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Sample records for case count difference

  1. Bacterial counts associated with poultry processing at different sampling times.

    PubMed

    Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Pseudomonas counts were performed on neck skin samples from six processing steps in a poultry abattoir at three different sampling times. Sampling time 1 was shortly after start-up of processing operations, time 2 after a tea break which was preceded by a cold water rinse-down of equipment surfaces, and time 3 before shut-down. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in microbial numbers of neck skin samples were observed between the three sampling times at the six sampling sites. At this particular processing plant, therefore, sampling at any time of the processing shift would thus not lead to significantly different bacterial counts of neck skins. The lowest aerobic plate counts, over all three sampling times, were obtained for neck skins sampled after spray washing, and the highest for neck skins sampled after packaging. This indicated the efficacy of the washing step in reducing microbial contamination but subsequent re-contamination of carcasses. Despite the Pseudomonas counts of neck skins being lower than the Enterobacteriaceae counts at the beginning of processing, packaging of carcasses resulted in Pseudomonas counts that were higher than the Enterobacteriaceae counts.

  2. Temporal differences in point counts of bottomland forest landbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared number of avian species and individuals in morning and evening point counts during the breeding season and during winter in a bottomland hardwood forest in west-central Mississippi. USA. In both seasons, more species and individuals were recorded during morning counts than during evening counts. We also compared morning and evening detections for 18 species during the breeding season and 9 species during winter. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), and Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) were detected significantly more often in morning counts than in evening counts during the breeding season. Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) was recorded more often in morning Counts than evening counts during the breeding season and during winter. No species was detected more often in evening counts. Thus, evening point counts of birds during either the breeding season or winter will likely underestimate species richness, overall avian abundance, and the abundance of some individual species in bottomland hardwood forests.

  3. Baseline CD4 Cell Counts of Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases in China: 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Houlin; Mao, Yurong; Shi, Cynthia X.; Han, Jing; Wang, Liyan; Xu, Juan; Qin, Qianqian; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common. We aim to assess the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV cases receiving timely baseline CD4 count testing and the associated factors in China. Methods Data were extracted from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Adult patients over 15 years old who had been newly diagnosed with HIV infection in China between 2006 and 2012 were identified. The study cohort comprised individuals who had a measured baseline CD4 count. Results Among 388,496 newly identified HIV cases, the median baseline CD4 count was 294 cells/µl (IQR: 130–454), and over half (N = 130,442, 58.8%) were less than 350 cells/µl. The median baseline CD4 count increased from 221 (IQR: 63–410) in 2006 to 314 (IQR: 159–460) in 2012. A slight majority of patients (N = 221,980, 57.1%) received baseline CD4 count testing within 6 months of diagnosis. The proportion of individuals who received timely baseline CD4 count testing increased significantly from 20.0% in 2006 to 76.9% in 2012. Factors associated with failing to receiving timely CD4 count testing were: being male (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.19), age 55 years or older (OR:1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.06), educational attainment of primary school education or below (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.28–1.32), infection with HIV through injection drug use (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 2.02–2.12) or sexual contact and injection drug use (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.76–1.99), diagnosis in a hospital (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.88–1.95) or in a detention center (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70–1.80), and employment as a migrant worker (OR:1.55, 95% CI:1.53–1.58). Conclusion The proportion of newly identified HIV patients receiving timely baseline CD4 testing has increased significantly in China from 2006–2012. Continued effort is needed for further promotion of early HIV diagnosis and timely baseline CD4 cell count testing. PMID:24901790

  4. Effectiveness using higher inhaled corticosteroid dosage in patients with COPD by different blood eosinophilic counts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil counts have been documented as a good biomarker for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of prescribing high or medium dose of ICS for patients with different eosinophil counts are unknown. Methods A post hoc analysis of a previous prospective randomized study was performed for COPD patients using higher dose (HD: Fluticasone 1,000 μg/day) or medium dose (MD: Fluticasone 500 μg/day) of ICS combined with Salmeterol (100 μg/day). Patients were classified into two groups: those with high eosinophil counts (HE ≥3%) and those with low eosinophil counts (LE <3%). Lung function was evaluated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and COPD assessment test. Frequencies of acute exacerbation and pneumonia were also measured. Results Two hundred and forty-eight patients were studied and classified into higher eosinophil (HE) (n=85, 34.3%) and lower eosinophil (LE) groups (n=163, 65.7%). The levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased in patients of HE group treated with HD therapy, compared with the other groups (HE/HD: 125.9±27.2 mL vs HE/MD: 94.3±23.7 mL, vs LE/HD: 70.4±20.5 mL, vs LE/MD: 49.8±16.7 mL; P<0.05) at the end of the study. Quality of life (COPD assessment test) markedly improved in HE/HD group than in MD/LE group (HE/HD: 9±5 vs LE/MD: 16±7, P=0.02). The frequency of acute exacerbation was more decreased in HE/HD group patients, compared with that in LE/MD group (HE/HD: 13.5% vs LE/MD: 28.7%, P<0.01). Pneumonia incidence was similar in the treatment groups (HE/HD: 3.2%, HE/MD: 2.6%, LE/HD: 3.5%, LE/MD 2.8%; P=0.38). Conclusion The study results support using blood eosinophil counts as a biomarker of ICS response and show the benefits of greater improvement of lung function, quality of life, and decreased exacerbation frequency in COPD patients with blood eosinophil

  5. Melanomas and Dysplastic Nevi Differ in Epidermal CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dyduch, Grzegorz; Tyrak, Katarzyna Ewa; Glajcar, Anna; Szpor, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7.00/mm2 for invasive melanomas, 2.94 for in situ melanomas, and 13.35 for dysplastic nevi. The differences between dysplastic nevi and melanoma in situ as well as between dysplastic nevi and invasive melanoma were significant. There was no correlation in number of positively stained cells between epidermis and dermis. We did not observe any intraepidermal DC-LAMP+ cells neither in melanoma in situ nor in invasive melanoma as well as any intraepidermal DC-SIGN+ cells in dysplastic nevi. Conclusion. It was shown that the number of dendritic cells differs between dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, and invasive melanomas. This could eventually suggest their participation in the development of melanoma. PMID:28331853

  6. Examine Counting Procedure among Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Case of Penang Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taibat, Adiat B.; Ahmad, Aznan Che; Ghazali, Munirah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates counting procedure in number counting based on gender among students with mild intellectual disability. Quantitative approach was used for testing counting procedure in number counting among these students. The samples for the study comprise fifteen male and fifteen female students with intellectual disability. Descriptive…

  7. Differences in lymphocyte subpopulations and cell counts before and after experimentally induced swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Robert; Johannisson, Anders; Jacobson, Magdalena; Fellström, Claes; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations before and immediately after experimentally induced swine dysentery. Twenty-one healthy crossbred pigs (approximately 22 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Blood was sampled before inoculation and when clinical signs of swine dysentery occurred. Pigs that remained healthy were sampled when killed. Total and differential white blood cell counts were performed, and lymphocyte subpopulations were analysed using flow cytometry. Following a mean incubation period of 13 days, 12 pigs developed swine dysentery, whereas nine remained healthy throughout the study. Before inoculation, pigs that subsequently developed swine dysentery displayed higher levels of circulating gamma delta T cells (mean +/- se; 30.7 +/- 3.5 %) compared with pigs that remained healthy (14.9 +/- 1.4 %). Sick animals also displayed lower levels of CD8 cells (24.6 +/- 1.5 %), cytotoxic/suppressor T cells (10.9 +/- 1.3 %) and CD4 CD8 T cells (8.1 +/- 1.0 %) than the pigs that remained healthy (34.9 +/- 3.1 %; 17.6 +/- 2.0 %; 13.6 +/- 2.3 %). No difference was observed in leukocyte counts before inoculation. At onset of swine dysentery, there was an increase in monocytes (from 1.5 +/- 0.2 x 10 to 3.8 +/- 0.5 x 10 l) and CD4 CD8 T cells (from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 8.9 +/- 0.7 %). In conclusion, gamma delta T cells and CD8 cells may be associated with susceptibility to experimentally induced swine dysentery, whereas monocytes and CD4 CD8 T cells appear to be the major responding leukocytes during the disease.

  8. Mechanical and wet tribological properties of carbon fabric/phenolic composites with different weave filaments counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbin, Li; Jianfeng, Huang; Jie, Fei; Liyun, Cao; Chunyan, Yao

    2015-10-01

    Carbon fabric/phenolic composites with different weave filaments counts were prepared by dip-coating and hot-press techniques, and then their mechanical and wet tribological properties were investigated based on the analysis of the three-dimensional surface profiles and the pore structures. Results show that the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, flexural modulus, tensile modulus, flexural strength and tensile strength) of the 3K carbon fabric/phenolic composites (Composite A) are better than that of the 12K carbon fabric/phenolic composites (Composite B). Fractured surfaces observation suggests that the dominant tensile failure mechanism is fiber breakage for Composite A and matrix fracture for Composite B. Compared with Composite B, Composite A possesses high friction coefficient in different loads and at different sliding speeds, and the friction coefficient of Composite A is more sensitive to load and sliding speed. The wear rate of Composite B is 39% greater than that of Composite A and the wear features of worn surfaces demonstrate the excellent wear resistance for Composite A. Based on the observation of worn surface, the wear mechanisms are presented.

  9. Sources of variability of estimates of malaria case counts, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.

  10. Concurrent counting and typing: lateralized interference depends on a difference between the hands in motor skill.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Merrill; Caroselli, Jerome S; Wood, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    In previous demonstrations of differences between left- and right-handers in dual-task performance, participants' hand preference has been confounded with asymmetry of manual skill. The present study was designed to disentangle those two factors as sources of lateralized interference in the concurrent-task paradigm. Forty-eight normal adults (24 females and 24 males) counted backward by ones or by twos while typing an easy or difficult sequence of letters with either hand. When participants were grouped according to self-reported hand preference, both groups showed bilaterally symmetric slowing, relative to single-task conditions. However, when the same participants were grouped according to manual asymmetry in the baseline condition, the cognitive task interfered significantly more with the faster hand than with the slower hand. Baseline typing rate, averaged across hands, did not influence dual-task interference. Both self-reported left-hand preference and left-hand superiority in baseline typing were associated with reduced interference on the cognitive task, and the reduced interference in those groups seemed to reflect relatively loose coupling between manual and cognitive tasks. The results support and extend Caroselli et al.'s (1997) findings regarding the effect of baseline manual asymmetry on the pattern of dual-task interference. Irrespective of the participant's hand preference, the presence or absence of baseline asymmetry may be sufficient to determine whether dual-task interference is lateralized.

  11. A Monte Carlo study of lung counting efficiency for female workers of different breast sizes using deformable phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, L; Na, Y H; Zhang, J Y; Urban, M; Xu, X George

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no physical phantoms available for calibrating in vivo counting devices that represent women with different breast sizes because such phantoms are difficult, time consuming and expensive to fabricate. In this work, a feasible alternative involving computational phantoms was explored. A series of new female voxel phantoms with different breast sizes were developed and ported into a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for performing virtual lung counting efficiency calibrations. The phantoms are based on the RPI adult female phantom, a boundary representation (BREP) model. They were created with novel deformation techniques and then voxelized for the Monte Carlo simulations. Eight models have been selected with cup sizes ranging from AA to G according to brassiere industry standards. Monte Carlo simulations of a lung counting system were performed with these phantoms to study the effect of breast size on lung counting efficiencies, which are needed to determine the activity of a radionuclide deposited in the lung and hence to estimate the resulting dose to the worker. Contamination scenarios involving three different radionuclides, namely Am-241, Cs-137 and Co-60, were considered. The results show that detector efficiencies considerably decrease with increasing breast size, especially for low energy photon emitting radionuclides. When the counting efficiencies of models with cup size AA were compared to those with cup size G, a difference of up to 50% was observed. The detector efficiencies for each radionuclide can be approximated by curve fitting in the total breast mass (polynomial of second order) or the cup size (power). PMID:18780959

  12. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  13. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations. PMID:27231647

  14. Consequence for dairy herds in the United States of imposing different standards for somatic cell count

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New European Union (E.U.) regulations may require that a somatic cell count (SCC) limit of 400,000 cells/mL for milk be met by every farm that contributes to pooled milk exported to Europe. In the United States, the standard is 750,000 cells/mL. Because bulk tank SCC is not readily available through...

  15. Validation of an ambulatory cough detection and counting application using voluntary cough under different conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While cough is an important defence mechanism of the respiratory system, its chronic presence is bothersome and may indicate the presence of a serious disease. We hereby describe the validation process of a novel cough detection and counting technology (PulmoTrack-CC™, KarmelSonix, Haifa, Israel). Methods Tracheal and chest wall sounds, ambient sounds and chest motion were digitally recorded, using the PulmoTrack® hardware, from healthy volunteers coughing voluntarily while (a) laying supine, (b) sitting, (c) sitting with strong ambient noise, (d) walking, and (e) climbing stairs, a total of 25 minutes per subject. The cough monitoring algorithm was applied to the recorded data to detect and count coughs. The detection algorithm first searches for cough 'candidates' by identifying loud sounds with a cough pattern, followed by a secondary verification process based on detection of specific characteristics of cough. The recorded data were independently and blindly evaluated by trained experts who listened to the sounds and visually reviewed them on a sonogram display. The validation process was based on two methods: (i) Referring to an expert consensus as gold standard, and comparing each cough detected by the algorithm to the expert marking, we marked True and False, positive and negative detections.These values were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the cough monitoring system. (ii) Counting the number of coughs in longer segments (t = 60 sec, n = 300) and plotting the cough count vs. the corresponding experts' count whereby the linear regression equation, the regression coefficient (R2) and the joint-distribution density Bland-Altman plots could be determined. Results Data were recorded from 12 volunteers undergoing the complete protocol. The overall Specificity for cough events was 94% and the Sensitivity was 96%, with similar values found for all conditions, except for the stair climbing stage where the Specificity was 87% with

  16. Relationship between somatic cell count and milk yield in different stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2009-07-01

    The association between somatic cell count (SCC) and daily milk yield in different stages of lactation was investigated in cows free of clinical mastitis (CM). Data were recorded between 1989 and 2004 in a research herd, and consisted of weekly test-day (TD) records from 1,155 lactations of Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red cows. The main data set (data set A) containing 36,117 records excluded TD affected by CM. In this data set, the geometric mean SCC was 55,000 and 95,000 cells/mL in primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. A subset of data set A (data set B), containing 27,753 records excluding all TD sampled in lactations affected by CM, was created to investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactations free of CM. Daily milk yields were analyzed using a mixed linear model with lactation stage; linear, quadratic and cubic regressions of log(2)-transformed and centered SCC nested within lactation stage; weeks in lactation; TD season; parity; breed; pregnancy status; year-season of calving; calving, reproductive, metabolic and claw disorders; and housing system as fixed effects. A random regression was included to further improve the modeling of the lactation curve. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed separately. The magnitude of daily milk loss associated with increased SCC depended on stage of lactation and parity, and was most extensive in late lactation irrespective of parity. In data set A, daily milk loss at an SCC of 500,000 cells/mL ranged from 0.7 to 2.0 kg (3 to 9%) in primiparous cows, depending on stage of lactation. In multiparous cows, corresponding loss was 1.1 to 3.7 kg (4 to 18%). Regression coefficients of primiparous cows estimated from data set B were consistent with those obtained from data set A, whereas data set B generated more negative regression coefficients of multiparous cows suggesting a higher milk loss associated with increased SCC in lactations in which the cow did not develop CM. The 305-d milk

  17. Sex and species differences in plasma testosterone and in counts of androgen receptor-positive cells in key brain regions of Sceloporus lizard species that differ in aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hews, Diana K.; Hara, Erina; Anderson, Maurice C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied neuroendocrine correlates of aggression differences in adults of two Sceloporus lizard species. These species differ in the degree of sex difference in aggressive color signals (belly patches) and in aggression: S. undulatus (males blue, high aggression; females white, low aggression) and S. virgatus (both sexes white, lower aggression). We measured plasma testosterone and counted cells expressing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity to the affinity-purified polyclonal AR antibody, PG-21, in three brain regions of breeding season adults. Male S. undulatus had the highest mean plasma testosterone and differed significantly from conspecific females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in plasma testosterone concentrations in S. virgatus. Male S. undulatus also had the highest mean number of AR-positive cells in the preoptic area: the sexes differed in S. undulatus but not in S. virgatus, and females of the two species did not differ. In the ventral medial hypothalamus, S. undulatus males had higher mean AR cell counts compared to females, but again there was no sex difference in S. virgatus. In the habenula, a control brain region, the sexes did not differ, and although the sex by species interaction significant was not significant, there was a trend (p = 0.050) for S. virgatus to have higher mean AR cell counts than S. undulatus. Thus hypothalamic AR cell counts paralleled sex and species differences in aggression, as did mean plasma testosterone levels in these breeding-season animals. PMID:22230767

  18. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here.

  19. What Counts as Student Voice in Active Citizenship Case Studies? Education for Citizenship in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hamish; Munn, Pamela; Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    We analyse a teacher-to-teacher discourse (14 web-published case studies) concerning "participation as citizenship" in schools. Many different mechanisms through which pupils participate are reported (from school councils to paired-reading schemes and community links). The claimed outcomes of these activities are also varied: improving…

  20. [Congenital retinal folds in different clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, M

    2005-01-01

    We present 12 clinical cases of congenital retinal folds with different etiologies: posterior primitive vitreous persistency and hyperplasia (7 cases),retinocytoma (1 case). retinopathy of prematurity (1 case), astrocytoma of the retina (1 case), retinal vasculitis (1 case), Goldmann-Favre syndrome (1 case). Etiopathogenic and nosological aspects are discussed; the congenital retinal folds are interpreted as a symptom in a context of a congenital or acquired vitreo-retinal pathology.

  1. Thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure or severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count in a postpartum case.

    PubMed

    Jagia, Manish; Taqi, Salah; Hanafi, Mahmoud; Aisha, Fakeir

    2013-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure (TAMOF) is a thrombotic microangiopathic syndrome that includes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, secondary thrombotic microangiopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We report a case of postpartum female who presented with TAMOF or severe Haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP) which was managed with plasma exchange. This case report is to make clinicians aware that TAMOF, severe HELLP, and other differential diagnosis in a postpartum case have a thin differentiating line and plasma exchange can be considered as one of the management options.

  2. A Case Control Study of Bacterial Species and Colony Count in Milk of Breastfeeding Women with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Mary Jane; Burgess, Kelly; Flocke, Susan; Zyzanski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An infectious etiology for chronic breast pain in breastfeeding women continues to be debated. Although recent data suggest that Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) may cause chronic breast pain, no studies have used quantitative cultures to address this question. In this study we compared bacterial species and colony counts between breastfeeding women with (cases) and without (controls) chronic pain. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 114 breastfeeding women in a prospective cohort study. Cases (n=61), breastfeeding women with breast pain for >1 week and no signs of acute infection, were matched with controls (n=53) by weeks postpartum and parity. Results: More cases had a history of mastitis (14% vs. 2%, p=0.036), cracked nipples (64% vs. 17%, p=0.001), and other breastfeeding difficulties. Enterobacter species growth was less likely in cases (0% vs. 7.5%, p=0.029). Cases had a significantly higher growth of S. aureus (19.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003). CNS frequency was similar between groups (75% vs. 79%, p=0.626), but median colony count growth was significantly lower in cases (900 colony-forming units/mL vs. 5,000 colony-forming units/ml, p=0.003). Growth of CNS and S. aureus was negatively correlated (r=–0.265, p=0.004). Conclusions: Higher S. aureus growth in cases supports a pathogenic role for S. aureus and reinforces the need for future antibiotic treatment studies in breastfeeding women with chronic pain. In contrast, similar CNS frequency between groups, lower CNS colony counts in cases, and a negative correlation between S. aureus and CNS growth suggest that neither CNS, nor its overgrowth, causes chronic breast pain. PMID:23789831

  3. A Case Study in Using Explicit Instruction to Teach Young Children Counting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Stroizer, Shaunita; Flores, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Number sense is one's ability to understand what numbers mean, perform mental mathematics, and look at the world and make comparisons. Researchers show instruction that teaches children how to classify numbers, put numbers in sequence, conserve numbers effectively, and count builds their number sense skills. Targeted instruction that teaches…

  4. Genetic basis of differences in myxospore count between whirling disease-resistant and -susceptible strains of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Schisler, George J.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We used a quantitative genetics approach and estimated broad sense heritability (h2b) of myxospore count and the number of genes involved in myxospore formation to gain a better understanding of how resistance to Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite responsible for whirling disease, is inherited in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. An M. cerebralis-resistant strain of rainbow trout, the German Rainbow (GR), and a wild, susceptible strain of rainbow trout, the Colorado River Rainbow (CRR), were spawned to create 3 intermediate crossed populations (an F1 cross, F2 intercross, and a B2 backcross between the F1 and the CRR). Within each strain or cross, h2b was estimated from the between-family variance of myxospore counts using full-sibling families. Estimates of h2b and average myxospore counts were lowest in the GR strain, F1 cross, and F2 intercross (h2b = 0.34, 0.42, and 0.34; myxospores fish−1 = 275, 9566, and 45780, respectively), and highest in the B2 backcross and CRR strain (h2b = 0.93 and 0.89; myxospores fish−1 = 97865 and 187595, respectively). Comparison of means and a joint-scaling test suggest that resistance alleles arising from the GR strain are dominant to susceptible alleles from the CRR strain. Resistance was retained in the intermediate crosses but decreased as filial generation number increased (F2) or backcrossing occurred (B2). The estimated number of segregating loci responsible for differences in myxospore count in the parental strains was 9 ± 5. Our results indicate that resistance to M. cerebralis is a heritable trait within these populations and would respond to either artificial selection in hatcheries or natural selection in the wild.

  5. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  6. Platelet count less than SHARP: what does a case series reveal?

    PubMed

    Saif, M Wasif

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in numbers worldwide, and no effective systemic treatment existed for advanced HCC until SHARP (Sorafenib in HCC Assessment Randomized Protocol) study proved sorafenib (Nexavar((R)), Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, NJ, USA) prolonged survival versus placebo. Child-Pugh class A liver function and a platelet count of > or = 60,000/mm(3) were among the inclusion criteria for SHARP. No safety data in patients with < 60,000/mm(3) of platelets are present. Thrombocytopenia is one of the most frequent challenges faced in patients with chronic liver diseases. We report a series of three patients with HCC and platelet count < 60,000/mm(3) who were successfully treated with sorafenib with no complications. We describe the current data on sorafenib and challenges faced in patients with HCC. In addition, we emphasize the need for informed consent when facing factors that predispose to bleeding (esophageal varices, coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia), possible band ligation before the start of sorafenib, careful clinical monitoring and discontinuation of sorafenib when major bleeding occurs.

  7. A study on evaluation of the dependences of the function and the shape in a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan on the difference in acquisition count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Shim, Dong-Oh; Kim, Ho-Sung; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In a nuclear medicine examination, methods to acquire a static image include the preset count method and the preset time method. The preset count method is used mainly in a static renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA (dimoercaptosuccinic acid) whereas the preset time method is used occasionally. When the preset count method is used, the same number of acquisition counts is acquired for each time, but the scan time varies. When the preset time method is used, the scan time is constant, but the number of counts acquired is not the same. Therefore, this study examined the dependence of the difference in information on the function and the shape of both sides of the kidneys on the counts acquired during a renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA. The study involved patients who had 40-60% relative function of one kidney among patients who underwent a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan in the Nuclear Medicine Department during the period from January 11 to March 31, 2012. A gamma camera was used to obtain the acquisition count continuously using 100,000 counts and 300,000 counts, and an acquisition time of 7 minutes (exceeding 300,000 counts). The function and the shape of the kidney were evaluated by measuring the relative function of both sides of the kidneys, the geometric mean, and the size of kidney before comparative analysis. According to the study results, neither the relative function nor the geometric mean of both sides of the kidneys varied significantly with the acquisition count. On the other hand, the size of the kidney tended to be larger with increasing acquisition count.

  8. Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Iorio, Natália Lopes Pontes; Farah, Adriana; Netto dos Santos, Kátia Regina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the ex vivo antimicrobial effect of brewed coffee was tested on oral biofilms. For this, unsweetened and sweetened (10 % sucrose) brewed light-roasted Coffea canephora at 20 % was used in biofilms formed by non-stimulated saliva from three volunteers. After 30 min contact with unsweetened and sweetened brews, the average microorganism count in the biofilms reduced by 15.2 % and 12.4 %, respectively, with no statistical difference among them. We also observed a drop of microorganisms in the biofilms after treatment with sucrose solution at 5 % compared to control (saline) and to sucrose at 1 % and 3 %. In conclusion, Coffea canephora extract reduces the microbial count in oral biofilm, and our data suggest that sucrose concentration in coffee brew can influence its antimicrobial property against the referred biofilm.

  9. Age differences in emotional reactions: arousal and age-relevance count.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Berit; Kunzmann, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings suggest positivity effects in older adults' attention and memory, but few studies have examined such effects on the level of emotional reactivity. In this study, 52 young and 52 older adults rated 172 pictures of the International Affective Picture System, differing in arousal and age-relevance, in terms of valence and discrete emotions. Age differences in the ratio of pleasantness reactions to pleasant pictures vs. unpleasantness reactions to unpleasant pictures as well as age differences in absolute levels of unpleasantness and pleasantness reactions suggest that positivity effects in older adults' subjective emotional reactions are reduced under high arousal. There is also evidence that positivity effects may be restricted to stimuli with low relevance in old age.

  10. Taking Math Beyond Counting in Preschool: Thinking About the Same Object, Different State!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.; Olmsted, Judith

    In order to help preschool children understand mathematical principles, five different learning activities designed to help them think about physical transformation or change are described. Introductory remarks focus on Piaget's concept of transformation and on various strategies teachers can use to help children consider changes in the state of…

  11. Why genes don't count (for racial differences in health).

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, A H

    2000-01-01

    There is a paradoxical relationship between "race" and genetics. Whereas genetic data were first used to prove the validity of race, since the early 1970s they have been used to illustrate the invalidity of biological races. Indeed, race does not account for human genetic variation, which is continuous, complexly structured, constantly changing, and predominantly within "races." Despite the disproof of race-as-biology, genetic variation continues to be used to explain racial differences. Such explanations require the acceptance of 2 disproved assumptions: that genetic variation explains variation in disease and that genetic variation explains racial variation in disease. While the former is a form of geneticization, the notion that genes are the primary determinants of biology and behavior, the latter represents a form of racialization, an exaggeration of the salience of race. Using race as a proxy for genetic differences limits understandings of the complex interactions among political-economic processes, lived experiences, and human biologies. By moving beyond studies of racialized genetics, we can clarify the processes by which varied and interwoven forms of racialization and racism affect individuals "under the skin." PMID:11076233

  12. Comparison of aerial counts at different sites in beef and sheep abattoirs and the relationship between aerial and beef carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Okraszska-Lasica, Wioletta; Bolton, D J; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A

    2012-12-01

    The study examined and compared levels of aerial contamination in commercial beef and sheep plants at four sites, i.e. lairage, hide/fleece pulling, evisceration and chilling. Aerial contamination was determined by impaction and sedimentation onto Plate Count Agar to enumerate Total Viable Counts, MacConkey Agar to enumerate coliforms and Violate Red Bile Glucose Agar to enumerate Enterobacteriaceae. AS I cannot see any difference in the text here - I am not sure what the change is?. The levels of aerial contamination were similar at equivalent sites in beef and sheep plants, irrespective of the sampling method or the type of organisms recovered. Mean log counts recovered on each medium in the chillers were generally significantly lower (P < .05) than the corresponding mean log numbers recovered at the other three sites. The relationship between impaction (air) and sedimentation (surface) counts could be described by the surface to air ratio (SAR) which in this study had an R(2) of 0.77. Further studies in an experimental plant compared counts recovered from the neck of beef carcasses with aerial counts determined by impaction and sedimentation onto agar and irradiated meat pieces. A relationship between counts on beef carcasses and in the air could not be established, irrespective of the method used to compare counts.

  13. Mass counts: ERP correlates of non-adjacent dependency learning under different exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2011-01-10

    Miniature language learning can serve to model real language learning as high proficiency can be reached after very little exposure. In a previous study by Mueller et al. [18] German participants acquired non-adjacent syntactic dependencies by mere exposure to correct Italian sentences, but their ERP pattern differed from the one shown by native speakers. The present study follows up on that experiment using a similar design and material and is focused on two important issues: the influence of acoustic cues in the material and the impact of the learning procedure. With respect to the latter we compared alternating learning and test phases to a continuous learning and test phase. In addition, a splicing procedure eliminated prosodic cues in order to ensure that non-adjacent dependencies were learned instead of adjacent ones. Results for the continuous phase design showed a native-like biphasic ERP pattern, an N400 followed by a left-focused positivity. In the alternating design behavioural accuracy was lower and only an N400 was found. The results suggest an advantage of continuous learning phases for adult learners, possibly due to the absence of ungrammatical items present in the test phases in the alternating learning procedure. Furthermore, the replication of the earlier study with prosodically controlled material adds evidence to the general finding that syntactic non-adjacent dependencies can be learned from mere exposure to correct examples.

  14. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa.

  15. Clients of sex workers in different regions of the world: hard to count

    PubMed Central

    Carael, M; Slaymaker, E; Lyerla, R; Sarkar, S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion of the male population that reports having paid for sex in different regions. Methods Clients of sex workers were identified from representative samples of men asked in face‐to‐face interviews whether they had had sex in exchange for money or whether they had paid for sex, in the last 12 months. A total of 78 national household surveys and nine city based surveys were selected for inclusion. Where such surveys were not available, results of behavioural surveillance surveys and of research studies were also used. Using national estimates, a median percentage of men who reported paying for sex was calculated for each region. Results The median percentage of men who exchanged sex for money in the last 12 months in all regions was around 9–10%, with estimates from 13% to 15% in Central African region, 10 to 11% in Eastern and southern Africa, and 5–7% in Asia and Latin America. Estimates for men who paid sex were much lower at around 2–3% with ranges from 7% in the South African region to 1% in Asia and West Africa. Conclusions Although errors of measurement and critical issues of definitions and interpretation exist, this compilation represents a first attempt to obtain reasonably coherent estimates of the proportion of men who were clients of sex workers at regional level. Large discrepancies between regions were found. Further improvements in national estimates will be critical to monitor coverage of HIV prevention programmes for sex workers and clients, and to improve estimates of national HIV infection prevalence levels in low and concentrated HIV epidemics. PMID:16735289

  16. COUNTING THE MISSING CASES: ESTIMATING THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AMONG PREVALENT CASES OF TB

    PubMed Central

    Nourzad, Susan; Jenkins, Helen E.; Milstein, Meredith; Mitnick, Carole D.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden estimates are based on incomplete, infrequently updated data among a limited pool of cases: notified or incident, pulmonary TB patients. Methods Using WHO data reported by 217 countries/territories in 2014, we calculated MDR-TB burdens among prevalent TB cases and compared these with estimates among incident and notified TB patients. We also compared treatment coverage across estimates. Findings Among prevalent TB patients globally in 2014, we estimate that 555,545 (95% credible bounds: 499,340–617,391) MDR-TB cases occurred. This is 85% more than the 300,000 estimated among notified cases, and 16% more than the 480,000 among incident cases. Only 20% of MDR-TB cases among prevalent—compared to 37% of MDR-TB among notified—TB patients had access to MDR-TB treatment. Applying prior estimates, only 10% of MDR-TB cases will have successful outcomes. Interpretation Estimates based on likely-to-be-diagnosed cases of MDR-TB overlook a significant proportion of morbidity, mortality, and transmission: that occur in undiagnosed, untreated, prevalent TB patients. Still likely underestimating the true disease burden, MDR-TB among patients with prevalent TB represents a closer approximation of disease burden than currently reported indicators. Progress toward elimination—or control—depends on policies guided by a more complete representation of the disease burden. PMID:28157458

  17. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS IN THE DIRECT VIABLE COUNT METHOD TO DETECT FECAL ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of fecal pollution is performed via culturing methods in spite of the fact that culturable counts can severely underestimate the densities of fecal microorganisms. One approach that has been used to enumerate bacteria is the direct viable count method (DVC). The ob...

