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Sample records for case mortality rate

  1. Fiscal decentralisation and infant mortality rate: the Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Farfan, Maria Isabel; Lorant, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of research analysing the influence of fiscal decentralisation on health outcomes. Colombia is an interesting case study, as health expenditure there has been decentralising since 1993, leading to an improvement in health care insurance. However, it is unclear whether fiscal decentralisation has improved population health. We assess the effect of fiscal decentralisation of health expenditure on infant mortality rates in Colombia. Infant mortality rates for 1080 municipalities over a 10-year period (1998-2007) were related to fiscal decentralisation by using an unbalanced fixed-effect regression model with robust errors. Fiscal decentralisation was measured as the locally controlled health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure. We also evaluated the effect of transfers from central government and municipal institutional capacity. In addition, we compared the effect of fiscal decentralisation at different levels of municipal poverty. Fiscal decentralisation decreased infant mortality rates (the elasticity was equal to -0.06). However, this effect was stronger in non-poor municipalities (-0.12) than poor ones (-0.081). We conclude that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to municipalities decreased infant mortality rates. However, this improved health outcome effect depended greatly on the socio-economic conditions of the localities. The policy instrument used by the Health Minister to evaluate municipal institutional capacity in the health sector needs to be revised.

  2. The Impact of Extreme-Risk Cases on Hospitals’ Risk-Adjusted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Mortality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Brennan, J. Matthew; Ho, Kalon K.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Messenger, John C.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Dai, David; Peterson, Eric D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to examine the calibration of a validated risk-adjustment model in very high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases and assess whether sites’ case mix affects their performance ratings. BACKGROUND There are concerns that treating PCI patients with particularly high-risk features such as cardiogenic shock or prior cardiac arrest may adversely impact hospital performance ratings. However, there is little investigation on the validity of these concerns. METHODS We examined 624,286 PCI procedures from 1,168 sites that participated in the CathPCI Registry in 2010. Procedural risk was estimated using the recently published Version 4 National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) PCI risk-adjusted mortality (RAM) model. We calculated observed/expected mortality using several risk classification methods, and simulated hospital performance after combining their highest risk cases over 2 years into a single year. RESULTS In 2010, crude in-hospital PCI mortality was 1.4%. The NCDR model was generally well calibrated among high risk, however there was slight overprediction of risk in extreme cases. Hospitals treating the highest overall expected risk PCI patients or those treating the top 20% of high-risk cases had lower (better) RAM ratings than centers treating lower-risk cases (1.25% vs. 1.51%). The observed/expected ratio for top-risk quintile versus low-risk quintile was 0.91 (0.87 to 0.96) versus 1.10 (1.03 to 1.17). Combining all the high-risk patients over a 2-year period into a single year also did not negatively impact the site’s RAM ratings. CONCLUSIONS Evaluation of a contemporary sample of PCI cases across the United States showed no evidence that treating high-risk PCI cases adversely affects hospital RAM rates. PMID:25499301

  3. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  4. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  5. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  6. [Estimation of mortality from census survival rates and consequent estimates of birth and death rates: 1975-1980 in Korea case].

    PubMed

    Kwon, H Y; Kim, K S

    1982-07-01

    The rate of natural increase in population between the census in 1975 and 1980 is calculated with total population by sex. An abridged life table, based on the Coale and Demeny life table model, is used. The number of deaths from this life table is calculated by using age specific death rate. According to this number, each crude death rate for both sexes is calculated. The crude birth rate calculation is the difference between the rate of natural increase in population and the crude death rate. Each computed rate is as follows: natural increase rate: 1.98% (male), 1.83% (female), 1.91% (total); crude death rate: .547% (male), .546% (female), .547% (total); crude birth rate: 2.535% (male), 2.340% (female), 2.448% (total). In evaluating the crude death rate and crude birth rate result, the crude death rate is lower than expected. Crude death rate from the whole country fertility survey taken in 1974 is 7/1000 people. According to the whole country fertility survey data taken in 1976, the infant mortality rate in 1974 and 1975 are at 26% and 27.5% respectively, which is considered low. This low death rate in recent times is due to the decrease in the infant mortality rate and the decrease in death of the aged population. Calculated crude birth rate is 25.6/1000 persons for males, and 24/1000 for females. After the whole country fertility survey conducted in 1976, the crude birth rate is estimated at 24/1000 persons and crude birth rate in 1980 was estimated at 23.4 persons. Results are in line with the calculations of the Third Social Economic Development 5-year plan which was drafted by working staff in the population sector including the population professionals in the Bureau of Statistics of the Economic Planning Board.

  7. The Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine Does Not Increase the Mortality Rate of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Inoue, Eisuke; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Kono, Shigeru; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the mortality rate after administration of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on patients with underlying diseases is currently scarce. We conducted a case-control study in Japan to compare the mortality rates of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia after the vaccines were administered and were not administered. Methods Between October 2009 and March 2010, we collected clinical records in Japan and conducted a 1∶1 matched case-control study. Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia who died during this period were considered case patients, and those who survived were considered control patients. We determined and compared the proportion of each group that received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine and estimated the odds ratio. Finally, we conducted simulations that compensated for the shortcomings of the study associated with adjusted severity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Results The case and control groups each comprised of 75 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The proportion of patients who received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine was 30.7% and 38.7% for the case and control groups, respectively. During that winter, the crude conditional odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.25–1.47) and the adjusted conditional odds ratio was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.33–4.49); neither was significant. The simulation study showed more accurate conditional odds ratios of 0.63–0.71. Conclusions In our study, we detected no evidence that the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine increased the mortality rate of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The results, however, are limited by the small sample size and low statistical power. A larger-scale study is required. PMID:24586445

  8. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  10. External Validation of a Case-Mix Adjustment Model for the Standardized Reporting of 30-Day Stroke Mortality Rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Xianwei; Liu, Liping; Ji, Ruijun; Meng, Xia; Jing, Jing; Tong, Xu; Guo, Li; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose A case-mix adjustment model has been developed and externally validated, demonstrating promise. However, the model has not been thoroughly tested among populations in China. In our study, we evaluated the performance of the model in Chinese patients with acute stroke. Methods The case-mix adjustment model A includes items on age, presence of atrial fibrillation on admission, National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, and stroke type. Model B is similar to Model A but includes only the consciousness component of the NIHSS score. Both model A and B were evaluated to predict 30-day mortality rates in 13,948 patients with acute stroke from the China National Stroke Registry. The discrimination of the models was quantified by c-statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results The c-statistic of model A in our external validation cohort was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.82), and the c-statistic of model B was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.81–0.84). Excellent calibration was reported in the two models with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (0.892 for model A, p<0.001; 0.927 for model B, p = 0.008). Conclusions The case-mix adjustment model could be used to effectively predict 30-day mortality rates in Chinese patients with acute stroke. PMID:27846282

  11. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  12. Biplot models applied to cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Osmond, C

    1985-01-01

    "A graphical method developed by Gabriel to display the rows and columns of a matrix is applied to tables of age- and period-specific cancer mortality rates. It is particularly useful when the pattern of age-specific rates changes with time. Trends in age-specific rates and changes in the age distribution are identified as projections. Three examples [from England and Wales] are given."

  13. The incidence and mortality rates of neuroblastoma cases before and after the cessation of the mass screening program in Japan: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Takafumi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Ito, Yuri; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2017-02-01

    In 2003, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare halted the neuroblastoma (NB) mass screening program, running since 1985. This study aimed to examine whether NB incidence and mortality changed before and after the program halted. This is a descriptive population-based study. We used data from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project, Vital Statistics of Japan, and Japanese CANcer Survival Information for Society (J-CANSIS). Incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate, mortality rate, cumulative mortality rate, and relative 5-year survival for NB were calculated. Children were divided into two birth cohort groups, consisting of children born before, or after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. We compared the two cohorts, with regards to the cumulative incidence and mortality rates at 5 years old. The incidence rate was lower after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. There was no substantial change in the mortality rate, and no significant variation in the relative 5-year survival between groups. The cumulative incidence rate in the latter cohort was significantly lower than that in the former cohort (rate ratio: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.25-0.61, p < 0.001). No significant difference in the cumulative mortality rate between the two cohorts was observed (rate ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.80-1.22, p = 0.93). The NB incidence rate decreased markedly and the mortality rate did not substantially change after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. The NB mass screening program probably caused overdiagnosis, and its effectiveness was not clear.

