced in the 1940s, when, in the name of free flow of information and worldwide access to news, the United States launched an offensive to dismantle European news cartels. At a UNESCO conference in 1945, the United States was chiefly responsible for making the free flow of…

  11. Core-Periphery Relationships of Resource-Based Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Courtland L.; Steel, Brent S.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Oregon communities, 1949-1989, show dramatic changes in income between urban centers and rural communities at the periphery. Coping strategies for rural areas include cartels, self-sufficiency, community sustainability, harmonized interests with urban cores, and changing community identity. (Author/SK)

  12. Counterinsurgency and the Mexican Drug War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    Felix Gallardo , ties were established with Colombian cocaine exporters and operations were consolidated in western Mexico. As a result of Gallardo’s...viciousness is rooted in the 1989 arrest of Felix Gallardo and the subsequent split of the Guadalajara Cartel. The newly formed Sinaloa and Tijuana

  13. Defeating Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: The Range of Military Operations in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Gallardo . Felix Gallardo , who ran what was later called the Guadalajara Cartel, is still considered to be the godfather of the drug trade in Mexico.22...Felix Gallardo , with the help of Matta, pushed cocaine to distributors in Arizona, California, and New York and grew his operation so large that he was...

  14. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  15. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Illicit, Networks, Terrorism, Proliferation, Narcotics, Jemaah Islamiyah, A.Q. Khan, Medellín cartel, Pablo Escobar, Social Network Analysis...53 a. Manipulation of the “Gray” Market and Export Controls ...54 b. Bank of Credit and Commerce International ........................57 c...BCCI Bank of Credit and Commerce International C2 Command and Control CBRN Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear CIA Central

  16. The Reluctant Hegemon Counterdrug Efforts in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    because their movement had been taken over by Pablo Escobar, the notorious late drug lord of the ruthless Medellin Cartel. Carlos Castano, today’s...the Henao Montoya organization, which according to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), is the most powerful drug trafficking group to emerge since the

  17. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  18. An Empire of Schools. Japan's Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Robert L.

    This book addresses issues of American-Japanese relations by focusing on how the Japanese educational system molds the Japanese people and culture. It identifies the vital determining issue in U.S.-Japan communications in the fact that all Japanese leaders emerge from the same educational treadmill or "cartels of the mind." This system,…

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    which targeted the distribution network of the Mexican DTO La Familia Michoacana.4 The primary DTOs tend to have large drug operations running in...More Than 300 Alleged La Familia Cartel Members and Associates Arrested in Two-Day Nationwide Take- down,” press release, U.S. Department of Justice

  20. The Diversification of Mexican Transnational Criminal Organizations and its Effects on Spillover Violence in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    4 Juarez Cartel ................................................................................................................ 5 La Familia ...CIA Central Intelligence Agency CRS Congressional Research Service DTO Drug Trafficking Organization GDP Gross Domestic Product LFM La Familia ...are vacant leaving the organization highly susceptible to take over by one of the other TCOs. La Familia Michoacana La Familia Michoacana (LFM

  1. Violence In Honduras: An Analysis of the Failure in Public Security and the States Response to Criminality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Task Force-South JTF-B Joint Task Force-Bravo LFM La Familia Michoacana LIBRE Partido Libertad y Refundación MS-13 Mara Salvatrucha NSC National...Gulf, Juarez, Beltran-Leyva Organization (BLO), La Familia Michoacana (LFM), and the Tijuana cartels compete for the drug corridors. The competition

  2. Are Special Operations Imperatives Applicable to Counterdrug Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-04

    interdiction has forced the cartels’operations to transfer to the southwestern United States. 2. La Cosa Nostra (LCN) and the Sicilian Mafia. There are 25...descending order: OPIUM - Burma - Mexico - Pakistan - Thailand COCAINE - Bolivia - Colombia - Ecuador - Peru MARIJUANA - Belize - Columbia 9 - Costa...Rica - Mexico - Panama - Jamaica Methods of Infiltration Border penetrations are not limited to any specific geographical area. Methods of

  3. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  4. Contracting: Creating Gaps in Expeditionary Warfighting Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    drug cartel related violence is estimated to be approximately 28,000.3 Violence against Americans in border towns like Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez ...Consulate and her husband were killed in Juarez , leading to a decision by the State department to evacuate U.S. dependents from six Consulates across...control in some parts of the country, especially in Northern border towns. In September 2010, after the death of a photographer in Juarez , the