  18. Counting organised sport injury cases: evidence of incomplete capture from routine hospital collections.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Finch, Caroline; Boufous, Soufiane

    2010-05-01

    Organised sports are a popular form of physical activity, but unfortunately, participation can result in injury. Despite this, there have been surprisingly few studies that have reported the population rate of sports injury. Data from the 2005 New South Wales (NSW, Australia) Population Health Survey were analysed to describe self-reported injury experiences during participation in organised sports activities and the source of treatment for such injuries during a 12-month period in a population representative sample of adults aged 16+ years. At interview, 2414 respondents stated that they had participated in organised sport in the previous 12 months and just under one-third (30.9%) reported that they had been injured during this participation. Half of all injuries required formal treatment from a health or medical practitioner. Physiotherapists most commonly provided treatment for sports injury (26.6% of cases) followed by general practitioners (15.6%). Only 2.8% of all injured sports participants were admitted to hospital for their injury and a further 6.1% received treatment in an emergency department. This corresponds to at most only 8.9% of all treated sports injuries receiving treatment in a hospital setting. Population-based estimates of the rate and burden of sports injuries that rely solely on routine hospital data collections are likely to grossly underestimate the size of the problem, as very few cases are treated in a hospital setting.

  19. Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts in dairy herds with different bovine viral diarrhoea virus status in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rola, Jolanta G; Larska, Magdalena; Grzeszuk, Monika; Bocian, Lukasz; Kuta, Aleksandra; Polak, Miroslaw P; Rola, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC). Twenty nine dairy farms supplying milk to a dairy in Eastern Poland were recruited for the study. Bulk milk ELISA and RT-PCR were used to determine the BVDV infection status and the presence of PI animals in the farms. The BMSCC mean values for the BVDV seronegative (218.7 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 89.8) and seropositive (214.9 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 74.0) herds did not differ significantly. To assess the relationship between BVDV infection and BMSCC a multilevel mixed-effects linear model was used. No statistically significant effect of BVDV infection on BMSCC was found. The mean values of BMSCC for the herds with PI individuals measured before (230.1 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 64.9) and after (223.3 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 62.4) the PI removal were not statistically different. An increase in herd size was associated with a significant decrease in BMSCC. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer (from May to September) compared to during winter (from October to April).

  20. Beyond counting cases: public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, D; Elliott, E J; Zurynski, Y; Pereira, R Rodrigues; Preece, M; Lynn, R; von Kries, R; Zimmermann, H; Dickson, N P; Virella, D

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and facilitates international collaboration among member PSUs and allows for sharing of resources, simultaneous data collection and hence comparison of data from different geographical regions. The impact of data collected by PSUs, both individually and collectively as members of INoPSU, on public health outcomes, clinical care and research is described. PMID:17158859

  1. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  2. Effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed diets with different levels of crude protein.

    PubMed

    Bavarsadi, M; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari-Mahyari, S; Jahanian, E

    2016-06-08

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, serum biochemical parameters, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed on diets with different levels of crude protein (CP). A total of 180 laying hens were subjected into nine dietary treatments with four cages of five birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of CP (85.0, 92.5 and 100% of Hy-Line W36 manual recommendation) and three levels of sanguinarine (0.00, 3.75 and 7.50 mg/kg) as a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of laying hens which fed during a 70-day feeding trial. The in vitro study showed that sanguinarine exhibited sevenfold and threefold decreased antioxidant activities to inhibit 2-2-diphenyl-1-picric hydrazyl free radical as well as ferric ion reducing rather than butylated hydroxyl toluene. Although using the decremental levels of CP caused the increase in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.01), dietary administration of sanguinarine could suppress the serum cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations as well as heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreasing CP content resulted in the decreased percentage of albumin (p < 0.05); however, it had no negative effects on humoral immunity. Nonetheless, feeding of at least 3.75 mg/kg sanguinarine led to the remarkable increases in serum gamma globulin concentration (p < 0.01) and secondary (p < 0.05) antibody titres against sheep red blood cells. Moreover, a decline in dietary CP content led to higher villi height and crypt depth (p < 0.05; p < 0.001) and consequently decreased villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < 0.001) than the optimum level (100% CP). In spite of the effects of sanguinarine on the suppression of Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts (p < 0.05), it markedly enhanced villi height-to-crypt depth ratio as well as lamina propria lymphatic follicles extent

  3. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  4. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs ( polycythemia vera ) Your RBC count will increase for several ... Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Peripheral Polycythemia vera Renal cell carcinoma Splenomegaly Transfusion reaction - hemolytic ...

  5. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  6. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  7. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  8. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases.

  9. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  10. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  11. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  12. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  13. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.

  14. Emotionally intelligent case managers make a difference.

    PubMed

    Tahan, H A

    2000-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is a skill necessary for case managers because of the diversity of their work, the multiple stakeholders they have to deal with on daily basis, and the increased potential for conflict. Managers and administrators need to be cognizant of the role emotional intelligence plays in employee performance and the importance of developing training programs to assist case managers in learning to deal with change and conflict. Case managers must assume responsibility for their actions and work to develop and improve their emotional intelligence skills set. Ultimately, patients and work associates will appreciate the case manager's efforts. Finally, case managers will find work an enjoyable experience and look forward to new opportunities the future holds.

  15. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  16. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  17. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Polyfunctionality Is Differently Modulated in HAART-Treated HIV Patients according to CD4 T-Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Casetti, Rita; De Simone, Gabriele; Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Tumino, Nicola; Besi, Francesca; Martini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of γδ T-cell distribution and function in peripheral blood is among the earliest defects during HIV-infection. We asked whether the polyfunctional response could also be affected, and how this impairment could be associated to CD4 T-cell count. To this aim, we performed a cross-sectional study on HIV-infected individuals. In order to evaluate the polyfunctional-Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell response after phosphoantigen-stimulation, we assessed the cytokine/chemokine production and cytotoxicity by flow-cytometry in HAART-treated-HIV+ persons and healthy-donors. During HIV-infection Vγ9Vδ2-polyfunctional response quality is affected, since several Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets resulted significantly lower in HIV+ patients in respect to healthy donors. Interestingly, we found a weak positive correlation between Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response and CD4 T-cell counts. By dividing the HIV+ patients according to CD4 T-cell count, we found that Low-CD4 patients expressed a lower number of two Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets expressing MIP-1β in different combinations with other molecules (CD107a/IFNγ) in respect to High-CD4 individuals. Our results show that the Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response quality in Low-CD4 patients is specifically affected, suggesting a direct link between innate Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells and CD4 T-cell count. These findings suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell quality may be indirectly influenced by HAART therapy and could be included in a new therapeutical strategy which would perform an important role in fighting HIV infection. PMID:26161861

  18. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Polyfunctionality Is Differently Modulated in HAART-Treated HIV Patients according to CD4 T-Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Rita; De Simone, Gabriele; Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Tumino, Nicola; Besi, Francesca; Martini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of γδ T-cell distribution and function in peripheral blood is among the earliest defects during HIV-infection. We asked whether the polyfunctional response could also be affected, and how this impairment could be associated to CD4 T-cell count. To this aim, we performed a cross-sectional study on HIV-infected individuals. In order to evaluate the polyfunctional-Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell response after phosphoantigen-stimulation, we assessed the cytokine/chemokine production and cytotoxicity by flow-cytometry in HAART-treated-HIV+ persons and healthy-donors. During HIV-infection Vγ9Vδ2-polyfunctional response quality is affected, since several Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets resulted significantly lower in HIV+ patients in respect to healthy donors. Interestingly, we found a weak positive correlation between Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response and CD4 T-cell counts. By dividing the HIV+ patients according to CD4 T-cell count, we found that Low-CD4 patients expressed a lower number of two Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets expressing MIP-1β in different combinations with other molecules (CD107a/IFNγ) in respect to High-CD4 individuals. Our results show that the Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell-response quality in Low-CD4 patients is specifically affected, suggesting a direct link between innate Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells and CD4 T-cell count. These findings suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell quality may be indirectly influenced by HAART therapy and could be included in a new therapeutical strategy which would perform an important role in fighting HIV infection.

  19. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  20. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  1. [Wegener's granulomatosis. Three cases with different clinical courses].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Sawionek, I; Filipecki, S

    1996-01-01

    Three cases of Wegener's granulomatosis are presented. In every case the different clinical picture was observed. In the first case dominated the pulmonary changes and fingers necrosis. In that case the excellent therapeutic effect of etoposide was observed. In the second case the most important clinical sings illustrated severe renal insufficiency. The third case demonstrated pericardial and skin changes. The significance of early diagnosis and early institution of proper therapy was discussed.

  2. Sex-associated Differences in Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Plasma HIV-1 RNA in Diverse Areas of the World Vary by CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Smeaton, Laura; Barnett, Ronald; Klingman, Karin; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N; Campbell, Thomas; Currier, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Background Sex differences in the natural history of HIV infection may vary between resource-rich and resource-limited settings. Objective Baseline characteristics from a randomized clinical trial of treatment naïve subjects conducted at sites in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and North and South America were analyzed to determine if there were significant differences by sex. Results Of the 1571 participants, 740 (47.1%) were women. Women had higher mean screening CD4 cell counts (average 15 cells higher, (p<0.001), lower mean hemoglobin and creatinine clearance, a lower mean baseline HIV-1 viral load (4.85 log10 vs. 5.05 log10 copies/mL (P<0.001)) and were less likely to have a prior AIDS diagnosis than men. The sex difference in viral load difference was related to CD4 cell count, however it was independent of country and persisted within the strata with CD4 < 200 cells/mm3. Conclusion Women in resource limited settings have lower levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA and appear to present for enrollment into a clinical trials at an earlier stage of disease than men. The biologic basis for lower viral in women compared to men remains unexplained. It will be important to determine if the sex differences observed at baseline impact clinical outcomes once the PEARLS clinical trial is completed. PMID:22024521

  3. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  4. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P < 0.05). Friesian crossbred cows (56.4%), BCS 2.0-2.5 (55.4%), and parity 4-6 (52.4%), the late lactation stage (5-8 months; 64.7%) and high yielding cows (16-20 L/day; 65.3%) were more susceptible to SCM (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of the CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P < 0.05). Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone.

  5. Effect of 2 different premilking teat sanitation routines on reduction of bacterial counts on teat skin of cows on commercial dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Baumberger, C; Guarín, J F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-04-01

    Premilking teat sanitation reduces the load of bacteria on teat skin before milking and it is a fundamental practice used to ensure collection of high-quality milk. The objective of this study was to compare reduction in bacterial populations of teat skin after premilking preparation using either predipping with 0.5% iodine followed by drying (conventional; CONV) or using a semiautomated teat scrubber that uses chlorine dioxide (TS; FutureCow, Longwood, FL). Ten farms currently using a commercial teat scrubber system were enrolled. Cows (n=40 per farm) were assigned to CONV (n=198) or TS (n=196) premilking udder preparation. Teat skin swabs were collected before and after udder preparation and analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Reduction (RED) of each bacterial group was defined as the difference in the number of bacteria measured before and after udder preparation. Before udder preparation, Staphylococcus spp. (15,036 cfu/mL) and Streptococcus spp. (12,621 cfu/mL) were the most numerous microflora. Gram-negative bacteria were less numerous (1,538 cfu/mL). A significant treatment by farm interaction was identified for RED of all bacterial counts. Compared with teats prepared using TS, teats prepared using CONV preparation had greater RED of TBC on 3 farms, of Streptococcus spp. on 2 farms, and of Staphylococcus spp. on 1 farm. On all other farms, RED in TBC, Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. did not differ based on teat preparation method. Use of TS resulted in greater RED of GNB of teats on 3 farms, but RED in GNB was greater for teats cleaned by CONV on 1 farm; for the other 6 farms, RED of GNB did not differ between methods. For all bacterial counts, an effect of chlorine dioxide concentration used in the teat scrubber was observed. Results from this study suggest both CONV and TS can effectively reduce bacterial counts, but farm conditions and management practices can

  6. Power countings versus physical scalings in disordered elastic systems—case study of the one-dimensional interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-03-01

    We study the scaling properties of a one-dimensional interface at equilibrium, at finite temperature and in a disordered environment with a finite disorder correlation length. We focus our approach on the scalings of its geometrical fluctuations as a function of its length. At large lengthscales, the roughness of the interface, defined as the variance of its endpoint fluctuations, follows a power-law behaviour whose exponent characterises its superdiffusive behaviour. In 1+1 dimensions, the roughness exponent is known to be the characteristic 2/3 exponent of the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang (KPZ) universality class. An important feature of the model description is that its Flory exponent, obtained by a power counting argument on its Hamiltonian, is equal to 3/5 and thus does not yield the correct KPZ roughness exponent. In this work, we review the available power-counting options, and relate the physical validity of the exponent values that they predict, to the existence (or not) of well-defined optimal trajectories in a large-size or low-temperature asymptotics. We identify the crucial role of the ‘cut-off’ lengths of the problem (the disorder correlation length and the system size), which one has to carefully follow throughout the scaling analysis. To complement the latter, we device a novel Gaussian variational method (GVM) scheme to compute the roughness, taking into account the effect of a large but finite interface length. Interestingly, such a procedure yields the correct KPZ roughness exponent, instead of the Flory exponent usually obtained through the GVM approach for an infinite interface. We explain the physical origin of this improvement of the GVM procedure and discuss possible extensions of this work to other disordered systems.

  7. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    PubMed

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index.

  8. How you count carbon matters: implications of differing cookstove carbon credit methodologies for climate and development cobenefits.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Olivia E; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-12-16

    The opportunity to apply for carbon credits for cookstove projects creates a source of funding that can be leveraged to promote the "win-win" environmental and development benefits of improved cookstoves. Yet, as in most environment-development efforts, unacknowledged trade-offs exist under the all-encompassing "win-win" claims. This study therefore compares different scenarios for calculating cookstove carbon credits, including comparing different types of stoves using different fuels, different methodologies and theoretical scenarios to account for a range of climate-relevant emissions. The results of the study highlight the following: 1) impacts of different assumptions made within carbon credit methodologies, 2) discussion around potential trade-offs in such projects, and 3) considerations needed to truly promote sustainable development. The Gold Standard methodology was more comprehensive in its accounting and generally calculated more carbon credits per scenario than the Clean Development Mechanism methodology. Including black carbon in calculations would be more reflective of climate-relevant stove emissions and greatly increase the number of credits calculated. As health and other development benefits are not inherently included in carbon credit calculations, to achieve "win-win" outcomes, deliberate decisions about project design need to be made to ensure objectives are met and not simply assumed.

  9. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  10. Clinical significance of the changes of platelet counts and serum thrombopoietin levels in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with different doses of consensus interferon.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chen Wei; Hwang, Shinn Jang; Lu, Rei Hwa; Lai, Chiung Ru; Luo, Jiing Chyuan; Wang, Yuan Jen; Chang, Full Young; Lee, Shou Dong

    2002-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is commonly seen in patients with cirrhosis. Both splenomegaly and inadequate thrombopoietin (TPO) production by the cirrhotic liver are responsible for thrombocytopenia. In addition, thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in chronic hepatitis patients who received interferon therapy, and may even lead to the discontinuation of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of the changes of platelet counts and serum TPO levels in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with different doses of consensus interferon (CIFN). Data from 75 chronic hepatitis C patients who received subcutaneous injection of either CIFN 9 (25 patients) or 3 &mgr;g (26 patients) or placebo (24 patients), three times a week for 24 weeks, were analyzed from a randomized controlled study. All patients received a 24-week observation period after the end of the treatment. The results showed a significantly higher degree of decrease in platelet counts and elevated serum TPO in patients receiving CIFN 9 or 3 &mgr;g as compared with placebo at week 12 and week 24 of treatment, respectively. These changes were more obvious in patients receiving CIFN 9 &mgr;g than in patients receiving CIFN 3 &mgr;g. However, both the decrease of platelet counts and elevated serum TPO levels returned to the baseline values after stopping CIFN therapy. Lower hepatic fibrosis score, lower pretreatment serum HCV RNA level, genotype non-1b infection and patients with sustained response to CIFN were manifested with higher degree of serum TPO elevation in response to the CIFN-induced thrombocytopenia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an age of less than 45 years and a serum TPO level elevation greater than 50% of baseline level at week 12 of CIFN treatment were significantly independent predictors associated with the sustained response to the CIFN treatment. In conclusion, the changes of platelet counts and serum TPO levels in chronic hepatitis C patients

  11. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of

  12. Effect of plateletpheresis on complete blood count values using three different cell separator systems in healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Beyan, Cengiz; Cetin, Türker; Kaptan, Kürbat; Nevruz, Oral

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate changes of CBC values after plateletpheresis in healthy and volunteer donors by using three different cell separator systems. The platelets were collected from 95 donors using the COBE Spectra, from 87 donors using the Fenwal CS-3000 Plus, and from 83 donors using the Fresenius AS-204. After plateletpheresis, white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets (PLT) were decreased significantly. When we used the COBE Spectra, the drop in the values of HGB and HCT was significantly less than for the other devices. It is recommended that hematological parameters should be monitored carefully in donors who are supposed to undergo long-term regular apheresis, and to prevent the occurrence of an artificial anemia, which is likely to happen. Selection of cell separator systems should be based on this possibility.

  13. Effects of different floor types and levels of washing of waterers on broiler performance and bacteria count of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L D; Stamps, L K; Moore, R W; Newberry, L A

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effect of different flooring materials and washing of waterers on broiler performance. The floor treatments were 1) black, plastic-coated expanded metal, relatively rigid (B); 2) white plastic, semi-rigid, with rectangular openings (WR); 3) white plastic, semi-rigid, with square openings (WS); and 4) 3 cm of rice hull litter (C). One hanging waterer was placed in each pen. Wash treatments were 1) trough and bell washed every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (AW); 2) wash trough only on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (TW); and 3) the waterers were never washed after the 2nd wk (NW). Broilers reared on C has significantly lower BW than those broilers on B floors. Broilers reared on the B and WS floors had significantly higher breast blister scores and percentage of birds with blisters than broilers reared on C floors. Broilers reared on C had lower enlarged feather follicle scores than those reared on all raised floors and a lower percentage of enlarged feather follicles than those broilers reared on WS or WR floors. Broilers reared on WS+TW had significantly better feed conversion than WS+AW, B+TW, and B+AW treatments. Broilers reared on WR+TW treatment were significantly higher in breast blister score than broilers reared on WR+AW, C+TW, and C+AW treatments. Broilers reared on C+TW and C+AW treatments were significantly lower in breast blister score except for broilers reared on C+NW, WR+AW, and WS+AW treatments. Broilers reared on C+NW treatment were significantly lower in enlarged feather follicle score than those broilers reared on B+TW, WR+AW, and WS+NW treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Spatial Prediction of Coxiella burnetii Outbreak Exposure via Notified Case Counts in a Dose-Response Model.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Russell J; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Hackert, Volker; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Teunis, Peter F M; Waller, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to study an outbreak of Q fever in 2009 in the Netherlands by combining a human dose-response model with geostatistics prediction to relate probability of infection and associated probability of illness to an effective dose of Coxiella burnetii. The spatial distribution of the 220 notified cases in the at-risk population are translated into a smooth spatial field of dose. Based on these symptomatic cases, the dose-response model predicts a median of 611 asymptomatic infections (95% range: 410, 1,084) for the 220 reported symptomatic cases in the at-risk population; 2.78 (95% range: 1.86, 4.93) asymptomatic infections for each reported case. The low attack rates observed during the outbreak range from (Equation is included in full-text article.)to (Equation is included in full-text article.). The estimated peak levels of exposure extend to the north-east from the point source with an increasing proportion of asymptomatic infections further from the source. Our work combines established methodology from model-based geostatistics and dose-response modeling allowing for a novel approach to study outbreaks. Unobserved infections and the spatially varying effective dose can be predicted using the flexible framework without assuming any underlying spatial structure of the outbreak process. Such predictions are important for targeting interventions during an outbreak, estimating future disease burden, and determining acceptable risk levels.

  15. Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

  16. Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe γ-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.

    PubMed

    Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy γ-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the γ-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations.

  17. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; McGavran, M.H.; Subach, J.; Sybers, H.D.; Greenberg, S.D.

    1982-12-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances.

  18. The "Improvement Rate Difference" for Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Brown, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and field-tests the improved rate difference (IRD), a new effect size for summarizing single-case research data. Termed "risk difference" in medical research, IRD expresses the difference in successful performance between baseline and intervention phases. IRD can be calculated from visual analysis of nonoverlapping data, and…

  19. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

  20. Discovery of exacerbating cases in chronic hepatitis based on cluster analysis of time-series platelet count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shoji; Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the results of temporal analysis of platelet (PLT) data in chronic hepatitis dataset. First we briefly introduce a cluster analysis system for temporal data that we have developed. Second, we show the results of cluster analysis of PLT sequences. Third, we show the results of PLT value-based temporal analysis aiming at finding years for reaching F4, years elapsed between stages, and their relationships with virus types and fibrotic stages. The results of cluster analysis indicate that the temporal courses of PLT can be grouped into several patterns each of which presents similarity in average PLT level and increase/decrease trends. The results of value-based analysis suggests that liver fibrosis may proceed faster in the exacerbating cases.

  1. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  2. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi.

  3. Different chromosome Y abnormalities in a case with short stature.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özbek, M Nuri; Alp, M Nail; Budak, Turgay

    2012-12-01

    We report a case with different chromosome Y abnormalities. Case was an 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with short stature, referred to laboratory of human medical genetics laboratory for genetic evaluation. Chromosomal analysis of the case was carried out on peripheral blood lymphocyte culture. Classic cytogenetic analysis (G and C banding) was confirmed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) technique. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis showed a mosaic 46,X,i(Yq)/45,X/47,X,i(Yq)x2/47,XYY karyotype. Case, which was found interesting due to its rarity, is discussed with its clinical features and cytogenetic results, in the light of relevant source information. This case underlines the importance of karyotyping patients with unexplained short stature. This clinical report also will be helpful in defining the phenotypic range associated with these karyotypes.

  4. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  5. Differences Between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) with Low CD4 Cell Counts at Their First HIV Test and MSM with Higher CD4 Counts in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Egan, James E; Langevattana, Kamonthip; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Friedman, M Reuel; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    Although HIV prevalence remains high among Bangkok's MSM early HIV testing as an entry point to ART has not been successfully implemented among in this population. Men who present late for initial HIV testing are a particular concern in the context of the Bangkok HIV epidemic, in that if long-term positives have had condomless sex during the time that they remained untreated they are likely to have been efficient transmitters of infection, to say nothing of the implications for their own health. A sequential sample of MSM who tested HIV positive, and CD4 counts, was taken at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, having not tested HIV positive earlier, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Analysis was conducted by distinguishing between three groups of CD4 counts: <200, 200-500, >500 cells/μ to identify the social and behavioral characteristics of the men who presented late for HIV testing. Median CD4 was 325 cells/μ(n = 95). MSM with initial CD4< 200 cells/μ were significantly more likely to report problematic alcohol use. They were also more likely to report receptive anal sex and more likely to be engaged in sex work. MSM with CD4< 200 cells/μ were less likely to report recent HIV testing. Main barriers to HIV testing included being afraid of finding out that they were HIV positive and concerns about efficacy and side effects of HIV treatment. HIV stigma and concerns about treatment are still widespread and are potential barriers to HIV care among MSM in Bangkok. These barriers may work to keep men from finding out their positive HIV status in a timely manner. Thai MSM need to be made aware of the current availability of friendly HIV testing and ART services, and public health programs need to work to change their perceptions regarding ART

  6. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method for aerobic plate count by comparing its performance against the AOAC/APHA pour plate method. Raw milk, raw poultry, whole egg powder, flours, and spices were included in the study. Counts obtained by the HGMF and pour plate methods did not differ significantly, except in the case of whole egg powder, for which the HGMF method produced significantly higher counts. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods has been adopted official first action.

  7. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  8. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  9. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    PubMed

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  10. Psychotherapy trainees' multicultural case conceptualization content: thematic differences across three cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Sheridan, Daniel J; Rosen, Adam D; Jones, Isaiah

    2013-06-01

    This study examined thematic differences in the multicultural case conceptualization content of 61 psychotherapy trainees across three different cases and trainee demographics (number of multicultural courses completed, years of supervised clinical practicum completed, and White trainee vs. trainee of color). Themes across cases included general counseling skills (attend to affect, build rapport, focus on specific client concerns, use of specific clinical interventions, and use of external resources not related to culture), as well as multicultural specific counseling skills (focus on culture, focus on discrimination, use of culturally competent interventions, and use of external resources related to culture). Thematic differences across case were found in three of the nine themes (affect, culture, discrimination). No systematic differences were found across multicultural training, clinical training, or race. Implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  12. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  13. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  14. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  15. Two Different Life-Threatening Cases: Presenting with Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Emiroğlu, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Acquired torticollis can be the result of several different pathological mechanisms. It is generally related to trauma, tumors, and inflammatory processes of the cervical muscles, nerves, and vertebral synovia. Although upper respiratory tract and neck inflammation are common causes of acute febrile torticollis in children, diseases with as yet undefined relationships may also result in torticollis. This is the case of spinal arachnoid cyst and pneumonia. PMID:27957374

  16. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8–9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits. PMID:28101068

  17. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  18. What counts and how to count it: physicians' constructions of evidence in a disinvestment context.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E

    2012-12-01

    Internationally, there is an increasing focus on quality and sustainability measures oriented to reducing inefficiencies in health provision. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for older women represents a case study in this area. This paper analyses the constructions of evidence brought to bear by ART physicians in the context of deliberative stakeholder engagements (held 2010) around options for restricting public subsidy of ART in Australia. Physicians participated in two deliberative engagements during which they were presented with results of a systematic review of ART effectiveness, as well as ethical and cost analyses. These sessions were part of a broader research program of engagements held with policymakers, community members and consumers. Physicians deliberated around the data presented with a view to formulating an informed contribution to policy. The ensuing discussions were transcribed and subject to discourse analysis. Physicians questioned the evidence presented on the grounds of 'currency', 'proximity', 'selectivity' and 'bias'. We outline physicians' accounts of what should count as evidence informing ART policy, and how this evidence should be counted. These accounts reflect implicit decisions around both the inclusion of evidence (selection) and the status it is accorded (evaluation). Our analysis suggests that participatory policy processes do not represent the simple task of assessing the quality/effectiveness of a given technology against self-evident criteria. Rather, these processes involve the negotiation of different orders of evidence (empirical, contextual and anecdotal), indicating a need for higher-level discussion around 'what counts and how to count it' when making disinvestment decisions.

  19. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  20. Different phenotypes in identical twins with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: case series.

    PubMed

    Zádori, Dénes; Szpisjak, László; Madar, László; Varga, Viktória Evelin; Csányi, Bernadett; Bencsik, Krisztina; Balogh, István; Harangi, Mariann; Kereszty, Éva; Vécsei, László; Klivényi, Péter

    2017-03-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, genetically determined error of metabolism. The characteristic clinical symptoms are diarrhea, juvenile cataracts, tendon xanthomas and neuropsychiatric alterations. The aim of this study is to present a pair of identical adult twins with considerable differences in the severity of phenotype. With regards to neuropsychiatric symptoms, the predominant features were severe Parkinsonism and moderate cognitive dysfunctions in the more-affected individual, whereas these alterations in the less-affected patient were only very mild and mild, respectively. The characteristic increase in the concentrations of serum cholestanol and the lesion volumes in dentate nuclei in the brain assessed with magnetic resonance imaging were quite similar in both cases. The lifestyle conditions, including eating habits of the twin pair, were quite similar as well; therefore, currently unknown genetic modifiers or certain epigenetic factors may be responsible for the differences in severity of phenotype. This case series serves as the first description of an identical twin pair with CTX presenting heterogeneous clinical features.

  1. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  2. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  3. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  4. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  5. Antimullerian hormone in cases of different reproductive pathologies.

    PubMed

    Barbakadze, L; Kristasashvili, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the importance of determination of AMH during different reproductive pathologies and to identify the correlations between the tests currently used in ovarian reserve assessment (AMH, FSH, AFC) in different age groups of infertile woman. Study population consisted of 153 women. In 41 women with different reproductive pathologies we evaluate the values of AMH. 112 women with infertility were divided into the three age groups: group I <35 years (n=39); group II 35-40 years (n=31); and group III >40 years (n=42). AMH, FSH and AFC were determined on days 2-3 of menstrual cycle. We evaluated the AMH values during different reproductive pathologies (n=41) and found that: in cases of gonadal dysgenesis and ootesticular disorders AMH levels are decreased. In cases of POI AMH levels were extremilly low. Normal levels of AMH were detected in cases of Hyperprolactinemia and Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In patients with PCOS AMH levels were increased. The correlation analysis between ovarian reserve tests was performed in 112 infertile women. Generally, age is in a significant high negative correlation with AMH level (rs=-0.67, p<0.0001) and AFC (rs=-0.55, p<0.0001), and in positive correlation with FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). AMH negatively correlates with FSH (rs=-0.48, p<0.0001) and positively with AFC (r=0.71, p=0.0001). There is a moderate negative relation between FSH and AFC (r=-0.41, p=0.0001) and moderate positive relation between age and FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis performed in separate groups showed that AMH and AFC in all three study groups correlates positively and are statistically significant (r=0.57, p<0.0001; r=0.69, p<0.0001; r=0.47, p<0.002 respectively). Whereas statistically significant correlation between FSH and AMH detected only in the first and second age groups (r=-0.41, p<0.02; r=-0.55, p<0.0001 respectively). Statistically significant correlation between FSH and AFC revealed only in the third

  6. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  7. Strength Training and Detraining in Different Populations: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Zajac, Adam; Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M.

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers have demonstrated that a specific strength training program can improve maximal strength and, the rate of force production, reduce the incidence of muscle-skeletal injury, and contribute to faster injury recovery times, thereby minimizing the number of missed practice sessions or competitions. Yet, to our best knowledge, there is no apparent consensus on the appropriate method of muscle strength and power training to enhance performance in distinct populations groups. Interruptions in training process because of illness, injury, holidays, post-season break or other factors are normal situations in any kind of sport. However, the detraining period and its consequences are not well reported in sports literature, and namely during puberty. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss several case studies concerning different populations such us physical students, age-swimming competitors and elite power athletes. PMID:23487418

  8. Use of lactulose as prebiotic and its influence on the growth, acidification profile and viable counts of different probiotics in fermented skim milk.

    PubMed

    De Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rodrigues Florence, Ana Carolina; Perego, Patrizia; De Oliveira, Maricê Nogueira; Converti, Attilio

    2011-01-31

    Lactulose can be considered as a prebiotic, which is able to stimulate healthy intestinal microflora. In the present work, the use of this ingredient in fermented milk improved quality of skim milk fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium lactis in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. Compared to control fermentations without lactulose, the addition of such a prebiotic in skim milk increased the counts of all probiotics, with particular concern to B. lactis (bifidogenic effect), the acidification rate and the lactic acid acidity, and concurrently reduced the time to complete fermentation (t(pH4.5)) and the pH at the end of cold storage for 1 to 35 days.