  14. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate. PMID:26971697

  15. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity. PMID:17444423

  16. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  17. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  18. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  19. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  20. Past and Present ARDS Mortality Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Máca, Jan; Jor, Ondřej; Holub, Michal; Sklienka, Peter; Burša, Filip; Burda, Michal; Janout, Vladimír; Ševčík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    ARDS is severe form of respiratory failure with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of critical care patients. Epidemiological data are crucial for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, designing studies, and optimizing resource distribution. The goal of this review is to present general aspects of mortality data published over the past decades. A systematic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed was performed. The articles were divided according to their methodology, type of reported mortality, and time. The main outcome was mortality. Extracted data included study duration, number of patients, and number of centers. The mortality trends and current mortality were calculated for subgroups consisting of in-hospital, ICU, 28/30-d, and 60-d mortality over 3 time periods (A, before 1995; B, 1995-2000; C, after 2000). The retrospectivity and prospectivity were also taken into account. Moreover, we present the most recent mortality rates since 2010. One hundred seventy-seven articles were included in the final analysis. General mortality rates ranged from 11 to 87% in studies including subjects with ARDS of all etiologies (mixed group). Linear regression revealed that the study design (28/30-d or 60-d) significantly influenced the mortality rate. Reported mortality rates were higher in prospective studies, such as randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies compared with retrospective observational studies. Mortality rates exhibited a linear decrease in relation to time period (P < .001). The number of centers showed a significant negative correlation with mortality rates. The prospective observational studies did not have consistently higher mortality rates compared with randomized controlled trials. The mortality trends over 3 time periods (before 1995, 1995-2000, and after 2000) yielded variable results in general ARDS populations. However, a mortality decrease was present mostly in prospective studies. Since 2010, the

  1. First-year mortality rates for selected birth defects, Hawaii, 1986-1999.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2003-06-15

    Birth defects have been the leading cause of infant death in the United States for over the last decade. However, there is little population-based data on the first-year mortality rates for many specific birth defects and the factors that may affect these mortality rates. This investigation examined the first-year mortality rates for 54 selected birth defects of various organ systems in Hawaii during 1986-1999 using data from a population-based birth defects registry and evaluated the impact of the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and other structural birth defects and the year of delivery on the mortality rates. Mortality rates varied widely by defect, being highest for anencephaly (100%), trisomy 13 (82%), and trisomy 18 (74%), while no first-year deaths were reported for glaucoma, bladder exstrophy, and persistent cloaca. The majority (36 of 54 or 67%) of the birth defects had a mortality rate of less than 25%. Among the 51 structural birth defects, 38 (75%) had higher first-year mortality rate for cases with chromosomal abnormalities and 42 (82%) had higher first-year mortality rates for cases with other major structural birth defects. The mortality rate among 1986-1992 deliveries was higher than the mortality rate among 1993-1999 deliveries for 37 (69%) of the 54 birth defects. This study indicates that first-year mortality rates vary widely by type of birth defect, although the mortality rate for the majority of birth defects is relatively low. The presence of a chromosomal abnormality or other structural birth defect increases the mortality rate, and mortality rates for the majority of birth defects have declined in Hawaii during the study period.

  2. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  3. The Asymptotic Distribution of Mortality Rates in Competing Risks Analyses,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    For a sample of individuals from an animal or human population under observation in a clinical trial or life test, mortality rates are defined for...model, these mortality rates are shown to have an asymptotic normal distribution. An expression for the asymptotic correlation between a pair of... mortality rates is thus obtained and a necessary and sufficient condition for their asymptotic independence is investigated in some general situations with

  4. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    For only one of these four mechanisms, competition, can high mortality rates be considered to be a relatively direct consequence of high NPP. The remaining mechanisms force us to adopt a different view of causality, in which tree growth rates and probability of mortality can vary with at least a degree of independence along productivity gradients. In many cases, rather than being a direct cause of high mortality rates, NPP may remain high in spite of high mortality rates. The independent influence of plant enemies and other factors helps explain why forest biomass can show little correlation, or even negative correlation, with forest NPP.

  5. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.

  6. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  7. Case-mix adjusted hospital mortality is a poor proxy for preventable mortality: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Alan J; Hofer, Timothy P; Wu, Jianhua; Chilton, Peter J; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lilford, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Risk-adjustment schemes are used to monitor hospital performance, on the assumption that excess mortality not explained by case mix is largely attributable to suboptimal care. We have developed a model to estimate the proportion of the variation in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) that can be accounted for by variation in preventable mortality. The model was populated with values from the literature to estimate a predictive value of the SMR in this context—specifically the proportion of those hospitals with SMRs among the highest 2.5% that fall among the worst 2.5% for preventable mortality. The extent to which SMRs reflect preventable mortality rates is highly sensitive to the proportion of deaths that are preventable. If 6% of hospital deaths are preventable (as suggested by the literature), the predictive value of the SMR can be no greater than 9%. This value could rise to 30%, if 15% of deaths are preventable. The model offers a ‘reality check’ for case mix adjustment schemes designed to isolate the preventable component of any outcome rate. PMID:23069860

  8. Cross-National Trends in Mortality Rates among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, GeorgeC.

    1978-01-01

    An examination of death rates among the elderly and trends over the period 1950-1975 and 1970-1975 for selected developed nations provides evidence of continued strong mortality declines for females and somewhat mixed results for males. Implications of these trends for forecasting the mortality component of U.S. population projections are…

  9. Motor neuron disease mortality in Great Britain continues to rise: examination of mortality rates 1975 - 2004.

    PubMed

    Day, Thomas G; Scott, Martin; Perring, Roslyn; Doyle, Pat

    2007-12-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates are rising in Europe and the USA. The most comprehensive UK study was conducted more than 15 years ago. This study examines trends in mortality from MND in England & Wales, and Scotland, between 1975 and 2004. Age, gender, and cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for the period 1975-2004 using national data from England & Wales, and Scotland. Rates were directly age-standardized to the European standard population. Trends in mortality rates over time were examined for men and women separately, as well as by the age groups 0-59 years, and 60 or more years. MND mortality rates rose steadily over the 30-year period 1975-2004 in both sexes in England & Wales, and Scotland. There is a clear upward trend in all four groups (p for trend <0.001). All increases were largely restricted to the age group 60 years and above, with rates showing increases of 70-80%, and no evidence of a flattening of this trajectory. Rates for the 0-59 years age group remained stable over the period. There is evidence of a narrowing of the male-female gap in mortality rates for the age group over 60 years in England and Wales.

  10. Individual surgeon mortality rates: can outliers be detected? A national utility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Thomas M; Shaw, Catherine A; Garden, O James; Wigmore, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is controversy on the proposed benefits of publishing mortality rates for individual surgeons. In some procedures, analysis at the level of an individual surgeon may lack statistical power. The aim was to determine the likelihood that variation in surgeon performance will be detected using published outcome data. Design A national analysis surgeon-level mortality rates to calculate the level of power for the reported mortality rate across multiple surgical procedures. Setting The UK from 2010 to 2014. Participants Surgeons who performed colon cancer resection, oesophagectomy or gastrectomy, elective aortic aneurysm repair, hip replacement, bariatric surgery or thyroidectomy. Outcomes The likelihood of detecting an individual with a 30-day, 90-day or in-patient mortality rate of up to 5 times the national mean or median (as available). This was represented using a novel heat-map approach. Results Overall mortality rates for the procedures ranged from 0.07% to 4.5% and mean/median surgeon volume was between 23 and 75 cases. The national median case volume for colorectal (n=55) and upper gastrointestinal (n=23) cancer resections provides around 20% power to detect a mortality rate of 3 times the national median, while, for hip replacement, this is a rate 5 times the national average. At the mortality rates reported for thyroid (0.08%) and bariatric (0.07%) procedures, it is unlikely a surgeon would perform a sufficient number of procedures in his/her entire career to stand a good chance of detecting a mortality rate 5 times the national average. Conclusions At present, surgeons with increased mortality rates are unlikely to be detected. Performance within an expected mortality rate range cannot be considered reliable evidence of acceptable performance. Alternative approaches should focus on commonly occurring meaningful outcome measures, with infrequent events analysed predominately at the hospital level. PMID:27799243

  11. Trends in Gastrointestinal Cancer Mortality Rate in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Klaudia; Szűcs, Mónika; Nyári, Tibor András

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the annual death trends for gastrointestinal cancer in Hungary between 1963 and 2012. Data on the numbers of cancer deaths were obtained from the published nationwide population register. Numbers of deaths from esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer were available during the study period. However, the mortality data for hepatic, pancreatic and gallbladder cancer have been published only since 1979. Joinpoint regression was applied to investigate the annual trends in the rates of cancer mortality. The annual mortality rates of gastric and gallbladder cancer decreased throughout the study period. Furthermore, declines in mortality from esophageal and hepatic cancers have been observed since 1998 and 1995, respectively. However, the rates of colorectal and pancreatic cancer mortality have been increasing in the past few years. Nevertheless, the mortality rates of colorectal and pancreatic cancers have increased in males aged 40-59 years during the study period. Moreover, significantly higher risks of gastrointestinal cancer-related deaths have been observed in males as compared with females except for death related to cancer of the gallbladder. The presented data suggest that the Hungarian mortality rates are particularly high. The detection of gastrointestinal cancers at an early stage would significantly improves the outcome of these malignancies.

  12. Mortality rate and confidence interval estimation in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2010-01-01

    Surveys are conducted frequently in humanitarian emergencies to assess the health status of the population. Most often, they employ complex sample designs, such as cluster sampling. Mortality is an indicator commonly estimated in such surveys. Confidence limits provide information on the precision of the estimate and it is important to ensure that confidence limits for a mortality rate account for the survey design and utilise an acceptable methodology. This paper describes the calculation of confidence limits for mortality rates from surveys using complex sampling designs and a variety of software programmes and methods. It contains an example that makes use of the SAS, SPSS, and Epi Info software programmes. Of the three confidence interval methods examined--the ratio command approach, the modified rate approach, and the modified proportion approach--the paper recommends the ratio command approach to estimate mortality rates with confidence limits.

  13. Prediction of mortality rates using a model with stochastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2016-10-01

    Prediction of future mortality rates is crucial to insurance companies because they face longevity risks while providing retirement benefits to a population whose life expectancy is increasing. In the past literature, a time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied on mortality data from the United States for the years 1933 till 2000 to forecast the future mortality rates for the years 2001 till 2010. In this paper, a more dynamic approach based on the multivariate time series will be proposed where the model uses stochastic parameters that vary with time. The resulting prediction intervals obtained using the model with stochastic parameters perform better because apart from having good ability in covering the observed future mortality rates, they also tend to have distinctly shorter interval lengths.

  14. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  15. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  16. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  17. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  18. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  19. What do hospital mortality rates tell us about quality of care?