  5. What We’re Getting Wrong About Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    trial testimony of former Juarez police captain Juan Fierro Mendez, cartels seek to control smuggling routes known as plazas in an effort “to...Workers’ Party (PKK) insurgent group (over 12,000). One confirming statistic is the fact that the world’s highest murder rate is found in Ciudad ... Juarez , Mexico.32 Finally, hypercompetitive markets are also characterized by other collateral crimes such as kidnappings and contract murders that are

  6. France, West Germany, and the Security of the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    oligopolistic battle developed between the major oil companies on one side and the nationalized or cartelized coal companies on the other in which the oil...French government, relishing the favored treatment, insisted that all oil companies supplying France implement the Arab policy fully and refused to...maximum potential, whereas the technology for exploiting geothermal power still remains to be developed . By 1979, however, France relied on hydroelectric

  7. Long Range Strategic Planning. An Applied Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    relations . Chapter Six is a case study of South African Nuclear Capabilities. 1...Five apply this model to U.S./South African relations . Chapter six is a case study of South African Nuclear Capabilities. ; * ’*’ >• Accession For...invest overseas, the impact of international cartels and access to foreign sources of oil and minerals. : « 9 3. Favorable world order: this

  8. The War on Drugs -- Can an Operational Artist Help Win It?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-06

    Bolivia, Peru , Panama, Burma, Bahamas, and Turkey), and the domestic and foreign organized crime and narcotics cartels. The United States "...America’s...MariJuana 4,6940 United States Columbia Mexico Jamaica Belize Cocaine 73 Bolivia Peru Columbia Ecuador Heroin 6 Burma Afghanistan Iran Laos Mexico The...cocaine used in U.S. and as much as 70% of the marijuana7 ), Mexico, Bolivia, Peru , Belize, and Burma. The major transit countries are Mexico, Hong

  9. Constructing Social Networks From Secondary Storage With Bulk Analysis Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    individuals is a powerful resource in discovering the structure of larger social orga- nizations, such as corporations , cartels, cults, cliques and other... social ladder. In addition, being a part of a larger clique also increases the person’s social ladder score. Email and average response time determines...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS CONSTRUCTING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM SECONDARY STORAGE WITH BULK ANALYSIS TOOLS by Janina L. Green

  10. Ungoverned Spaces in Mexico: Autodefensas, Failed States, and the War on Drugs in Michoacan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    recognized leaders of those 72 Presidencia de la Republica , “5 Ejes para Lograr una Democracia de...Police],” Parametria, accessed August 25, 2014, http://parametria.com.mx/carta_parametrica.php?cp=4514 91 Gobierno de la Republica , “Plan Nacional...es.insightcrime.org/noticias-del-dia/nuevo-cartel-michoacan-refuerza- temores-criminalizacion-autodefensas Presidencia de la Republica . “5 Ejes para Lograr una

  11. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    State to assure the inhabitants of the Republic have the enjoyment of the freedom, the health, the culture , the economic well-being, and social...region of Central America, Mexico , and the United States makes the problems more complex. Drug trafficking, the efforts made by the governments of...and “Sinaloa” cartels from Mexico trying to 7 get control of the drug traffic in El Salvador. Those groups use Gangs MS 13 and 18th Street gangs

  12. Silicon to syringe: Cryptomarkets and disruptive innovation in opioid supply chains.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Michael; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2017-08-01

    Cryptomarkets offer insight into the evolving interplay between online black markets and cartel-based distribution. The types and forms of heroin, fentanyl, and prescription drugs show wide diversification. In this commentary we describe changes in the conceptualizations, technologies and structures of drug supply chains in the 21st Century, with special attention to the role of cryptomarkets as tools, contexts, and drivers of innovation in public health research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Initial Design and Concept of Operations for a Clandestine Data Relay UUV To Circumvent Jungle Canopy Effects on Satellite Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    eastern India, or cartels and narco-terrorists of the Amazon river valley, they all share a number of things in common, number one among them being...frequencies. Ideally this housing could also be fashioned to look like river debris such as an exposed rock, or colored similar to the water in the...send it to the bottom of the river to make it hard to find, but also exposing sensitive internal components to river water . While freshwater

  14. Prolegomena to a Theory of Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-12-10

    of loyalty, the " espirit de corps," corruption, the fact that ~~me leadersof organizations seem to be able to obtain a greater effect than others...such as a cartel, labor union , etc., the cost-profit principle is immediately seen to be in grave jeopardy. We shall return to this below. But f1rst...the first case; the difficulties some highly concentrated European econo- mies have encountered may be illustrations for the second case. However