  9. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  10. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  11. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  12. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  13. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  14. The Impact of Different CD4 Cell-Count Monitoring and Switching Strategies on Mortality in HIV-Infected African Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: An Application of Dynamic Marginal Structural Models

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Deborah; Robins, James M.; Petersen, Maya L.; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hakim, James; Katabira, Elly; Babiker, Abdel G.; Walker, A. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is delivered with limited laboratory monitoring, often none. In 2003–2004, investigators in the Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) Trial randomized persons initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe to either laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). CD4 cell counts were measured every 12 weeks in both groups but were only returned to treating clinicians for management in the LCM group. Follow-up continued through 2008. In observational analyses, dynamic marginal structural models on pooled randomized groups were used to estimate survival under different monitoring-frequency and clinical/immunological switching strategies. Assumptions included no direct effect of randomized group on mortality or confounders and no unmeasured confounders which influenced treatment switch and mortality or treatment switch and time-dependent covariates. After 48 weeks of first-line ART, 2,946 individuals contributed 11,351 person-years of follow-up, 625 switches, and 179 deaths. The estimated survival probability after a further 240 weeks for post-48-week switch at the first CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/mm3 or non-Candida World Health Organization stage 4 event (with CD4 count <250) was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 0.97) with 12-weekly CD4 testing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.97) with 24-weekly CD4 testing, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.96) with a single CD4 test at 48 weeks (baseline), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.94) with no CD4 testing. Comparing randomized groups by 48-week CD4 count, the mortality risk associated with CDM versus LCM was greater in persons with CD4 counts of <100 (hazard ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) than in those with CD4 counts of ≥100 (hazard ratio = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.7; interaction P = 0.04). These findings support a benefit from identifying patients immunologically failing first-line ART at 48 weeks. PMID:26316598

  15. Multiplicity counting from fission chamber signals in the current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.; Nagy, L.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear safeguards, estimation of sample parameters using neutron-based non-destructive assay methods is traditionally based on multiplicity counting with thermal neutron detectors in the pulse mode. These methods in general require multi-channel analysers and various dead time correction methods. This paper proposes and elaborates on an alternative method, which is based on fast neutron measurements with fission chambers in the current mode. A theory of "multiplicity counting" with fission chambers is developed by incorporating Böhnel's concept of superfission [1] into a master equation formalism, developed recently by the present authors for the statistical theory of fission chamber signals [2,3]. Explicit expressions are derived for the first three central auto- and cross moments (cumulants) of the signals of up to three detectors. These constitute the generalisation of the traditional Campbell relationships for the case when the incoming events represent a compound Poisson distribution. Because now the expressions contain the factorial moments of the compound source, they contain the same information as the singles, doubles and triples rates of traditional multiplicity counting. The results show that in addition to the detector efficiency, the detector pulse shape also enters the formulas; hence, the method requires a more involved calibration than the traditional method of multiplicity counting. However, the method has some advantages by not needing dead time corrections, as well as having a simpler and more efficient data processing procedure, in particular for cross-correlations between different detectors, than the traditional multiplicity counting methods.

  16. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  17. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  18. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can…

  19. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Ralph, C.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  20. Observer variability in pinniped counts: Ground-based enumeration of walruses at haul-out sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.; Cody, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Pinnipeds are often monitored by counting individuals at haul-out sites, but the often large numbers of densely packed individuals at these sites are difficult to enumerate accurately. Errors in enumeration can induce bias and reduce precision in estimates of population size and trend. We used data from paired observers monitoring walrus haul-outs in Bristol Bay, Alaska, to quantify observer variability and assess its relative importance. The probability of a pair of observers making identical counts was 50 individuals. Mean count differences ranged up to 25% for the largest counts, depending on beach and observers. In at least some cases, there was a clear tendency for counts of one observer to be consistently greater than counts of the other observer in a pair, indicating that counts of at least one of the observers were biased. These results suggest that efforts to improve accuracy of counts will be worthwhile. However, we also found that variation among observers was relatively small compared to variation among visits to a beach so that efforts to account for other sources of variation will be more important.

  1. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  2. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  3. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  4. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  5. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  6. Carisoprodol concentrations from different anatomical sites: three overdose cases.

    PubMed

    Backer, R C; Zumwalt, R; McFeeley, P; Veasey, S; Wohlenberg, N

    1990-01-01

    Three cases involving overdoses of carisoprodol are presented. Concentrations of carisoprodol and its major metabolite meprobamate, were determined in urine, vitreous humor, heart, and femoral blood. All drugs were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  7. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary team case management: difference-in-differences analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Søren Rud; Checkland, Kath; Bower, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a multidisciplinary team (MDT) case management intervention, at the individual (direct effects of intervention) and practice levels (potential spillover effects). Design Difference-in-differences design with multiple intervention start dates, analysing hospital admissions data. In secondary analyses, we stratified individual-level results by risk score. Setting Single clinical commissioning group (CCG) in the UK's National Health Service (NHS). Participants At the individual level, we matched 2049 intervention patients using propensity scoring one-to-one with control patients. At the practice level, 30 practices were compared using a natural experiment through staged implementation. Intervention Practice Integrated Care Teams (PICTs), using MDT case management of high-risk patients together with a summary record of care versus usual care. Direct and indirect outcome measures Primary measures of intervention effects were accident and emergency (A&E) visits; inpatient non-elective stays, 30-day re-admissions; inpatient elective stays; outpatient visits; and admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Secondary measures included inpatient length of stay; total cost of secondary care services; and patient satisfaction (at the practice level only). Results At the individual level, we found slight, clinically trivial increases in inpatient non-elective admissions (+0.01 admissions per patient per month; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.01. Effect size (ES): 0.02) and 30-day re-admissions (+0.00; 0.00 to 0.01. ES: 0.03). We found no indication that highest risk patients benefitted more from the intervention. At the practice level, we found a small decrease in inpatient non-elective admissions (−0.63 admissions per 1000 patients per month; −1.17 to −0.09. ES: −0.24). However, this result did not withstand a robustness check; the estimate may have absorbed some differences in underlying practice trends. Conclusions The intervention does not meet its

  8. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  9. Class Counts: Exploring Differences in Academic and Social Integration between Working-Class and Middle/Upper-Class Students at Large, Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael J.; Huesman, Ronald L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This multi-institutional study examines differences between working-class and middle/upper-class students at large, public research universities. Significant differences in factors related to working-class students' social integration (including satisfaction, campus climate, and sense of belonging) and academic integration (including collaborative…

  10. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  11. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  12. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  13. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  14. Preduodenal portal vein: Two cases with differing presentation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J C; Morton, D; McElwee, R; Hamit, H F

    1978-03-01

    Preduodenal or precholedochal veins are rare developmental anomalies of considerable surgical importance. Injury to these structures because of failure to recognize them during operations for unrelated diseases may result in thrombosis or hemorrhage. We recently encountered this anomaly twice, once in a newborn infant with duodenal obstruction and once in a 54-year-old woman undergoing cholecystectomy. The preduodenal vein was not the primary cause of obstruction in the infant, but injury to the previously unrecognized percholedochal vein in the woman resulted in a considerable loss of blood. Besides describing and illustrating these two cases, we also discuss the anatomy and the embryology of these structures and briefly review the patterns of 44 previously reported cases that we found.

  15. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  16. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  17. Oral Counting Sequences: A Theoretical Discussion and Analysis through the Lens of Representational Redescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research has documented how children's early counting develops into an increasingly abstract process, and initial counting procedures are reified as children develop and use more sophisticated counting. In this development, the learning of different oral counting sequences that allow children to count in steps bigger than one is seen as…

  18. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for

  19. [Hypothalamyc hamartomas: different ways of clinical debut. Cases report].

    PubMed

    Cemeli-Cano, Mercedes; López Úbeda, Marta; Muñoz, Antonio de Arriba; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José I

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic hamartomas are benign tumors of gray substance composed by hyperplasic neurons. They are usually asymptomatic small masses with extensions into the third ventricular cavity. In some instances they can cause cognitive behavioral alterations, seizures and/or central precocious puberty depending on the location. Here we present two cases of central precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartomas at 2(8/12) and 7 years of age. The younger patient also presents gelastic seizures, typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. After the clinical and radiological findings, they started treatment with GnRH analogues and a regression of the puberty signs without progression in the hamartomas size was observed.

  20. Do nutrition programs make a difference? The case of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, P

    1990-01-01

    Four Brazilian food and nutrition programs operating during some part of 1974-86 are evaluated for their effectiveness in curing or preventing infant and child malnutrition, including low birth weight when pregnant women were beneficiaries. Two programs distributed free food to identified clients: traditional commercial foods in one case and specially formulated supplements in the other. The other two programs subsidized four or more basic foodstuffs: one experiment quantitatively restricted a subsidy to identified families, and the other was unrestricted and open to all families patronizing certain shops. The programs were more effective at curing than at preventing malnutrition, and more effective at increasing weight than height. Many beneficiaries, even when initially underweight, showed no change, and some deteriorated despite the food transfer. Results were better after than during the first year of life, when deterioration is most likely. Donation programs including medical and educational components proved more effective than pure subsidies, showing that while poverty may be the chief cause of malnutrition, the problem should be seen as poor health rather than simply low food consumption. Evaluation also shows that programs were inefficient in transferring benefits, and that clients were deterred from participating by the costs of obtaining the food and its poor quality and small volume. Longer participation improved results, but more frequent participation in a given interval did not necessarily do so.

  1. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  2. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  3. On the effect of diagnostic misclassification bias on the observed spatial pattern in regional count data--a case study using West Nile virus mortality data from Ontario, 2005.

    PubMed

    Berke, Olaf; Waller, Lance

    2010-07-01

    Geographic epidemiology is concerned with the investigation of spatially referenced data to discover spatial patterns in the health status of populations. In this context it is generally assumed that a perfect diagnostic test is used to classify individuals as being positive or negative, meaning the health status is measured without error. In this work the effect of an imperfect diagnostic test on spatial patterns of disease in regional count data is investigated in a case study. Specifically the misclassification effect on the semivariogram, Moran's I statistic and the spatial scan test are evaluated for the situation of West Nile virus infections among dead birds sampled from the 30 public health units of southern Ontario in 2005. We illustrate that under large sample conditions no serious spatial bias is introduced by use of an imperfect diagnostic test as long as the imperfection itself is spatially unbiased.

  4. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  5. A Tale of Three Cases: Examining Accuracy, Efficiency, and Process Differences in Diagnosing Virtual Patient Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doleck, Tenzin; Jarrell, Amanda; Poitras, Eric G.; Chaouachi, Maher; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a central skill in diagnosing cases. However, diagnosing a clinical case poses several challenges that are inherent to solving multifaceted ill-structured problems. In particular, when solving such problems, the complexity stems from the existence of multiple paths to arriving at the correct solution (Lajoie, 2003). Moreover,…

  6. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some "off-the-shelf" TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  7. Different Settings, Different Choosers? Applying Ball's Framework on the Case of Second-Generation Turks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasztor, Adel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the applicability of Ball's categorisation of ethnic minority students as contingent and embedded choosers in the context of higher education choice. Considering the role of the selective school system in shaping the educational careers of the children of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands the study uses case studies to…

  8. Interaction of Buried Pipeline with Soil Under Different Loading Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magura, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Gas pipelines pass through different topographies. Their stress level is influenced not only by gas pressure, but also by the adjacent soil, the thickness of any covering layers, and soil movements (sinking, landslides). The stress level may be unevenly spread over a pipe due to these causes. When evaluating experimental measurements, errors may occur. The value of the resistance reserve of steel can be adjusted by a detailed analysis of any loading. This reserve can be used in the assessment of a pipeline's actual state or in reconstructions. A detailed analysis of such loading and its comparison with the simple theory of elasticity is shown in this article.

  9. The accuracy of platelet counting in thrombocytopenic blood samples distributed by the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for General Haematology.

    PubMed

    De la Salle, Barbara J; McTaggart, Paul N; Briggs, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Doré, Caroline J; Longair, Ian; Machin, Samuel J; Hyde, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the limitations of automated platelet counting is essential for the effective care of thrombocytopenic patients and management of platelet stocks for transfusion. For this study, 29 external quality assessment specimen pools with platelet counts between 5 and 64 × 10(9)/L were distributed to more than 1,100 users of 23 different hematology analyzer models. The same specimen pools were analyzed by the international reference method (IRM) for platelet counting at 3 reference centers. The IRM values were on average lower than the all-methods median values returned by the automated analyzers. The majority (~67%) of the automated analyzer results overestimated the platelet count compared with the IRM, with significant differences in 16.5% of cases. Performance differed between analyzer models. The observed differences may depend in part on the nature of the survey material and analyzer technology, but the findings have implications for the interpretation of platelet counts at levels of clinical decision making.

  10. Electronic measurement apparatus movable in a cased borehole and compensating for casing resistance differences

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-12-24

    Methods of operation are described for an apparatus having at least two pairs of voltage measurement electrodes vertically disposed in a cased well to measure the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. During stationary measurements with the apparatus at a fixed vertical depth within the cased well, the invention herein discloses methods of operation which include a measurement step and subsequent first and second compensation steps respectively resulting in improved accuracy of measurement. The invention also discloses multiple frequency methods of operation resulting in improved accuracy of measurement while the apparatus is simultaneously moved vertically in the cased well. The multiple frequency methods of operation disclose a first A.C. current having a first frequency that is conducted from the casing into formation and a second A.C. current having a second frequency that is conducted along the casing. The multiple frequency methods of operation simultaneously provide the measurement step and two compensation steps necessary to acquire accurate results while the apparatus is moved vertically in the cased well. 6 figures.

  11. Electronic measurement apparatus movable in a cased borehole and compensating for casing resistance differences

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of operation of an apparatus having at least two pairs of voltage measurement electrodes vertically disposed in a cased well to measure the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. During stationary measurements with the apparatus at a fixed vertical depth within the cased well, the invention herein discloses methods of operation which include a measurement step and subsequent first and second compensation steps respectively resulting in improved accuracy of measurement. The invention also discloses multiple frequency methods of operation resulting in improved accuracy of measurement while the apparatus is simultaneously moved vertically in the cased well. The multiple frequency methods of operation disclose a first A.C. current having a first frequency that is conducted from the casing into formation and a second A.C. current having a second frequency that is conducted along the casing. The multiple frequency methods of operation simultaneously provide the measurement step and two compensation steps necessary to acquire accurate results while the apparatus is moved vertically in the cased well.

  12. Achieving the Quality Difference: Making Customers Count

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    the Conference. Welcome to the Conference Wednesday, May 31, 1989 Frank Hodsoll "The challenges are great, but -o are the creativity and dedication of...framework which will support this achievement. Mr. Hodsoll stressed that many challenges lie ahead in the pursuit of Total Quality; many changes w"".1 have to...problems faced by the organization are with these people, and it is important to involve them. His experience has also shown that by making oneself

  13. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  14. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  15. Preverbal and verbal counting and computation.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Gelman, R

    1992-08-01

    We describe the preverbal system of counting and arithmetic reasoning revealed by experiments on numerical representations in animals. In this system, numerosities are represented by magnitudes, which are rapidly but inaccurately generated by the Meck and Church (1983) preverbal counting mechanism. We suggest the following. (1) The preverbal counting mechanism is the source of the implicit principles that guide the acquisition of verbal counting. (2) The preverbal system of arithmetic computation provides the framework for the assimilation of the verbal system. (3) Learning to count involves, in part, learning a mapping from the preverbal numerical magnitudes to the verbal and written number symbols and the inverse mappings from these symbols to the preverbal magnitudes. (4) Subitizing is the use of the preverbal counting process and the mapping from the resulting magnitudes to number words in order to generate rapidly the number words for small numerosities. (5) The retrieval of the number facts, which plays a central role in verbal computation, is mediated via the inverse mappings from verbal and written numbers to the preverbal magnitudes and the use of these magnitudes to find the appropriate cells in tabular arrangements of the answers. (6) This model of the fact retrieval process accounts for the salient features of the reaction time differences and error patterns revealed by experiments on mental arithmetic. (7) The application of verbal and written computational algorithms goes on in parallel with, and is to some extent guided by, preverbal computations, both in the child and in the adult.

  16. What counts as knowing? The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge of counting from kindergarten through Grade 2.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-04-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On incorrect counts, the frog violated the word-object correspondence principle. On unusual counts, the frog violated a conventional but inessential feature of counting, for example, starting in the middle of the array of objects. Procedural knowledge was assessed using speed and accuracy in counting objects. The patterns of change for procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge were different. Counting speed and accuracy (procedural knowledge) improved with grade. In contrast, there was a curvilinear relation between conceptual knowledge and grade that was further moderated by children's numeration skills (as measured by a standardized test); the most skilled children gradually increased their acceptance of unusual counts over grade, whereas the least skilled children decreased their acceptance of these counts. These results have implications for studying conceptual and procedural knowledge about mathematics.

  17. An Evaluation of Gender Differences in Computer-Based Case Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; And Others

    As part of the research leading to the implementation of computer-based case simulations (CCS) for the licensing examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners, gender differences in performance were studied for one form consisting of 18 cases. A secondary purpose of the study was to note differences in style or approach that might…

  18. Zero-inflated hierarchical models for faecal egg counts to assess anthelmintic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Craig; Torgerson, Paul R; Höglund, Johan; Furrer, Reinhard

    2017-02-15

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has increased in recent years, as a result of the extensive use of anthelmintic drugs to reduce the infection of parasitic worms in livestock. In order to detect the resistance, the number of parasite eggs in animal faeces is counted. Typically a subsample of the diluted faeces is examined, and the mean egg counts from both untreated and treated animals are compared. However, the conventional method ignores the variabilities introduced by the counting process and by different infection levels across animals. In addition, there can be extra zero counts, which arise as a result of the unexposed animals in an infected population or animals. In this paper, we propose the zero-inflated Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate the reduction in faecal egg counts. The simulation study compares the Bayesian models with the conventional faecal egg count reduction test and other methods such as bootstrap and quasi-Poisson regression. The results show the Bayesian models are more robust and they perform well in terms of both the bias and the coverage. We further illustrate the advantages of our proposed model using a case study about the anthelmintic resistance in Swedish sheep flocks.

  19. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavela, Belen; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Merlo, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in {d} dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χ PT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to {d} dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to hbar counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χ PT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT.

  20. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-07

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  1. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  2. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  3. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  4. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  5. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  6. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Rini G; Thanveer, K; Krishnan, Ajith CG

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. Materials and methods A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish on S. mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A total of 42 school-going children attending schools in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India, were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with fluoride varnish and group II received no treatment. Assessment of S. mutans was carried out at baseline and 3 to 6 months postfluoride varnish application. Friedman analysis of variance test and post hoc test were applied to detect statistically significant differences between baseline, 3 to 6 months of fluoride varnish application, and also between groups I and II. Results The mean number of salivary S. mutans value found in case group at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 31.23 ± 1.119, 9.27 ± 0.852, and 9.39 ± 0.908 × 104 colony-forming unit CFU/mL respectively. The difference in S. mutans count from baseline to 3 to 6 months was highly statistically significant (p = 0.000), but the difference from 3 to 6 months was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). In control group, the mean S. mutans value found at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 30.63 ± 1.436, 31.23 ± 1.351, and 31.40 ± 1.374 × 104 CFU/mL respectively. The differences between these values were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). Conclusion Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count in saliva was seen 3 to 6 months after fluoride varnish application. How to cite this article Badjatia S, Badjatia RG, Thanveer K, Krishnan ACG. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):62-66. PMID:28377658

  7. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  8. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  9. [Different modalities for registering AIDS cases. Their importance for the European epidemic].

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Cajal, N

    1988-01-01

    The high number of AIDS cases diagnosed in different European countries imposed to reconsider the opinion that European epidemic is just reflecting the American epidemic. The whole morbidity des not point out the peculiar elements of HIV infection propagation in Europe. The exponential rise of reported case number during 1987 imposes to analyse the new epidemiological situation.

  10. Rural and Urban Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Case Mix, Delivery Practices, and Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipsen, Catherine; Swicegood, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural and urban differences in Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) case mix, delivery practices, and employment outcomes. Methods: Rehabilitation Services Administration 911 (RSA-911) case data do not include location indicators that allow for rural analyses. We compiled RSA-911 data with county and ZIP code information from 47 VR…

  11. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and BiodentineTM as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26884781

  12. Time series count data models: an empirical application to traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Quddus, Mohammed A

    2008-09-01

    Count data are primarily categorised as cross-sectional, time series, and panel. Over the past decade, Poisson and Negative Binomial (NB) models have been used widely to analyse cross-sectional and time series count data, and random effect and fixed effect Poisson and NB models have been used to analyse panel count data. However, recent literature suggests that although the underlying distributional assumptions of these models are appropriate for cross-sectional count data, they are not capable of taking into account the effect of serial correlation often found in pure time series count data. Real-valued time series models, such as the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, introduced by Box and Jenkins have been used in many applications over the last few decades. However, when modelling non-negative integer-valued data such as traffic accidents at a junction over time, Box and Jenkins models may be inappropriate. This is mainly due to the normality assumption of errors in the ARIMA model. Over the last few years, a new class of time series models known as integer-valued autoregressive (INAR) Poisson models, has been studied by many authors. This class of models is particularly applicable to the analysis of time series count data as these models hold the properties of Poisson regression and able to deal with serial correlation, and therefore offers an alternative to the real-valued time series models. The primary objective of this paper is to introduce the class of INAR models for the time series analysis of traffic accidents in Great Britain. Different types of time series count data are considered: aggregated time series data where both the spatial and temporal units of observation are relatively large (e.g., Great Britain and years) and disaggregated time series data where both the spatial and temporal units are relatively small (e.g., congestion charging zone and months). The performance of the INAR models is compared with the class of Box and

  13. Gender differences in research performance and its impact on careers: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf

    We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van Arensbergen et al. 2012). If the differences do not occur in the early career anymore, they may emerge in a later period, or may remain absent. In this paper we use the same sample of male and female researchers, but now compare performance levels about 10 years later. We use various performance indicators: full/fractional counted productivity, citation impact, and relative citation impact in terms of the share of papers in the top 10 % highly cited papers. After the 10 years period, productivity of male researchers has grown faster than of female researcher, but the field normalized (relative) citation impact indicators of male and female researchers remain about equal. Furthermore, performance data do explain to a certain extent why male careers in our sample develop much faster than female researchers' careers; but controlling for performance differences, we find that gender is an important determinant too. Consequently, the process of hiring academic staff still remains biased.

  14. An Experimental Comparison of Two Different Technetium Source Activities Which Can Imitate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Case of Thyroid Toxic Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Miftari, Ramë; Fejza, Ferki; Bicaj, Xhavit; Nura, Adem; Topciu, Valdete; Bajrami, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of thyroid toxic autonomous nodule, anterior projection of Tc-99m pertechnetate image shows a hot nodule that occupies most, or the entire thyroid lobe with near-total or total suppression of the contra lateral lobe. In this case is very difficult to distinguish toxic nodule from lobe agenesis. Our interest was to estimate and determinate the rate of radioactivity when the source with high activity can make total suppression of the second source with low activity in same conditions with thyroid scintigraphy procedures. Material and methodology: Thyroid scintigraphy was performed with Technetium 99 meta stable pertechnetate. A parallel high resolution low energy collimator was used as an energy setting of 140 KeV photo peak for T-99m. Images are acquired at 200 Kilo Counts in the anterior projection with the collimator positioned as close as the patient’s extended neck (approximately in distance of 18 cm). The scintigraphy of thyroid gland was performed 15 minutes after intravenous administration of 1.5 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate. Technetium 99 meta stable radioactive sources with different activity were used for two scintigraphies studies, performed in same thyroid scintigraphy acquisition procedures. In the first study, were compared the standard source with high activity A=11.2 mCi with sources with variable activities B=1.33 mCi; 1.03 mCi; 0.7 mCi; 0.36 mCi; and 0.16mCi) in distance of 1.5cm from each other sources, which is approximately same with distance between two thyroid lobes. In the second study were compared the sources with low activity in proportion 70:1(source A = 1.5 mCi and source B=0.021mCi). As clinical studies we preferred two different patents with different thyroid disorders. There were one patient with thyroid toxic nodule in the right lobe, therefore the second patient was with left thyroid nodule agenesis. Results: During our examination, we accurately determined that two radioactive sources in proportion 70:1 will be

  15. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  16. Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients Differ Strongly in Frequencies and Spectra between Patients with Low CD4+ Cell Counts Examined Postmortem and Compensated Patients Examined Antemortem Irrespective of the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Marta K.; Benková, Kamila; Selinger, Pavel; Dogoši, Marek; Kinkorová Luňáčková, Iva; Koutníková, Hana; Laštíková, Jarmila; Roubíčková, Alena; Špůrková, Zuzana; Laclová, Lucie; Eis, Václav; Šach, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Objective AIDS-related mortality has changed dramatically with the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has even allowed compensated HIV-infected patients to withdraw from secondary therapy directed against opportunistic pathogens. However, in recently autopsied HIV-infected patients, we observed that associations with a broad spectrum of pathogens remain, although detailed analyses are lacking. Therefore, we focused on the possible frequency and spectrum shifts in pathogens associated with autopsied HIV-infected patients. Design We hypothesized that the pathogens frequency and spectrum changes found in HIV-infected patients examined postmortem did not recapitulate the changes found previously in HIV-infected patients examined antemortem in both the pre- and post-HAART eras. Because this is the first comprehensive study originating from Central and Eastern Europe, we also compared our data with those obtained in the West and Southwest Europe, USA and Latin America. Methods We performed autopsies on 124 HIV-infected patients who died from AIDS or other co-morbidities in the Czech Republic between 1985 and 2014. The pathological findings were retrieved from the full postmortem examinations and autopsy records. Results We collected a total of 502 host-pathogen records covering 82 pathogen species, a spectrum that did not change according to patients’ therapy or since the onset of the epidemics, which can probably be explained by the fact that even recently deceased patients were usually decompensated (in 95% of the cases, the last available CD4+ cell count was falling below 200 cells*μl-1) regardless of the treatment they received. The newly identified pathogen taxa in HIV-infected patients included Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aerococcus viridans and Escherichia hermannii. We observed a very limited overlap in both the spectra and frequencies of the pathogen species found postmortem in HIV-infected patients in Europe, the USA and Latin

  17. Perceptual difference model (Case-PDM) for evaluation of MR images: validation and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jun; Huo, Donglai; Wilson, David

    2007-03-01

    There is an extraordinary number of fast MR imaging techniques, especially for parallel imaging. When one considers multiple reconstruction algorithms, reconstruction parameters, coil configurations, acceleration factors, noise levels, and multiple test images, one can easily create 1000's of test images for image quality evaluation. We have found the perceptual difference model (Case-PDM) to be quite useful as a means of rapid quantitative image quality evaluation in such experiments, and have applied it to keyhole, spiral, SENSE, and GRAPPA applications. In this study, we have compared human evaluation of MR images from multiple organs and from multiple image reconstruction algorithms to Case-PDM. We compared human DSCQS (Double Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale) scoring against Case-PDM measurements for 3 different image types and 3 different image reconstruction algorithms. We found that Case-PDM linearly correlated (r > 0.9) with human subject ratings over a very large range of image quality. We also compared Case-PDM to other image quality evaluation methods. Case-PDM generally performed better than NASA's DCTune, MITRE's IQM, Zhou Wang's NR models and mean square error (MSE) method, by showing a higher Pearson correlation coefficient, higher Spearman rank-order correlation and lower root-mean-squared error. All three models (Case-PDM, Sarnoff's IDM, and Zhou Wang's SSIM) performed very similarly in this experiment. To focus on high quality reconstructions, we performed a 2-AFC (Alternate Forced Choice) experiment to determine the "just perceptible difference" between two images. We found that threshold Case-PDM scores changed little (0.6-1.8) with 2 different image types and 3 degradation patterns, and results with Case-PDM were much tighter than the other methods (IDM and MSE) by showing a lower ratio of mean to standard deviation value. We conclude that Case-PDM can correctly predict the ordering of image quality over a large range of image quality. Case

  18. Different presentations of intraretinal fluid collections in optic disc pits: OCT study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Oswaldo Ferreira Moura; Brasil, Maria Vitoria Oliveira Moura; Brasil, Oswaldo Moura

    2006-01-01

    The congenital optic disc pit is a rare anomaly that can lead to major visual impairment associated with subretinal fluid accumulation. The authors describe the optical coherence tomography study of three cases of untreated congenital optic disc pits with different levels of visual impairment and its different presentations of intraretinal fluid collections.

  19. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  20. Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life.

  1. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  2. Do Conditional Reinforcers Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven components arranged different food-delivery ratios on concurrent variable-interval schedules each session. The components were unsignaled, lasted for 10 food deliveries, and occurred in random order with a 60-s blackout between components. The schedules were arranged using a switching-key…

  3. Quality Coaching Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Scholastic sport is a double-edged sword that can have positive or negative effects. Whether those effects are positive or negative depends on those who wield that sword--chiefly, the school's sports coach. While it is clear that coaches make a difference in ensuring that educational athletics lead to beneficial outcomes for student-athletes, a…

  4. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 0.50 x 10^9/L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. The example above shows the common measurements for results of these tests. Some laboratories use ...

  5. Different crystal morphologies arising from different preparation methods of a same polymorphic form may result in different properties of the final materials: the case of diclofenac sodium trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Rodomonte, Andrea; Antoniella, Eleonora; Bertocchi, Paola; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica

    2008-09-29

    Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in painful and inflammatory diseases. It can exist in different hydrate phases. Recently the physico-chemical and pharmaceutical properties of a trihydrate form, named DSH3 were reported by the same authors. This short communication discusses how samples of a same polymorphic form can display dissimilar analytical signatures when obtained by different routes. Data from hot-stage microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP) and thermal analysis were used to characterise the DSH3 samples prepared by different methods. Through the case study of diclofenac sodium, this work highlights how the method used to prepare a specific crystal modification can generate samples with different morphologies and therefore different properties and physical stability.

  6. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index.

  7. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  8. Two Cases of Chronic Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction with Different Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Hwan; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Oh, Jane C.; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterized by a severe impairment of gastrointestinal propulsion in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We experienced a case of chronic pseudo-obstruction in the initial phase mimicking acute pseudo-obstruction, which was treated medically. This ongoing case was compared to another recurrent and intractable case successfully treated with surgery and diagnosed as hypoganglionosis. These two cases showed different clinical features and therapeutic approaches for CIPO; one with the first episode of CIPO mimicking Ogilvie's syndrome; the other with recurrent episodes of CIPO with typical features. In conclusion, CIPO is a difficult disorder with various clinical manifestations and different treatment modalities, therefore individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed. PMID:20535331

  9. Two Cases of Chronic Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction with Different Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Oh, Jane C; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterized by a severe impairment of gastrointestinal propulsion in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We experienced a case of chronic pseudo-obstruction in the initial phase mimicking acute pseudo-obstruction, which was treated medically. This ongoing case was compared to another recurrent and intractable case successfully treated with surgery and diagnosed as hypoganglionosis. These two cases showed different clinical features and therapeutic approaches for CIPO; one with the first episode of CIPO mimicking Ogilvie's syndrome; the other with recurrent episodes of CIPO with typical features. In conclusion, CIPO is a difficult disorder with various clinical manifestations and different treatment modalities, therefore individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed.