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Steve; Campbell, Mike; Carter, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Hospital mortality rates could be useful indicators of quality of care, but careful statistical analysis is required to avoid erroneously attributing variation in mortality to differences in health care when it is actually due to differences in case mix. The summary hospital mortality indicator is currently used by the English National Health Service (NHS). It adjusts mortality rates up to 30 days after discharge for patient age, sex, type of admission, year of discharge, comorbidity, deprivation and diagnosis. Such risk-adjustment methods have been used to identify poor performance, most notably at mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, but their use is subject to a number of limitations. Studies exploring whether variation in risk-adjusted mortality can be explained by variation in healthcare have reached conflicting conclusions. Furthermore, concerns have been raised that the proportion of preventable deaths among hospital admissions is too small to produce a reliable 'signal' in risk-adjusted mortality rates. This provides hospital managers, regulators and clinicians with a considerable dilemma. Variation in mortality rates cannot be ignored, as they might indicate unacceptable variation in healthcare and avoidable mortality, but they also cannot be reliably used to judge the quality of healthcare, based on current evidence.

  20. Mortality Rates Associated With Odontoid and Subaxial Cervical Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Brubacher, Jacob W; Bohl, Daniel D; Deng, Yanhong; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2015-06-01

    Cervical spine fractures can lead to many devastating consequences. However, mortality rates of older individuals with odontoid or subaxial spine fractures have not been definitively established. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computed tomography of the cervical spine in the emergency department of a level I trauma center over 9 years to compare mortality rates after odontoid and subaxial fractures in elderly persons with those of the general population. We searched the National Death Index for patient death records, and compared mortality rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years to sex- and age-matched data from the general population. Odontoid fracture survival was 84.4% at 3 months, 82.2% at 1 year, and 72.9% at 2 years. Male survival was significantly worse compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .001), but female survival was not (P = .568). In subaxial fractures, survival was 87.9% at 3 months and 85.7% at 1 and 2 years. Male survival was decreased compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .0001), whereas female survival was not (P = .554). In conclusion, the mortality of men with either fracture was greater compared with age-matched men initially, but this normalized. Female survival was not affected by either fracture.

  1. Method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not apparent from observed data.

  2. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data.

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  4. Urban-rural variation in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injury in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Boland, M; Staines, A; Fitzpatrick, P; Scallan, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore urban-rural differences in the mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injuries in the Republic of Ireland. Design: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in residents of urban and non-city areas (called rural areas) from all causes of unintentional injury were calculated using Central Statistics Office mortality data from 1980–2000. Hospital admission data (Hospital In-Patient Enquiry) from 1993–2000 were used to calculate standardised hospital admission ratios (SARs) in urban and rural residents. Population data were obtained from the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 censuses. Results: The rate of unintentional injury mortality was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury mortality (SMR 103.0, 95% confidence interval 101 to 105), and specifically for deaths related to motor vehicle trauma (MVT), drowning, machinery, and firearms. There were significantly higher SMRs in urban residents for falls and poisoning. The rate of unintentional injury hospital admission was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury (SAR 104.6, 95% confidence interval 104 to 105) and specifically for injuries from falls, MVT, being struck by or against an object, injuries in pedal cyclists, fire/burn injuries, and machinery injuries. SARs were significantly higher in residents of urban areas for poisoning and injuries in pedestrians. Conclusions: There are urban-rural differences in mortality and admissions for injuries in Ireland. Possible reasons for the higher rural mortality rates are higher case fatality in MVT and rural exposure to hazardous farm machinery, firearms, and open areas of water. This information could assist in targeting prevention programmes under the proposed National Injury Prevention Strategy. PMID:15691988

  5. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies.

  6. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  7. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate in caesarean section and vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Khosravi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cesarean section is one of the most common procedures to prevent health-threatening risks to the mother and infant. Increasing rate of cesarean section attracted the attention of professionals and the overall objective of this study was to determine the frequency of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in the two methods of delivery. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cohort study, 300 cases undergoing caesarean section and 300 cases with vaginal delivery were selected in two main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran during 2013 and 2014. Demographic characteristics and factors related to mortality and morbidity of mothers and infants were studied. Mothers were also recruited 6 weeks after delivery to ask for complications. Mothers and infants mortality and morbidity were studied and analyzed by SPSS 22 software. Results: Follow-up of deliveries up to 1-month after delivery suggested 2 cases of infant death (7%) in vaginal delivery group, while no case of infant death was reported in cesarean delivery group (P = 0.5). Incidence of fever was observed in first 10 days after delivery in 7 cases in the vaginal delivery group and 11 cases in the cesarean delivery group (2.3% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.4). Conclusion: Despite all the benefits of vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section, in many cases, especially in emergency cesarean section delivery can substantially reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is recommended to assess the complications of each method in all pregnant women about to give birth, and then decide on the method of delivery. PMID:26605232

  8. Blastomycosis mortality rates, United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Diana; Shafir, Shira; Bristow, Benjamin; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection endemic to parts of North America. We used national multiple-cause-of-death data and census population estimates for 1990-2010 to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs). We modeled trends over time using Poisson regression. Death occurred more often among older persons (RR 2.11, 95% confidence limit [CL] 1.76, 2.53 for those 75-84 years of age vs. 55-64 years), men (RR 2.43, 95% CL 2.19, 2.70), Native Americans (RR 4.13, 95% CL 3.86, 4.42 vs. whites), and blacks (RR 1.86, 95% CL 1.73, 2.01 vs. whites), in notably younger persons of Asian origin (mean = 41.6 years vs. 64.2 years for whites); and in the South (RR 18.15, 95% CL 11.63, 28.34 vs. West) and Midwest (RR 23.10, 95% CL14.78, 36.12 vs. West). In regions where blastomycosis is endemic, we recommend that the diagnosis be considered in patients with pulmonary disease and that it be a reportable disease.

  9. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  10. Avian growth and development rates and age-specific mortality: the roles of nest predation and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Remes, V

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that avian growth and development covary with juvenile mortality. Juveniles of birds under strong nest predation pressure grow rapidly, have short incubation and nestling periods, and leave the nest at low body mass. Life-history theory predicts that parental investment increases with adult mortality rate. Thus, developmental traits that depend on the parental effort exerted (pre- and postnatal growth rate) should scale positively with adult mortality, in contrast to those that do not have a direct relationship with parental investment (timing of developmental events, e.g. nest leaving). I tested this prediction on a sample of 84 North American songbirds. Nestling growth rate scaled positively and incubation period duration negatively with annual adult mortality rates even when controlled for nest predation and other covariates, including phylogeny. On the contrary, neither the duration of the nestling period nor body mass at fledging showed any relationship. Proximate mechanisms generating the relationship of pre- and postnatal growth rates to adult mortality may include increased feeding, nest attentiveness during incubation and/or allocation of hormones, and deserve further attention.

  11. Factors associated with poor hospital mortality rates after the National Health Insurance program.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li

    2015-03-01

    The study examined whether hospital mortality rates have improved since National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan and what factors affect the hospital mortality rates. The related hospital data were collected from databases belonging to the NHI Annual Statistics Information. In addition, panel data analysis and stepwise regression are used to indicate the determinants of hospital mortality rates from 1995 to 2008. The evidence shows that mortality rates have not improved since the NHI; competition, the elderly, family income, the poor, the number of clinical departments, length of stay, new technology, public hospitals and family medical expenses-all affect mortality rates. Moreover, longer length of stay, increase in the number of elderly and low-income families, and inequality of resource allocation have led to high mortality rates. Policy makers first have to realize what drives them to change and then set the benchmarks for their improvement.

  12. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  13. Evolutionary genetics of lifespan and mortality rates in two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Fox, C W; Bush, M L; Roff, D A; Wallin, W G

    2004-03-01

    The age at which individuals die varies substantially within and between species, but we still have little understanding of why there is such variation in life expectancy. We examined sex-specific and genetic variation in adult lifespan and the shape of mortality curves both within and between two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, that differ in a suite of life history characters associated with adaptation to different host species. Mean adult lifespan and the shape of the logistic mortality curves differed substantially between males and females (males had lower initial mortality rates, but a faster increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age) and between populations (they differed in the rate of increase in mortality with age). Larger individuals lived longer than smaller individuals, both because they had lower initial mortality rates and a slower increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age. However, differences in body size were not adequate to explain the differences in mortality between the sexes or populations. Both lifespan and mortality rates were genetically variable within populations and genetic variance/covariance matrices for lifespan differed between the populations and sexes. This study thus demonstrated substantial genetic variation in lifespan and mortality rates within and between populations of C. maculatus.

  14. Multiple Metazoan Life-span Interventions Exhibit a Sex-specific Strehler-Mildvan Inverse Relationship Between Initial Mortality Rate and Age-dependent Mortality Rate Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Landis, Gary N; Tower, John

    2017-01-01

    The Gompertz equation describes survival in terms of initial mortality rate (parameter a), indicative of health, and age-dependent acceleration in mortality rate (parameter b), indicative of aging. Gompertz parameters were analyzed for several published studies. In Drosophila females, mating increases egg production and decreases median life span, consistent with a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. Mating increased parameter a, causing decreased median life span, whereas time parameter b was decreased. The inverse correlation between parameters indicates the Strehler-Mildvan (S-M) relationship, where loss of low-vitality individuals yields a cohort with slower age-dependent mortality acceleration. The steroid hormone antagonist mifepristone/RU486 reversed these effects. Mating and mifepristone showed robust S-M relationships across genotypes, and dietary restriction showed robust S-M relationship across diets. Because nutrient optima differed between females and males, the same manipulation caused opposite effects on mortality rates in females versus males across a range of nutrient concentrations. Similarly, p53 mutation in Drosophila and mTOR mutation in mice caused increased median life span associated with opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. The data demonstrate that dietary and genetic interventions have sex-specific and sometimes sexually opposite effects on mortality rates consistent with sexual antagonistic pleiotropy.