  15. Mexico’s Narco-Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    National Drug Control Strategy. This approach is politically popular , as shown by the bipartisan support that the Merida Initiative has thus far...highest homicide rates in the world, dampened economic activity, and dramatically lowered popular confidence in government.41 The Mexican cartels and...weaknesses of the Mexican authorities, leading to a dramatic souring of popular views on the competence and credibility of the central government. If

  16. PRISM. Volume 2, Number 3, June 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Alianza Popular . By his own admission, he then migrated to the Socialist Party, but never rose through the ranks. He is widely associated with radical...en Materia de Seguridad y Defensa [Asymmetrical and Fourth Generation Warfare in Venezuelan Security and Defense Thinking],” Military Review...organizations in-house prefer the term drug trafficking organizations (DTOs), popular usage has stayed with cartels and so does this article, although

  17. Crisis in Mexico: Assessing the Merida Initiative and its Impact on Us-Mexican Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    strategic narcotics transportation routes in seven Mexican states. 14 The Sinaloa Cartel, headed by Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzman Loera, operates from...further blurred the lines between civilian and military roles since September 11, 2001, with the introduction of the term “ narco -terrorism.” 71 In 2006...have evolved from the communist and autocratic rule of 25 years ago to the terrorism, narco -trafficking, money laundering, gunrunning, and human

  18. Narcoterrorism - A Threat to the United States?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-21

    many facets. This war is no different. A phenomenon that has evolved from drug marketing and abuse is narcoterrorism. Many claim that narcoterrorism is...hydrochloride (HCL). The capital of the nation is Bogota. There are five major cities in the country. Two of them, Medellin and Cali, are narcotrafficker...nations by the U.S. In 1989 the leaders of the Medellin organization (cartel), called the Extraditables, were responsible for the shooting death of

  19. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  20. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-05

    workers, and, along with other economic factors, led to a significant decline in the overall quality of life in Guyana.59 The poor, limited by welfare and...there have been long-running tensions over the exploitation and export of the resource postponing the possibility of getting better conditions of life ...decades-long violent conflict involving outlawed armed groups, drug cartels and gross violations of human rights .31 During the 1990s the 40-year conflict

  1. Fighting Corruption in Mexico: Lessons from Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Félix Gallardo who controlled all illicit drug trade in Mexico and transportation of drugs into the United States. Known as ―The Godfather,‖ Felix... Gallardo became so powerful that he divided the different corridors of Mexico amongst his top drug lords. The Tijuana route went to the Arellano Felix...control of Pacific coast operations and formed the Sinaloa Cartel. Félix Gallardo retained authority over the entire country but did not interfere

  2. Finding a National Approach to Combat the Terror-Crime Nexus: A Hezbollah & Transnational Organized Crime Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-24

    capability and capacity. It is both well-funded and highly capable, largely due to its strong affiliation with the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Qods ... Qods Force, the masters at leveraging and exploiting existing illicit infrastructures globally, are not going to focus on our southwest border and use...the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the United States is instructive. In October 2011 the Iranian Qods Force attempted to hire a Zeta Cartel member to

  3. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  4. Applying Operational Art to the War on Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    product ( cocoa leaf or cocaine); and consumer demand. An analysis of ongoing counter-drug operations, the narco- trafficking cycle and the principals of...activities, use their unique status to negotiate with the cartels for higher wages for the cocoa leaf farmers in hopes of gaining the peasants’ popular...and both Peru and Bolivia have made progress in instituting alternative cocoa leaf substitution 4 programs, although there continues to be some

  5. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 4, April 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    2012, the Mexican government took an aggressive stance against the many drug cartels operating in the country. “Calderon’s War,” as some in Mexico...Smaller “tier-two”2 groups grow in strength, while mostly rural vigilante gangs that form to protect communities from drug traffickers and corrupt...suffered its share of setbacks, including a recent multi-ton drug bust in Baja California.4 Yet compared to Los Zetas, La Familia, and the Gulf

  6. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  7. National Strategy for the Southwest Border: Having the Desired Effect?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    government victories against the DTOs include the December 2009 killing of Arturo Beltrán Leyva and January 2010 capture of Teodoro Garcia Simental, the...http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2010/august/southwest- border3/border-violence (accessed February 12, 2011). 6 Bob Killebrew and Jennifer Bernal , Crime...2011), 1. 9 Killebrew and Bernal , Crime Wars: Gangs, Cartels and U.S. National Security, 16. 10 June S. Beittel, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence

  8. Net-Warlords: An Information Analysis of the Caballeros Templarios in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Familia Michoacán Emerges .......................................................14 a. La Familia as a Social Movement...que originó a Los Templarios,” March 10, 2014, http://www.milenio.com/policia/nacimiento-templarios- familia -michoacana- michoacan_0_259774453.html. 47...be enjoyed by the Gulf Cartel. 2. La Familia Michoacán Emerges This successful alliance proved short lived as it soon became clear that Los Zetas

  9. Counternetwork: Countering the Expansion of Transnational Criminal Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    the Aryan Brotherhood, the New Mexico Syndicate, Nuestra Familia , the Northern Structure, the Black Guerrilla Family, Mexikanemi, Barrio Azteca, the...BLO), Los Zetas Sinaloa Federation La Familia Michoacaná Michoacaná State Cabelleros Templarios (aka Knights Templar) Cabelleros Templarios (aka...Knights Templar) Michoacaná State La Familia Micoacaná Jalisco Cartel New Generation (CJNG) Southern stretches of Mexico’s Pacific coats; parts

  10. Reforming Mexico’s Energy Sector to Enhance Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-27

    Congressional Research Service, September 9, 2011), 10. 5 Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, “Pemex’s Proved Oil Reserves Decline for 12th Year in a Row...ed. and Raul Delgado Wise, ed. Mexico’s Economic Dilemma: The Developmental Failure of Neoliberalism. New York: Rowman and Littlefield...Crime and Drug Cartels Top Concerns in Mexico. Global Attitudes Project, August 31, 2011. Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel . “Pemex’s Proved Oil Reserves

  11. The Closest Alligator to the Boat: Mexico’s Drug-Fueled Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-28

    organizations such as Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Venezuela and other enemies abroad. The reason for exploring these ties is to show...an extremely muscular , cult-like Christian-based program that serves the cartel leader‟s purposes.18 Using his Christian based manifesto, González...members and deserters from the Mexican Army‟s 15 elite Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales (GAFE) who were organized as an enforcement arm of the Gulf

  12. The Military War on Drugs: Too Many Assets, Too Few Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    until the early 1960s. Organized crime controlled drug trafficking within the United from the 1950s to the 1970s. The Cosa Nostra (Mafia) controlled...Colombia, Mexico , and other countries control illegal drug trafficking. These drug cartels produce and distribute heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine...demand. The United States has 12,300 miles of shoreline, 300 ports of entry and more than 7,500 miles of border with Mexico and Canada.55 It is

  13. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  14. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  15. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  16. Counter-Narcoterrorism Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Operations Areas from 1970 through 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    order to be able to patrol the rivers and shoreline effectively.26 In the case of the labs that were deep in the jungle, it was highly likely that...they were built near a river or creek since the drug making process needed large amounts of water. The rivers and creeks became not only a part of...allow the government forces to take away the supply routes from the drug leaders. By denying the cartels the use of the rivers , the government forces

  17. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs.

  18. ECUADOR: counting down the barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-09

    Within the world oil market, OPEC faces a reduced role as supplier and production/price dilemmas. One of its members, Ecuador, faces rapid drawdown of its reserves and ultimate loss of membership in the cartel. But Ecuador is tackling the problem by a variety of means and is still defending OPEC prices, as its OPEC Governor tells Energy Detente. The complete interview with Cesar Guerra Navarrete, the OPEC Governor is presented. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of February 1983 are included for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  19. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  20. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  1. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  2. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    southern and northern borders of the U.S., to prevent DTOs from entering the U.S . . Background Mexican DTOs first entered the U.S. market in the mid...seek alternate routes into the U.S. The proximity of the U.S., one of the largest markets for illicit drugs, and the poor economic state of Mexico...Nuevo Laredo, the Zetas operate a parallel network in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman. 9 The Juare~ Cartel operates in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

  3. Narco-Terrorism: An Increasing Threat to U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    put in going after Joaquin "El Chapo " Guzman and every other narco -terrorist threatening U.S. national security. The U.S. is at war with terrorists...To) 12-06-2009 Master’s Thesis 21-07-2008 to 12-06-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Narco -Terrorism: An increasing threat to US...telTorism will continue to be a threat to the U.S. for the foreseeable future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Narco -terrorism, terrorism, narcotics, cartels

  4. Prism. Volume 4, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    sector. In Michoacán, the La Familia cartel was identified as organizing and taxing the illegal extraction of ore from mines in the region and its...their dealings with the Mexican group La Familia , had sent part of their earnings to the PRC.65 Chinese-owned gambling operations in Latin america...Latin america: a View on Security from the Southern Cone,” Military Review (September–October 2006), 60–66. 56 See Segovia. 57 “Vende La Familia