  10. Neural differences in processing of case particles in Japanese: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In subject–object–verb (SOV) languages, such as Japanese, sentence processing proceeds incrementally to the late presentation of the head (verb). Japanese case particles play a crucial role in sentence processing; however, little is known about how these particles are processed. In particular, it is still unclear how the functional difference between case particles is represented in the human brain. Methods In this study, we conducted an fMRI experiment using an event-related design to directly compare brain activity during Japanese case particle processing among the nominative case ga, accusative case o, and dative case ni. Twenty five native Japanese speakers were asked to judge whether the presented character was a particle in a particle judgment task and whether the character ended with a specific vowel in a phonological judgment task, which was used as a control condition. Results A particle comparison demonstrated that the processing of ni was associated with significantly weaker brain activity than that of ga and o in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Significantly greater brain activity associated with ni relative to ga in the right IFG was also observed. Conclusion These results suggest that the Japanese case particles ga, ni, and o are represented differently in the brain. PMID:24683511

  11. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  13. Accuracy and reliability of naevus self-counts.

    PubMed

    Fiessler, Cornelia; Pfahlberg, Annette; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    A high number of melanocytic naevi is one of the major risk factors for cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, counting the number of acquired naevi could be a useful strategy to identify individuals at an increased risk for targeted skin cancer screening. The aim of this study was to assess agreement between naevus self-counts and counts of trained examiners as well as to analyse potential determinants of the magnitude of agreement. In a large cross-sectional survey (n=1772), university students counted their naevi on both arms and were additionally examined by specifically trained examiners in a mutually blinded manner. Further data on other melanoma risk factors such as skin phototype, hair colour or freckling were collected by a questionnaire. The relative difference between the two naevus counts and the ratio of the counts were calculated to quantify agreement. Regression modelling was performed to identify independent determinants of agreement. The overall agreement was moderate, with participants counting on average 14% more naevi than the examiners. In terms of the potential determinants associated with agreement, skin type and medical education showed a strong effect. The difference in naevus counts was significantly larger for individuals with lighter skin types compared with those with a dark skin (Fitzpatrick type IV), and medical students yielded a naevus count more similar to the examiner's count than nonmedical students. Naevus self-counts can only provide a rough estimate of the number of naevi, but may not be accurate enough to reliably identify a high-risk group for melanoma screening, especially in individuals with light skin types.

  14. Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.

    PubMed

    Askling, C; Tengvar, M; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

    2000-10-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

  15. Ki-67 labeling index of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung has a high level of correspondence between biopsy samples and surgical specimens when strict counting guidelines are applied.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Alessandra; Cossa, Mara; Sonzogni, Angelica; Papotti, Mauro; Righi, Luisella; Gatti, Gaia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Valeri, Barbara; Pastorino, Ugo; Pelosi, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Optimal histopathological analysis of biopsies from metastases of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the lung requires more than morphology only. Additional parameters such as Ki-67 labeling index are required for adequate diagnosis, but few studies have compared reproducibility of different counting protocols and modalities of reporting on biopsies of lung NET. We compared the results of four different manual counting techniques to establish Ki-67 LI. On 47 paired biopsies and surgical specimens from 22 typical carcinoids (TCs), 14 atypical carcinoids (ACs), six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and five small cell carcinomas (SCCs) immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 antigen was performed. We counted, in regions of highest nuclear staining (HSR), a full ×40-high-power field (diameter = 0.55 mm), 500 or 2000 cells, or 2 mm(2) surface area, including the HSR or the entire biopsy fragment(s). Mitoses and necrosis were evaluated in an area of 2 mm(2) or the entire biopsy fragment(s). Between the four counting methods, no differences in Ki-67 LI were observed. However, a Ki-67 LI higher than 5% was found in only four cases when in an HSR, 500 cells were counted (18%), five (23%) when in an HSR 2000 cells were counted, four (18%) when 2 mm(2) were counted, and one (5%) TC case when the entire biopsy was counted. A 20% cutoff distinguished TC and AC from LCNEC and SCC with 100% specificity and sensitivity, while mitoses and necrosis failed to a large extent. Ki-67 LI in biopsy samples was concordant with that in resection specimens when 2000 cells, 2 mm(2), or the entire biopsy fragment(s) were counted. Our results are important for clinical management of patients with metastases of a lung NET.

  16. Ecological Contexts of Index Cases and Spillover Events of Different Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth D.; Fischer, Robert; Judson, Andrew; Munster, Vincent J.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus disease afflicts both human and animal populations and is caused by four ebolaviruses. These different ebolaviruses may have distinct reservoir hosts and ecological contexts that determine how, where, and when different ebolavirus spillover events occur. Understanding these virus-specific relationships is important for preventing transmission of ebolaviruses from wildlife to humans. We examine the ecological contexts surrounding 34 human index case infections of ebolaviruses from 1976–2014. Determining possible sources of spillover from wildlife, characterizing the environment of each event, and creating ecological niche models to estimate habitats suitable for spillover, we find that index case infections of two ebolaviruses, Ebola virus and Sudan virus, have occurred under different ecological contexts. The index cases of Ebola virus infection are more associated with tropical evergreen broadleaf forests and consuming bushmeat than the cases of Sudan virus. Given these differences, we emphasize caution when generalizing across different ebolaviruses and that location and virus-specific ecological knowledge will be essential to unravelling how human and animal behavior lead to the emergence of Ebola virus disease. PMID:27494600

  17. Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

    1980-02-01

    Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

  18. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Efficacy of treatment of elevated coccidial oocyst counts in goats using amprolium versus ponazuril.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Philippa; Love, David; Craig, Thomas; Budke, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Coccidiosis is an important disease of young goats leading to weight loss, diarrhea, and death. In the USA, both ionophores and decoquinate are labeled for prevention of coccidia in goats. However, there are no drugs approved for treatment of clinical cases of coccidiosis in this species. Amprolium is labeled for treatment of coccidiosis in calves while ponazuril, a metabolite of toltrazuril, is labeled for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. In this study, 150 young goats housed on concrete lots had fecal samples collected and McMaster fecal oocyst per gram counts performed at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-processing. Goats were randomly assigned to receive either amprolium (50mg/kg once a day for 5 days by mouth) or ponazuril (10mg/kg by mouth once) if they had fecal oocyst counts >5,000 per gram. Fecal samples were obtained and oocyst counts performed at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the cessation of treatment. Goats were weighed on days 0 and 21 post-processing. Seven goats were enrolled into the amprolium group and 8 into the ponazuril group. Both treatments resulted in decreased oocyst counts post-treatment compared to before treatment. There was no significant difference between fecal coccidian oocyst counts between goats in each group. There was no significant difference in body weight between goats in each group. This study showed that both amprolium and ponazuril were effective in decreasing fecal coccidia oocyst counts in this group of goats. Use of both drugs is currently extra-label in the USA.

  20. Analysis of Forensic Autopsy in 120 Cases of Medical Disputes Among Different Levels of Institutional Settings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Sheng; Ye, Guang-Hua; Fan, Yan-Yan; Li, Xing-Biao; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Han, Jun-Ge; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Deng, Miao-Wu; Li, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in medical science, the causes of death can sometimes only be determined by pathologists after a complete autopsy. Few studies have investigated the importance of forensic autopsy in medically disputed cases among different levels of institutional settings. Our study aimed to analyze forensic autopsy in 120 cases of medical disputes among five levels of institutional settings between 2001 and 2012 in Wenzhou, China. The results showed an overall concordance rate of 55%. Of the 39% of clinically missed diagnosis, cardiovascular pathology comprises 55.32%, while respiratory pathology accounts for the remaining 44. 68%. Factors that increase the likelihood of missed diagnoses were private clinics, community settings, and county hospitals. These results support that autopsy remains an important tool in establishing causes of death in medically disputed case, which may directly determine or exclude the fault of medical care and therefore in helping in resolving these cases.

  1. Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.P.; Ramsay, B.H.; Gallo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70??N, 45.50??W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km2 resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p<0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p<0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A.J; Symes, William S

    2005-01-01

    There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes. PMID:16555783

  3. A Case Series of Bee Sting Keratopathy With Different Outcomes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    MD Kadir, Siti-Zakiah; Fadzillah, Abdul-Jalil; Zunaina, Embong

    2017-01-01

    We report three patients with corneal bee sting at our tertiary care center in a three-year period starting from 2014 to 2016. All patients sustained a bee sting injury to the cornea. All patients received early preoperative topical antibiotics, topical cycloplegic and intensive topical steroids. However, the timing of the initial presentation, the duration, and the location of the retained stinger differed in each case leading to different postsurgical outcomes. PMID:28357167

  4. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  5. Volume I A Comparative Case Study Exploring How Federal Probation Officers Experience Different Distance Education Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caufield, Eileen Claire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of federal probation officers' perceived value of different distance education formats, the learning strategies they used to facilitate their learning, and the degree to which learner autonomy varied among the probation officers. This comparative case study sought to answer the following three…

  6. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Educational Equity and Difference: The Case of the Racialization of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.

    2011-01-01

    The author argues for an interdisciplinary perspective to study the complexities of educational equity and transcend the limits of previous research. He focuses on the racialization of disability as a case in point; specifically, he reviews the visions of justice that inform the scholarship on racial and ability differences and situates their…

  7. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  8. Different Strategies for Embracing Inclusive Education: A Snap Shot of Individual Cases from Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot into how three individual schools from three different countries practice inclusive education. In the case of the UK primary school, inclusive practices are focused on the provision of external resources and expertise to supplement instruction in the classroom. In the Netherlands, the focus is on teacher change…

  9. Case Studies in Diversity: Individual Differences in Abilities and Traits of Young Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafenstein, Norma Lu; Tucker, Brooke

    This study documented how individual differences in personal experiences, cultures, learning styles, and interests affect the demonstrated abilities of children who are gifted, based on qualitative case study research with five children from early childhood classes at the University of Denver's Ricks Center for Gifted Children. Information was…

  10. A case report of different degrees of the left anterior, septal and posterior fascicular branch block.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaqun; Hong, Yupeng; Jin, Tao

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare case of various conduction defects involving the left anterior, septal, and posterior branch in one patient. The different degrees of block of anterior, septal, and posterior fascicular of the left bundle branch indicate pathological changes in left ventricle. However, the values of this electrocardiographic presentation indicating the left ventricular function still need more investigations.

  11. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  12. A Comparison of Mean Phase Difference and Generalized Least Squares for Analyzing Single-Case Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolov, Rumen; Solanas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on single-case data analysis specifically on two procedures for quantifying differences between baseline and treatment measurements. The first technique tested is based on generalized least square regression analysis and is compared to a proposed non-regression technique, which allows obtaining similar information. The…

  13. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  14. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  15. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  16. Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.

    In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.

  17. Melasma and its association with different types of nevi in women: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi-bazargani, Homayoun; Amini-sani, Nayereh; Zeynizadeh, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Background Very little is known about possible association of nevi and melasma. The study objective was to determine if there is an association between melasma and existence of different kinds of nevi. Methods In a case-control study, 120 female melasma patients referred to dermatology clinic of Ardabil and 120 patients referred to other specialty clinics who lacked melasma were enrolled after matching for age. Number of different types of nevi including lentigines and melanocytic nevi were compared between case and control group patients. Data were entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software. Results Mean number of lentigines was 25.5 in melasma group compared to 8 in control group(P < 0.01). Mean number of melanocytic nevi was 13.2 in cases compared to 2.8 in control group(P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that existence of freckles, lentigines and more than three melanocytic nevi were positively related to developing melasma. The chance of melasma increased up to 23 times for patients having more than three melanocytic nevi. Congenital nevi were observed among 10% both in case and control groups. Campbell de morgan angiomas were seen among 26 patients(21.8%) in case group compared to 6 patients(5%) in control group. Conclusion Existence of lentigines and melanocytic nevi increases chance of having melasma PMID:18680608

  18. Counts of galaxies in a merger model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.; Peimbert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model for the photometric evolution of galaxies has been developed and has been applied to the problem of galaxy counts. The integrated colors of galaxies are calculated using the most recently computed evolutionary tracks from Maeder and collaborators complemented with evolutionary tracks derived by other authors. The asymptotic giant branch lifetime is left as a free parameter. A series of cosmological models using different values of the cosmological constant, lambda(sub 0), and the density parameter, omega(sub 0), have been computed. The universality hypothesis of the luminosity function of galaxies has been abandoned. The influence of galaxy merging on the counts has been considered in a simple manner by assuming that the number of strongly interacting galaxies in a comoving volume increases with redshift as a power law given by (1 + z)(exp 3.8). Taking a Schechter parametrization for the luminosity function of the different types of galaxies, we are able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. We have also considered models with a Gaussian distribution for the luminosity function of the brighter galaxies that provide a poorer fit to the observations. It is shown that galaxy count data are not yet able to make unambiguous cosmological statements since evolutionary assumptions are critical. In particular, an omega(sub 0) = 1, lambda(sub 0) = 0 cosmology is shown to be consistent with the data.

  19. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  20. Photon counting micrometer and video CCD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Qiongxian; Li, Chennfei

    The structure and observational method of the photon counting slotted micrometer are proposed. The micrometer is made up of a piece of slotted plate and a photomultiplier. The photon counting micrometer is replaced by a video CCD for regular trial observation and as a test for the equipment of one scientific CCD, because the micrometer transmission in the instrumental vertical angle transmission mechanism is dull, and the telescope is not able to observe regularly since the optical axis changes greatly as the telescope points to different vertical distance. The video CCD is fixed in the course of observation, recording a picture every forty milliseconds, or one hundred pictures within four seconds, resulting in simultaneously after smoothing treatment the moment and stellar zenith distance when a star passes through the meridian or prime vertical.

  1. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

  2. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu

    2010-01-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica. PMID:23956634

  3. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Tae Soo

    2010-06-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica.

  4. A flexible count data regression model for risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Guikema, Seth D; Coffelt, Jeremy P; Goffelt, Jeremy P

    2008-02-01

    In many cases, risk and reliability analyses involve estimating the probabilities of discrete events such as hardware failures and occurrences of disease or death. There is often additional information in the form of explanatory variables that can be used to help estimate the likelihood of different numbers of events in the future through the use of an appropriate regression model, such as a generalized linear model. However, existing generalized linear models (GLM) are limited in their ability to handle the types of variance structures often encountered in using count data in risk and reliability analysis. In particular, standard models cannot handle both underdispersed data (variance less than the mean) and overdispersed data (variance greater than the mean) in a single coherent modeling framework. This article presents a new GLM based on a reformulation of the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COM) distribution that is useful for both underdispersed and overdispersed count data and demonstrates this model by applying it to the assessment of electric power system reliability. The results show that the proposed COM GLM can provide as good of fits to data as the commonly used existing models for overdispered data sets while outperforming these commonly used models for underdispersed data sets.

  5. Modelling migration in multilayer systems by a finite difference method: the spherical symmetry case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojbotǎ, C. I.; Toşa, V.; Mercea, P. V.

    2013-08-01

    We present a numerical model based on finite differences to solve the problem of chemical impurity migration within a multilayer spherical system. Migration here means diffusion of chemical species in conditions of concentration partitioning at layer interfaces due to different solubilities of the migrant in different layers. We detail here the numerical model and discuss the results of its implementation. To validate the method we compare it with cases where an analytic solution exists. We also present an application of our model to a practical problem in which we compute the migration of caprolactam from the packaging multilayer foil into the food.

  6. Vital Pulp Therapy with Three Different Pulpotomy Agents in Immature Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Azadeh; Forghani, Maryam; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes apexogenesis treatment of three molar teeth of an 8-year-old boy using three different pulpotomy agents. Methods Pulpotomy was performed on decayed immature molar teeth with established irreversible pulpitis and the remaining pulp was capped with either zinc oxide eugenol, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Results Eighteen months clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed successful preservation of pulpal vitality with continued root development in all treated teeth. Conclusion Based on this case report, CEM cement may be an alternative option for pulpotomy treatment of immature permanent molars. PMID:23922578

  7. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  8. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  9. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  10. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  11. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  12. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  13. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  14. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  15. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  16. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  17. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the platelet count is too low, a person can be in danger of bleeding in any part of the body. The CBC can also test for loss of blood, abnormalities in the production or destruction of blood cells, acute and chronic infections, allergies, and problems with ...

  18. Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…

  19. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  20. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  1. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  2. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  3. [Traction folliculitis: 6 cases caused by different types of hairstyle that pull on the hair].

    PubMed

    Urbina, F; Sudy, E; Barrios, M

    2009-01-01

    Excessive hair traction caused by hairstyles that pull the hair too tightly may cause noninfectious mechanical and irritant folliculitis known as traction folliculitis. We present a series of 6 cases of traction folliculitis caused by different hairstyles. All patients were women aged between 12 and 26 years old. Their hairstyles were braids, ponytails, pigtails, cornrows, and hair extensions in 2 patients. The lesions consisted of small, slightly painful, follicular pustules confined to the sites of maximum hair traction and surrounded by erythema. Only in 1 case were the lesions associated with traction alopecia. In 2 cases in which bacterial cultures were done, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. All patients improved after undoing their hairstyle and treatment with oral flucloxacillin. We assume that the role of S aureus is secondary and opportunistic, given that only follicles subject to traction and not the adjacent ones were affected.

  4. Positing a difference between acts and omissions: the principle of justice, Rachels' cases and moral weakness.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, R

    2009-05-01

    The difficulty in discovering a difference between killing and letting die has led many philosophers to deny the distinction. This paper seeks to develop an argument defending the distinction between killing and letting die. In relation to Rachels' cases, the argument is that (a) even accepting that Smith and Jones may select equally heinous options from the choices they have available to them, (b) the fact that the choices available to them are different is morally relevant, and (c) this difference in available choices can be used to distinguish between the agents in certain circumstances. It is the principle of justice, as espoused by Aristotle, which requires that equal things are treated equally and that unequal things are treated unequally that creates a presumption that Smith and Jones should be treated differently. The magnitude of this difference can be amplified by other premises, making the distinction morally relevant in practical reality.

  5. Red blood cell count has an independent contribution to the prediction of ultrasonography-diagnosed fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shang-ling; Liao, Gong-cheng; Fang, Ai-ping; Zhu, Ming-fan; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Red blood cell (RBC) indices have been demonstrated to be associated with fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic syndrome. However, controversy exists regarding the relationship of RBC indices with FLD to date and few has focused on RBC count. This study aimed to explore the association between RBC count and risk of FLD in Southern Chinese adults. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed in two hospital health examination centers, including information on ultrasonography-diagnosed FLD, anthropometric indices and biochemical measurements. Covariance analysis was used to evaluate group differences. After quintile classification of RBC counts, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) of FLD. Results This study consisted of 8618 subjects (4137 men and 4481 women) aged between 20 and 89 years. FLD cases had higher RBC counts than non-FLD cases in both genders (P<0.001). The prevalence rates of FLD increased with the RBC quintiles in both genders (all P trend<0.001), and were higher in men than women. Binary logistic regression analysis showed positive association between RBC count and FLD, and the OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) were 2.56 (2.06–3.18) in men and 3.69 (2.74–4.98) in women, respectively, when comparing Q5 with Q1. Stratified analyses showed similar trends among subjects with and without FLD risk factors. Gender independent results were similar to gender dependent results. Conclusions Elevated RBC count is independently associated with high risk of FLD, suggesting that the RBC count may be a potential risk predictor for FLD. PMID:28187211

  6. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  7. Recurrent 6th nerve palsy in a child following different live attenuated vaccines: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines. Case presentation A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review. Conclusions The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:22545865

  8. Pneumoscrotum: report of two different cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cochetti, Giovanni; Barillaro, Francesco; Cottini, Emanuele; D’Amico, Francesco; Pansadoro, Alberto; Pohja, Solajd; Boni, Andrea; Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Mancuso, Rosa; Silvi, Elisa; Ioannidou, Katifenia; Egidi, Maria Giulia; Poli, Giulia; Mearini, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Pneumoscrotum is the term used to describe the presence of air within the scrotum and includes scrotal emphysema as well as pneumatocele. The etiology varies; in some cases, pneumoscrotum may be due to life-threatening disease like pneumothorax or Fournier gangrene. Despite this, pneumoscrotum is a rarely debated issue. We present two different cases of pneumoscrotum and a review of the literature. The first case report is about a 29 year old male patient affected by Duchenne syndrome who showed pneumoscrotum after cardiopulmonary resuscitation that was performed for asphyxic crisis and cardiovascular arrest. We carried out local puncture with an 18-gauge needle, and the pneumoscrotum was successfully solved. The second case report is about a 56 year old male with pneumoscrotum due to Fournier gangrene who underwent radical exeresis of all necrotic tissues and drainage. This is why most of the scrotal skin and all of the penis skin were removed; as a result, the testicles, epididymis, and cavernosa corpora were externalized. On postoperative day one, the patient was feverless and underwent hyperbaric chamber therapy. No postoperative complications occurred. Accurate evaluation of the pneumoscrotum is always needed. Despite the benign course of most of the clinically evident pneumoscrotum cases, this condition should never be underestimated. PMID:25914539

  9. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  10. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  11. Viruses in case series of tumors: Consistent presence in different cancers in the same subject

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Hortlund, Maria; Bzhalava, Zurab; Nordqvist Kleppe, Sara; Bzhalava, Davit; Dillner, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating presence of viruses in cancer often analyze case series of cancers, resulting in detection of many viruses that are not etiologically linked to the tumors where they are found. The incidence of virus-associated cancers is greatly increased in immunocompromised individuals. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is also greatly increased and a variety of viruses have been detected in NMSC. As immunosuppressed patients often develop multiple independent NMSCs, we reasoned that viruses consistently present in independent tumors might be more likely to be involved in tumorigenesis. We sequenced 8 different NMSCs from 1 patient in comparison to 8 different NMSCs from 8 different patients. Among the latter, 12 different virus sequences were detected, but none in more than 1 tumor each. In contrast, the patient with multiple NMSCs had human papillomavirus type 15 and type 38 present in 6 out of 8 NMSCs. PMID:28257474

  12. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and, in Europe, Italy is leader in rice production. The intensive cultivation of rice leads to continuous inputs chemicals as fertilizers, weeding and pesticides. The intensification of sustainable rice production by minimizing the impact on the environment of cultivation is a main issue . In this context this study, supported by the Italian National Project POLORISO (MIPAAF), aims to afford preliminary indications about the evaluation of ecological impact by different managements on soil mesofauna biodiversity. Biomonitoring of soil mesofauna, in particular nematodes and microarthropods, allows to determine the effects of crop management on the communities; the lack and/or reduction of these organisms can allow inference on the soil quality. This preliminary study aims at evaluate the different influence of conventional, integrated and biological managements on mesofauna communities. The samplings were conducted in Summer and Autumn 2013 near Vercelli (North Italy) in three study sites with similar pedologic characteristics but different in control strategies (conventional, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)). The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods was performed by Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological soil quality was evaluated by Maturity Index (MI) for nematodes, BSQar and the soil Biological Classes (sBC)(range I-VII) for microarthropods. Regarding nematodes, Rhabditidae, Dorylamidae, Mononchidae, Tylenchidae and Heteroderidae were the most represented families. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) evidenced that the trophic group of plant parasites was favored in organic farming, while groups of omnivores and predators were abundant in the other managements. The lowest nematodes' abundance was found in submerged rice soil with dominance of omnivores and plant

  13. Different carcinogenic process in cholangiocarcinoma cases epidemically developing among workers of a printing company in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Kubo, Shoji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Shogo; Fujikawa, Masahiro; Arimoto, Akira; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cholangiocarcinoma has epidemically developed among young adult workers of a printing company in Japan. Exposure to organic solvents including 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane is supposed to be associated with the carcinoma development. The metabolism of dichloromethane proceeds through a Theta-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1-1-catalyzed pathway, where its reactive intermediates have been implicated in genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. This study examined features of the carcinogenic process of the cholangiocarcinoma developed in the printing company. Surgically resected specimens of the cholangiocarcinoma cases were analyzed, where all cases were associated with precursor lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and/or intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed constitutional expression of GST T1-1 in normal hepatobiliary tract. Immunostaining of γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA double strand break, showed that its expression was significantly increased in foci of BilIN, IPNB and invasive carcinoma as well as in non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells of the printing company cases when compared to that of control groups. In the printing company cases, immunohistochemical expression of p53 was observed in non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells and BilIN-1. Mutations of KRAS and GNAS were detected in foci of BilIN in one out of 3 cases of the printing company. These results revealed different carcinogenic process of the printing company cases, suggesting that the exposed organic solvents might act as a carcinogen for biliary epithelial cells by causing DNA damage, thereby contributing to the carcinoma development.

  14. Differential leucocyte count for ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2011-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare flow cytometry (FC) and direct microscopic leucocyte count (MDLC) for the differentiation of macrophages, lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) and to evaluate leucocyte distribution in ewe milk with low and high somatic cell count (SCC). Milk samples were grouped for somatic cell count in low SCC (LSCC) when the content was lower than 5·00 × 10(5)/ml and high SCC (HSCC) when the content was higher than 1·00 × 10(6)/ml. No differences were found between the two methods tested suggesting that FC could be used as a routine test for rapid discrimination of leucocytes. Percentages of lymphocytes in ewe milk were higher in LSCC (50%) than in HSCC (39%) and count ranged from 273·91 ± 56·62 × 10(3) cells/ml (LSCC) to 308·90 ± 46·15 × 10(3) cells/ml (HSCC). PMN number was lower in LSCC than in HSCC (248·83 ± 46·87 × 10(3) cells/ml v. 444·38 ± 58·62 × 10(3) cells/ml); accordingly the percentage was lower in LSCC (40%) than in HSCC (57%). No differences were found for macrophages which were 36·36 ± 5·51 × 10(3) cells/ml and 39·32 ± 6·83 × 10(3) cells/ml in LSCC and HSCC, respectively. Lymphocytes in ewe milk did not vary with increased number of somatic cells and were the predominant cell type in LSCC. PMN represented the main population detected in HSCC and the correlation with SCC evidenced that this leucocyte class could be useful in differentiating ewe milk cell count, being strictly responsible for the SCC increase.

  15. Breast cancer risk factor associations differ for pure versus invasive carcinoma with an in situ component in case-control and case-case analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ruszczyk, Melanie; Zirpoli, Gary; Kumar, Shicha; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Khoury, Thaer; Hwang, Helena; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Schedin, Pepper; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is diagnosed with or without a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component. Previous analyses have found significant differences in tumor characteristics between pure IDC lacking DCIS and mixed IDC with DCIS. We will test our hypothesis that pure IDC represents a form of breast cancer with etiology and risk factors distinct from mixed IDC/DCIS. Methods We compared reproductive risk factors for breast cancer risk, as well as family and smoking history between 831 women with mixed IDC/DCIS (n=650) or pure IDC (n=181), and 1,620 controls, in the context of the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS), a case-control study of breast cancer in African-American and European-American women. Data on reproductive and lifestyle factors were collected during interviews, and tumor characteristics were abstracted from pathology reports. Case-control and case-case analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression. Results Most risk factors were similarly associated with pure IDC and mixed IDC/DCIS. However, among postmenopausal women, risk for pure IDC was lower in women with body mass index (BMI) 25 to <30 kg/m2 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-1.23) and BMI≥30 kg/m2 (OR=0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.67) compared to women with BMI<25 kg/m2, with no associations with mixed IDC/DCIS. In case-case analyses, women who breastfed up to 12 months (OR=0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.94) or longer (OR=0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.87) showed decreased odds of pure IDC than mixed IDC/DCIS compared to those who did not breastfeed. Conclusions Associations with some breast cancer risk factors differed between mixed IDC/DCIS and pure IDC, potentially suggesting differential developmental pathways. These findings, if confirmed in a larger study, will provide a better understanding of the development patterns of breast cancer and the influence of modifiable risk factors, which in turn could lead to better preventive measures for pure IDC, which

  16. Counting Heron Triangles with Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    A3 INTEGERS 13 (2013) COUNTING HERON TRIANGLES WITH CONSTRAINTS Pantelimon Stănică Applied Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey...12, Revised: 10/12/12, Accepted: 1/13/13, Published: 1/25/13 Abstract Heron triangles have the property that all three of their sides as well as their...area are positive integers. In this paper, we give some estimates for the number of Heron triangles with two of their sides fixed. We provide a

  17. Ethnic differences in coronary heart disease case fatality rates in Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bullen, C; Beaglehole, R

    1997-12-01

    Data from the Auckland Coronary or Stroke (ARCOS) study for the years 1983 to 1992 were analysed to describe 28-day case fatality rates from coronary heart disease among Europeans, Maori and Pacific Islands people in Auckland, New Zealand. The case fatality rate was consistently higher in each age group and for both sexes among Maori and Pacific Islands people than in Europeans. Age-standardised case fatalities for Maori and Pacific Islands people were similar at around 65 per cent, compared with around 45 per cent among Europeans, and these differences were not explained by ethnic differences in possible underreporting of nonfatal myocardial infarction, in socioeconomic status, smoking, symptoms or past myocardial infarction. There was evidence of a more rapid progression of acute coronary events to a fatal outcome among Maori and Pacific Islands people, partly explained by delays in access to life support and coronary care: greater proportions of Pacific Islands people than Maori or Europeans who died did so within an hour of onset of symptoms (56 per cent of Pacific Islands people, 47 per cent of Maori, 45 per cent of Europeans). Pacific Islands and Maori people with acute coronary events took longer to reach a coronary care unit (mean times: Pacific Islands people 8.6 hours, Maori 7.4 hours, Europeans 6.7 hours, P < 0.05), although the median times were not significantly different; life-support units were used by a majority of Pacific Islands people and Europeans (57 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively), compared with only 46 per cent of Maori, but hospital care was similar for the three groups. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to investigate the reasons for these ethnic disparities in case fatality rates.

  18. The MIC photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, J. L. A.; Bone, D. A.; Oldfield, M. K.; Bellis, J. G.; Norton, T. J.

    1992-12-01

    The MIC (Microchannel plate Intensified CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) detector is an advanced performance Micro Channel Plate (MCP) intensified CCD photon counting detector developed for high resolution, high dynamic range, astronomical applications. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is 3072 by 2304 pixels. The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm. The detector is linear to approximately 1,000,000 events/detector area/sec on a flat field and linear to count rates up to 200 events/object/s on star images. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. The second, specifically for the ESA X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM), where the MIC has been accepted as the blue detector for the incorporated Optical Monitor (OM). For the XMM-OM, the system is based around a 25 mm diameter intensifier. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of 6144 by 4608 pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

  19. Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth.

  20. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  1. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TrØst Nielsen, Jeppe; Durrer, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  2. Two episodes of axillary granular parakeratosis triggered by different causes: case report.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Francisco; Sudy, Emilio; Misad, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Granular parakeratosis is an acquired disorder of keratinization characterized by keratotic papules and plaques located in the intertriginous areas. Its etiology is unknown. Some cases have been related to the application of deodorants and antiperspirants, local irritation or increased sweating; in other cases no precipitant factors have been found. We report a case of axillary granular parakeratosis in an adult male in whom the lesions appeared twice under different circumstances: the first time the lesions appeared after local irritation produced by an antiperspirant and/or the use of a paste containing zinc oxide; two years later, an identical eruption reappeared in both axillae, while using his habitual deodorant and without a preceding irritation of the zone; only excessive sweating was mentioned this time after a weight gain of 20 kg. On both occasions, the lesions disappeared completely a few days after using topical calcipotriol. A constitutional factor may predispose the development of granular parakeratosis, which must be considered a reaction pattern that can be induced by multiple different causes.