  15. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law. This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "Any abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process". This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in personal and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three different methods) that even here the existence of mortality spikes is supported by solid empirical evidence.

  16. Mortality Rates and Associated Factors in Equine Colic Operations — A Retrospective Study of 341 Operations

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P. J.; McDonell, W. N.; Trim, Cynthia M.; Van Gorder, J.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 300 surgical treatments for colic involving 341 interventions was carried out to determine mortality rates and associated factors. These horses had been referred to the Ontario Veterinary College over the period September 1974 to February 1980. Data from the case records was collected and stored on a computer and statistical analysis was carried out using X2 tests. Fifty percent (150/300) of the horses survived to be discharged from the hospital. Fifty-two horses were euthanized during the operation and another ten horses should have been; if these cases are excluded the overall survival rate is 64.7% (150/232). A wide range of breeds were involved but the breed did not significantly affect survival. There was a significantly greater occurrence of serious colic in the two week to two month and one to two year age groups and significantly less in the two to four year age groups when compared with the total number of horses admitted over the same period. There was an even distribution of male and female horses but males showed a significantly lower mortality rate (57% of the males survived compared with 43% of the females). The size of the animal did not affect survival significantly. There was no seasonal variation when compared with the total number of equine patients. Survival was significantly influenced by the lesion, the preoperative packed cell volume and total plasma protein and by the length of the surgical procedure. PMID:17422234

  17. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States.

    PubMed

    van Mantgem, Phillip J; Stephenson, Nathan L; Byrne, John C; Daniels, Lori D; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Harmon, Mark E; Larson, Andrew J; Smith, Jeremy M; Taylor, Alan H; Veblen, Thomas T

    2009-01-23

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  18. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  19. Low income, unemployment, and suicide mortality rates for middle-age persons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Sakai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-04-01

    The relationships between age-specific suicide mortality rates and social life factors for all 47 Japanese prefectures in 1980, 1985, and 1990 were assessed by multiple regression analysis after factor analysis on 20 social life indicators. During this period, Japan experienced a secondary oil crisis in 1980-1983 and a bubble economy in 1986-1990. It was concluded that (1) low income was the major determinant which positively affected suicide mortality rate in middle-aged men during a previous 20-yr. period (1970-1990), (2) urbanization was negatively associated with male suicide mortality rates in most of the age classes in the 1980s, (3) unemployment was one of the major determinants of increased suicide mortality rate in middle-age men in the 1980s, and (4) unemployment was the major factor which was inversely associated with suicide mortality rate for elderly women from 1980 to 1990 in Japan.

  20. Short-Term Effect of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality Rate in A Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies examined the short-term effects of air pollution on frequency of daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between exposure to levels of coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)) and daily mortality rate is relatively sparse due to limited availability of monitoring data and findings are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to determine whether an association exists between PM(2.5-10) levels and rate of daily mortality in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a large industrial city with a tropical climate. Daily mortality rate, air pollution parameters, and weather data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2008. The relative risk (RR) of daily mortality occurrence was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for (1) weather variables, (2) day of the week, (3) seasonality, and (4) long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model without adjustment for other pollutants, PM(2.5-10) exposure levels showed significant correlation with total mortality rate both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 14% (95% CI = 5-23%) and 12% (95% CI = 5-20%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM(2.5-10) exerted significant influence on total mortality frequency after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on warm days. On cool days, PM(2.5-10) induced significant elevation in total mortality rate when SO(2) or ozone (O(3)) was added in the regression model. There was no apparent indication of an association between PM(2.5-10) exposure and deaths attributed to respiratory and circulatory diseases. This study provided evidence of correlation between short-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and increased risk of death for all causes.

  1. How much does decompressive laparotomy reduce the mortality rate in primary abdominal compartment syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Mircea; Muresan, Simona; Brinzaniuc, Klara; Voidazan, Septimiu; Sala, Daniela; Jimborean, Ovidiu; Hussam, Al Husseim; Bara, Tivadar; Popescu, Gabriel; Borz, Cristian; Neagoe, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Contribution of decompressive laparotomy within the framework of the complex therapeutic algorithm of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is cited with an extremely heterogeneous percentage in terms of survival. The purpose of this study was to present new data regarding contribution of each therapeutic step toward decreasing the mortality of this syndrome. This is a longitudinal prospective study including 134 patients with risk factors for ACS. The intra-abdominal pressure was measured every hour indirectly based on transvesical approach and the appearance of organ dysfunction. Specific therapy for ACS was based on the 2013 World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome guidelines, which include laparotomy decompression. Management of the temporarily open abdomen included an assisted vacuum wound therapy. Of 134 patients, 66 developed ACS. The average intra-abdominal pressure significantly decreased after therapy and decompression surgery. The overall rate of mortality was 27.3% with statistical significance in necrotizing infected pancreatitis. Surgical decompression performed within the first 24 hours after the onset of ACS had a protective role against mortality (odds ratio <1). The average time after which laparotomy decompression was performed was 16.23 hours. The complications occurred during TAC were 2 wound suppurations and 1 intestinal obstruction. Wound suppurations evolved favorably by using vacuum wound-assisted therapy associated with the general treatment, whereas for occlusion, resurgery was performed after which adhesions dissolved. The final closure of the abdomen was performed at a mean of 11.7 days (min. = 9, max. = 14). The closure type was primary suture of the musculoaponeurotic edges in 4 cases, and the use of dual mesh in the other 11 cases. The highest mortality rate in the study group was registered in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and the lowest in trauma group. Surgical decompression within the framework

  2. Pre-operative and anaesthesia-related risk factors for mortality in equine colic cases.

    PubMed

    Proudman, C J; Dugdale, A H A; Senior, J M; Edwards, G B; Smith, J E; Leuwer, M L; French, N P

    2006-01-01

    Mortality rates for horses that have undergone emergency abdominal surgery are higher than for other procedures. Here, multivariable modelling of data from 774 surgical colic cases is used to identify pre-operative and anaesthesia-related variables associated with intra- and post-operative mortality. Intra-operative mortality was significantly (P<0.05), and positively associated with heart rate and packed cell volume (PCV) at admission, and negatively associated with the severity of pain. Post-operative mortality increased with increasing age and PCV at admission. Draught horses, Thoroughbreds and Thoroughbred-cross horses carried a significantly worse prognosis. We detected a small but significant variability in the risk of intra-operative death amongst referring veterinary surgeons. Different anaesthetic induction agents, inhalation maintenance agents and the use, or not, of intermittent positive pressure ventilation had no significant effect on risk of death. We conclude that cardiovascular compromise, level of pain, age, and breed are all associated with the risk of mortality in equine surgical colic cases.

  3. Decelerating Mortality Rates in Older Ages and its Prospects through Lee-Carter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Yadav, Suryakant; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to study the age pattern mortality and prospects through Lee-Carter approach. The objectives of the study are to examine the trend of mortality decline and life expectancy. Contemporaneously, we have projected life expectancy up to 2025, projecting ASDR using Lee-Carter method. Life table aging rate (LAR) used to estimate the rate of mortality deceleration. Overtime, LAR increased and during recent decade it remained more or less unchanged. By age, LAR significant increased in the oldest of old. The slope is steepest in the oldest of old in the recent decade. The rates of mortality increased in oldest of old as the age group is more vulnerable to chronic disease and vulnerable to identifiable risk factors for virtually every disease, marked by senility. The analysis revealed that the level of mortality is not declining but rate of acceleration is declining and is further expected to decline. By the year 2025, the age specific death rates for the age group 5–9 and 10–14 will go below one per thousand.Life expectancy will attained as high as 73 and 79 years for male and female and is further expected to increase linearly. 71 percent of total female birth and 57 percent of total male birth will survive up to age 70+. Also the findings revealed that mortality rate is declining with constant rate up to age 70 and thereafter, the mortality rate accelerates and this holds true for both sexes. PMID:23236414

  4. Variation in the mortality rate of turkeys during transport to the slaughterhouse with travel distance and month.

    PubMed

    Voslárová, Eva; Rubesová, Lenka; Vecerek, Vladimír; Pisteková, Vladimíra; Malena, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Failure to comply with animal welfare requirements during the transport of turkeys to the slaughterhouse increases stress in animals, which is manifested by increased mortality rate during transport. The numbers of turkeys that died during transport or soon after arrival may serve as an important parameter to indicate the level of animal welfare during transport of turkeys. The number of turkeys that died during transport to slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic in the period from 1997 to 2004 was investigated. The mortality rate found was 0.28% +/- 0.06% but varied with travel distance. The lowest mortality rate was found in case of travel distance below 50 km (0.18% +/- 0.08%) while long travel distances resulted in considerable increase in the mortality rates of turkeys (between 0.28% +/- 0.07 and 0.37% +/- 0.10%). The mortality rate of transported turkeys was also affected by the particular month of the year. Thus, the highest overall mortality rate occurred at long travel distances during winter months, i.e. in December (0.34% +/- 0.18%), January (0.32% +/- 0.06%), and February (0.36% +/- 0.07%). The comparison of individual years has shown a long-term trend towards a decrease in turkeys' mortality during transportation to slaughterhouses from 0.32% in 1998 to 0.20% in 2004. The decrease was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = -0.86, p < 0.01). This trend can be evaluated as positive.