  5. Getting out of the game: desistance from drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Howard; Hansen, Tobin

    2012-11-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border, the centre of the western hemispheric illicit drugs trade. It examines factors that encouraged or discouraged drug traffickers to "get out of the game" (a common slang reference to leaving the drug business). In-depth, life history interviews were conducted of thirty ex-traffickers in the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez area. Participants discussed their experiences exiting drug trafficking and their retrospective, often conflicted, feelings about the trade. Although leaving drug trafficking is a complex and multi-faceted process, the principle factors for study participants were (1) punishment (by authorities or other traffickers), (2) self-image and identity, (3) social ties, (4) life course changes and (5) drug use/abuse. Traffickers often want to quit, but their divided self-identities make it difficult to relinquish the power and exhilaration they derive from the illicit drugs business. Harm reduction policies are needed that address the embeddedness of trafficker identities in dense webs of family, community, street gangs and transnational cartels, and the larger society, as well as the seductive appeal of Hollywood and pro-cartel narco-media. Traffickers need pathways that allow them to exit the illicit drugs business without surrendering their identity. Prison sentences are not enough to encourage traffickers to stop-also needed are culturally sensitive policies that help traffickers get out of the game and stay out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial consortia at steady supply

    PubMed Central

    Taillefumier, Thibaud; Posfai, Anna; Meir, Yigal; Wingreen, Ned S

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has revealed hundreds of species in almost all microbiota. In a few well-studied cases, microbial communities have been observed to coordinate their metabolic fluxes. In principle, microbes can divide tasks to reap the benefits of specialization, as in human economies. However, the benefits and stability of an economy of microbial specialists are far from obvious. Here, we physically model the population dynamics of microbes that compete for steadily supplied resources. Importantly, we explicitly model the metabolic fluxes yielding cellular biomass production under the constraint of a limited enzyme budget. We find that population dynamics generally leads to the coexistence of different metabolic types. We establish that these microbial consortia act as cartels, whereby population dynamics pins down resource concentrations at values for which no other strategy can invade. Finally, we propose that at steady supply, cartels of competing strategies automatically yield maximum biomass, thereby achieving a collective optimum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22644.001 PMID:28473032

  7. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change.

  8. Oil gluts and oil tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The free market does not provide the level of oil imports that is in the best interest of oil-importing nations. Common sense tells us that the best time to combat the economic power of a cartel is when it is weak, such as during a period of oil glut. The glut conditions still leave us with a large gap between the true cost of oil and the market price. The authors could justify an oil import tariff of 30-40% of the price of oil, or more. Nearly every other consideration, especially the positive effect on the federal budget, reinforces the recommendation for a large import tariff. An analysis in the appendix showing the otpimal tariff at 65-100% suggests that we should impose the largest tariff we can get through the political system. 9 references, 10 tables.

  9. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  10. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  12. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  14. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  15. Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ghislandi, Simone

    2011-12-01

    By introducing n (>1) firms with infinite cross-price elasticity (i.e. generic drugs), we explore the effects of competition on the optimal pricing strategies under a Reference Pricing Scheme (RPS). A two-stage model repeated infinite number of times is presented. When stage 1 is competitive, the equilibrium in pure strategies exists and is efficient only if the reference price (R) does not depend on the price of the branded product. When generics collude, the way R is designed is crucial for both the stability of the cartel among generics and the collusive prices in equilibrium. An optimally designed RPS must set R as a function only of the infinitely elastic side of the market and should provide the right incentives for competition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The key to better times is Opec pricing discipline

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1989-02-01

    According to the author, 1988 proved again that Opec's ability to control world oil markets in tenuous at best. Oil analysts had trouble determining direction of the cartel, with forecasts showing a wide range of possibilities for oil prices. In the last half of the year, concern about a long-term collapse in oil prices sent many U.S. producers to the sidelines with drilling activity languishing at 911 rigs running at the end of November. Most active rigs were looking for natural gas, further complicating U.S. oil reserve replenishment. Opec gradually lost control of world oil markets in 1988. Opec impotence will continue unless non-Opec producers cooperate to cut output, global oil demand increases significantly, or members finally begin to seriously address the critical issue of adhering strictly to production quotas. The author discusses the status of OPEC and U.S. petroleum in regard to current U.S. and worldwide economic conditions.

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  18. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  19. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  20. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  1. [Relationship between neuro-psychological factors and effect of acupuncture in treating Bell's palsy].

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P < 0.01]. Visual analogue scoring for perception of "Deqi", evaluated either by patients or by doctors, showed that the scores was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Cartel personality test (16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.