  3. Groin pain syndrome: an association of different pathologies and a case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Auci, Alessio; Di Marzo, Francesco; Galli, Roberto; Pulici, Luca; Carimati, Giulia; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background groin pain affects all types of athletes, especially soccer players. Many diseases with different etiologies may cause groin pain. Purpose offer a mini review of groin pain in soccer accompanied by the presentation of a case report highlighting the possible association of more clinical frameworks into the onset of groin pain syndrome, in order to recommend that clinical evaluations take into account possible associations between bone, muscle and tendon such as inguinal canal disease. Conclusion the multifactorial etiology of groin pain syndrome needs to be examined with a comprehensive approach, with standardized clinical evaluation based on an imaging protocol in order to evaluate all possible diseases. Study design Mini review- Case report (Level V). PMID:26605198

  4. Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients and CD4+ Counts

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad; Aoun, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was directed to evaluate the forms of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and their correlation with CD4+ cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study carried out for a 2-year period, in which quantitative data collection methods were used. 50 patients with HIV infection were evaluated. Relationship between OPC and CD4+ was investigated. Results: Five different clinical forms were noticed on examination: pseudomembranous candidiasis 20/38 (P) was the most common one (52.6%) followed by erythematous 5/38 (13.15%), angular cheilitis 5/38 (13.15%) (AC), a combination of AC and E 4/38 (10.52%) or AC, E and P 4/38 (10.52%). Candida albicans was the most frequent specie isolated in 35 cases of OPC (92%). Candida tropicalis was isolated in 2 cases (5.26%) and Candida glabrata in 1 case (2.64%). The majority of patients with OPC had cell counts 28/38 (73%) <200 cells/mm3, followed by 9/38 (23%) at CD4+ cell counts of 201-499 cells/mm3. Conclusion: Oral Candida colonization and invasive infection occur more frequently in HIV-positive patient and is significantly more common in patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cell/mm3. PMID:25878473

  5. Foot and ankle reconstruction: an experience on the use of 14 different flaps in 226 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Min; Li, Fu-Bin; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this report was to present our experience on the use of different flaps for soft tissue reconstruction of the foot and ankle. From 2007 to 2012, the soft tissue defects of traumatic injuries of the foot and ankle were reconstructed using 14 different flaps in 226 cases (162 male and 64 female). There were 62 pedicled flaps and 164 free flaps used in reconstruction. The pedicled flaps included sural flap, saphenous flap, dorsal pedal neurocutaneous flap, pedicled peroneal artery perforator flap, pedicled tibial artery perforator flap, and medial plantar flap. The free flaps were latissimus musculocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous flap, groin flap, lateral arm flap, anterolateral thigh perforator flap, peroneal artery perforator flap, thoracdorsal artery perforator flap, medial arm perforator flap. The sensory nerve coaptation was not performed for all of flaps. One hundred and ninety-four cases were combined with open fractures. One hundred and sixty-two cases had tendon. Among 164 free flaps, 8 flaps were completely lost, in which the defects were managed by the secondary procedures. Among the 57 flaps for plantar foot coverage (25 pedicled flaps and 32 free flaps), ulcers were developed in 5 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps after weight bearing, and infection was found in 14 flaps. The donor site complications were seen in 3 cases with the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer. All of limbs were preserved and the patients regained walking and daily activities. All of patients except for one regained protective sensation from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Our experience showed that the sural flap and saphenous flap could be good options for the coverage of the defects at malleolus, dorsal hindfoot and midfoot. Plantar foot, forefoot and large size defects could be reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flap. For the infected wounds with dead spce, the free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap remained to

  6. Rapid detection and counting of viable bacteria in vegetables and environmental water using a photon-counting TV camera.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Kuramitsu, Y; Ookuma, A; Trevanich, S; Honjoh, K; Hatano, S

    1998-10-01

    A bioluminescence assay carried out with a photon-counting TV camera was evaluated for rapid enumeration of viable bacterial counts. The test sample was filtered through a membrane filter, and the membrane filter retaining bacteria was incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h on a filter paper soaked with nutrient broth supplemented with 0.5% NaCl. The membrane filter was then subjected to a bioluminescence reaction, and the intensity of light and numbers of light emission points on the filter were measured with a photon-counting TV camera. The light intensity measured on seven different bacteria correlated with initial viable counts; the correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.89. The number of light emission points measured on Escherichia coli also correlated with the initial viable counts (r = 0.81) in a range from 1 to 100 CFU. Presumptive bacterial counts by the present bioluminescence assay determined on 79 samples of vegetables and 122 samples of environmental water correlated well with the viable counts obtained by the conventional plating method, with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.82, respectively.

  7. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  8. Diversity or Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieze, Carol; Quesenberry, Jeria L.; Kemp, Elizabeth; Velázquez, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Gender difference approaches to the participation of women in computing have not provided adequate explanations for women's declining interest in computer science (CS) and related technical fields. Indeed, the search for gender differences can work against diversity which we define as a cross-gender spectrum of characteristics, interests, abilities, experiences, beliefs and identities. Our ongoing case studies at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) provide evidence to show that a focus on culture offers the most insightful and effective approach for investigating women's participation in CS. In this paper, we illustrate this approach and show the significance of cultural factors by describing a new case study which examines the attitudes of CS majors at CMU. Our analysis found that most men and women felt comfortable in the school, believed they could be successful in the CS environment at CMU, and thought they fit in socially and academically. In brief, we did not see any evidence of a strong gender divide in student attitudes towards fitting in or feeling like they could be successful; indeed we found that the Women-CS fit remained strong from prior years. Hence, our research demonstrates that women, alongside their male peers, can fit successfully into a CS environment and help shape that environment and computing culture, for the benefit of everyone, without accommodating presumed gender differences or any compromises to academic integrity.

  9. [Work-related stress and mobbing: case series and gender differences].

    PubMed

    Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Costa, Maria Cristina; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2011-01-01

    The attention of international agencies and scientific community on mobbing (bullying) and work-related stress is increasing. However, research on gender differences and etiologic agents is still limited. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of mobbing and work-related stress in an Italian case series. Between 2001 and 2009, at the Occupational Medicine Unit of our Institution we examined 345 outpatients (197 women and 148 men) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of "mobbing syndrome" was formulated, according to international criteria (ICD-I0 and DSM-IV), in a minority of cases: 35 subjects. In the other workers, we found pre-existing psychiatric conditions (not related to work), or altered relationships dynamics with the colleagues. Significant gender differences emerged among people with "mobbing syndrome": there was a high prevalence of women (65%), with medium to high level of education; the most affected age group was between 34 and 45 years; several occupations were involved, with a clear preponderance of office workers. Women are mostly harassed for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors; men for the content of their work. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential prerogative to contrast mobbing; this can be realized, at a preventive level, only through effective information and training for workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during the work.

  10. Prediction in cases with superposition of different hydrological phenomena, such as from weather "cold drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors have been involved in Model Codes for Construction prior to Eurocodes now Euronorms, and in a Drainage Instruction for Roads for Spain that adopted a prediction model from BPR (Bureau of Public Roads) of USA to take account of evident regional differences in Iberian Peninsula and Spanish Isles, and in some related studies. They used Extreme Value Type I (Gumbell law) models, with independent actions in superposition; this law was also adopted then to obtain maps of extreme rains by CEDEX. These methods could be extrapolated somehow with other extreme values distributions, but the first step was useful to set valid superposition schemas for actions in norms. As real case, in East of Spain rain comes usually extensively from normal weather perturbations, but in other cases from "cold drop" local high rains of about 400mm in a day occur, causing inundations and in cases local disasters. The city of Valencia in East of Spain was inundated at 1,5m high from a cold drop in 1957, and the river Turia formerly through that city was just later diverted some kilometers to South in a wider canal. With Gumbell law the expected intensity grows with time for occurrence, indicating a value for each given "return period", but the increasing speed grows with the "annual dispersion" of the Gumbell law, and some rare dangerous events may become really very possible in periods of many years. That can be proved with relatively simple models, e.g. with Extreme Law type I, and they could be made more precise or discussed. Such effects were used for superposition of actions on a structure for Model Codes, and may be combined with hydraulic effects, e.g. for bridges on rivers. These different Gumbell laws, or other extreme laws, with different dispersion may occur for marine actions of waves, earthquakes, tsunamis, and maybe for human perturbations, that could include industrial catastrophes, or civilization wars if considering historical periods.

  11. Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

    2013-01-01

    Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of motion sensor step-counting error.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Peritore, Nicole; Shapiro, Robert; Mullineaux, David R; Rodriguez, Kelly; Hannon, James C

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effect that walking speed, gender, leg length, motion sensor tilt angle, brand, and placement have on motion sensor step-counting error. Fifty-nine participants performed treadmill walking trials at 6 speeds while wearing 5 motion sensor brands placed on the anterior (Digiwalker, DW; Walk4Life, WFL; New Lifestyles, NL; Omron, OM), midaxillary (DW; WFL; NL; ActiGraph, AG), and posterior (DW, WFL, NL) aspects of the waistline. The anterior-placed NL and midaxillary-placed AG were the most accurate motion sensors. Motion sensor step-count error tended to decrease at faster walking speeds, with lesser tilt angles, and with an anterior waistline placement. Gender and leg length had no effect on motion sensor step-count error. We conclude that the NL and AG yielded the most accurate step counts at a range of walking speeds in individuals with different physical characteristics.

  13. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  15. Development of new photon-counting detectors for single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Michalet, X.; Colyer, R. A.; Scalia, G.; Ingargiola, A.; Lin, R.; Millaud, J. E.; Weiss, S.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Cheng, A.; Levi, M.; Aharoni, D.; Arisaka, K.; Villa, F.; Guerrieri, F.; Panzeri, F.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Zappa, F.; Ghioni, M.; Cova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Two optical configurations are commonly used in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy: point-like excitation and detection to study freely diffusing molecules, and wide field illumination and detection to study surface immobilized or slowly diffusing molecules. Both approaches have common features, but also differ in significant aspects. In particular, they use different detectors, which share some requirements but also have major technical differences. Currently, two types of detectors best fulfil the needs of each approach: single-photon-counting avalanche diodes (SPADs) for point-like detection, and electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for wide field detection. However, there is room for improvements in both cases. The first configuration suffers from low throughput owing to the analysis of data from a single location. The second, on the other hand, is limited to relatively low frame rates and loses the benefit of single-photon-counting approaches. During the past few years, new developments in point-like and wide field detectors have started addressing some of these issues. Here, we describe our recent progresses towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. We also discuss our development of large area photon-counting cameras achieving subnanosecond resolution for fluorescence lifetime imaging applications at the single-molecule level. PMID:23267185

  16. Sex determination from fingerprint ridge density and white line counts in Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Taduran, Richard Jonathan O; Tadeo, Anna Katrina V; Escalona, Nadine Anne C; Townsend, Grant C

    2016-04-01

    Fingerprints are distinct physical characteristics that remain unchanged throughout an individual's lifetime. This study derived Filipino-specific probability formulae from fingerprints to be used for sex discrimination in human identification cases. Ridge density from three different areas - distal radial area, distal ulnar area, and proximal area - as well as white line counts from fingerprints of 200 male and 200 female Filipinos were collected and analyzed statistically. Ridge densities of radial and ulnar areas emerged as displaying significant differences between the sexes, with 16ridges/25mm(2) or more in radial area and 15ridges/25mm(2) or more in ulnar area being more likely to be female, whereas 13ridges/25mm(2) or less in radial area and 12ridges/25mm(2) or less in ulnar area were more likely to be male. A white line count of 0 was more likely to be male while a white line count of 2 or more was more likely to be female. The results of this study show sex differences in Filipino fingerprints and support the observation of previous studies that females have finer ridges than males.

  17. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  18. Differences between postmortem computed tomography and conventional autopsy in a stabbing murder case

    PubMed Central

    Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Ferro, Antonio Carlos Gonçalves; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. METHOD: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. RESULTS: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations. PMID:25518020

  19. Ability of Ultrasonography in Detection of Different Extremity Bone Fractures; a Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, Farzad; Shayesteh Azar, Massoud; Montazer, Seyed Hossein; Chabra, Aroona; Heidari, Seyed Farshad; Khalilian, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite radiography being the gold standard in evaluation of orthopedic injuries, using bedside ultrasonography has several potential supremacies such as avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation, availability in pre-hospital settings, being extensively accessible, and ability to be used on the bedside. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of extremity bone fractures. Methods: This study is a case series study, which was prospectively conducted on multiple blunt trauma patients, who were 18 years old or older, had stable hemodynamic, Glasgow coma scale 15, and signs or symptoms of a possible extremity bone fracture. After initial assessment, ultrasonography of suspected bones was performed by a trained emergency medicine resident and prevalence of true positive and false negative findings were calculated compared to plain radiology. Results: 108 patients with the mean age of 44.6 ± 20.4 years were studied (67.6% male). Analysis was done on 158 sites of fracture, which were confirmed with plain radiography. 91 (57.6%) cases were suspected to have upper extremity fracture(s) and 67 (42.4%) to have lower ones. The most frequent site of injuries were forearm (36.7%) in upper limbs and leg (27.8%) in lower limbs. Prevalence of true positive and false negative cases for fractures detected by ultrasonography were 59 (64.8%) and 32 (35.52%) for upper and 49 (73.1%) and 18 (26.9%) for lower extremities, respectively. In addition, prevalence of true positive and false negative detected cases for intra-articular fractures were 24 (48%) and 26 (52%), respectively. Conclusion The present study shows the moderate sensitivity (68.3%) of ultrasonography in detection of different extremity bone fractures. Ultrasonography showed the best sensitivity in detection of femur (100%) and humerus (76.2%) fractures, respectively. It had low sensitivity in detection of in intra-articular fractures. PMID:28286822

  20. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of "virtual instruments." These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  1. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  3. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  4. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  5. A case report with the peculiar concomitance of 2 different genetic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Lerario, Alberto; Colombo, Irene; Milani, Donatella; Peverelli, Lorenzo; Villa, Luisa; Del Bo, Roberto; Sciacco, Monica; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Esposito, Susanna; Moggio, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosome disorder in live born infants, affecting several body systems, but usually sparing skeletal muscles. We present the case of a child with coexistence of DS and dystrophinopathy. Only 1 similar case has been reported so far. Patient Concerns: An 8-year-old boy with DS had a history of incidental finding of increased serum creatine kinase levels up to 1775 U/L (normal values 38–174 U/L). He presented no delay in motor development; at the neurological examination, no muscle weakness or fatigability was detected in 2 different evaluations performed over a 6-month period. Diagnoses: Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed marked dystrophic changes with patchy immunostaining for dystrophin. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene was screened for deletions by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, but no mutations were found. Sequence analysis of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene revealed a splice-site mutation c.1812+1G>A in intron 15 and confirmed a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. Interventions: The patient has started a specific physiotherapy that avoided any deterioration in motor development and muscular wasting. Outcomes: A multidisciplinary follow-up was initiated. The genetician that followed the patient for DS was supported by the neurologist, the physiotherapist, the pulmonologist, and the cardiologist. Lessons: This peculiar “double trouble” case exemplifies the value of careful clinical evaluation and adequate clinical experience to identify the concomitance of 2 different genetic syndromes in the same patient, and it points out the significance of muscular strength assessment in DS patients to make the most correct prognosis, and, consequently, to organize the best long-term care. PMID:27930565

  6. Measuring PET scanner sensitivity; Relating count rates to image signal-to-noise ratios using noise equivalent counts

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, S.C. ); Casey, M.E. ); Hoffman, E.J. . Nuclear Medicine Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom.

  7. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  8. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hosni, Zainab S; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Al-Qasabi, Jamal; Davis, Hiedi; Al-Lawati, Hatim; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20). Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78). The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037). When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420). Conclusions The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts. PMID:27974955

  9. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  10. Case Method Instruction: 25 Minutes of Discussion Can Make a Difference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    filmed documentary about the case, or (3) an interactive CD that included pieces of the documentary paired with Socratic dialog for guiding case analysis...Second thoughts about “Cases in Auditing.” Accounting Education, 10, 421- 428. McDade, S. A. (1995). Case study pedagogy to advance critical thinking

  11. Case study of Sainte-Marie Chapel, Fontaine Chaalis (France): complementarity of different optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannacci, D.; Detalle, V.; Martos-Levif, D.; Ogien, J.; Bernikola, E.; Tornari, V.; Hatzigiannakis, K.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J.-L.; Walker, G.-C.; Brissaud, D.; Trichereau, B.; Jackson, B.; Bowen, J.

    2015-06-01

    The abbey's church of Chaalis, in the North of Paris, was founded by Louis VI as a Cistercian monastery on 10th January 1137. In 2013, in the frame the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330] the chapel was used as a practical case-study for application of the work done in a task devoted to best practices in historical buildings and monuments. In the chapel, three areas were identified as relevant. The first area was used to make an exercise on diagnosis of the different deterioration patterns. The second area was used to analyze a restored area. The third one was selected to test some hypotheses on the possibility of using the portable instruments to answer some questions related to the deterioration problems. To inspect this area, different tools were used: -Visible fluorescence under UV, - THz system, - Stimulated Infra-Red Thermography, SIRT - Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, DHSPI - Condition report by conservator-restorer. The complementarity and synergy offered by the profitable use of the different integrated tools is clearly shown in this practical exercise.

  12. Indoor and outdoor elemental mercury: a comparison of three different cases.

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Polyzou, C; Zarogianni, A M; Ouzounis, K; Rapsomanikis, S

    2017-02-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were determined in three different indoor environments: an office in a building with no indoor sources of mercury (Bldg. I), an office affected by indoor mercury emissions from an adjacent laboratory (Bldg. II), and finally, an office where an outdoor mercury spill occurred accidentally (Bldg. III). The maximum recorded indoor GEM concentrations, with the largest variation in time, were observed in Bldg. II, with a continuous indoor mercury source (lower to upper quartile 15 to 62 ng m(-3)). The lowest values were recorded in Bldg. I (lower to upper quartile 3 to 5 ng m(-3)), where indoor GEM levels were affected mainly by the exhaust of vehicles in the parking lot of the building. The monitoring of GEM indoors (lower to upper quartile 15 to 42 ng m(-3)), and outdoors (in several heights) of the Bldg. III, revealed that the cleaning up procedure that followed the spill was not adequate. Auxiliary measurements in the first two cases were the indoor microclimatic conditions, as well as the indoor CO2 concentrations, and in the third case the outdoor meteorological data. The exhaust of vehicles, the chemical reagents, and an outdoor mercury spill were found to mainly affect the observed indoor GEM levels. People in Bldg. II and people walking through the area, where Hg(0) was spilled, were found to be exposed to concentrations above some guide values.

  13. Live or computerized simulation of clinical encounters: do clinicians work up patient cases differently?

    PubMed

    Nendaz, Mathieu R; Ponte, Belen; Gut, Anne M; Perrier, Arnaud; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Junod, Alain F; Vu, Nu V

    2006-03-01

    Computer simulation of clinical encounters is increasingly used in clinical settings to train patient work-up. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to compare the characteristics of data collection and diagnostic exploration of physicians working up cases with a standardized patient and in a computerized simulation. Six clinicians of different clinical experience in internal medicine worked up three cases with a standardized patient and through a computer simulation allowing free inquiry. After each encounter, we asked the subjects to justify the information collected and to comment on their working diagnoses. The characteristics of data collected and working diagnoses generated were assessed and compared, according to the simulation method used. In the computer simulation, physicians limited their data collection and focused earlier and more specifically on information and working diagnoses with high levels of relevance. They reached a similar diagnostic accuracy and made decisions of a similar relevance. Computer simulation with a free-inquiry approach reproduces the data collection and the diagnostic exploration observed in a standardized-patient simulation and promotes an early collection of relevant data. Its contribution to extend the competence of learners in clinical settings should be further evaluated.

  14. Case Report of Four Different Primary Mesenteric Neoplasms and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is rare for primary tumors to arise from the mesentery. Lymphangiomas appear as congenital malformations of the lymphatic system or benign neoplasms as a large, thin-walled, often multilocular cyst. Mesenteric infiltration is common and during surgical treatment, adjustment of structures such as the bowel and resection of the spleen may be required. Cystic mesotheliomas are rare, benign tumors that originate from the peritoneal mesothelium and are more common in women. Mesenteric cysts are mostly benign and rare intra-abdominal tumors, and can be seen as occupying a large cyst. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare pleomorphic sarcoma that is more commonly encountered in men. After the extremities, the second most common areas to be affected are the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity. Case Presentation We encountered four cases of different primary mesenteric neoplasms that were operated at the Gazi Yasargil teaching and research hospital, department of general surgery, Diyarbakir, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014. We reviewed these primary mesenteric neoplasms and compared them with previous literature. Conclusions Primary mesenteric tumors are rare and mostly benign tumors. Complete surgical excision is necessary for all tumors and follow-up is necessary after surgery for malignant fibrous histiocytoma due to recurrence. PMID:28180018

  15. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  16. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  17. Yoctocalorimetry: phonon counting in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, M. L.

    1999-03-01

    It appears feasible with nanostructures to perform calorimetry at the level of individual thermal phonons. Here I outline an approach employing monocrystalline mesoscopic insulators, which can now be patterned from semiconductor heterostructures into complex geometries with full, three-dimensional relief. Successive application of these techniques also enables definition of integrated nanoscale thermal transducers; coupling these to a dc SQUID readout yields the requisite energy sensitivity and temporal resolution with minimal back action. The prospect of phonon counting opens intriguing experimental possibilities with analogies in quantum optics. These include fluctuation-based phonon spectroscopy, phonon shot noise in the energy relaxation of nanoscale systems, and quantum statistical phenomena such as phonon bunching and anticorrelated electron-phonon exchange.

  18. Doubles counting of highly multiplying items in reflective surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-11-18

    When a neutrons are counted from a spontaneously fissile multiplying item in a reflecting environment the temporal behavior of the correlated signal following neutron birth is complex. At early times the signal is dominated by prompt fission events coming from spontaneous fission bursts and also from prompt fast-neutron induced fission events. At later times neutrons 'returning' from the surroundings induce fission and give rise to an additional chain of correlated events. The prompt and returning components probe the fissile and fertile constituents of the item in different ways and it is potentially beneficial to exploit this fact. In this work we look at how the two components can be represented using a linear combination of two simple functions. Fitting of the composite function to the capture time distribution represents one way of quantifying the proportion of each contribution. Another approach however is to use a dual shift register analysis where after each triggering event two coincidence gates are opened, one close to the trigger that responds preferentially to the prompt dynamics and one later in time which is more sensitive to the returning neutron induced events. To decide on the best gate positions and gate widths and also to estimate the counting precision we can use the analytical fit to work out the necessary gate utilization factors which are required in both these calculations. In this work, we develop the approach. Illustrative examples are given using spent Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Pressurized light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies submersed in borated water and counted in a ring of {sup 3}He gas-filled proportional counters. In this case the prompt component is dominated by {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission and induced fast neutron fission in for example {sup 238}U while the returning low energy neutrons induce fission mainly in the fissile nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu and {sup 235}U. One requirement is to calculate the Random

  19. Individual differences in pronoun reversal: evidence from two longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen E; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of you for self-reference and I for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two children, a typically developing girl, and a boy with Asperger's syndrome. Both were precocious talkers who reversed the majority of their personal pronouns for several months. A comparison of the children's behaviors revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in pronoun use: the girl showed 'semantic confusion', using second person pronouns for self-reference, whereas the boy showed a discourse-pragmatic deficit related to perspective-taking. The results suggest that there are multiple mechanisms underlying pronoun reversal and provide qualified support for both the Name/Person Hypothesis (Clark, 1978; Charney, 1980b) and the Plurifunctional Pronoun Hypothesis (Chiat, 1982).

  20. Subitizing and Counting in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Patrick; Landerl, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Enumeration performance in standard dot counting paradigms was investigated for different age groups with typical and atypically poor development of arithmetic skills. Experiment 1 showed a high correspondence between response times and saccadic frequencies for four age groups with typical development. Age differences were more marked for the…

  1. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. Objective To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Setting Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design A case–control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. Results There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×103/µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×103/µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08–4.6, P=0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). Conclusion PC <248.010×103/µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia. PMID:27920548

  2. Representation of layer-counted proxy records as probability densities on error-free time axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Niklas; Goswami, Bedartha; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Time series derived from paleoclimatic proxy records exhibit substantial dating uncertainties in addition to the measurement errors of the proxy values. For radiometrically dated proxy archives, Goswami et al. [1] have recently introduced a framework rooted in Bayesian statistics that successfully propagates the dating uncertainties from the time axis to the proxy axis. The resulting proxy record consists of a sequence of probability densities over the proxy values, conditioned on prescribed age values. One of the major benefits of this approach is that the proxy record is represented on an accurate, error-free time axis. Such unambiguous dating is crucial, for instance, in comparing different proxy records. This approach, however, is not directly applicable to proxy records with layer-counted chronologies, as for example ice cores, which are typically dated by counting quasi-annually deposited ice layers. Hence the nature of the chronological uncertainty in such records is fundamentally different from that in radiometrically dated ones. Here, we introduce a modification of the Goswami et al. [1] approach that is specifically designed for layer-counted proxy records, instead of radiometrically dated ones. We apply our method to isotope ratios and dust concentrations in the NGRIP core, using a published 60,000-year chronology [2]. It is shown that the further one goes into the past, the more the layer-counting errors accumulate and lead to growing uncertainties in the probability density sequence for the proxy values that results from the proposed approach. For the older parts of the record, these uncertainties affect more and more a statistically sound estimation of proxy values. This difficulty implies that great care has to be exercised when comparing and in particular aligning specific events among different layer-counted proxy records. On the other hand, when attempting to derive stochastic dynamical models from the proxy records, one is only interested in the

  3. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach – a different histology for not so different gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez-Muñoz, Elisa; Gallego-Plazas, Javier; Gonzalez-Orozco, Verónica; Menarguez-Pina, Francisco; Ruiz-Maciá, José A; Morcillo, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma is an extrahepatic tumor characterized by morphological similarities to hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a cancer with an extremely poor prognosis with few cases reported. Here, we describe a 75-year-old Spanish man referred to our hospital with a history of abdominal pain, general fatigue, anorexia and sickness. Initial study revealed anemia, and computed tomography scan and abdominal ultrasonography showed multiple metastases to the liver with hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics in a liver with no cirrhotic change. Further study included a serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which resulted markedly elevated, and a conclusive esophagogastroduodenoscopy describing an elevated tumour growing through the cardia and gastroesophageal junction with foci of necrosis and haemorrhage. Gastric biopsies of the tumor revealed poorly differenciated adenocarcinoma, with hepatoid differentiation. After a diagnosis of AFP-producing hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach with multiple liver metastases was made, pallitive total gastrectomy, without liver resection, was performed. Patient recovered well after surgery, and entered into a palliative systemich chemotherapy protocol. Although this illness is recognized as having poor prognosis, the patient remains alive 8 months after the operation. Accurate diagnosis of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach is important, and should be suspected under certain circumstances. We describe this rare case of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach, and review the literature concerning the clinicopathological aspects. PMID:19674468

  4. A generalized concordance correlation coefficient based on the variance components generalized linear mixed models for overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Josep L

    2010-09-01

    The classical concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) to measure agreement among a set of observers assumes data to be distributed as normal and a linear relationship between the mean and the subject and observer effects. Here, the CCC is generalized to afford any distribution from the exponential family by means of the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) theory and applied to the case of overdispersed count data. An example of CD34+ cell count data is provided to show the applicability of the procedure. In the latter case, different CCCs are defined and applied to the data by changing the GLMM that fits the data. A simulation study is carried out to explore the behavior of the procedure with a small and moderate sample size.

  5. Practical and Policy Implications of Using Different Rural-Urban Classification Systems: A Case Study of Inpatient Service Utilization among Veterans Administration Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Ethan M.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Several classification systems exist for defining rural areas, which may lead to different interpretations of rural health services data. Purpose: To compare rural classification systems on their implications for estimating Veterans Administration (VA) utilization. Methods: Using 7 classification systems, we counted VA health care…

  6. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People's Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 (+)T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis.

  7. Different methods and metaphysics in early molecular genetics--a case of disparity of research?

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology--the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics--is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr's antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery's and Delbrück's most important studies took place concurrently. Thus analysis of their contrasting approaches lends itself to examination of the Weltanschauungen view concerning the role of fundamental (metaphysical) assumptions in scientific change, that is, the view that empirical research cannot be neutral in regard to the worldviews of the researchers. This study shows that the initial ostensible disparity (non-integratibility) of the two approaches lasted for just a short time. Ironically it was a student of Delbrück's school, James Watson, who (with Crick) proposed a chemical model, the DNA double helix, as a solution to Delbrück's problem. The structure of DNA has not been seriously challenged over the past half century Moreover, Watson's and Crick's work did not call into question the validity of Delbrück's research, but opened it up to entirely new approaches. The case of Avery and Delbrück demonstrates that after initial obstacles were overcome the different fundamental attitudes and the resulting research practices were capable of integration.

  8. Differences between true mean temperatures and means calculated with four different approaches: a case study from three Croatian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Željković, Ivana

    2016-12-01

    Different countries use varied methods for daily mean temperature calculation. None of them assesses precisely the true daily mean temperature, which is defined as the integral of continuous temperature measurements in a day. Of special scientific as well as practical importance is to find out how temperatures calculated by different methods and approaches deviate from the true daily mean temperature. Five mean daily temperatures were calculated (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4) using five different equations. The mean of 24-h temperature observations during the calendar day is accepted to represent the true, daily mean T0. The differences Δi between T0 and four other mean daily temperatures T1, T2, T3, and T4 were calculated and analysed. In the paper, analyses were done with hourly data measured in a period from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2014 (149,016 h, 192 months and 16 years) at three Croatian meteorological stations. The stations are situated in distinct climatological areas: Zagreb Grič in a mild climate, Zavižan in the cold mountain region and Dubrovnik in the hot Mediterranean. Influence of fog on the temperature is analysed. Special attention is given to analyses of extreme (maximum and minimum) daily differences occurred at three analysed stations. Selection of the fixed local hours, which is in use for calculation of mean daily temperature, plays a crucial role in diminishing of bias from the true daily temperature.

  9. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only.

  10. Variability in chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of eggplant fruit grown under different light environments: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ospina Calvo, Brian; Parapugna, Tamara L; Lagorio, M Gabriela

    2017-03-13

    The main goal of the present work was to clarify physiological strategies in plants whose chloroplasts were developed under different light environments. The specific objective was to elucidate the influence of the spectral distribution of light on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio and on photosynthetic parameters. To achieve this purpose, three species of eggplant fruit (black, purple and white striped and white) were used as a case study and their chlorophyll fluorescence was analyzed in detail. Spectra of the non-variable fluorescence in each part of the fruit were corrected for distortions by light reabsorption processes using a physical model. The main conclusion of this work was that the corrected fluorescence ratio was dependent on the contribution of each photosystem to the fluorescence and consequently on the environmental lighting conditions, becoming higher when illumination was rich in long wavelengths. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence, similar to that observed from plant leaves, was detected for the pulp of the black eggplant, for the pulp of the purple and white striped eggplant and for the intact fruit of the black eggplant. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II in the light-adapted state (F'v/F'm), the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and the photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and qNP/NPQ respectively) were determined in each case. The results could be explained very interestingly, in relation with the proportion of exciting light reaching each photosystem (I and II). The photochemical parameters obtained from variable chlorophyll fluorescence, allowed us to monitor non-destructively the physiological state of the black fruit during storage under both chilled or room-temperature conditions.