  5. Understanding racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Mathews, T J

    2011-09-01

    In the United States, different racial and ethnic groups have very different infant mortality patterns. When assessing the relative contribution of the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates to racial and ethnic infant mortality differences, we found that for non-Hispanic black women, 78 percent of their elevated infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to their higher percentage of preterm births, while 22 percent was due to higher gestational age-specific infant mortality rates (primarily at 34 weeks of gestation or more). For Puerto Rican women, their elevated infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was entirely due to their higher percentage of preterm births. However, AIAN women had a very different infant mortality pattern: 76 percent of their higher infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to their higher gestational age-specific infant mortality rates (primarily at 34 weeks or more), and only 24 percent was due to their higher percentage of preterm births.These findings are consistent with the cause-of-death analysis, which found that for bothnon-Hispanic black and Puerto Rican women, most of their higher infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to preterm-related causes. In contrast, for AIAN women, the infant mortality rate from SIDS was 2.4 times, and the rate from unintentional injuries was 2.3 times, the non-Hispanic white rate. Infant mortality rates for non-Hispanic black women would be reduced by 71 percent, those for AIAN women by 64 percent, and those for Puerto Rican women by 67 percent if rates from preterm-related causes, congenital malformations, SIDS, and unintentional injuries could be reduced to non-Hispanic white levels.The different infant mortality patterns for non-Hispanic black, Puerto Rican, and AIAN women suggest different prevention strategies (6,7). In addition, because the percentage of

  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mortality rates in Chile: A population based study (1994-2010).

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Daniel; Zitko, Pedro; Lillo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to describe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality rates in the Chilean population over a 17-year period. Chilean death records (1994-2010) were reviewed for the ICD-10 diagnosis G.12.2 (including motor neuron disease and similar conditions), and weighted with population data. Crude and standardized mortality rates by ALS were calculated at the nationwide level and by geographic zone. A risk analysis was performed in successive cohorts from 1910-1919 to 1960-1969, comparing mortality slopes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-one deaths were recorded during 1994-2010, with an average of 1.13 per 100,000, a 1.2:1 male/female ratio, and a statistically significant increase in mortality rate. According to geographical distribution, the Austral area, with a larger population of European origin, showed higher mortality rates compared to the national average. The cohort analysis showed an increasing risk of dying from ALS for all cohorts, and highest above 64 years of age, becoming a competitive cause of death in older ages. In conclusion, as expected, the mortality rate in Chile by ALS is higher than that reported previously in our country, and similar to other Latin American countries. ALS mortality rate has increased over time probably due to the aging of the population and decline in rates for competing causes of death.

  7. Contribution of climate and air pollution to variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates in England.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999-2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment--temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England.

  8. Contribution of Climate and Air Pollution to Variation in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates in England

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999–2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment - temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England. PMID:22427884

  9. Trends in infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Urrutia-Toro, Yohana; Castro-Mora, Cristian; Santander-Manríquez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g was calculated, establishing causes of death and evaluating its relation with specific interventions, such as the use of surfactant and antenatal corticoids. Since the year 2000, infant mortality rates have stopped their decrease in comparison to the preceding decade and the gap between national and local rates before 2000 was drastically reduced. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g varied between 88% and 200% of liveborns, emphasizing respiratory distress as the main cause of death. The use of corticoids and surfactant was in line with reductions in mortality rates.

  10. Integrating Self-Rated Health and Social Involvement for the Examination of Mortality among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Wilcox, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Integrated ratings of global health status and reports of social involvements into single, combined variable. Used variable to predict mortality over three time periods. Data from 6,053 self-respondents aged 70 and older at baseline in 1984 showed that combined variable produced substantial effects on mortality, particularly for 1984-86 and…

  11. Effects of hospital closure on mortality rates of the over-65 long-stay psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G A; Whyte, J

    1998-12-01

    The closure of this 100-year-old hospital has allowed us to look at the effect on mortality of moving the whole over-65 long-stay population to other settings. Our results confirm that there is a slight excess of deaths during and immediately after these moves, but that there is no longer-term effect on mortality rates.

  12. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary G.; Klug, Marilyn G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research. PMID:27324739

  13. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G; Klug, Marilyn G

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research.

  14. Trends in mortality rates of cutaneous melanoma in East Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world’s population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48–1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30−59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0−29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70–0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70–0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00–1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population. PMID:28028475

  15. Trends in mortality rates of cutaneous melanoma in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Jin, Shaofei

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world's population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48-1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30-59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0-29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70-0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70-0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00-1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population.

  16. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  17. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  18. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Janine E; St John, Freya A V; Griffiths, Richard A; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates.

  19. Age-Specific Morbidity and Mortality Rates Among U.S. Navy Enlisted Divers and Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare age-specific hospitalization, disability, and mortality rates for diving-related and stress- induced...actions for stress-related disorders were observed among controls than divers. For both groups, medical board, physical evaluation board, and mortality ... rates increased with age as did hospitalization for musculoskeletal disorders, stress-related disorders, and circulatory diseases. Subsequent research

  20. Body size and mortality rates in coral reef fishes: a three-phase relationship.

    PubMed

    Goatley, Christopher Harry Robert; Bellwood, David Roy

    2016-10-26

    Body size is closely linked to mortality rates in many animals, although the overarching patterns in this relationship have rarely been considered for multiple species. A meta-analysis of published size-specific mortality rates for coral reef fishes revealed an exponential decline in mortality rate with increasing body size, however, within this broad relationship there are three distinct phases. Phase one is characterized by naive fishes recruiting to reefs, which suffer extremely high mortality rates. In this well-studied phase, fishes must learn quickly to survive the many predation risks. After just a few days, the surviving fishes enter phase two, in which small increases in body size result in pronounced increases in lifespan (estimated 11 d mm(-1)). Remarkably, approximately 50% of reef fish individuals remain in phase two throughout their lives. Once fishes reach a size threshold of about 43 mm total length (TL) they enter phase three, where mortality rates are relatively low and the pressure to grow is presumably, significantly reduced. These phases provide a clearer understanding of the impact of body size on mortality rates in coral reef fishes and begin to reveal critical insights into the energetic and trophic dynamics of coral reefs.

  1. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  2. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates. PMID:25642156

  3. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates.

  4. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years.

  5. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  6. Analysis of geographic differentials in infant mortality rates. The Or Yehuda community.

    PubMed

    Barell, V; Wax, Y; Ruder, A

    1988-07-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of matched infant death certificate data and livebirth certificate data for 1977-1980 was performed for two areas in Israel: Or Yehuda, a small, low socioeconomic status community which had an infant mortality rate of 19.1 per 1,000, and the rest of Ramat Gan district, which had an infant mortality rate of 10.3 per 1,000. A method is presented which illuminates the role of statistical models in analyzing small area data, in evaluating twofold observed differences in crude and factor-specific mortality rates in two areas, in assessing heterogeneity in population stratum-specific mortality rate ratios, and in identifying causes for inter-area differences in infant mortality rate. Identical logistic models were fitted to each of the areas independently, and these were used to investigate effects due to birth weight, sex, parity, maternal age and education, and parental occupation. The differences in the distribution of risk level (number of risk factors) present in each population (or the proportion of multi-problem families) were identified as a single factor that can explain most of the disparity between the areas. The direction and magnitude of the relation between risk level and infant mortality rate were similar in both communities: the greater the number of risk factors, the higher the rate. Identification of a target population for intervention through only one or two specific risk factors would be unprofitable in reducing the overall community infant mortality rate since too many families with multiple risk would be excluded, and too many with single risk factors would be included.

  7. Association of soil selenium, strontium, and magnesium concentrations with Parkinson's disease mortality rates in the USA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongbing

    2017-02-07

    Among the 41 soil elements analyzed from 4856 sites across the contiguous 48 states, average Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 have the most significant positive correlation with the average soil strontium (Sr) concentrations (correlation r = 0.47, significance level p = 0.00), and average PD mortality rates have the most significant inverse correlation with the average soil selenium (Se) concentrations (r = -0.44, p = 0.00). Multivariate regression models indicate that soil Sr and Se concentrations can explain 35.4% of spatial disparities of the state average PD mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 (R (2) = 0.354). When the five outlier states were removed from the model, concentrations of soil Sr and Se can explain 62.4% (R (2) = 0.624) of the spatial disparities of PD mortality rates of the 43 remaining states. The results also indicate that high soil magnesium (Mg) concentrations suppressed the growth rate of the PD mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 in the 48 states (r = -0.42, p = 0.000). While both Se and Sr have been reported to affect the nervous system, this study is the first study that reported the statistically significant association between the PD mortality rates and soil concentrations of Se, Sr, and Mg in the 48 states. Given that soil elemental concentration in a region is broad indicator of the trace element intake from food, water, and air by people, implications of the results are that high soil Se and Mg concentrations helped reduce the PD mortality rates and benefited the PD patients in the 48 states.

  8. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  9. Maryland's high cancer mortality rate: a review of contributing demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D M

    1999-01-01

    For many years, Maryland has ranked among the top states in cancer mortality. This study analyzed mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (CDC-Wonder) to help explain Maryland's cancer rate and rank. Age-adjusted rates are based on deaths per 100,000 population from 1991 through 1995. Rates and ranks overall, and stratified by age, are calculated for total cancer mortality, as well as for four major sites: lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal. Because states differ in their racial/gender mix, race/gender rates among states are also compared. Although Maryland ranks seventh in overall cancer mortality, its rates and rank by race and gender subpopulation are less high. For those under 75, white men ranked 26th, black men ranked 20th, and black and white women ranked 12th and 10th, respectively. Maryland's overall rank, as with any state, is a function of the rates of its racial and gender subpopulations and the relative size of these groups in the state. Many of the disparities between Maryland's overall high cancer rank and its lower rank by subpopulation also characterize the major cancer sites. Although a stratified presentation of cancer rates and ranks may be more favorable to Maryland, it should not be used to downplay the attention cancer mortality in Maryland deserves.