  2. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  3. Necropolitics, narcopolitics, and femicide: gendered violence on the Mexico-U.S. border.

    PubMed

    Wright, Melissa W

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, a group of women shocked Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, with the news that dozens of girls and women had been murdered and dumped, like garbage, around the city during the year. As the numbers of murders grew over the years, and as the police forces proved unwilling and unable to find the perpetrators, the protestors became activists. They called the violence and its surrounding impunity "femicide," and they demanded that the Mexican government, at the local, state, and federal levels, stop the violence and capture the perpetrators. Nearly two decades later, the city's infamy as a place of femicide is giving way to another terrible reputation as a place of unprecedented drug violence. Since 2006, more than six thousand people have died in the city, as have more than twenty-eight thousand across the country, in relation to the violence associated with the restructuring of the cartels that control the production and distribution of illegal drugs. In response to the public outcry against the violence, the Mexican government has deployed thousands of troops to Ciudad Juárez as part of a military strategy to secure the state against the cartels. In this essay, I argue that the politics over the meaning of the drug-related murders and femicide must be understood in relation to gendered violence and its use as a tool for securing the state. To that end, I examine the wars over the interpretation of death in northern Mexico through a feminist application of the concept of necropolitics as elaborated by the postcolonial scholar Achille Mbembe. I examine how the wars over the political meaning of death in relation both to femicide and to the events called "drug violence" unfold through a gendering of space, of violence, and of subjectivity. My objective is twofold: first, to demonstrate how the antifemicide movement illustrates the stakes for a democratic Mexican state and its citizens in a context where governing elites argue that the violence devastating Ciudad Ju

  4. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  5. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  6. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  7. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  8. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  9. [Colombia: out of the eye of the hurricane, but still close].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Colombia is not the same country of the 80s and 90s of last century. The big drug cartels disappeared, but their heirs diversified their activities, created alliances with guerrillas and paramilitaries, and increased the number of minors associated with criminal behaviours. The country has not been systematic in its drug abuse data collection, and there is a remarkable imbalance in the investments made on drug supply and drug demand: 98% and 2%, respectively. However, the official reports assert that there are at least 300,000 people in need of treatment. Regarding drug abuse, Colombia is in the "middle range" in Latin America, together with Peru and Mexico; Chile, Argentina and Uruguay are above them, and Ecuador and Bolivia below. Drug consumption was decriminalized in 1994, and the implication was that those involved in drug abuse problems had to find their way out by themselves; this implication contributed to the poor development of the state treatment system. In spite of a new law imposing the obligation of free treatment to everyone asking for it, the health system is on the border of collapse and won't be able to face those requirements.

  10. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  11. Analysis of México's Narco-War Network (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves.

  12. Building the world's supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goss, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Quinine, a naturally occurring alkaloid from the Cinchona tree, was one of the first drugs produced and sold by a global pharmaceutical industry during the nineteenth century. Factories in Europe and North America dominated the manufacturing industry, and between 1890 and 1940, Cinchona plantations on Java supplied most of the bark for the quinine pharmaceutical business. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Dutch colonial state kept a hands-off approach to the Cinchona enterprises, in keeping with its liberal orientation. But the persistent low-price for bark, which led to the near ruin of the Cinchona planters, eventually pushed the colonial state to actively protect the Cinchona plantations. Colonial officials sought to stabilize the colonial Cinchona export-business by encouraging the integration of the quinine industry on a global scale. Most important was the colonial state's sponsorship in 1913 of the Quinine Agreement, establishing a set price for Cinchona bark, which created the world's first pharmaceutical cartel. In the interwar period, an alliance of Dutch government officials, planters, scientists, doctors and drug-makers, working in both the motherland and the colony, actively promoted the expansion of quinine consumption, as well as the merit of the Quinine Agreement, which they argued supplied guaranteed a steady supply of quinine, all for the wellbeing of global humanity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Competition policy for health care provision in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-02-01