  11. Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  12. The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@helsinki.fi

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the dominant terms of the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional 'lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new 'lensing-like' terms are not negligible for wide redshift bins and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.

  13. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index.

  14. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  15. Computing the Absorption and Emission Spectra of 5-Methylcytidine in Different Solvents: A Test-Case for Different Solvation Models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, L; Pepino, A J; Segarra-Martí, J; Banyasz, A; Garavelli, M; Improta, R

    2016-09-13

    The optical spectra of 5-methylcytidine in three different solvents (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) is measured, showing that both the absorption and the emission maximum in water are significantly blue-shifted (0.08 eV). The absorption spectra are simulated based on CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculations but including solvent effects with three different approaches: (i) a hybrid implicit/explicit full quantum mechanical approach, (ii) a mixed QM/MM static approach, and (iii) a QM/MM method exploiting the structures issuing from molecular dynamics classical simulations. Ab-initio Molecular dynamics simulations based on CAM-B3LYP functionals have also been performed. The adopted approaches all reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra, giving insights on the chemical-physical effects responsible for the solvent shifts in the spectra of 5-methylcytidine and providing the basis for discussing advantages and limitations of the adopted solvation models.

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  18. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  19. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  20. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  1. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... ineligibility determinations, the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007....

  3. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

    2008-07-01

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  4. The genetic diversity of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) from different papillomatosis cases in dairy cows in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dagalp, Seval Bilge; Dogan, Fırat; Farzanı, Touraj Alighopour; Salar, Seckin; Bastan, Ayhan

    2017-02-11

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are epitheliotropic viruses that cause benign proliferative lesions in the skin (warts or papillomas) and mucous membranes of their natural hosts. In bovines specifically, 13 types of Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are currently described in the literature, although the actual number may be greater than 20. BPV types are classified into four genera based on homology within the genomic regions of the L1 ORF, the most conserved sequence. This study conducted molecular typing of BPV in dairy cows with different papillomatosis cases and investigated the presence of co-infections across distinct BPV types in the same sample. After carrying out PCR using degenerate primers and type specific primers, 35 BPV suspected samples were detected as positive for BPV and these samples were used for typing using sequence analysis/PCR with type-specific primers. This analysis identified BPV-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -9 and -10, new putative types (BPV/BR/UEL6-like viruses) and the previously described putative type viruses (BAPV-6) in the 35 BPV-positive samples. In addition, co-infections across different BPV types were widely detected in the BPV-positive samples.  This study shows that PCR assays using degenerate primers to amplify partial fragments of the L1 gene followed by sequencing is useful for genotyping BPV. However, results need confirmation using type-specific primers in order to consider co-infections. In addition, this study identified a new putative type (in the same cluster as BPV/BR/UEL6-like viruses) and the previously described putative type viruses (BAPV-6) in teat papillomatosis of Turkish dairy cows. The study shows that it is essential to identify BPV types and their prevalence/distribution, and also to determine the clinical consequences of infection for the development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic procedures.

  5. Tunnelling in Urbanised Areas - Geotechnical Case Studies at Different Project Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    Tunnelling in urbanised areas is always a challenge for the client and the contractor as well as for the designers, the engineers, and the geologists. The high demand for space and the disturbance of existing infrastructures by construction measures increasingly forces future infrastructure projects to be carried out underground. At the same time, interferences with human, natural or water resources shall be reduced and noise, dust, as well as site traffic shall be minimised. Quite frequently, politics also come into play. All these factors may lead to pre-determined routes, with ground conditions which may not always be very favourable. This article presents examples of different projects at different stages and emphasizes the importance of engineering geology in the route selection process. The most promising options are routes located in ground, which is not sensitive to settlement and/or water ingress. A longer route in favourable ground conditions is to be given preference over a shorter route in adverse ground conditions. In case of no alternative, the risk of surface settlements and exploding construction costs have to be taken into account. The first project presented is the railway line in the Inn valley / Tyrol, comprising four sections in urbanised areas, which - due to environmental and political reasons - have to cross infrastructure facilities and traffic lines, often in unfavourable ground conditions. There is a variety of construction methods in the tender design to be applied in urbanised tunnelling ranging from NATM tunnels with local groundwater draw-down and jet grouting enclosure against water pressure, to TBM-driven tunnels with hydro-shield. The second project is a planned by-pass for the city of Linz, which is at the environmental impact assessment stage. The alignment is dominated by geological considerations, avoiding unfavourable ground conditions to the greatest possible extent.

  6. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  7. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  8. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    PubMed

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology.

  9. Can the presence of erupting or exfoliating teeth increase the salivary lactobacillus count?

    PubMed

    Wikner, S; Moum, I

    1987-04-01

    The salivary lactobacillus count was assessed during school attendance among 1734 7-15-yr-old children and related to the number of teeth erupting within each age group. The prevalence of extremely low lactobacillus counts (less than or equal to 10(3)) was inversely correlated with the number of erupting teeth (P less than 0.001) but the differences were small. High counts differed only by 7% between ages with the lowest and the highest mean number of erupting or exfoliating teeth tend to elevate the lactobacillus count in individuals. On a population level the effect is small.

  10. Material separation in x-ray CT with energy resolved photon-counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolan; Meier, Dirk; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Frey, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. Methods: To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experiments using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. Results: In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon-counting

  11. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  12. Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksey, Ray W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…

  13. Counting Melodies: Recursion through Music for a Liberal Arts Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwick, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In the study of music from a mathematical perspective, several types of counting problems naturally arise. For example, how many different rhythms of a specified length (in beats) can be written if we restrict ourselves to only quarter notes (one beat) and half notes (two beats)? What if we allow whole notes, dotted half notes, etc.? Or, what if…

  14. Single-molecule localization software applied to photon counting imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Liisa M; Kilfeather, Tiffany; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Centroiding in photon counting imaging has traditionally been accomplished by a single-step, noniterative algorithm, often implemented in hardware. Single-molecule localization techniques in superresolution fluorescence microscopy are conceptually similar, but use more sophisticated iterative software-based fitting algorithms to localize the fluorophore. Here, we discuss common features and differences between single-molecule localization and photon counting imaging and investigate the suitability of single-molecule localization software for photon event localization. We find that single-molecule localization software packages designed for superresolution microscopy-QuickPALM, rapidSTORM, and ThunderSTORM-can work well when applied to photon counting imaging with a microchannel-plate-based intensified camera system: photon event recognition can be excellent, fixed pattern noise can be low, and the microchannel plate pores can easily be resolved.

  15. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  16. Comparing methods for analyzing overdispersed count data in aquatic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Noe, Douglas A; Bailer, A John; Noble, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Endpoints in aquatic toxicity tests can be measured using a variety of measurement scales including dichotomous (survival), continuous (growth) and count (number of young). A distribution is assumed for an endpoint and analyses proceed accordingly. In certain situations, the assumed distribution may be incorrect and this may lead to incorrect statistical inference. The present study considers the analysis of count effects, here motivated by the Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction study. While the Poisson probability model is a common starting point, this distribution assumes that the mean and variance are the same. This will not be the case if there is some extraneous source of variability in the system, and in this case, the variability may exceed the mean. A computer simulation study was used to examine the impact of overdispersion or outliers on the analysis of count data. Methods that assumed Poisson or negative binomially distributed outcomes were compared to methods that accommodated this potential overdispersion using quasi-likelihood (QL) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). If the data were truly Poisson, the adjusted methods still performed at nominal type I error rates. In the cases of overdispersed counts, the Poisson assumed methods resulted in rejection rates that exceeded nominal levels and standard errors for regression coefficients that were too narrow. The negative binomial methods worked best in the case when the data were, in fact, negative binomial but did not maintain nominal characteristics in other situations. In general, the QL and GLMM methods performed reasonably based on the present study, although all procedures suffered some impact in the presence of potential outliers. In particular, the QL is arguably preferred because it makes fewer assumptions than the GLMM and performed well over the range of conditions considered.

  17. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  18. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable…

  19. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  20. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  1. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  2. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  3. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  4. Noise models for low counting rate coherent diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Godard, Pierre; Allain, Marc; Chamard, Virginie; Rodenburg, John

    2012-11-05

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lens-less microscopy method that extracts the complex-valued exit field from intensity measurements alone. It is of particular importance for microscopy imaging with diffraction set-ups where high quality lenses are not available. The inversion scheme allowing the phase retrieval is based on the use of an iterative algorithm. In this work, we address the question of the choice of the iterative process in the case of data corrupted by photon or electron shot noise. Several noise models are presented and further used within two inversion strategies, the ordered subset and the scaled gradient. Based on analytical and numerical analysis together with Monte-Carlo studies, we show that any physical interpretations drawn from a CDI iterative technique require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the noise model and the used inversion method. We observe that iterative algorithms often assume implicitly a noise model. For low counting rates, each noise model behaves differently. Moreover, the used optimization strategy introduces its own artefacts. Based on this analysis, we develop a hybrid strategy which works efficiently in the absence of an informed initial guess. Our work emphasises issues which should be considered carefully when inverting experimental data.

  5. Gender Difference or Indifference? Detective Decision Making in Sexual Assault Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…

  6. From Problem-Based Learning to Interrupted Lecture: Using Case-Based Teaching in Different Class Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Although many examples of using problem-based learning and case studies in teaching science occur in the literature, instructors may still have questions about when, why, and how to use these strategies, especially in different class settings. In this article, I describe my experience in using these pedagogical methods in three different class…

  7. Counting Coups on the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talahongva, Patty

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the nation offer scholarships to outstanding student athletes to entice them to attend their particular schools. That's not the case with tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). While they may be less expensive to attend, the tribal colleges usually don't have much of a budget for athletics. Still, student players…

  8. Testing for homogeneity in meta-analysis I. The one-parameter case: standardized mean difference.

    PubMed

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Dollinger, Michael B; Bjørkestøl, Kirsten

    2011-03-01

    Meta-analysis seeks to combine the results of several experiments in order to improve the accuracy of decisions. It is common to use a test for homogeneity to determine if the results of the several experiments are sufficiently similar to warrant their combination into an overall result. Cochran's Q statistic is frequently used for this homogeneity test. It is often assumed that Q follows a chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis of homogeneity, but it has long been known that this asymptotic distribution for Q is not accurate for moderate sample sizes. Here, we present an expansion for the mean of Q under the null hypothesis that is valid when the effect and the weight for each study depend on a single parameter, but for which neither normality nor independence of the effect and weight estimators is needed. This expansion represents an order O(1/n) correction to the usual chi-square moment in the one-parameter case. We apply the result to the homogeneity test for meta-analyses in which the effects are measured by the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d-statistic). In this situation, we recommend approximating the null distribution of Q by a chi-square distribution with fractional degrees of freedom that are estimated from the data using our expansion for the mean of Q. The resulting homogeneity test is substantially more accurate than the currently used test. We provide a program available at the Paper Information link at the Biometrics website http://www.biometrics.tibs.org for making the necessary calculations.

  9. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the

  10. A comparison of different hydrologic modeling approaches: the case study of Cerfone river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Sara; Di Francesco, Silvia; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of extreme meteorological events and the strong land exploitation, especially the overbuilding and urbanization of the flood prone areas, has led to a considerable increase of the hydraulic risk associated to these areas and, consequently, to an effort of institutions and researchers to find proper solutions. The analyzed case study deals with the Cerfone river, a tributary of the Tiber River, in the Tuscany region (Italy). The complex morphology of the floodplains and the presence of hydraulic structures (i.e. bridges) that block the river discharge cross section, cause the periodic flooding of the neighbouring small villages during extreme weather events. The flood hazard management and safety plan implementation is strictly connected to the hydrological modeling of river basin.The uncertainty in rain- run off evaluation can lead to different results in terms of discharge peak and hydrographs shape, affecting then all the next risk analysis. The choice of the hydrologic model to apply in the study of Hydraulic Risk delineation is therefore a critical issue. In this work three different approaches to model the basin hydrological response are used and discussed: i) lumped model built in accordance with the standards of methodological model of ALTo (ALluvioni Toscana, Tuscany Region), generally used in the region for hydrologic and hydraulic studies; ii) a semi-distributed model, performed using the hydrological software model HEC - HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, US Army Corps of Engineers), which is based on the evaluation of the value of critical duration storm at significant sections of the basin. It is based on models for estimated losses, inflows - outflows transformation method and meteorological model in accordance with the standards of ALTo; iii) lumped model based on the rational equation and the concentration time of Giandotti, in accordance with the methodology of the Tiber River Basin Authority. The critical analysis and

  11. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  12. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  13. Evaluation of calibrated 1 and 10 microl loops and dipslide as compared to pipettes for detection of low count bacteriuria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Møller, N; Espersen, F

    2000-01-01

    Criteria for defining urinary tract infection have changed as the importance of low count bacteriuria in patients with symptoms of infection has been recognized. Little has been published, however, regarding the ability of routine laboratory methods to meet this new challenge. We compared 1 microl and 10 microl calibrated plastic loops (Nunc, Denmark), to a commonly used dipslide method (Uricult, Orion, Finland) using a 0.1 ml pipette as the gold standard. Four typical uropathogens, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis, were mixed in pooled human urine in numbers representing low counts, i.e. 10(2), 10(3), and 10(4), together with 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml, and sampling with the four methods was performed 20 times for each with each bacterium and each dilution. Colony counts showed that in many cases the 1 microl loop did not deposit any bacteria on the agar plate when colony counts were lower than 10(4) cfu/ml. The 10 microl loop constantly deposited 1.5 times higher numbers of bacteria than predicted, which correlated with the results of weighing the amount of water sampled, i.e. 15.24 (1.55) microg (mean (SD)). The dipslide counts correlated with the 10 microl loop although the agar mounts on the slides absorbed water equal to about 200 microl. There were no significant differences in the counts of the four different bacteria. Variation coefficients increased with decreasing volumes sampled, but the 10 microl loop was found sufficiently exact to detect counts from 10(3) to 10(4), since only 10-fold multiples are usually reported for urine cultures.

  14. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space Γ(ℂn) have the whole real line ℝ as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ℤ+ = {0, 1, 2,…}. An n-mode Gaussian state in Γ(ℂn) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in Γ(ℂn), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ℤ+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of Γ(ℂn) = Γ(ℂ)⊗n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lévy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  15. Cutaneous epithelioid angiomatous nodule: different views or interpretations in the analysis of ten new cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Daraji, W I; Prescott, R J; Abdellaoui, A; Khan, M M; Kulkarni, K; Youssef, M M; Zelger, B G; Zelger, B

    2009-03-15

    Classification schemes proposed for vascular lesions are the subjects of significant controversy. Cutaneous epithelioid angiomatous nodule (CEAN) was described in 2004, but there is no agreement as to whether this is a distinct entity or a type of either epithelioid hemangioma or angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. We present a typical case of CEAN and discuss nine other cases from our institution. We then provide two opposing viewpoints concerning its classification.

  16. SiPM for fast Photon-Counting and Multiphoton Detection.

    PubMed

    Eraerds, P; Legré, M; Rochas, A; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N

    2007-10-29

    We demonstrate fast counting and multiphoton detection abilities of a Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM). In fast counting mode we are able to detect two consecutive photons separated by only 2.3 ns corresponding to 430 MHz. The counting efficiency for small optical intensities at lambda= 532 nm was found to be around 16% with a dark count rate of 52 kHz at T= -5 masculine C. Using the SiPM in multiphoton detection mode, we find a good signal discrimination for different numbers of simultaneously detected photons.

  17. Distributed vs. Focused Attention (count vs. estimate)

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sang Chul; Evans, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Quantity or numerosity is one of the basic properties of our environment. Humans and animals both have the neural representation of quantity or “number sense”. The ability to extract and to manipulate numbers is closely related to our various cognitive functions such as the capacity of working memory, mathematical achievement, and texture perception. Evidence shows that the sense of number is not a unitary mechanism but rather a composition of two distinct processes; enumeration and estimation. The review examines how numerosity is represented in the visual domain and its relation to different modes of attention. Enumeration or counting permits an exact representation of a distinct number of objects, with an awareness of each object achieved through focal deployment of attention to each object serially. On the other hand, estimation involves an approximation of the number of different items or a sense of ensemble statistics, achieved through fast deployment of distributed attention over a set of objects as a whole. In this overview we suggest that a focused attention mode is more suitable for enumeration, whereas a distributed attention mode is better for estimation. PMID:22121459

  18. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts in malignant melanoma associated with benign intradermal nevus.

    PubMed

    Pich, A; Aloi, F; Margaria, E; Tomasini, C

    1991-01-01

    A silver colloidal technique to demonstrate argyrophilic proteins of the nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) was performed on sections of 20 cases of malignant melanoma (MM) associated with underlying benign nevus (BN). In these cases, significant different AgNOR counts were found for MM and BN. In addition, this technique permitted the identification of melanocytic cells located between malignant and benign cells showing AgNOR scores intermediate (5.51) between BN (2.6) and MM (7.71) with a more complex and bizarre morphology than that observed in BN. The AgNOR technique can be suitable in the identification of residual nevus cells in MM, especially when their number is minimal and the common histologic criteria are unsatisfactory; it can also increase the understanding of the natural history of MM.

  19. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  20. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  1. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost.

  2. Relationship between somatic cell count, polymorphonuclear leucocyte count and quality parameters in bovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Erik; Persson-Waller, Karin; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Ostensson, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-05-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) in bovine bulk tank milk is presently used as an indicator of raw milk quality, reflecting the udder health status of the herd. During mastitis, SCC increases, mostly owing to an influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from blood into milk, with a concomitant change in milk composition. Bulk tank milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, as well as polymorphonuclear leucocyte count (PMNC), to study relationships between SCC, PMNC and various raw milk quality traits, i.e. contents of total protein, whey protein, casein, fat and lactose, casein number, proteolysis and rheological properties. The proportion of PMN, obtained by direct microscopy, was significantly higher in samples with high SCC compared with low SCC samples. SCC and PMNC were strongly correlated, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.85. High SCC samples had lower lactose and casein contents, lower casein number and more proteolysis than low SCC samples. Samples with high PMNC had a lower casein number than low PMNC samples. Samples with high and low SCC or PMNC did not differ in respect to rheological properties. Our results do not indicate that PMNC is a better biomarker than SCC for raw bulk tank milk quality, as previously proposed.

  3. Factors associated with CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-negative Senegalese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mair, C; Hawes, S E; Agne, H D; Sow, P S; N'doye, I; Manhart, L E; Fu, P L; Gottlieb, G S; Kiviat, N B

    2008-01-01

    CD4+ lymphocytes are a primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and CD4 counts are one of the factors used to measure disease progression in HIV-positive individuals. CD4 counts vary in uninfected individuals and across populations due to a variety of demographic, environmental, immunological and genetic factors that probably persist throughout the course of HIV infection. This study sought to determine reference levels and identify factors that influence lymphocyte counts in 681 HIV-uninfected adults in Senegal, where residents are exposed to a variety of infectious diseases and other conditions that may affect CD4 counts. Lymphocyte counts were assessed in commercial sex workers, symptomatic men and women presenting to the University of Dakar infectious disease clinic for out-patient care and women seeking family planning services. CD4 and CD3 lymphocyte counts differed between the four study groups (P < 0·01). Men had the lowest mean CD4 count (711·6 cells/μl), while commercial sex workers had the highest levels (966·0 cells/μl). After adjustment for age and other behavioural and clinical factors, the difference in CD4 counts between the three groups of women did not remain. However, both gender and smoking were associated independently with CD4 counts, as men maintained lower mean CD4 counts (β = −156·4 cells/μl, P < 0·01) and smokers had higher mean CD4 counts (β = 124·0 cells/μl, P < 0·01) than non-smokers in multivariable analyses. This study is the first to explore factors that may influence CD4 levels in Senegal and to estimate baseline CD4 levels among HIV-negatives, information that may guide clinicians in interpreting CD4 counts. PMID:18190600

  4. Conservative Management of Invasive Placentation: Two Cases with Different Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Fay, Emily E; Norquist, Barbara; Jolley, Jennifer; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Background When placenta accreta complicates a delivery, the typical management is to perform a cesarean hysterectomy. Other management strategies, including leaving the placenta in situ, have been attempted and supported in some cases. This may allow for an interval hysterectomy, which can potentially decrease average blood loss and/or allow a minimally invasive approach to the hysterectomy. Cases We present two cases of women with invasive placentation managed conservatively with interval hysterectomy. One woman was managed with robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery and the other with an open surgical approach. Conclusion These cases highlight the successful use of conservative management for invasive placentation in two stable patients and showcase the novel use of a robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for management of invasive placentation.

  5. Conservative Management of Invasive Placentation: Two Cases with Different Surgical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Emily E.; Norquist, Barbara; Jolley, Jennifer; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background When placenta accreta complicates a delivery, the typical management is to perform a cesarean hysterectomy. Other management strategies, including leaving the placenta in situ, have been attempted and supported in some cases. This may allow for an interval hysterectomy, which can potentially decrease average blood loss and/or allow a minimally invasive approach to the hysterectomy. Cases We present two cases of women with invasive placentation managed conservatively with interval hysterectomy. One woman was managed with robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery and the other with an open surgical approach. Conclusion These cases highlight the successful use of conservative management for invasive placentation in two stable patients and showcase the novel use of a robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for management of invasive placentation. PMID:27294007

  6. Primary ovarian insufficiency: different approaches in three cases and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana Marina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the condition of intermittent or permanent gonadal insufficiency that occurs in women before the age of 40. We describe three cases of POI referred to the outpatient endocrinology clinic of a university hospital. The three patients met diagnostic criteria for POI and were managed by specific approaches tailored to individualized goals. In the first case, the main concern was fertility and the reproductive prognosis. The second patient was a carrier of a common genetic cause of POI: premutation of the FMR1 gene. The third case was a patient diagnosed with a POI and established osteoporosis, a common complication of estrogen deprivation. This study reports the treatment and follow-up of these cases, with an emphasis on relevant aspects of individualized management, alongside a brief literature review. Learning points A diagnosis of POI should be considered in patients presenting with amenorrhea or irregular menses and high serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels before age 40 years. Patients with POI without an established cause, especially in familial cases, should be tested for FMR1 mutations. Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy is indicated since diagnosis until at least the estimated age of menopause, and is the cornerstone for maintaining the good health of breast and urogenital tract and for primary or secondary osteoporosis prevention in POI. Fertility should be managed through an individualized approach based on patient possibilities, such as egg or embryo donation and ovarian cryopreservation; pregnancy can occur spontaneously in a minority of cases. Women with POI should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27252868

  7. Iowa Kids Count 2009: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This latest annually produced Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2009: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 18 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county-level. The 18 indicators presented in the data book contain an expanse of data from economic,…

  8. Iowa Kids Count 2010: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2010: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including…

  9. Iowa Kids Count 2011: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2011: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including…

  10. Iowa Kids Count 2008: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child and Family Policy Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This new Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2008: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," is the latest annually produced book containing data on 18 different indicators of child and family well-being for the United States, Iowa and its 99 counties. The 18 indicators provide a wealth of health, education, welfare and…

  11. Relationship between Y-chromosomal DNA haplotype and sperm count in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paracchini, S; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; De Santo, M; Palka, G; Tyler-Smith, C

    2002-12-01

    Forty Italian individuals with sperm counts in the range 20-130x10(6)/ml were typed with eleven Y-specific binary markers. Five Y haplogroups (1, 2, 3, 9 and 21) were present in the sample. In Italy, in contrast to Denmark, sperm counts were similar in the different haplogroups.

  12. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND..., the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following the final day of...

  14. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  15. A Case Study of Conflict in an Educational Workplace: Managing Personal and Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Michael John

    2006-01-01

    This article is about conflict in an educational workplace setting. It reports on a case study investigating the emergence, development, and management of conflict among diverse native English speakers working as language instructors within a Japanese university. The example of conflict presented, which deals with divergent assumptions about the…

  16. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  17. "Irreconcilable Differences" between Parent and Child: A Case Report of Interactional Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kay M.

    1978-01-01

    The article presents two illustrative case reports of an unusual type of child abuse: parents who use their child as a representative of their own unacceptable impulses, thereby perceiving the youngster as evil and seeking experts to confirm their mistaken opinions. (Author/DLS)

  18. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning and Communication Pedagogy: Does Working in Teams Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsay, Mina; Brady, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative learning has increasingly become a popular form of active pedagogy employed in academic institutions. This case study explores the relationship between cooperative learning and academic performance in higher education, specifically in the field of communication. Findings from a questionnaire administered to undergraduate students in a…

  19. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  20. Managing Bullying and Managing Difference: A Case Study of One Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter; Jenks, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Much work on school bullying focuses on developing our understanding of the various factors that contribute to bullying and its management. This case study focuses on the possible connections between parts and offers a metaperspective of one mainstream secondary school. Demonstrating that bullying and its management is embedded within the network…

  1. Expertise in Auditing: Case Representation Differences between Economy Students, Novice, Intermediate and Expert Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaatstra, Rina F.; And Others

    Medical expertise research methods were used to explore the relationship between auditing expertise and case representation. Subjects were 8 first-year economy students, 8 fourth-year auditing students, 8 postgraduate students in auditing, and 8 experienced auditors in the Netherlands, ranging in experience from only a limited knowledge of…

  2. Polypoid Dysplasia in Barrett's Esophagus: Diagnosis, Management, and Very Different Outcomes in Two Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan; Gandhi, Kunjal; Infantolino, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background. Barrett's esophagus is associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to adenocarcinoma. Rarely, dysplastic polypoid lesions are superimposed on Barrett's esophagus. Most reported cases of polypoid dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus have been advanced on presentation and treated with esophagectomy. We describe two cases of polypoid changes in Barrett's esophagus and treatment with polypectomy followed by radiofrequency ablation. Cases. A 75 yo male presented with esophageal polyps, which on biopsy showed gastric cardia/foveolar mucosa with focal intestinal metaplasia without dysplasia. Biopsy of intervening flat mucosa was consistent with nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Extensive hot snare polypectomies were performed followed by RFA. One year later, repeat EGD revealed no evidence of Barrett's esophagus. A 61 yo male presented with esophageal polyps, which on biopsy showed gastric cardia/foveolar mucosa with intestinal metaplasia and foci of low-grade dysplasia. Extensive hot snare polypectomies were performed followed by RFA. At repeat EGD, four months later, an esophageal mass was found. Biopsy of the mass showed invasive adenocarcinoma. The patient was referred for esophagectomy. Conclusion. This case series shows two outcomes, one with successful eradication of dysplasia and the other with disease progression to invasive adenocarcinoma requiring esophagectomy. PMID:27999692

  3. Bitter Strawberries: The Construction of Differences in a Multicultural School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Faraco, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Vicioso, Juan Ramón; Pérez-Moreno, Heliodoro Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study looking at the views of teachers and other educational professionals pertaining to the academic progress and general integration of immigrant schoolchildren in multicultural schools in the province of Huelva (Andalusia, Spain). It is organised into three sections: first, the geographical and social…

  4. Secondary ion counting for surface-sensitive chemical analysis of organic compounds using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy with cluster ion impact ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Narumi, K.

    2011-03-15

    We report suitable secondary ion (SI) counting for surface-sensitive chemical analysis of organic compounds using time-of-flight (TOF) SI mass spectroscopy, based on considerably higher emission yields of SIs induced by cluster ion impact ionization. A SI counting system for a TOF SI mass spectrometer was developed using a fast digital storage oscilloscope, which allows us to perform various types of analysis as all the signal pulses constituting TOF SI mass spectra can be recorded digitally in the system. Effects of the SI counting strategy on SI mass spectra were investigated for C{sub 8} and C{sub 60} cluster ion impacts on an organically contaminated silicon wafer and on polytetrafluoroethylene targets by comparing TOF SI mass spectra obtained from the same recorded signals with different SI counting procedures. Our results show that the use of a counting system, which can cope with high SI yields, is necessary for quantitative analysis of SI mass spectra obtained under high SI yield per impact conditions, including the case of cluster ion impacts on organic compounds.

  5. Mathematics anxiety affects counting but not subitizing during visual enumeration.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Risko, Evan F; Ansari, Daniel; Fugelsang, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with mathematics anxiety have been found to differ from their non-anxious peers on measures of higher-level mathematical processes, but not simple arithmetic. The current paper examines differences between mathematics anxious and non-mathematics anxious individuals in more basic numerical processing using a visual enumeration task. This task allows for the assessment of two systems of basic number processing: subitizing and counting. Mathematics anxious individuals, relative to non-mathematics anxious individuals, showed a deficit in the counting but not in the subitizing range. Furthermore, working memory was found to mediate this group difference. These findings demonstrate that the problems associated with mathematics anxiety exist at a level more basic than would be predicted from the extant literature.

  6. Different degrees of ischaemic injury in the right and left ventricle in cases of severe, nonfatal, pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, T; Schrag, B; Sabatasso, S; Lobrinus, J A; Schmeling, A; Mangin, P

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) is a common complication of blunt force traumas with bone fractures. Severe forms cause impedance to right ventricular (RV) ejection, with eventual right heart ischaemia and failure. In a prospective study, we have investigated 220 consecutive autopsy cases (73 females, 147 males, mean age 52.1 years, min 14 years, max 91 years). PFE was detected in 52 cases that were divided into three groups according to the degree of PFE (1-3). A fourth group of cases of violent death without PFE was used for comparison. In each case, histology (H&E, Masson) and immunohistochemistry (fibronectin and C5b-9) were performed on six cardiac samples (anterior, lateral and posterior wall of both ventricles). The degree of cardiac damage was registered in each sample and the mean degree of damage was calculated in each case at the RV and left ventricle (LV). Moreover, a parameter ∆ that is the difference between the mean damage at the RV and the LV was calculated in each case. The results were compared within each group and between the groups. In the present study, we could not detect prevalent RV damage in cases of high degree PFE as we did in our previous investigation. In the group PFE3 the difference of the degree of damage between the RV and LV was higher than the one observed in the groups PFE0-2 with the antibody anti-fibronectin. Prevalent right ventricular stress in cases of severe PFE may explain this observation.

  7. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  8. Statistical mapping of count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Scott, J. Michael; Heglund, Patricia J.; Morrison, Michael L.; Haufler, Jonathan B.; Wall, William A.

    2002-01-01

    We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to

  9. Working Together and Making a Difference: Virginia Western Community College and Goodwill Industries of the Valleys Partnership Case Study Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Bill

    2015-01-01

    "Working Together and Making A Difference: Virginia Western Community College and Goodwill Industries of the Valleys Partnership Case Study Report" is a report aimed at informing community college and workforce leaders of best practices for launching and expanding partnerships to serve students more effectively. Co-published by AspenWSI…

  10. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  11. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  12. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  13. Training counting skills and working memory in preschool.

    PubMed

    Kyttälä, Minna; Kanerva, Kaisa; Kroesbergen, Evelyn

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that early numeracy skills predict later mathematics learning and that they can be improved by training. Cognitive abilities, especially working memory (WM), play an important role in early numeracy, as well. Several studies have shown that working memory is related to early numeracy. So far, existing literature offers a good few examples of studies in which WM training has led to improvements in early numerical performance as well. In this study, we aim at investigating the effects of two different training conditions: (1) counting training; and (2) simultaneous training of WM and counting on five- to six-year-old preschoolers' (N = 61) counting skills. The results show that domain-specific training in mathematical skills is more effective in improving early numerical performance than WM and counting training combined. Based on our results, preschool-aged children do not seem to benefit from short period group training of WM skills. However, because of several intervening factors, one should not conclude that young children's WM training is ineffectual. Instead, future studies should be conducted to further investigate the issue.