  10. Increased Fall-Related Mortality Rates in New Mexico, 1999–2005

    PubMed Central

    Wendelboe, Aaron M.; Landen, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In 2000, fall injuries affected 30% of U.S. residents aged ≥65 years and cost $19 billion. In 2005, New Mexico (NM) had the highest fall-related mortality rate in the United States. We described factors associated with these elevated fall-related mortality rates. Methods To better understand the epidemiology of fatal falls in NM, we used state and national (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) vital records data for 1999–2005 to identify unintentional falls that were the underlying cause of death. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rates, rate ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by sex, ethnicity, race, and year. Results For 1999–2005 combined, NM's fall-related mortality rate (11.7 per 100,000 population) was 2.1 times higher than the U.S. rate (5.6 per 100,000 population). Elevated RRs persisted when stratified by sex (male RR=2.0, female RR=2.2), ethnicity (Hispanic RR=2.5, non-Hispanic RR=2.1), race (white RR=2.0, black RR=1.7, American Indian RR=2.3, and Asian American/Pacific Islander RR=3.1), and age (≥50 years RR=2.0, <50 years RR=1.2). Fall-related mortality rates began to increase exponentially at age 50 years, which was 15 years younger than the national trend. NM non-Hispanic individuals had the highest demographic-specific fall-related mortality rate (11.8 per 100,000 population, 95% CI 11.0, 12.5). NM's 69.5% increase in fall-related mortality rate was approximately twice the U.S. increase (31.9%); the increase among non-Hispanic people (86.2%) was twice that among Hispanic people (43.5%). Conclusions NM's fall-related mortality rate was twice the U.S. rate; exhibited a greater increase than the U.S. rate; and persisted across sex, ethnicity, and race. Fall-related mortality disproportionately affects a relatively younger population in NM. Characterizing fall etiology will assist in the development of effective prevention measures. PMID:22043102

  11. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  12. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It...

  13. Slowing of Mortality Rates at Older Ages in Large Medfly Cohorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Orozco, Dina; Vaupel, James W.

    1992-10-01

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  14. Slowing of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts.

    PubMed

    Carey, J R; Liedo, P; Orozco, D; Vaupel, J W

    1992-10-16

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  15. Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Adetunji, J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adults and mortality rates among under-5-year-olds have increased or stagnated in many countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between under-5 mortality trends and the prevalence of HIV among adults and, if so, to assess the magnitude of the effect of adult HIV prevalence on under-5 mortality rates. METHOD: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to establish the trends in under-5 mortality rates for 25 countries for which there are data for at least two points in time. Countries were ranked according to the most recent adult HIV prevalence data and grouped in three categories: those with very high HIV prevalence (> or = 5%); those with moderately high prevalence (1-4.9%); and those with low prevalence (< 1%). A mathematical model was fitted to obtain an estimate of the contribution of HIV/AIDS to the level of under-5 mortality in each country. RESULTS: Under-5 mortality rates showed an increase in most countries with high adult HIV prevalence, but a decrease in almost every country with moderately high or low prevalence. The estimated contribution of adult HIV prevalence to the observed level of under-5 mortality was highest (up to 61%) in Zimbabwe (where HIV prevalence was highest) and tended to decrease with the level of HIV prevalence. DISCUSSION: The contribution of HIV/AIDS to childhood mortality therefore appears to be most noticeable in settings where the epidemic is most severe. PMID:11100615

  16. Geographic disparity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rates among the Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999-2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran's I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males' COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females'. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran's I of the GWR's residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas.

  17. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    van Mantgem, Phillip J; Stephenson, Nathan L

    2007-10-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21,338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation.

  18. Correlation of mutagenic assessment of Houston air particulate extracts in relation to lung cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D.; Connor, T.H.; MacDonald, E.J.; Trieff, N.M.; Legator, M.S.; MacKenzie, K.W. Jr.; Dobbins, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Air particulate extracts from a series of solvents were tested in the Ames mutagen detection system and were found to be mutagenic in varying degrees as a function of the particulate collection site in Houston, Texas. The mutagenicity level at seven sites was compared with age-adjusted mortality rates in the same areas. Significant correlation was found with the lung cancer mortality rates but not with mortality rates for other causes. These findings support the hypothesis of a contribution of urban air particulate to the lung cancer rates. Furthermore, these findings suggest that an index of the mutagenicity of air particulate is a more powerful measure of the human health hazard of air pollution than the traditional indices of particulate concentration.

  19. Economics of Life and Death: Mortality and Survival Rates for African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Char, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the correlates of premature death, infant mortality rates, and associated costs for African Americans using census and other government data. There is unimpeachable evidence to confirm the inferior health and survival rates of African Americans at all age intervals. (SLD)

  20. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe region.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Martijn; Read, Sanna; Towriss, Catriona A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Grundy, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest old. We aimed to examine the evidence for socioeconomic mortality rate inequalities in old age, including information about associations with various indicators of socioeconomic position and for various geographic locations within the World Health Organization Region for Europe. The articles included in this review leave no doubt that inequalities in mortality rate by socioeconomic position persist into the oldest ages for both men and women in all countries for which information is available, although the relative risk measures observed were rarely higher than 2.00. Still, the available evidence base is heavily biased geographically, inasmuch as it is based largely on national studies from Nordic and Western European countries and local studies from urban areas in Southern Europe. This bias will hamper the design of European-wide policies to reduce inequalities in mortality rate. We call for a continuous update of the empiric evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate.

  2. Measuring hospital mortality rates: are 30-day data enough? Ischemic Heart Disease Patient Outcomes Research Team.

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, D W; DeLong, E R; Luft, H S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compare 30-day and 180-day postadmission hospital mortality rates for all Medicare patients and those in three categories of cardiac care: coronary artery bypass graft surgery, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. DATA SOURCES/COLLECTION. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) hospital mortality data for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Using hospital level public use files of actual and predicted mortality at 30 and 180 days, we constructed residual mortality measures for each hospital. We ranked hospitals and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to compare 0-30, 31-180, and 0-180-day postadmission mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. For the admissions we studied, we found a broad range of hospital performance when we ranked hospitals using the 30-day data; some hospitals had much lower than predicted 30-day mortality rates, while others had much higher than predicted mortality rates. Data from the time period 31-180 days postadmission yield results that corroborate the 0-30 day postadmission data. Moreover, we found evidence that hospital performance on one condition is related to performance on the other conditions, but that the correlation is much weaker in the 31-180-day interval than in the 0-30-day period. Using ROC curves, we found that the 30-day data discriminated the top and bottom fifths of the 180-day data extremely well, especially for AMI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Using data on cumulative hospital mortality from 180 days postadmission does not yield a different perspective from using data from 30 days postadmission for the conditions we studied. PMID:7860319

  3. Disparities in mortality rates among US infants born late preterm or early term, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk.

  4. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Methods: Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969–2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Results: Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Conclusions: Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos. PMID:24999848

  5. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  6. Age-Specific Variation in Adult Mortality Rates in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Y. Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical changes in both single-year-of-age adult mortality rates and variation of the single-year mortality rates around expected values within age intervals over the past two centuries in 15 developed countries. We apply an integrated Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort—Variance Function Regression Model to data from the Human Mortality Database. We find increasing variation of the single-year rates within broader age intervals over the life course for all countries, but the increasing variation slows down at age 90 and then increases again after age 100 for some countries; the variation significantly declined across cohorts born after the early 20th century; and the variation continuously declined over much of the last two centuries but has substantially increased since 1980. Our further analysis finds the recent increases in mortality variation are not due to increasing proportions of older adults in the population, trends in mortality rates, or disproportionate delays in deaths from degenerative and man-made diseases, but rather due to increasing variations in young and middle-age adults. PMID:28133402

  7. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  8. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  9. Maternal mortality cases from pulmonary embolism: A nation-wide study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sanisoğlu, Sema; Uygur, Dilek; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Karaahmetoğlu, Selma; Özcan, Ayşe; Esen, Meral; Ongun, Veli; Özkan, Seçil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the maternal mortality cases attributed to pulmonary embolism (PE). PE constituted 7.58% of maternal deaths in 2013. Risk factors for PE were present in 15 (88.2%) of the women. Five women (29.4%) were overweight, and 5 (29.4%) were obese. Four women (23.5%) had cardiac diseases. PE occurred in the postpartum period after caesarean delivery in 9 (52.9%) patients. Eleven (64.7%) of the maternal deaths were recognised as preventable. More deaths attributed to PE occurred in the postpartum period (n = 11) than the antepartum period (n = 5). One other maternal mortality case was after therapeutic abortion. Caesarean section, obesity and cardiac diseases were important risk factors. It can be suggested that monitoring all risk factors and timely recognition of related symptoms and signs with initiation of appropriate management have paramount importance for reducing maternal mortality rate related to pulmonary embolism. Increasing awareness of healthcare professionals as well as the public, and continuously reviewing the cases are also important tools for achieving this goal.

  10. Natural mortality rates of freshwater drum larvae in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Instantaneous total mortality rates for planktonic larval freshwater drums (Aplodinotus grunniens) in a channelized stretch of the Missouri River were estimated from analyses of cumulative catch curves. Mortality rates, which ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 per day, were significantly greater in 1976 than in 1974. Basing our interpretation on the underrepresentation of eggs and early larvae in the channelized river samples, we hypothesize that favorable environments upstream represent a more significant source of recruitment of larvae to the freshwater drum population than the channelized river.