    We review the role of competition among healthcare providers in Portugal, which has a public National Health Service (NHS) at the core of the health system. There is little competition among healthcare providers within the NHS. Competition among NHS primary care providers is hindered by excess demand (many residents in Portugal do not have a designated family doctor). Competition among NHS hospitals has been traditionally limited to cases of maximum guaranteed waiting time for surgery being exceeded. The Portuguese Competition Authority enforces competition law. It has focused on mergers between private hospitals and abuse of market power (including cartel cases) by private healthcare providers. The Healthcare Regulation Authority produced several reports on particular areas of activity by private healthcare providers. The main conclusion of these reviews was lack of conditions for effective competition, with the exception of dentistry. Within the NHS, the use of tendering procedures was able to create "competition for the market" in particular areas though it was not problem free. Details in the particular design adopted matter a lot. Overall, the scope for competition policy and for competition among healthcare providers to have a main role in a health system based on a public National Health Service seems limited, with more relevance to "competition for the market" situations than to "competition in the market". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  15. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  16. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  18. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  19. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  20. The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles and weapons of mass destruction and the emerging role of tactical missile defenses in Israel, Syria and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) and weapons of mass destruction has become one of the more serious security threats to post-Cold War peace. This dissertation examines the history of proliferation within the Middle East by focusing primarily on three trend-setting countries: Israel, Syria and Iran. Building on the theoretical framework established by Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, this dissertation examines why and how Israel, Syria and Iran have procured SSMs and weapons of mass destruction. The author also includes an analysis of tactical missile defenses and their impact on proliferation trends. The final section investigates the numerous arms control treaties and supplier cartels designed to halt or slow the pace of unconventional weapons proliferation. In many instances, Iraq serves as the primary example of how well-intentioned nonproliferation efforts have fallen short. This dissertation reveals some of the major flaws in these regimes while proposing necessary improvements if nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. In conclusion, this dissertation returns to the expanded Dunn-Kahn nuclear proliferation model. By categorizing the various reasons as to why countries choose to procure unconventional weapons, a more successful nonproliferation policy can be constructed. However, this dissertation warns that without political solutions to long-term disputes in the region, western-imposed nonproliferation regimes will fail. Thus, nonproliferation policies must be accompanied or preceded by a vigorous diplomatic and political effort to solve seemingly intractable differences.

  1. Recent developments within OPEC: economic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Y.H.

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the behavior of the OPEC members to determine the reasons behind their conflicts, examining the characteristics of the different members. (These characteristics are: income per capita, expected oil reserve life, absorptive capacity, balance of payments on current accounts, and capacity utilization rate.) Based on these characteristics, subgroupings of OPEC are identified (two sub-groups are formed, the saver group and the spender group). Furthermore, it is established that the saver group has the ability to influence the oil market by the virtue of its special characteristics. Finally, using a dominant firm model of resource allocation over time with a backstop resource (which is taken to be shale oil) in conjunction with the characteristics of the two groups we give economic content to the conflict over the price of oil. It is found that the special characteristics of the saver group combined with its market power result in a pricing policy which is completely different from the pricing policy preferred by the spender group. Therefore, it is concluded that there are more fundamental reasons behind the conflicts over oil price within OPEC than those brought about by cartelization (i.e., incentives to cheat).

  2. Battle of the Seabed

    SciTech Connect

    McMenamin, M.

    1981-07-06

    Flaws in the proposed Law of the Sea Treaty will put two-thirds of world mineral wealth under Third World control and will establish a global bureaucracy to exercise that control as a cartel. The general agreements of the treaty appear reasonable, but the law goes beyond traditional issues to form a supranational authority designed to maintain world-mineral prices. State Deparment negotiators with no understanding of economics are faulted. A supply-side approach will introduce the model of low tax rates, minimal central planning, and hard money that produced the US economy and could do the same for the Third World. Treaty supporters point out that the US must accept the entire package and not pull out seabed mining for special treatment. This position is challenged as an effort to close off debate. At issue is whether the concept of common heritage allows exploitation outside areas of national jurisdiction and whether past efforts to trade off mining for navigational rights should be dropped. US policies should avoid the traps of thinking that national security will be lost, that anarchy will prevail, or that the country is selling out to business when debating these issues. (DCK)

  3. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states.

  4. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  6. Analysis of México’s Narco-War Network (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves. PMID:25993657

  7. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  8. Classrooms in Peace Within Violent Contexts: Field Evaluation of Aulas en Paz in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; Barrera, Madeleine; Molano, Andrés; Velásquez, Ana María; Castellanos, Melisa; Chaparro, Maria Paula; Bustamante, Andrea

    2017-02-11

    Classrooms in Peace (Aulas en Paz) is an elementary school-based multicomponent program for prevention of aggression and promotion of peaceful relationships. Inspired by international programs and socio-emotional research, it includes (1) a classroom universal curriculum, (2) parent workshops and home visits to parents of the 10% most aggressive children, and (3) extracurricular peer groups of two aggressive and four prosocial children. Activities seek to promote socio-emotional competencies such as empathy, anger management, creative generation of alternatives, and assertiveness. A 2-year quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted with 1154 students from 55 classrooms of seven public schools located in neighborhoods with the presence of youth gangs, drug cartels, and high levels of community violence in two Colombian cities. Despite several implementation (e.g., about half of the activities were not implemented) and evaluation (e.g., randomization problems, large number of missing data, and changes between treatment and control groups) challenges, positive results were found in prosocial behavior and in reduction of aggressive behavior, according to teacher reports, and in assertiveness and reduction of verbal victimization, according to student reports. Furthermore, implementation cost (25 US dollars per student per year) was very low compared to other programs in developed countries. This study shows that the Classrooms in Peace program has an important potential to generate positive results and highlights the challenges of implementing and evaluating prevention programs in highly violent environments.