  14. Improving reliability of live/dead cell counting through automated image mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Filippo; Tesei, Anna; Paganelli, Giulia; Zoli, Wainer; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Cell counting is one of the basic needs of most biological experiments. Numerous methods and systems have been studied to improve the reliability of counting. However, at present, manual cell counting performed with a hemocytometer still represents the gold standard, despite several problems limiting reproducibility and repeatability of the counts and, at the end, jeopardizing their reliability in general. We present our own approach based on image processing techniques to improve counting reliability. It works in two stages: first building a high-resolution image of the hemocytometer's grid, then counting the live and dead cells by tagging the image with flags of different colours. In particular, we introduce GridMos (http://sourceforge.net/p/gridmos), a fully-automated mosaicing method to obtain a mosaic representing the whole hemocytometer's grid. In addition to offering more significant statistics, the mosaic "freezes" the culture status, thus permitting analysis by more than one operator. Finally, the mosaic achieved can thus be tagged by using an image editor, thus markedly improving counting reliability. The experiments performed confirm the improvements brought about by the proposed counting approach in terms of both reproducibility and repeatability, also suggesting the use of a mosaic of an entire hemocytometer's grid, then labelled trough an image editor, as the best likely candidate for the new gold standard method in cell counting.

  15. Intestinal amyloidosis: two cases with different patterns of clinical and imaging presentation.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Pier-Paolo; Segreto, Sabrina; Mancini, Marcello; Rispo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Rinaldi, Ciro-Roberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Salvatore, Marco

    2010-05-28

    The involvement of the small bowel in systemic forms of amyloidosis may be diffuse or very rarely focal. Some cases of focal amyloidomas of the duodenum and jejunum without extraintestinal manifestations have been reported. The focal amyloidomas consisted of extensive amyloid infiltration of the entire intestinal wall thickness. Radiological barium studies, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) patterns of diffuse small bowel amyloidosis have been described: the signs are non-specific and may include small-bowel dilatation, symmetric bowel wall thickening, mesenteric infiltration, and mesenteric adenopathy. No data are available about the positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of intestinal amyloidosis. We report two cases of small bowel amyloidosis: the former characterized by focal deposition of amyloid proteins exclusively within blood vessel walls of the terminal ileum, the latter characterized by diffuse intestinal involvement observed on MRI and PET/CT studies.

  16. Intestinal amyloidosis: Two cases with different patterns of clinical and imaging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Segreto, Sabrina; Mancini, Marcello; Rispo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Rinaldi, Ciro Roberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Salvatore, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of the small bowel in systemic forms of amyloidosis may be diffuse or very rarely focal. Some cases of focal amyloidomas of the duodenum and jejunum without extraintestinal manifestations have been reported. The focal amyloidomas consisted of extensive amyloid infiltration of the entire intestinal wall thickness. Radiological barium studies, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) patterns of diffuse small bowel amyloidosis have been described: the signs are non-specific and may include small-bowel dilatation, symmetric bowel wall thickening, mesenteric infiltration, and mesenteric adenopathy. No data are available about the positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of intestinal amyloidosis. We report two cases of small bowel amyloidosis: the former characterized by focal deposition of amyloid proteins exclusively within blood vessel walls of the terminal ileum, the latter characterized by diffuse intestinal involvement observed on MRI and PET/CT studies. PMID:20503459

  17. Attitudinal and individual differences influence perceptions of mock child sexual assault cases involving gay defendants.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2013-01-01

    Many people hold negative attitudes and stereotypes about gay men, including the stereotype that gay men are likely to be child molesters. This article explored the implications of this stereotype for judgments made in a hypothetical legal case involving child sexual abuse accusations against a male teacher by either a male or female victim. Mock jurors who held the most anti-gay attitudes and those who endorsed the stereotype of gay men as child molesters made the most pro-prosecution judgments in scenarios involving gay defendants. A new scale (the Stereotypes about Gays and Child Abuse scale) was developed to assess the extent to which participants endorsed the stereotype of gay men as being likely to sexually abuse children. This scale was a stronger predictor of case judgments than existing, more general scales measuring biases against homosexuality.

  18. Comment on: 'A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images'.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In order to be able to calculate half-count images from already acquired data, White and Lawson published their method based on Poisson resampling. They verified their method experimentally by measurements with a Co-57 flood source. In this comment their results are reproduced and confirmed by a direct numerical simulation in Matlab. Not only Poisson resampling, but also two direct redrawing methods were investigated. Redrawing methods were based on a Poisson and a Gaussian distribution. Mean, standard deviation, skewness and excess kurtosis half-count/full-count ratios were determined for all methods, and compared to the theoretical values for a Poisson distribution. Statistical parameters showed the same behavior as in the original note and showed the superiority of the Poisson resampling method. Rounding off before saving of the half count image had a severe impact on counting statistics for counts below 100. Only Poisson resampling was not affected by this, while Gaussian redrawing was less affected by it than Poisson redrawing. Poisson resampling is the method of choice, when simulating half-count (or less) images from full-count images. It simulates correctly the statistical properties, also in the case of rounding off of the images.

  19. Differences of case-mix according to the type of hospital: methodological aspects and results.

    PubMed

    Constant, E; Garin, H; Bouchet, C; Kohler, F

    1998-01-01

    This study has brought to the fore variations of case-mix according to the type of French hospitals taken into consideration. The GHM line-up in the French classification of the hospital stays (French DRG) have also been studied and variations linked to the type of hospitals have been noticed too. This survey has been carried out thanks to the anonymous discharge summary issued by the national and the regional databases.

  20. A study of thunderstorm microphysical properties and lightning flash counts associated with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. E.; Splitt, M. E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lazarus, S.; Smith, D. M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-04-01

    The terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) is an emission of highly energetic radiation produced by or at least in close association with lightning. Previous investigations attempted to isolate the production mechanisms and production altitude(s) of TGFs as well as macrophysical characteristics, while thunderstorm microphysical characteristics were largely ignored. This investigation into thunderstorms and their hydrometeor and flash characteristics utilize temporal and spatial coincident satellite passes between the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to determine the bulk (or footprint) microphysical properties of two types of study events, the thunderstorm complexes which are associated with TGFs (TGF case) and the thunderstorm complexes which did not produce a TGF detected by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager during the pass (non-TGF case). Results are presented for two different comparison methods. The first case utilizes geographic region weighted by TGF distribution, and the second is based on TGF percentage of occurrence when compared to total flash count of data set. Results show that the associated storms around the TGF location possess differences in the hydrometeor concentrations: cloud liquid water, cloud ice, precipitation water, and precipitation ice. These results take place at different levels of the atmosphere, including the mixed phase region. Additionally, results will show that TGFs are a consistent percentage of observed flashes as the rate of TGFs as a function of Lightning Imaging Sensor flash count is relatively constant.

  1. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  2. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  3. Diversity or Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieze, Carol; Quesenberry, Jeria L.; Kemp, Elizabeth; Velazquez, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gender difference approaches to the participation of women in computing have not provided adequate explanations for women's declining interest in computer science (CS) and related technical fields. Indeed, the search for gender differences can work against diversity which we define as a cross-gender spectrum of characteristics, interests,…

  4. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  5. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  6. Teachers' Cultural Differences: Case Studies Of Geography Teachers In Brisbane, Changchun and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Lidstone, John

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory study is to identify variations in the ways in which individual teachers in different educational contexts interpret their curriculum and plan their lessons and in particular to explore the possibility that cultural differences as identified by Hofstede (1991) may be a contributing factor to understanding…

  7. Motivation to Learn English and Age Differences: The Case of Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ruth M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate motivation; however, limited research has been done to evaluate how age differences have an impact on the second language learning pattern. This study, therefore, investigated how gender differences place impact on a group of Chinese immigrant students' motivation to learn English. It is hoped…

  8. Make the Case for Coaching: Bolster Support with Evidence That Coaching Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Ellen; Medrich, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers want to see evidence that coaching makes a difference for teachers and students. To this group, making a difference means improving performance on standardized tests. In the current fiscal climate, leaders want to know not only that their investments are based on firm grounds theoretically, but also that instructional coaching works.…

  9. Case Studies on the Symbolism of Difference-Finding Problems in First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a class on subtraction or difference-finding, problems such as "There are eight white flowers and five red flowers, how many more white flowers are there than red flowers?" used in the teaching of Japanese first grade children. Describes three instances of introductory teaching of "difference-finding" problems in the…

  10. A Case Study of American and Chinese College Students' Motivation Differences in Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Chunjuan; Mei, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in non-face-to-face instructional contexts. Existing researches into motivation in online learning environment have revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify whether American and…

  11. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  12. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  13. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  14. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  15. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  16. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  17. Comparison of Different EO Sensors for Mapping Tree Species- A Case Study in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enβle, Fabian; Kattenborn, Teja; Koch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The variety of different remote sensing sensors and thus the types of data specifications which are available is increasing continuously. Especially the differences in geometric, radiometric and temporal resolutions of different platforms affect their ability for the mapping of forests. These differences hinder the comparability and application of uniform methods of different remotely sensed data across the same region of interest. The quality and quantity of retrieved forest parameters is directly dependent on the data source, and therefore the objective of this project is to analyse the relationship between the data source and its derived parameters. A comparison of different optical EO-data (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution of specific bands) will help to define the optimum data sets to produce a reproducible method to provide additional inputs to the Dragon cooperative project, specifically to method development for woody biomass estimation and biodiversity assessment services. This poster presents the first results on tree species mapping in a mixed temperate forest by satellite imagery taken from four different sensors. Tree species addressed in this pilot study are: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and red oak (Quercus rubra). The spatial resolution varies from 2m to 30m and the spectral resolutions range from 8bands up to 155bands.

  18. Comparison of Different EO Sensors for Mapping Tree Species- A Case Study in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, Fabian; Kattenborn, Teja; Koch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The variety of different remote sensing sensors and thus the types of data specifications which are available is increasing continuously. Especially the differences in geometric, radiometric and temporal resolutions of different platforms affect their ability for the mapping of forests. These differences hinder the comparability and application of uniform methods of different remotely sensed data across the same region of interest. The quality and quantity of retrieved forest parameters is directly dependent on the data source, and therefore the objective of this project is to analyse the relationship between the data source and its derived parameters. A comparison of different optical EO-data (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution of specific bands) will help to define the optimum data sets to produce a reproducible method to provide additional inputs to the Dragon cooperative project, specifically to method development for woody biomass estimation and biodiversity assessment services. This poster presents the first results on tree species mapping in a mixed temperate forest by satellite imagery taken from four different sensors. Tree species addressed in this pilot study are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and red oak (Quercus rubra). The spatial resolution varies from 2m to 30m and the spectral resolutions range from 8bands up to 155bands.

  19. Estimating bird species richness from capture and count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Wood, P.A.; Berlanga, M.; Wilson, M.H.; Robbins, C.S.; North, P.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used capture-recapture methods to estimate bird species richness from mist-net and point-count data from a study area in Campeche, Mexico. We estimated species richness separately for each survey technique for two habitats, forest and pasture, in six sampling periods. We then estimated richness based on species' detections by either technique, and estimated the proportion of species detected by each technique that are not part of the population sampled by the other technique. No consistent differences existed between richness estimates from count data and from capture data in the two habitats. In some sampling periods, over 50% of the richness estimate from one survey technique may be species that are not sampled by the other technique, suggesting that one technique may not be adequate to estimate total species richness and that comparing estimates from areas sampled by different techniques may not be valid.

  20. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.K.; Crockford, R.M.; Achhorner, F.N.

    1997-12-31

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques.

  1. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Okullo, Willy; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) is one of the main factors controlling the penetration of solar radiation in Case 2 water and affecting satellite-based estimation of ocean color. We present absorption properties of CDOM sampled in 6 water bodies including three in Norway (Røst coastal water, Samnangerfjord, Lysefjord), two in China (Bohai Sea, Lake Namtso), and one in Africa (Lake Victoria). These locations, which range from near the equator to subarctic regions, include water types from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and altitudes from sea level to 4,700 m above sea level.

  2. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time-pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  3. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  4. Femtosecond photon-counting receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulsewidth measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  5. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  6. Anomalous left main coronary artery: case series of different courses and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marler, Adam T; Malik, Jamil A; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are a cause of sudden cardiac death. Of the known anatomic variants, anomalous origination of a coronary artery from an opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS) remains the main focus of debate. Case Series. We present three cases, all presenting to our facility within one week's time, of patients with newly discovered anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (L-ACAOS). All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of coronary anatomy along with other forms of functional testing. Despite the high risk nature of two of the anomalies, the patients are being treated medically without recurrence of symptoms. Summary. After review of the literature, we have found that the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with congenital coronary anomalies, even among variants considered the highest risk, may be overestimated. In addition, the exact prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population is currently underestimated. A national coronary artery anomaly registry based on cardiac computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography data would be helpful in advancing our understanding of these cardiac peculiarities. The true prevalence of congenital coronary anomalies and overall risk of sudden cardiac death in this population are not well known. Surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy in certain patients though recent investigations into the pathophysiology of these abnormalities have shown that the risk of surgery may outweigh the minimal reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death.

  7. Different shades of green: a case study of support for wind farms in the rural midwest.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Kate K; Woodson, Patrick; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2013-05-01

    Benton County, in north-central Indiana, USA has successfully sited more than 500 turbines. To understand Benton County's acceptance of wind farms, a holistic case study was conducted that included a document review, a survey of local residents and interviews with key stakeholders. Survey questionnaires were sent to 750 residents asking questions about attitudes toward the wind farms, perceived benefits and impacts from the wind farms, environmental attitudes, and demographic information. Key stakeholders were also interviewed for a deeper understanding of the historical timeline and community acceptance of the wind farm development. While there is limited opposition to the turbines, on the whole the community presents a front of acceptance. Financial, rather than environmental, benefits are the main reason for the acceptance. Although significant in other case studies, transparency and participation do not play a large role in Benton County's acceptance. Most residents are not concerned with either visual impacts or noise from the wind turbines. More concrete benefits to the community, such as reduced energy bills for county residents, could help to extend acceptance even further within the community. Although there are concerns about the acceptance of wind farms and the impacts of those farms on local residents in both peer-reviewed literature and popular media, we found little evidence of those concerns in Benton County. Instead, we found Benton County to be a community largely accepting of wind farms.

  8. Different Shades of Green: A Case Study of Support for Wind Farms in the Rural Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvaney, Kate K.; Woodson, Patrick; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2013-05-01

    Benton County, in north-central Indiana, USA has successfully sited more than 500 turbines. To understand Benton County's acceptance of wind farms, a holistic case study was conducted that included a document review, a survey of local residents and interviews with key stakeholders. Survey questionnaires were sent to 750 residents asking questions about attitudes toward the wind farms, perceived benefits and impacts from the wind farms, environmental attitudes, and demographic information. Key stakeholders were also interviewed for a deeper understanding of the historical timeline and community acceptance of the wind farm development. While there is limited opposition to the turbines, on the whole the community presents a front of acceptance. Financial, rather than environmental, benefits are the main reason for the acceptance. Although significant in other case studies, transparency and participation do not play a large role in Benton County's acceptance. Most residents are not concerned with either visual impacts or noise from the wind turbines. More concrete benefits to the community, such as reduced energy bills for county residents, could help to extend acceptance even further within the community. Although there are concerns about the acceptance of wind farms and the impacts of those farms on local residents in both peer-reviewed literature and popular media, we found little evidence of those concerns in Benton County. Instead, we found Benton County to be a community largely accepting of wind farms.

  9. Colony counting on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Diotte, M P; Dudas, I; Malcolm, S; Peterkin, P I

    1983-07-01

    A device to facilitate manual scoring of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (HGMF) is described. Variations in scores were generally less than 2.5% between 41 analysts from six laboratories, who, using the apparatus, scored a set of five specimen HGMF in different ways, and there was good agreement between scores from positive and negative grid-cell counts by each analyst. A scoring procedure for use in routine microbiological analysis, suitable for HGMF at various degrees of saturation, is recommended.

  10. Estimating population change from count data: Application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William A.; Sauer, John R.

    1998-01-01

    For birds and many other animal taxa, surveys that collect count data form a primary source of information on population change. Because counts are only indices to population size, care must be taken in using them in analyses of population change. Temporal or geographic differences in the proportion of animals counted can be misinterpreted as differences in population size. Therefore, temporally or geographically varying factors that influence the proportion of animals counted must be incorporated as covariables in the analysis of population parameters from count data. We describe the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) for illustration. The BBS is a major, landscape-level survey of birds in North America; it is typical of many count surveys, in that the same sample units (survey routes) are sampled each year, and change is modeled on these routes over time. We identify covariables related to observer ability, the omission of which can bias estimation of population change from BBS data. Controlling for observer effects or other potential sources of confounding requires the specification of models relating counts to population size. We begin with a partial model specification relating expected counts to population sizes; we describe estimators currently in use in relation to this partial specification. Additional assumptions lead to a class of over-dispersed multinomial models, for which we describe estimators of population change and procedures for parsimonious model selection. We illustrate the use of over-dispersed multinomial models by an application to data for Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus).

  11. Counting in Lattices: Combinatorial Problems from Statistical Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Dana Jill

    In this thesis we consider two classical combinatorial problems arising in statistical mechanics: counting matchings and self-avoiding walks in lattice graphs. The first problem arises in the study of the thermodynamical properties of monomers and dimers (diatomic molecules) in crystals. Fisher, Kasteleyn and Temperley discovered an elegant technique to exactly count the number of perfect matchings in two dimensional lattices, but it is not applicable for matchings of arbitrary size, or in higher dimensional lattices. We present the first efficient approximation algorithm for computing the number of matchings of any size in any periodic lattice in arbitrary dimension. The algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation of a suitable Markov chain and has rigorously derived performance guarantees that do not rely on any assumptions. In addition, we show that these results generalize to counting matchings in any graph which is the Cayley graph of a finite group. The second problem is counting self-avoiding walks in lattices. This problem arises in the study of the thermodynamics of long polymer chains in dilute solution. While there are a number of Monte Carlo algorithms used to count self -avoiding walks in practice, these are heuristic and their correctness relies on unproven conjectures. In contrast, we present an efficient algorithm which relies on a single, widely-believed conjecture that is simpler than preceding assumptions and, more importantly, is one which the algorithm itself can test. Thus our algorithm is reliable, in the sense that it either outputs answers that are guaranteed, with high probability, to be correct, or finds a counterexample to the conjecture. In either case we know we can trust our results and the algorithm is guaranteed to run in polynomial time. This is the first algorithm for counting self-avoiding walks in which the error bounds are rigorously controlled. This work was supported in part by an AT&T graduate fellowship, a University of

  12. Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, H W

    1965-11-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373-1386. 1965.-The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO(4) prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 mmu) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 x 10(6)).

  13. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  14. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  15. Curve counting, instantons and McKay correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele; Szabo, Richard J.

    2013-10-01

    We survey some features of equivariant instanton partition functions of topological gauge theories on four and six dimensional toric Kähler varieties, and their geometric and algebraic counterparts in the enumerative problem of counting holomorphic curves. We discuss the relations of instanton counting to representations of affine Lie algebras in the four-dimensional case, and to Donaldson-Thomas theory for ideal sheaves on Calabi-Yau threefolds. For resolutions of toric singularities, an algebraic structure induced by a quiver determines the instanton moduli space through the McKay correspondence and its generalizations. The correspondence elucidates the realization of gauge theory partition functions as quasi-modular forms, and reformulates the computation of noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants in terms of the enumeration of generalized instantons. New results include a general presentation of the partition functions on ALE spaces as affine characters, a rigorous treatment of equivariant partition functions on Hirzebruch surfaces, and a putative connection between the special McKay correspondence and instanton counting on Hirzebruch-Jung spaces.

  16. Quivers as calculators: counting, correlators and Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasukonis, Jurgis; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2013-04-01

    The spectrum of chiral operators in supersymmetric quiver gauge theories is typically much larger in the free limit, where the superpotential terms vanish. We find that the finite N counting of operators in any free quiver theory, with a product of unitary gauge groups, can be described by associating Young diagrams and Littlewood-Richardson multiplicities to a simple modification of the quiver, which we call the split-node quiver. The large N limit leads to a surprisingly simple infinite product formula for counting gauge invariant operators, valid for any quiver with bifundamental fields. An orthogonal basis for the operators, in the finite N CFT inner product, is given in terms of quiver characters. These are constructed by inserting permutations in the split-node quivers and interpreting the resulting diagrams in terms of symmetric group matrix elements and branching coefficients. The fusion coefficients in the chiral ring - valid both in the UV and in the IR - are computed at finite N. The derivation follows simple diagrammatic moves on the quiver. The large N counting and correlators are expressed in terms of topological field theories on Riemann surfaces obtained by thickening the quiver. The TFTs are based on symmetric groups and defect observables associated with subgroups play an important role. We outline the application of the free field results to the construction of BPS operators in the case of non-zero super-potential.

  17. Computation of free energy differences through nonequilibrium stochastic dynamics: The reaction coordinate case

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, Tony . E-mail: lelievre@cermics.enpc.fr; Rousset, Mathias . E-mail: rousset@cermics.enpc.fr; Stoltz, Gabriel . E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-20

    The computation of free energy differences through an exponential weighting of out-of-equilibrium paths (known as the Jarzynski equality [C. Jarzynski, Equilibrium free energy differences from nonequilibrium measurements: a master equation approach, Phys. Rev. E 56 (5) (1997) 5018-5035, C. Jarzynski, Nonequilibrium equality for free energy differences, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (14) (1997) 2690-2693]) is often used for transitions between states described by an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. An extension to transitions between states defined by different values of some reaction coordinate is presented here, using a projected Brownian dynamics. In contrast with other approaches (see e.g. [S. Park, F. Khalili-Araghi, E. Tajkhorshid, K. Schulten, Free energy calculation from steered molecular dynamics simulations using Jarzynski's equality, J. Chem. Phys. 119 (6) (2003) 3559-3566]), a projection is used rather than a constraining potential to let the constraints associated with the reaction coordinate evolve. It is shown how to use the Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints to compute the work associated with a given trajectory. Appropriate discretizations are proposed. Some numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the method for the computation of free energy difference profiles.

  18. A Case Study of the Performance of Different Detrending Methods in Turbulent-Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donateo, Antonio; Cava, Daniela; Contini, Daniele

    2017-02-01

    The performance of different detrending methods in removing the low-frequency contribution to the calculation of turbulent fluxes is investigated. The detrending methods are applied to the calculation of turbulent fluxes of different scalars (temperature, ultrafine particle number concentration, carbon dioxide and water vapour concentration), collected at two different measurement sites: one urban and one suburban. We test and compare the performance of filtering methodologies frequently used in real-time and automated procedures (mean removal, linear detrending, running mean, autoregressive filter) with the results obtained from a reference method, which is a spectral filter based on the Fourier decomposition of the time series. In general, the largest differences are found in the comparison between the reference and the mean-removal procedures. The linear detrending and running-mean procedures produce comparable results, and turbulent-flux estimations in better agreement with the reference procedure than those obtained with the mean-removal procedure. The best agreement between the running mean and the spectral filter is achieved with a time window of 15 min at both sites. For all the variables studied, average fluxes calculated using the autoregressive filter are increasingly overestimated for a time constant τ compared with that obtained using the spectral filter. The minimization of the difference between the two detrending methods is achieved with a time constant of 120 s, with similar behaviour observed at both sites.

  19. Cortical blindness in obstetric patients: case report of two different presentations.

    PubMed

    Edomwonyi, N P; Idehen, H

    2013-06-01

    Cortical blindness can complicate pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. This normally resolves between a few hours and days with full restoration of patients sight. In this case report, we present the clinical course of two women in whom eclampsia was further complicated with blindness. One had pre-partum blindness which resolved after few hours while the second developed post-partum blindness that occurred after an episode of ischaemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and it became persistent. The patients were managed by standard pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia regimen; these entail the use of intravenous magnesium sulphate, i/v hydralazine and fluid restriction, as well as expedite delivery. Diagnosis was further confirmed by computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated low density areas localised predominantly in the occipital areas.

  20. Relapsing Polychondritis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Experience of Three Different Cases in a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chan Hong

    2016-11-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death. The second patient had acute cognitive dysfunction due to limbic encephalitis. He was treated with steroid pulse therapy and recovered without sequelae. The third patient suffered aseptic meningitis that presented as dementia, which was refractory to steroid and immune suppressive agents. We also reviewed literature on CNS complications of RP.

  1. Relapsing Polychondritis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Experience of Three Different Cases in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death. The second patient had acute cognitive dysfunction due to limbic encephalitis. He was treated with steroid pulse therapy and recovered without sequelae. The third patient suffered aseptic meningitis that presented as dementia, which was refractory to steroid and immune suppressive agents. We also reviewed literature on CNS complications of RP. PMID:27709866

  2. New onset somnambulism associated with different dosage of mirtazapine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Feng, Hui-Ming; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chih-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Somnambulism consists of variously complex behaviors that may result in harm to self or to others. Many different medications have been reported to induce somnambulism, and a few of them are newer antidepressants. A 40-year-old woman with history of major depression who experienced new onset somnambulism for successive 3 nights, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine was increased from 30 to 45 mg/d. The notable and complex sleepwalking symptoms terminated dramatically on the first night after withdrawal of mirtazapine. There is clearly a cause-and-effect relationship between the treatment of higher-dosage mirtazapine and development of somnambulism. It might be related to the different affinities to 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 (5-HT(2)) and H(1) receptors at different dosages of mirtazapine, which explain the patient experiencing sleepwalking episodes exclusively at higher doses of mirtazapine. Clinical physicians should be aware of this adverse effect and taper or discontinue the regimen if sleepwalking develops.

  3. Different clinical presentation of appendicolithiasis. The report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bulent; Eris, Cengiz

    2011-03-30

    An appendicolith is composed of firm feces and some mineral deposits. After increased use of abdominal computed tomography, appendicoliths are more frequently detected. Most of the patients with appendicolith are asymptomatic. However, an appendicolith may be associated with complicated appendicitis with serious outcomes. We reported three patients who exhibited different clinical symptoms due to appendicolithiasis. While one of the patients was confused with urolithiasis, the other two patients presented with phlegmenous and perforated appendicitis. We submit that appendicoliths may present different clinical findings and can mimic several pathologies including urinary disorders.

  4. Comparison of different final impression techniques for management of resorbed mandibular ridge: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhupender; Jayna, Manisha; Yadav, Harish; Suri, Shrey; Phogat, Shefali; Madan, Reshu

    2014-01-01

    The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory.

  5. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P < 0.05). A better sensitivity was also found with Mini-FLOTAC in dilutions of 10(5) and 10(4) oocysts/ml, when counted from feces (chi(2) = 4.2 and 8.1, respectively, P < 0.05). Our results show that Mini-FLOTAC is more sensitive than traditional methods of T. gondii oocysts detection and quantification is more accurate. Furthermore, Mini-FLOTAC simplicity and cost effectiveness allow it to be used with light microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions.

  6. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug.

  7. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  8. Gender Differences regarding Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Turkish Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiksal, Mine; Cakiroglu, Erdine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in mathematics achievement as demonstrated by performance on the mathematics subsection of a nationwide high school entrance examination in Turkey. In this study, the cities in Turkey were separated into five groups according to their level of economic development. The analysis was based…

  9. Plant a Radish, Get a Radish: Case Study of Kindergarten Teachers' Differing Literacy Belief Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Karen F.; Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice

    1997-01-01

    Questions two philosophically differing kindergarten teachers (whole language or skills-based) regarding views, beliefs, and practices in teaching literacy to kindergarten populations. Interviews students at the end of the school year regarding their understanding of reading and writing as a result of their teacher's beliefs. Finds that children's…

  10. Dressing Diversity: Politics of Difference and the Case of School Uniforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Through an analysis of school uniform policies and theories of social justice, Samantha Deane argues that school uniforms and their foregoing policies assume that confronting strangers--an imperative of living in a democratic polity--is something that requires seeing sameness instead of recognizing difference. Imbuing schooling with a directive…

  11. Divergent Perspectives and Differing Logics: The Case for Affirmative Action in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rout, Bharat Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Affirmative action (AA) is one of the most suitable mechanisms to promote equity and social justice in education in India. This essay deals with the impact of the different conceptualizations of AA in terms of its vision and the historic approaches to social inequalities in India. Primarily focusing on the various perspectives of affirmative…

  12. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  13. Differences in Cost Structure and the Evaluation of Efficiency: The Case of German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Geraint; Schwarzenberger, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    A multiproduct cost function is estimated for German higher education institutions using a panel of data from recent years. The use of panel data allows a random parameter stochastic frontier model to be estimated, and this delivers new insights on the extent to which differences in costs between institutions producing similar vectors of outputs…

  14. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  15. The Influence of Learner Differences on the Construction of Hypermedia Concepts: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oughton, J. M.; Reed, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on three students engaged in a group task to develop a concept map on hypermedia-related concepts. Examines how each of the students--grouped together based on their learning style and cognitive control differences--influenced construction of the group concept map. Concludes that the "Assimilator/Field-Independent" student was the most…

  16. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geller, Joseph D; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller.

  17. Pretibial Cyst Formation after ACL Reconstruction. A series of 14 cases with different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Avila, Christian Garcia; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Among complications following an ACL reconstruction, the formation of a pre-tibial cyst in the site of the tibial tunnel is rare and might happen even years after surgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze 14 patients with pretibial cyst after ACL reconstruction. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients between 2008 and 2016. The inclusion criteria were patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction, and developed an extra-articular cyst at the tibial tunnel level. For recurrence evaluation, patients with less than one-year follow-up were excluded. A pre and postoperative clinical and radiological evaluation was performed. We analyzed the graft selection and surgical technique for ACL reconstruction, the time between primary surgery and onset of symptoms, and the clinical presentation. A pre and postoperative radiological evaluation was performed for every patient. Surgical technique for cyst excision, histological analysis and culture results were also analyzed. The recurrence rate was evaluated at final follow-up. Results: Nine patients were male, with an average age of 38 years. The average follow-up was of 35 months. All ACL reconstructions were performed using hamstrings graft and a trans-tibial technique. Tibial fixation was performed with a biodegradable screw in 9 patients, three of them associated with the use of a staple. In four patients hamstrings tibial insertion was left in situ with an open stripper and fixed in the tibia using non-absorbable Ethibond 2 sutures. The average time between primary ACL surgery and onset of the cyst was 29 months. All patients presented a palpable tumor at proximal tibia and a stable knee. The cyst size varied between 1 and 3 cm. In all cases, Rx and MRI showed a widening of the tibial tunnel, though no articular communication could be confirmed. The arthroscopic evaluation revealed no graft loosening. All cysts were approached through the previous tibial incision and staples or screws where removed

  18. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  19. Integrating count and detection-nondetection data to model population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zipkin, Elise F; Rossman, Sam; Yackulic, Charles B; Wiens, J David; Thorson, James T; Davis, Raymond J; Grant, Evan H Campbell

    2017-03-29

    As the spatial and temporal scale of ecological research expands, there is increasing need for methods that integrate multiple data types into a single analytical framework. Current work on this topic primarily focuses on combining capture-recapture data from marked individuals with other data types into integrated population models. Yet, studies of species distributions and trends often rely on data from unmarked individuals across broad scales where local abundance and environmental variables may vary. We present a modeling framework for integrating detection-nondetection and count data into a single analysis to estimate population dynamics, abundance, and individual detection probabilities during sampling. Our dynamic population model assumes that site-specific abundance can change over time according to survival of individuals and gains through reproduction and immigration. The observation process for each data type is modeled by assuming that every individual present at a site has an equal probability of being detected during sampling processes. We examine our modeling approach through a series of simulations illustrating the relative value of count versus detection-nondetection data under a variety of parameter values and survey configurations. We also provide an empirical example of the model by combining long-term detection-nondetection data (1995-2014) with newly collected count data (2015-2016) from a growing population of barred owls (Strix varia) in the Pacific Northwest to examine the factors influencing population abundance over time. Our model provides a foundation for incorporating unmarked data within a single framework, even in cases where sampling processes yield different detection probabilities. This approach will be useful for survey design and to researchers interested in incorporating historical or citizen science data into analyses focused on understanding how demographic rates drive population abundance. This article is protected by

  20. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  1. Assessing ground-based counts of nestling bald eagles in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Hatfield, J.S.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence that the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) productivity survey in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northeastern Minnesota may have underestimated the number of nestlings during 1986-1988. Recommendations are provided to achieve more accurate ground-based counts. By conducting ground-based observations for up to 1 hour/nest, an accurate count of the number of bald eagle nestlings can be obtained. If nests are only observed for up to 30 minutes/nest, an accurate determination of nest success can be made. The effort that managers put into counts should be based on the intended use of the productivity data. If small changes in mean productivity would trigger management action, the less acurate ground-based counts should be conducted with caution. Prior to implementing ground-based counts, a study like ours should estimate bias associated with different survey procedures and the observation time needed to achieve accurate results.