  11. Assessment of the spatial occurrence of childhood leukaemia mortality using standardized rate ratios with a simple linear Poisson model.

    PubMed

    Aickin, M; Chapin, C A; Flood, T J; Englender, S J; Caldwell, G G

    1992-08-01

    Reports of a suspected cluster of childhood leukaemia cases in West Central Phoenix have led to a number of epidemiological studies in the geographical area. We report here on a death certificate-based mortality study, which indicated an elevated rate ratio of 1.95 during 1966-1986, using the remainder of the Phoenix standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) as a comparison region. In the process of analysing the data from this study, a methodology for dealing with denominator variability in a standardized mortality ratio was developed using a simple linear Poisson model. This new approach is seen as being of general use in the analysis of standardized rate ratios (SRR), as well as being particularly appropriate for cluster investigations.

  12. Heart rate recovery: autonomic determinants, methods of assessment and association with mortality and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Peçanha, Tiago; Silva-Júnior, Natan Daniel; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction seems to be related to the genesis of several CVDs and is also linked to the increased risk of mortality in CVD patients. The quantification of heart rate decrement after exercise - known as heart rate recovery (HRR) - is a simple tool for assessing cardiac autonomic activity in healthy and CVD patients. Furthermore, since The Cleveland Clinic studies, HRR has also been used as a powerful index for predicting mortality. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has been interested in proposing methods and protocols to investigate HRR and understand its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about HRR, including its potential primary and secondary physiological determinants, as well as its role in predicting mortality. Published data show that HRR can be modelled by an exponential curve, with a fast and a slow decay component. HRR may be influenced by population and exercise characteristics. The fast component mainly seems to be dictated by the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, probably promoted by the deactivation of central command and mechanoreflex inputs immediately after exercise cessation. On the other hand, the slow phase of HRR may be determined by cardiac sympathetic withdrawal, possibly via the deactivation of metaboreflex and thermoregulatory mechanisms. All these pathways seem to be impaired in CVD, helping to explain the slower HRR in such patients and the increased rate of mortality in individuals who present a slower HRR.

  13. [[Comparison of mortality rates of elderly people in China and Japan

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Morikawa, Y; Nakagawa, H; Yoshita, K; Tabata, M; Nishijo, M; Senma, M; Kawano, S; Kido, T; Chen, Y

    1992-01-01

    "The mortality rates and causes of death among elderly people aged sixty five and over were compared between China and Japan. The data used for comparison was China's 1990 and Japan's 1990 vital statistics. It appears that the mortality rate in China was higher than Japan. Comparing the causes of death, it was found that the death rates involving cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms and heart diseases in urban districts of China [were] higher than those in Japan. Also the death rate of people with bronchitis in rural districts was significantly higher in China.... The differences in the medical systems and life styles in China and Japan were suspected as the reasons for the differences of death rates and causes of death...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Statistical modelling of breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Robertson, C; Boyle, P

    1997-01-01

    The interpretation of time trends in disease rates can be facilitated using estimable contrasts from age-period-cohort models. Cohort and period trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland were investigated using contrasts that measure the changes in the linear trends. These contrasts were compared with estimates obtained from mortality rates in the USA and Japan. A significant moderation of both breast cancer incidence and mortality rates was observed in Scotland, associated with cohorts of women born after the Second World War compared with women born between the two world wars. The moderation of breast cancer mortality among cohorts born after 1925 compared with cohorts born before 1925 that was observed in the USA and Japan was also observed in this study. This moderation is not present in the incidence rates. The relative decline in the risk of breast cancer seen in younger cohorts seems to be contradictory to the temporal pattern present among breast cancer risk factors. It may well be that the alteration of eating patterns as a result of rationing in the wartime and immediate post-war period, and the subsequent influence on certain breast cancer risk factors probably produced by such changes, may have had some influence on the development of healthier girls and women. Such speculation could be addressed in a well-designed epidemiological study. There have been no changes in the mortality rate trends with period in Scotland, although the changes in the incidence rate trends with period are consistent with an increase in registration coverage.

  15. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  16. The almost painless general rate case

    SciTech Connect

    Balthaser, J.L. ); Ellenbecker, S. )

    1990-05-10

    This article reports on a general rate case experience that was very positive for the company, the regulator, the customers, and community officials. The article discusses the background of the case, the approach of the utility to building the rate case, and involving other parties, including consumers groups, before the hearings begin. All majors points were agreed upon before the company filed for the rate increase.

  17. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data.

  18. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  19. Higher mortality rate in patients hospitalised for acute pulmonary embolism during weekends.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    The management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is often challenging and requires specific medical expertise, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options that may not be available in all hospitals throughout the entire week. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether or not an association exists between weekday or weekend admission and mortality for patients hospitalised with acute PE. Using routinely collected hospital administrative data, we examined patients discharged with a diagnosis of PE from the hospitals of the Emilia- Romagna Region in Italy (January 1999-December 2009). The risk of in-hospital death was calculated for admissions at the weekend and compared to weekday admissions. Of a total of 26,560 PEs, 6,788 (25.6%) had been admitted during weekends. PE admissions were most frequent on Mondays (15.8%) and less frequent on Saturdays and Sundays/holidays (12.8%) (p<0.001). Weekend admissions were associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality than weekday admissions (28% vs. 24.8%) (p<0.001). The risk of weekend admission and in-hospital mortality was higher after adjusting for sender, hospital characteristics, and the Charlson co-morbidity index. In conclusion, hospitalisation for PE on weekends seems to be associated with a significantly higher mortality rate than on weekdays. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons for this observed difference in mortality in order to try and implement future strategies that ensure an adequate level of care throughout the entire week.

  20. Mortality rate acceleration and post-reproductive lifespan in matrilineal whale species.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D

    2008-04-23

    The strength of selection to increase the span of a life stage is dependent upon individuals at that stage being able to contribute towards individual fitness and the probability of their surviving to that stage. Complete reproductive cessation and a long post-reproductive female lifespan as found in humans are also found in killer whale (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), but not in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena). Each species forms kin-based, stable matrilineal groups and exhibits kin-directed behaviours that could increase inclusive fitness. Here, the initial mortality rate and mortality rate-doubling time of females of these three closely related whale species are compared. The initial mortality rate shows little variation among pilot whale species; however mortality rate accelerates almost twice as fast in the long-finned pilot whale as it does in killer whale and short-finned pilot whale. Selection for a long post-reproductive female lifespan in matrilineal whales may therefore be determined by the proportion of females surviving past the point of reproductive cessation.

  1. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  2. Geostatistical Analysis of County-Level Lung Cancer Mortality Rates in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, or occupational factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. Transferring methods originally developed for the analysis of earth properties to health science, however, presents several methodological and technical challenges. These arise because health data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports (e.g., counties) and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e., rates). This article provides an overview of geostatistical methods tailored specifically to the characteristics of areal health data, with an application to lung cancer mortality rates in 688 U.S. counties of the southeast (1970–1994). Factorial Poisson kriging can filter short-scale variation and noise, which can be large in sparsely populated counties, to reveal similar regional patterns for male and female cancer mortality that correlate well with proximity to shipyards. Rate uncertainty was transferred through local cluster analysis using stochastic simulation, allowing the computation of the likelihood of clusters of low or high cancer mortality. Accounting for population size and rate uncertainty led to the detection of new clusters of high mortality around Oak Ridge National Laboratory for both sexes, in counties with high concentrations of pig farms and paper mill industries for males (occupational exposure) and in the vicinity of Atlanta for females. PMID:20445829

  3. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  4. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  5. Changes in U.S. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates following Smoking Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Kanaka D.; DeLeire, Thomas; White, Chapin; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    U.S. state and local governments have increasingly adopted restrictions on smoking in public places. This paper analyzes nationally representative databases, including the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, to compare short-term changes in mortality and hospitalization rates in smoking-restricted regions with control regions. In contrast with smaller…

  6. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  7. Infant Mortality Rates: Socioeconomic Factors. United States. National Vital Statistics System, Series 22, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistics are presented on infant mortality rates according to race, sex, family income, education of mother, and education of father. The statistics are based on data collected by a questionnaire mailed to mothers of legitimate births and to medical care facilities and mothers of legitimate infant deaths. Samples were selected from records of…

  8. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  9. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  10. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  11. Therapeutic leukapheresis in hyperleucocytic leukaemias: lack of correlation between degree of cytoreduction and early mortality rate.

    PubMed

    Porcu, P; Danielson, C F; Orazi, A; Heerema, N A; Gabig, T G; McCarthy, L J

    1997-08-01

    The clinical and laboratory data of 48 leukapheresis-treated patients with hyperleucocytic leukaemia (HL) was reviewed to assess the correlation between the degree of leucoreduction and early mortality. Leukapheresis resulted in > 50% leucoreductions and postapheresis WBC counts < 100 x 10(9)/l in most patients (64.5%). Patients presenting with neurological, respiratory or renal complications had higher early mortality rates than patients without such complications, despite similar initial WBC counts and comparable leucoreductions. Thus, in these patients, more efficient leucoreduction was not associated with improved early survival.

  12. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People.

    PubMed

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician's and nurse's ratings. We conclude that professionals' health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person's mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research.