  9. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  10. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  11. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242

  12. The use of ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of illicit drugs on clandestine records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II

    1995-01-01

    Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to

  13. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Danilo J.; Poyer, David A.

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  14. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  15. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  16. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  17. Dentistry in the future--on the role and goal of basic research in oral biology.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the state of affairs of oral biology cannot be endeavoured without considering the mutual interactions and interdependencies of sciences, and without considering the impact human acts will exert on these developments. Oral biology deals with the biochemical, chemical, molecular biologic, general biologic and physical aspects of all processes that take place in the oral cavity, in the masticatory organ, and in tissues and body fluids that are associated with the above processes. Oral biology also reaps the harvest sown by (other) basic sciences. From the methodological point of view, oral biology is indistinguishable from basic sciences; it is the anatomical object that makes it specific. Oral biology cannot be regarded as "big science" (i.e. compared with the human genome project, space research, AIDS research etc.). This fact may preserve the attractiveness of oral biology. Important science--this concerns oral biology as well--still emerges in smaller settings, although there are omens that large research cartels will swallow larger and larger portions of research appropriations. A key to staying competitive is to use new science sources and--in some cases--to join bigger groups. Once upon a time oral biologists--or scientists in general--assumed that a record of solid accomplishments was sufficient to maintain research support. Today, in several countries, politics and public visibility unfortunately determine the funding privileges. Provided that human operations on earth will render future development of sciences possible, the future of oral biology will depend 1) on concomitant development in the above basic fields, and 2) on innovations in the individual psyches. This combination will unravel the structure of genes involved in the development and metabolism of oral processes, clone important salivary and connective tissue proteins, and control most important oral diseases. To achieve these goals, oral biology must attract young talent and

  18. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Lora; Lankester, Felix; Kiyang, John A; Akih, Akih E; de Vries, Simone; Fotso, Roger; Gadsby, Elizabeth L; Jenkins, Peter D; Gonder, Mary K

    2010-01-22

    While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced samples may reveal 'hotspots

  19. Risk of violence in drug rehabilitation centers: perceptions of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Vera, Alicia Yolanda; González-Zúñiga, Patricia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana Carolina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos Leonardo; Wagner, Karla; Strathdee, Steffanie Anne; Werb, Daniel

    2016-01-26

    In 2009, Mexico reformed its health law to partially decriminalize drug possession considered for personal use and to increase mandatory referrals to certified drug rehabilitation centers in lieu of incarceration. Concurrently, news media reported violent attacks perpetrated by drug cartels against Mexican drug rehabilitation centers and instances of human rights violations by staff against people who inject drugs (PWID) in treatment. In many cases, these violent situations took place at "Peer Support" (Ayuda Mutua) drug rehabilitation centers that house a large number of drug-dependent PWID. In an effort to understand barriers to treatment uptake, we examined prevalence and correlates of perceived risk of violence at drug rehabilitation centers among PWID in Tijuana, Mexico. Secondary analysis of baseline data collected between March 2011 and May 2013 of PWID recruited into a prospective cohort study in Tijuana. Interviewer-administered surveys measured perceived risk of violence at drug rehabilitation centers by asking participants to indicate their level of agreement with the statement "going to rehabilitation puts me at risk of violence". Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with perceived risk of violence. Of 733 PWID, 34.5 % perceived risk of violence at drug rehabilitation centers. In multivariate analysis, reporting ever having used crystal methamphetamine and cocaine (separately), having a great or urgent need to get help for drug use, and ever receiving professional help for drug/alcohol use were negatively associated with perceived risk of violence at drug rehabilitation centers, while having been told by law enforcement that drug rehabilitation attendance is mandatory was positively associated with perceived risk of violence. All associations were significant at a 0.05 alpha level. The perception of violence at drug rehabilitation centers among PWID does not represent the lived experience of those PWID who attended

  20. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  1. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  2. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  3. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    -se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.