  2. Improved finite-difference computation of the van der Waals force: One-dimensional case

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2009-10-15

    We present an improved demonstration of the calculation of Casimir forces in one-dimensional systems based on the recently proposed numerical imaginary frequency Green's function computation approach. The dispersion force on two thick lossy dielectric slabs separated by an empty gap and placed within a perfectly conducting cavity is obtained from the Green's function of the modified Helmholtz equation by means of an ordinary finite-difference method. In order to demonstrate the possibility to develop algorithms to explore complex geometries in two and three dimensions to higher order in the mesh spacing, we generalize existing classical electromagnetism algebraic methods to generate the difference equations for dielectric boundaries not coinciding with any grid points. Diagnostic tests are presented to monitor the accuracy of our implementation of the method and follow-up applications in higher dimensions are introduced.

  3. Exploring indigenous landscape classification across different dimensions: a case study from the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Riu-Bosoms, Carles; Vidal-Amat, Teresa; Duane, Andrea; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana C.; Macía, Manuel J.; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Decisions on landscape management are often dictated by government officials based on their own understandings of how landscape should be used and managed, but rarely considering local peoples’ understandings of the landscape they inhabit. We use data collected through free listings, field transects, and interviews to describe how an Amazonian group of hunter-horticulturalists, the Tsimane’, classify and perceive the importance of different elements of the landscape across the ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual dimensions. The Tsimane’ recognize nine folk ecotopes (i.e., culturally-recognized landscape units) and use a variety of criteria (including geomorphological features and landscape uses) to differentiate ecotopes from one another. The Tsimane’ rank different folk ecotopes in accordance with their perceived ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual importance. Understanding how local people perceive their landscape contributes towards a landscape management planning paradigm that acknowledges the continuing contributions to management of landscape inhabitants, as well as their cultural and land use rights. PMID:25821282

  4. Religious differences in female genital cutting: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.

  5. Gender differences in immigrant health: the case of Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants.

    PubMed

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Reynolds, Megan M

    2012-03-01

    This article draws on theories of gender inequality and immigrant health to hypothesize differences among the largest immigrant population, Mexicans, and a lesser known population of Middle Easterners. Using data from the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Surveys, we compare health outcomes among immigrants to those among U.S.-born whites and assess gender differences within each group. We find an immigrant story and a gender story. Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants are healthier than U.S.-born whites, and men report better health than women regardless of nativity or ethnicity. We identify utilization of health care as a primary mechanism that contributes to both patterns. Immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born whites to interact with the health care system, and women are more likely to do so than men. Thus, immigrant and gender health disparities may partly reflect knowledge of health status rather than actual health.

  6. Beliefs and Recommendations Regarding Child Custody and Visitation in Cases Involving Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Professionals in Different Roles.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel G; Faller, Kathleen C; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Research is lacking on differing perspectives regarding custody cases involving domestic violence (DV). In a survey of judges, legal aid attorneys, private attorneys, DV program workers, and child custody evaluators (n = 1,187), judges, private attorneys, and evaluators were more likely to believe that mothers make false DV allegations and alienate their children. In response to a vignette, evaluators and private attorneys were most likely to recommend joint custody and least likely to recommend sole custody to the survivor. Legal aid attorneys and DV workers were similar on many variables. Gender, DV knowledge, and knowing victims explained many group differences.

  7. Effects of biological variations on platelet count in healthy subjects in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liming; Yang, Jing; Lu, Xiaojun; Okada, Tokuhiro; Kondo, Tamiaki; Ruan, Changgeng; Wu, Yun; Xin, Xiaomin

    2004-02-01

    The effects of biological variations on platelet counts were investigated in 694 healthy subjects aged 18 to 60 years living in three cities including Chengdu (Sichuan Province), Suzhou (Jiangsu Province) and Harbin (Heilongjang Province) in China. Platelet counts in healthy subjects were significantly lower in Chengdu (52-202 x 10(9)/L) and Suzhou (60-259 x 10(9)/L) than in Harbin (154-348 x 10(9)/L) (p <0.0001), but the mean platelet volume (MPV) determined concurrently was negatively correlated with platelet count, the MPV values were significantly higher in Chengdu (11.8-15.6 fl) and Suzhou (10.9-15.8 fl) than in Harbin (9.5 approximately 12.9 fl) (p < 0.0001). Platelet counts were significantly higher in summer (73-289 x 10(9)/L) than in winter (52-202 x 10(9)/L) (p <0.0001), but the MPV values were lower in summer (11.2-14.7 fl) than in winter (11.8-15.6 fl) (p <0.05) in Chengdu. Platelet associated immunoglobulin (PA-IgG) in Chengdu was revealed to be significantly higher in the low platelet count group (<150 x 10(9)/L, 13.5 +/- 7.1 ng/10(7) PLT) than in the normal platelet count group (> or =150 x 10(9)/L, 8.3 +/- 2.7 ng/10(7) PLT) (p <0.0001). Similar results were observed in Suzhou for the reticulated platelet ratio, which was significantly higher in the low platelet count group (19.5 +/- 7.1%) than in the normal platelet count group (11.6 +/- 2.7%) (p <0.01). The bleeding time in Chengdu showed a significantly longer time in the low platelet count group (8.6 +/- 2.3 min) than in the normal platelet count group (6.0 +/- 1.2 min)(p <0.01). With regard to the effects of lipids on platelet counts, the HDL values were significantly higher in the normal platelet count group (1.60 +/- 0.76 mmol/L) than the low platelet count group (1.23 +/- 0.31 mmol/L) (p <0.01); but no significant differences in cholesterol and triglycerides values between the normal and low platelet count groups (p >0.05) were recorded. These findings suggest that the platelet counts could

  8. Impact of different troposphere modelling methods on ZTD time series: case study of mountainous GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Katarzyna; Klos, Anna; Bock, Olivier; Bogusz, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    GNSS Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) data is useful for numerical weather forecasting and climate analysis. Considering the fact that tropospheric delays over the mountainous areas are the most difficult to be modelled, we explored the influence of different troposphere models in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) mode. We used GPS data from 2008 to 2014 at 28 permanent EUPOS (European Position Determination System) stations, including 9 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) ones, located in the Sudeten and Carpathians. The GPS data was processed in PPP mode using Bernese 5.2 GNSS software with the final IGS (International GNSS Service) orbits and clocks. Different processing variants were tested implying the newest mapping functions (Global Mapping Function - GMF, and Vienna Mapping Function - VMF1) as well as different time resolutions and constraints on estimated parameters (ZTD and gradients). Median trends and amplitudes of annual/semi-annual oscillations for ZTD series were determined with Weighted Least Squares Estimation (WLSE) obtaining 0.1±0.5 mm/year and 44.7 / 7.2 ± 5 mm, respectively. Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) were estimated using Lomb-Scargle method for each of individual variants. PSDs showed, except oscillations of year and half a year, many other significant peaks in ZTD time series at higher frequencies, about 60, 30, 24, 20, 15, 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 cpy. The proper subtraction of the periodicities is crucial, because they will make stochastic part appear to be artificially autocorrelated. In order to recognized the periodicities in the ZTD signal, we analyzed the ZTD differences between GPS-derived delays and ERA-Interim reanalysis. The results of analysis showed the significant change from station to station and between variants. According to these results the authors will indicate an optimal processing strategy concerning troposphere modelling.

  9. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  10. Howard mold count of fruit nectars, purees, and pastes: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Cichowicz, S M; Bandler, R

    1982-09-01

    The various mold count methods for nectars, purees, and pastes make no adjustment for concentration of the pulped liquid. Thus, mold counts of different forms of the same product (e.g., guava nectar, puree, or paste) or of the same product from different manufacturers cannot be compared. A method was developed in which the product is centrifuged under standardized conditions, then diluted to a standard pellet-to-final-volume ratio. Because variations in the concentration of fruit or vegetable tissue are corrected, comparisons of mold counts are possible. The method was adopted official first action.

  11. DNA analysis of fingernail debris using different multiplex systems: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lederer, T; Betz, P; Seidl, S

    2001-01-01

    A 55-year-old male nurse was accused of having introduced his fingers by force into the anus of a 20-year-old female patient. Debris from the fingernails of the suspect recovered 2 days after the incident was analysed with the VNTR locus D1S80, the triplex PCR system AmpFlSTR Blue kit, the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit and the pentaplex system genRES MPX. The D1S80 singleplex reaction revealed indications of DNA from the victim in the fingernail debris of the left hand. Using the AmpFlSTR Blue kit and AmpFlSTR Profiler, DNA alleles of the victim were found at four additional loci, while allelic drop-out was observed at five other loci. Only the pentaplex kit genRES MPX revealed alleles at all loci which could be assigned to the victim. Calculation of likelihood ratios resulted in a value of 1.4 x 10(5) using the combination of the multiplex systems AmpF1STR Blue kit and AmpFlSTR Profiler and 2.8 x 10(8) for the genRES MPX kit. This case demonstrates the high sensitivity of the new genRES MPX kit and that DNA profiling of fingernail debris is possible despite a time lapse of 2 days between the incident and recovery of the evidential material.

  12. Exploring different strategies for imbalanced ADME data problem: case study on Caco-2 permeability modeling.

    PubMed

    Pham-The, Hai; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo; Garrigues, Teresa; Bermejo, Marival; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Nguyen-Hai, Nam; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2016-02-01

    In many absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) modeling problems, imbalanced data could negatively affect classification performance of machine learning algorithms. Solutions for handling imbalanced dataset have been proposed, but their application for ADME modeling tasks is underexplored. In this paper, various strategies including cost-sensitive learning and resampling methods were studied to tackle the moderate imbalance problem of a large Caco-2 cell permeability database. Simple physicochemical molecular descriptors were utilized for data modeling. Support vector machine classifiers were constructed and compared using multiple comparison tests. Results showed that the models developed on the basis of resampling strategies displayed better performance than the cost-sensitive classification models, especially in the case of oversampling data where misclassification rates for minority class have values of 0.11 and 0.14 for training and test set, respectively. A consensus model with enhanced applicability domain was subsequently constructed and showed improved performance. This model was used to predict a set of randomly selected high-permeability reference drugs according to the biopharmaceutics classification system. Overall, this study provides a comparison of numerous rebalancing strategies and displays the effectiveness of oversampling methods to deal with imbalanced permeability data problems.

  13. Targeted harassment, subcultural identity and the embrace of difference: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Paul; Garland, Jon

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the significance of experiences and understandings of targeted harassment to the identities of youth subcultural participants, through case study research on goths. It does so against a context of considerable recent public discussion about the victimization of alternative subcultures and a surprising scarcity of academic research on the subject. The analysis presented indicates that, although individual direct experiences are diverse, the spectre of harassment can form an ever-present accompaniment to subcultural life, even for those who have never been seriously targeted. As such, it forms part of what it is to be a subcultural participant and comprises significant common ground with other members. Drawing upon classic and more recent understandings of how subcultural groups respond to broader forms of outside hostility, we show how the shared experience of feeling targeted for harassment tied in with a broader subcultural discourse of being stigmatized by a perceived 'normal' society. The role of harassment as part of this, we argue, contributed to the strength with which subcultural identities were felt and to a positive embrace of otherness.

  14. Gender differences in coaching philosophy: the case of female basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Eitzen, D S; Pratt, S R

    1989-06-01

    With the advent of Title IX, the proportion of female participants in interscholastic sport has risen sharply while the proportion of female coaches has dropped precipitously. This paper seeks to determine whether there are any differences in coaching philosophy by gender. Questionnaires were sent to the coaches of 600 high school girls' basketball teams selected randomly from the 48 contiguous states. There were 250 usable ones returned for a response rate of 42%. The questionnaires included items designed to assess the attitudes and behaviors of coaches in five areas of coaching philosophy: (1) the coach's role in the overall development of athletes; (2) conditions believed essential to maximize team performance; (3) team rules used; (4) use of sports aphorisms; and (5) expectations of athletes. Summing the findings, we found that in 83 of the 100 comparisons there were no statistical differences in the means of the male and female coaches. In the 17 instances where there were statistically significant differences, 14 times the female coaches were on the more traditional side. Several possible explanations for this interesting finding are discussed.

  15. [Investigation of Microsporidia prevalence by different staining methods in cases of diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Türk, Songül; Doğruman Al, Funda; Karaman, Ulkü; Kuştimur, Semra

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia, depending on their different species, generally lead to self-limited, sporadic and mild infections such as diarrhea, corneal ulcer and myositis. They are considered as opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive patients however in recent years Microsporidia have been detected also in immunocompetent individuals as a cause of diarrhea. Diagnosis of Microsporidia depends on the detection of spores or different developmental stages of protozoon in stool, urine, sinus aspirates, nasal discharge, bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue biopsies. Diagnosis of Microsporidia infections is usually achieved by the use of different staining methods, serological tests, polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopic methods. The aims of this study were to detect the incidence of microsporidia in patients with diarrhea by using three different staining methods and to compare the performance of these methods. A total of 225 stool samples from diarrheal patients (84 were children, 141 were adults; 103 were female, 122 were male) admitted to Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital between March-June 2009, have been evaluated in the laboratory of Medical Microbiology Department. Stool samples were examined in terms of the presence of Microsporidia spores by Weber's modified trichrom staining (MTS), calcofluor (CF) and acridine orange (AO) staining methods. Microsporidia positivity rate was 9.8% (22/225) in the diarrheal patients, the rate being 9.5% (8/84) in children and 9.9% (14/141) in adults. There was no statistically significant difference between age and gender groups (p> 0.05) regarding Microsporidia detection. When MTS was considered as the reference method, sensitivity, specifity and consistency of AO staining were estimated as 100%, 91.6% and 92%, respectively, while those rates for CF staining were 95.4%, 99.5% and 99%, respectively. There was very strong and significant correlation (r= 0.950, p< 0.001) between CF staining and MTS, while there was strong and

  16. Teuchos::RefCountPtr beginner's guide : an introduction to the Trilinos smart reference-counted pointer class for (almost) automatic dynamic memory management in C++.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A

    2004-06-01

    Dynamic memory management in C++ is one of the most common areas of difficulty and errors for amateur and expert C++ developers alike. The improper use of operator new and operator delete is arguably the most common cause of incorrect program behavior and segmentation faults in C++ programs. Here we introduce a templated concrete C++ class Teuchos::RefCountPtr<>, which is part of the Trilinos tools package Teuchos, that combines the concepts of smart pointers and reference counting to build a low-overhead but effective tool for simplifying dynamic memory management in C++. We discuss why the use of raw pointers for memory management, managed through explicit calls to operator new and operator delete, is so difficult to accomplish without making mistakes and how programs that use raw pointers for memory management can easily be modified to use RefCountPtr<>. In addition, explicit calls to operator delete is fragile and results in memory leaks in the presents of C++ exceptions. In its most basic usage, RefCountPtr<> automatically determines when operator delete should be called to free an object allocated with operator new and is not fragile in the presents of exceptions. The class also supports more sophisticated use cases as well. This document describes just the most basic usage of RefCountPtr<> to allow developers to get started using it right away. However, more detailed information on the design and advanced features of RefCountPtr<> is provided by the companion document 'Teuchos::RefCountPtr : The Trilinos Smart Reference-Counted Pointer Class for (Almost) Automatic Dynamic Memory Management in C++'.

  17. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities.

  18. Mitotic count by phosphohistone H3 immunohistochemical staining predicts survival and improves interobserver reproducibility in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sarah M; Riley, Meghan P; Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Wang, Ming; Yang, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) of the pancreas are graded on the basis of mitotic count or Ki67 index. Mitotic count has a narrow cutoff; its assessment is time consuming and carries poor interobserver reproducibility. Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is a mitosis-specific marker whose value has been validated in several tumor types. We sought to assess the utility of PHH3 in histologic grading of pancreatic WDNETs. Sixty-three cases of surgically resected primary pancreatic WDNETs were retrieved, and immunohistochemical analysis for PHH3 and Ki67 was performed. Mitotic rate was independently assessed by 4 pathologists on hematoxylin and eosin (HE; in 50 high-power fields [HPFs], expressed as mitoses/10 HPF) and PHH3 stains (in 50 HPFs, one 10×, and one 20× hotspot). PHH3 and Ki67 labeling indices were determined on a single 20× hotspot and expressed as the percentage of positive cells to total cells. We found that mitotic counts by various methods significantly correlated with each other and also with PHH3 and Ki67 indices, with the best correlation seen within the 3 different PHH3 counts (in 50 HPFs, one 10× and one 20× hotspot). Moreover, mitotic count on PHH3 was less time consuming than that on HE (1.68 vs. 3.67 min for 50 HPFs, P<0.0001). Histologic grade determined by PHH3 significantly correlated with disease-specific and disease-free survivals, with the best cutoffs of ≥4 mitoses/10 HPF (2 mm), ≥7 mitoses/10× hotspot, ≥5 mitoses/20× hotspot (log rank test, P<0.0001), and ≥0.16% for PHH3 labeling index (log rank test, P<0.0006). Tumor grades based on PHH3 stain also showed significant correlation with patient survivals in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models (P<0.05). Histologic grades by mitotic counts on PHH3 demonstrated high concordance and κ agreement with grades determined by mitotic count on HE. PHH3 stain also showed improved interobserver agreement in both original mitotic count (intraclass correlation 0.98 vs. 0

  19. Photon-counting spatial light modulator technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Richard B.; Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this program is to measure and improve the performance of photon-counting spatial light modulators operating in an optically-addressed reflection mode. Experimental results are obtained for silicon devices. These device consists of an avalanche photodiode (APD) operated in the Geiger mode with the front and back surface of the diode forming an asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity. The phase delay within the cavity is modified directly by the avalanche via the free-carrier refractive index or by Joule heating. Experiments were conducted first with the write laser beam at 1064 nm and the read beam at the same wavelength and second with the write beam at 850 nm and the read beam at 1300 nm. The device differs qualitatively from other approaches such as smart pixels by virtue of its photon-counting sensitivity its low cost and its ability to form a spatially-coherent read-out wavefront.

  20. Should pollution reductions count as productivity gains for agriculture?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.

    1998-08-01

    Productivity changes have been used to gauge economic performance for at least fifty years. Because productivity measures have been so closely linked to changes in living standards, it is natural to ask whether net increases in marketed outputs are the only things that should count as gains to the standard of living. The articles by Faere and Grosskopf (FG) and Gollop and Swinand (GS) consider several different technical aspects of addressing this question. The purpose of this article is to comment on their proposals. Both articles implicitly accept the notion that changes in commodities that are not available in markets should be considered in evaluating performance. Faere and Grosskopf focus on how they should be valued in the productivity indexes, while Gollop and Swinand define conditions when pollution reductions can be allowed to count. The best overall summary of this comment on both papers repeat an overworked phrase--the devil is in the details.

  1. Evaluation of counting error due to colony masking in bioaerosol sampling.

    PubMed

    Chang, C W; Hwang, Y H; Grinshpun, S A; Macher, J M; Willeke, K

    1994-10-01

    Colony counting error due to indistinguishable colony overlap (i.e., masking) was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model to predict colony masking was used to determine colony counting efficiency by Monte Carlo computer simulation of microorganism collection and development into CFU. The computer simulation was verified experimentally by collecting aerosolized Bacillus subtilis spores and examining micro- and macroscopic colonies. Colony counting efficiency decreased (i) with increasing density of collected culturable microorganisms, (ii) with increasing colony size, and (iii) with decreasing ability of an observation system to distinguish adjacent colonies as separate units. Counting efficiency for 2-mm colonies, at optimal resolution, decreased from 98 to 85% when colony density increased from 1 to 10 microorganisms cm-2, in contrast to an efficiency decrease from 90 to 45% for 5-mm colonies. No statistically significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between experimental and theoretical results was found when colony shape was used to estimate the number of individual colonies in a CFU. Experimental colony counts were 1.2 times simulation estimates when colony shape was not considered, because of nonuniformity of actual colony size and the better discrimination ability of the human eye relative to the model. Colony surface densities associated with high counting accuracy were compared with recommended upper plate count limits and found to depend on colony size and an observation system's ability to identify overlapped colonies. Correction factors were developed to estimate the actual number of collected microorganisms from observed colony counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Can reliable sage-grouse lek counts be obtained using aerial infrared technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Gifford L.; Coates, Peter S.; Petersen, Steven; Romero, John P.

    2013-01-01

    More effective methods for counting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are needed to better assess population trends through enumeration or location of new leks. We describe an aerial infrared technique for conducting sage-grouse lek counts and compare this method with conventional ground-based lek count methods. During the breeding period in 2010 and 2011, we surveyed leks from fixed-winged aircraft using cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared cameras and surveyed the same leks on the same day from the ground following a standard lek count protocol. We did not detect significant differences in lek counts between surveying techniques. These findings suggest that using a cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared camera from an aerial platform to conduct lek surveys is an effective alternative technique to conventional ground-based methods, but further research is needed. We discuss multiple advantages to aerial infrared surveys, including counting in remote areas, representing greater spatial variation, and increasing the number of counted leks per season. Aerial infrared lek counts may be a valuable wildlife management tool that releases time and resources for other conservation efforts. Opportunities exist for wildlife professionals to refine and apply aerial infrared techniques to wildlife monitoring programs because of the increasing reliability and affordability of this technology.

  3. Skin and bulk temperature difference at Lake Tahoe: A case study on lake skin effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. Chris; Hook, Simon J.; Schneider, Philipp; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    water, infrared radiometers on satellites measure radiation leaving from the surface skin layer and therefore the retrieved temperature is representative of the skin layer. This is slightly different from the bulk layer deeper in the water where various floating thermometers take temperature measurements to validate satellite measurements. The difference between the bulk and skin temperature (skin effect) must be understood to properly validate schemes that use surface skin temperature to infer bulk temperatures. Further skin temperatures retrieved over inland waters may show different patterns to those retrieved over oceans due to differences in conditions such as wind speed, aerosols, and elevation. We have analyzed the differences between the skin and bulk temperatures at four permanent monitoring stations (buoys) located on Lake Tahoe since 1999 and compared the results with similar studies over the ocean typically obtained from boat cruises. Skin effect distributions were found to be consistent across the buoys; however, the diurnal behavior of the skin effect was slightly different and shown to be related to wind speed measured at an individual buoy. When wind speed was less than 2 m s-1, the skin temperature osclillated and greatly increased the uncertainty in the skin effect reported over Lake Tahoe. When downwelling sky radiation was increased from clouds or high humidity, this led to nighttime skin temperatures that were warmer than bulk temperatures by as much as 0.5 K. The size of the warm skin effect is larger than other ocean studies that observed warm nighttime skin values around 0.1 K. The nighttime skin effect was seen to be more consistent with a smaller standard deviation compared to the daytime skin effect. The nighttime skin behavior had a mean and standard deviation that ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 K and between 0.3 and 0.4 K, respectively. In contrast, daytime skin effect was strongly influenced by direct solar illumination and typically had a

  4. Selective Brain Cooling after Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of Three Different Cooling Methods-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Thomas; Nickl, Robert; Koehler, Stefan; Fricke, Patrick; Stetter, Christian; Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo

    2016-12-30

    Background In experimental models of neuronal damage, therapeutic hypothermia proved to be a powerful neuroprotective method. In clinical studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI), this very distinct effect was not reproducible. Several meta-analyses draw different conclusions about whether therapeutic hypothermia can improve outcome after TBI. Adverse side effects of systemic hypothermia, such as severe pneumonia, have been held responsible by some authors to counteract the neuroprotective effect. Selective brain cooling (SBC) attempts to take advantage of the protective effects of therapeutic hypothermia without the adverse side effects of systemic hypothermia. Methods Three different methods of SBC were applied in a patient who had severe TBI with recurrent increases of intracranial pressure (ICP) refractory to conventional forms of treatment: (1) external cooling of the scalp and neck using ice packs prior to hemicraniectomy, (2) external cooling of the craniectomy defect using ice packs after hemicraniectomy, and (3) cooling by epidural irrigation with cold Ringer solution after hemicraniectomy. Results External scalp cooling before hemicraniectomy, external cooling of the craniectomy defect, and epidural irrigation with cold fluid resulted in temperature differences (brain temperature to body temperature) of - 0.2°, - 0.7°, and - 3.6°C, respectively. ICP declined with decreasing brain temperature. Conclusion Previous external cooling attempts for SBC faced the problem that brain temperature could not be lowered without a simultaneous decrease of systemic temperature. After hemicraniectomy, epidural irrigation with cold fluid may be a simple and effective way to lower ICP and apply one of the most powerful methods of cerebroprotection after severe TBI.

  5. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Song, Miao; Li, Minghua; Fu, Shihong; Lv, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Wang, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China. Methods/Principal Findings Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial and temporal analyses on data from different age groups. Generally, children aged 0–15 years still represent the major population of JE cases in China, despite the gradual decrease in incidence over years. However, the incidence of JE among adults in several provinces is notably higher than the national average, especially during the epidemic waves in 2006, 2009, and 2013. The JE cases in the 0–15-year-old group are distributed mainly in the area south of the Yangtze River, with peak incidence occurring from July to September. In the adult group, especially for those over 40 years old, the JE cases are concentrated mainly in the area north of the Yangtze River. JE incidence in the adult group in September and October is significantly greater compared to the other groups. Further analysis using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) reveals that the distribution of adult JE cases in the six provinces north of the Yangtze River, between north 30–35° latitude and east 110–130° longitude, is a hotspot for adult JE cases. Conclusions/Significance The rate of JE case increase for adults is much greater than for children and has become a public health issue. Therefore, studies on the necessity and feasibility of vaccinating adults who live in JE-endemic areas, but have never been vaccinated for JE, should become a new focus of JE prevention in the future. PMID:27050414

  6. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same.

  7. Regional income differences and the definition of income: the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, J; Kusnic, M

    1984-09-01

    "Data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey are used to examine the sensitivity of urban/rural income differentials to the definition and measurement of income. Measured income differentials vary with the extent to which nonmarket activities are included in the scope of income, how the distribution of income is summarized, and whether one adjusts for differences in hours of work, household size and composition, ethnic composition, and other sociodemographic characteristics. For example, depending on the measure chosen, estimates of the amount by which urban income exceeds rural income in Malaysia range from 9 percent to 141 percent."

  8. Scavenger assemblages under differing trophic conditions: a case study in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janßen, Felix; Treude, Tina; Witte, Ursula

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea to investigate the composition of the necrophagous fauna and to evaluate whether regional differences in trophic conditions are reflected by differing scavenger assemblages. The ophidiid fish Barathrites iris, the large lysianassoid amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the aristeid prawn Plesiopenaeus armatus, and zoarcid fishes of the genus Pachycara were abundant at the bait at all stations. The ophidiid Holcomycteronus aequatorius, the liparid fish Paraliparis sp., and galatheid crabs of the genus Munidopsis occurred in considerable numbers at single sites. Trap catches further contained lysianassoid amphipods of the genera Paralicella, Abyssorchomene and Paracallisoma. In contrast to scavenger assemblages of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, macrourid fishes were virtually absent at the bait. E. gryllus and B. iris consumed the main proportion of the bait, while consumption was at most moderate in all other taxa. Feeding strategies of the respective taxa are inferred from their behavior at the bait and discussed with regard to the profit that can be drawn from food falls. Differences between stations were pronounced with respect to species dominating bait consumption. E. gryllus appeared in highest numbers at the bait in the productive northern and central Arabian Sea where a relatively high availability of food items is expected to sustain high population densities. High numbers of B. iris in the least productive southern part indicate their ability to persist under food-poor conditions and may correspond to a high dependency on food falls. E. gryllus and B. iris both occurred in smaller numbers in the particularly productive western Arabian Sea. This may reflect a reduced dependency on food falls, due to an access to alternative food sources, rather than small population densities. Smaller numbers of E. gryllus and B. iris resulted in slower bait consumption and gave Pachycara spp. the

  9. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  10. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  11. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions.

  12. Discriminative power of different nonmotor signs in early Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Nico J; Pieri, Vannina; Hipp, Géraldine; Rufra, Olivier; Blyth, Sara; Vaillant, Michel

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the discriminative power of different nonmotor signs for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty patients with PD with differ in terms of age, gender, and educational level. Several DD discriminated patients with PD from healthy controls. Visual deficits showed the largest area under the ROC curve (0.83), followed by hyposmia (0.81) and dysautonomia (0.80). When combining the DD visual deficits and dysautonomia, the best residual model was obtained; it maximized both sensitivity and specificity for PD at a level of 0.77. At an early disease stage, several nonmotor domains were already able to discriminate patients with PD from healthy controls. Visual deficits had the best discriminatory power. Being brief and inexpensive, visual tests should be further investigated in larger cohorts as potential screening tool for early PD.

  13. When the same hydraulics conditions lead to different depositional patterns: case of an idealised delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Yann; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are complex hydrosystems and ecosystems resulting from the interactions of a river system with a water body almost at rest. Anthropogenic factors (hydropower, flood management, development in the floodplains) lead to dramatic changes in sediment transport in the rivers and in sediment management practice. From continuous, the sediment transport becomes increasingly intermittent, with long periods of deficit in the sediment supply and short periods characterized by large supplies. Understanding how these intermittencies in the sediment supply affect the delta morphodynamics is of paramount importance for predicting the possible evolution and functioning of deltas. Deltas can reasonably be idealised as a reservoir, with an inlet channel representing the river and the sudden enlargement of the reservoir representing the water body at rest. Using such an ideal configuration enables the assessment of the influence of individual geometric and hydraulic parameters on the depositional patterns responsible for the morphodynamic evolution of the delta. Recent literature has shown that for very similar hydraulic boundary conditions, two very different types of flow fields may develop ("straight jet" vs. "meandering jet"), leading to totally different depositional patterns. In turn, these distinct depositional patterns affect the flow itself through a two-way coupling between the hydrodynamics and the morphodynamics of the deposits. These complex processes will be discussed in the proposed presentation, based on the results of over 160 experimental tests and corresponding numerical simulations.

  14. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

  15. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  20. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…