  13. Effects of the health service and environmental factors on infant mortality: the case of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M

    1980-01-01

    One of the findings of this study is that regional variations in the infant mortality rates of Sri Lanka are large, ranging from 26 per 1000 live births in Jaffna to 91 per 1000 in Nuwara Eliya, a tea estate district. These differences are more strongly associated with regional variations in environmental determinants of mortality than with regional variations in public health expenditure. The most significant environmental factor associated with interregional infant mortality rates was to be the nature of the water supply (r = -0.82, significant at the 99% level). Regional government expenditure on health had only a weak association with infant mortality rates (r = 0.08). PMID:6772730

  14. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    PubMed

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  15. Socio-demographic factors intensifying male mating competition exacerbate male mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2010-05-07

    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from a complex set of genetic, physiological, psychological, and social causes whose influences and interconnections are best understood in an integrative evolutionary life history framework. Although there are multiple levels of mechanisms contributing to sex based disparities in mortality rates, the intensity of male mating competition in a population may have a crucial role in shaping the level of excess male mortality. The degree of variation and skew in male reproductive success may shape the intensity of male mating competition, leading to riskier behavioral and physiological strategies. This study examines three socio-demographic factors related to variation in human male reproductive success; polygyny, economic inequality, and the population ratio of reproductively viable men to women across nations with available data. The degrees of economic inequality and polygyny explained unique portions in the sex difference in mortality rates, these predictors accounted for 53% of the variance. The population ratio of reproductively viable men to women did not explain any additional variance. These results demonstrate the association between social conditions and health outcomes in modern nations, as well as the power of an evolutionary life history framework for understanding important social issues.

  16. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries

  17. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases.

    PubMed

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey's southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries

  18. Effects of Pressure Reductions in a Proposed Siphon Water Lift System at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on Mortality Rates of Juvenile American Shad and Blueback Herring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates . Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish...from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  19. Hospital Strategies for Reducing Risk-Standardized Mortality Rates in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Leslie A.; Spatz, Erica S.; Herrin, Jeph; Cherlin, Emily J.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ting, Henry H.; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite recent improvements in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), U.S. hospitals vary 2-fold in their 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs). Nevertheless, information is limited on hospital-level factors that may be associated with RSMRs. Objective To identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower RSMRs. Design Cross-sectional survey of 537 hospitals (91% response rate) and weighted multivariate regression by using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to determine the associations between hospital strategies and hospital RSMRs. Setting Acute care hospitals with an annualized AMI volume of at least 25 patients. Participants Patients hospitalized with AMI between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Measurements Hospital performance improvement strategies, characteristics, and 30-day RSMRs. Results In multivariate analysis, several hospital strategies were significantly associated with lower RSMRs and in aggregate were associated with clinically important differences in RSMRs. These strategies included holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital (RSMR lower by 0.70 percentage points), having cardiologists always on site (lower by 0.54 percentage points), fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively (lower by 0.84 percentage points), not cross-training nurses from intensive care units for the cardiac catheterization laboratory (lower by 0.44 percentage points), and having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone (lower by 0.88 percentage points). Fewer than 10% of hospitals reported using at least 4 of these 5 strategies. Limitation The cross-sectional design demonstrates statistical associations but cannot establish causal relationships. Conclusion Several strategies, which are currently implemented by relatively few hospitals, are

  20. Data, collaboration reduce sepsis mortality rates, improve use of ICU resources.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two different hospital systems have made sizable dents in their sepsis mortality rates through a collaborative process between emergency and ICU staff. At Northwest Hospital in Randallstown, MD, success occurred, in part, by lowering the threshold for transfer of emergency patients with signs of sepsis to the ICU. Voorhees, NJ-based Kennedy Health has lowered sepsis mortality rates by taking steps to integrate the care of sepsis patients between the ED and the ICU, and slashing the time required to deliver bundle-oriented care. Research conducted at Northwest Hospital shows that sepsis mortality decreased by nearly half, going from 14.38% before intervention to 7.85% following implementation of the lower ICU thresholds. Clinical leaders at Kennedy Health report that they have lowered sepsis mortality from the mid-20% range to less than 12% through a collaborative approach involving all stakeholders. Sources from both hospitals stress the importance of using data to achieve buy-in to improvement efforts, and giving interventions enough time to take hold.

  1. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  2. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  3. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21 338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Is there any relationship between different phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular mortality rate?

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Alireza; Ahmadzadeh, Sareh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Jozan, Mahnaz; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to focus on different phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their impact on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The Isfahan cohort study is a population-based, on-going longitudinal study of adults aged 35 years old or more, living in urban and rural areas of three counties in central Iran namely Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak. Participants were selected by multistage random sampling and were recruited to reflect the age, sex and urban/rural distribution of the community. The sample was restricted to subjects with MetS based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and no history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at the time of the baseline clinical examination. Results: Among different phenotypes of MetS components, clustering of high triglycerides (TGs), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and abdominal obesity (ABO) was the most related to the all-cause mortality among women and followed in order by high TGs, hypertension (HTN) and ABO. In men, the highest rate of all-cause mortality was related to high TGs, low HDL, and HTN. Clustering of four components (high TGs, low HDL and HTN and obesity) is the most related to all-cause mortality in the both sexes (12.1% in men, and 21.5% in women). Conclusion: This study showed different phenotypes of MetS related with all-cause mortality rate and existing HTN in the phenotype of MetS increased the incidence of CVD mortality. PMID:28028525

  5. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  6. Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Sun, I-Fang; Price, Charles A; Chen, Chien-Teh; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Huang, Chun-Lin; Swenson, Nathan G

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in ecology is to link variation in species function to performance, but functional trait-performance investigations have had mixed success. This indicates that less commonly measured functional traits may more clearly elucidate trait-performance relationships. Despite the potential importance of leaf vein traits, which are expected to be related to resource delivery rates and photosynthetic capacity, there are few studies, which examine associations between these traits and demographic performance in communities. Here, we examined the associations between species traits including leaf venation traits and demographic rates (Relative Growth Rate, RGR and mortality) as well as the spatial distributions of traits along soil environment for 54 co-occurring species in a subtropical forest. Size-related changes in demographic rates were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Next, Kendall's rank correlations were quantified between traits and estimated demographic rates at a given size and between traits and species-average soil environment. Species with denser venation, smaller areoles, less succulent, or thinner leaves showed higher RGR for a wide range of size classes. Species with leaves of denser veins, larger area, cheaper construction costs or thinner, or low-density wood were associated with high mortality rates only in small size classes. Lastly, contrary to our expectations, acquisitive traits were not related to resource-rich edaphic conditions. This study shows that leaf vein traits are weakly, but significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other species traits. Because leaf traits associated with an acquisitive strategy such as denser venation, less succulence, and thinner leaves showed higher growth rate, but similar leaf traits were not associated with mortality, different pathways may shape species growth and survival. This study suggests that we are still not measuring some of key traits related to

  7. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence AR; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles. PMID:19554195

  8. Can better infrastructure and quality reduce hospital infant mortality rates in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Nelly; Marrufo, Grecia M

    2007-02-01

    Preliminary evidence from hospital discharges hints enormous disparities in infant hospital mortality rates. At the same time, public health agencies acknowledge severe deficiencies and variations in the quality of medical services across public hospitals. Despite these concerns, there is limited evidence of the contribution of hospital infrastructure and quality in explaining variations in outcomes among those who have access to medical services provided at public hospitals. This paper provides evidence to address this question. We use probabilistic econometric methods to estimate the impact of material and human resources and hospital quality on the probability that an infant dies controlling for socioeconomic, maternal and reproductive risk factors. As a measure of quality, we calculate for the first time for Mexico patient safety indicators developed by the AHRQ. We find that the probability to die is affected by hospital infrastructure and by quality. In this last regard, having been treated in a hospital with the worse quality incidence doubles the probability to die. This paper also presents evidence on the contribution of other risk factors on perinatal mortality rates. The conclusions of this paper suggest that lower infant mortality rates can be reached by implementing a set of coherent public policy actions including an increase and reorganization of hospital infrastructure, quality improvement, and increasing demand for health by poor families.

  9. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD--a review of potential interventions.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, Terence A R; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles.

  10. Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, B; Mock, C; Kaufman, R; Grossman, D; Henary, B; Crandall, J

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. Design and settings: The Pedestrian Crash Data Study, conducted from 1994 to 1998, provided a solid database upon which details and mechanism of pedestrian crashes can be investigated. Results: From 552 recorded cases in this database, 542 patients had complete injury related information, making a meaningful study of pedestrian crash characteristics possible. Pedestrians struck by LTVs had a higher risk (29%) of severe injuries (abbreviated injury scale ⩾4) compared with passenger vehicles (18%) (p = 0.02). After adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed, LTVs were associated with 3.0 times higher risk of severe injuries (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 7.29, p = 0.013). Mortality rate for pedestrians struck by LTVs (25%) was two times higher than that for passenger vehicles (12%) (p<0.001). Risk of death for LTV crashes after adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed was 3.4 times higher than that for passenger vehicles (95% CI 1.45 to 7.81, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Vehicle type strongly influences risk of severe injury and death to pedestrian. This may be due in part to the front end design of the vehicle. Hence vehicle front end design, especially for LTVs, should be considered in future motor vehicle safety standards. PMID:15178671

  11. Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Kubaje; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2). FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases. PMID:16583076

  12. Skin thickness progression rate: a predictor of mortality and early internal organ involvement in diffuse scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Domsic, Robyn T; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana; Lucas, Mary; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of skin thickness progression rate (STPR) with mortality, and as a predictor of future internal organ involvement in an inception cohort of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Methods Diffuse cutaneous SSc patients older than 16 years of age evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh within 2 years of the first evidence of skin thickening between 1980 and 2005 were eligible. The authors calculated the STPR on these patients, and examined the relationship of this variable to the development of early internal organ involvement and short-term mortality using logistic regression. Results 826 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a rapid STPR experienced significantly reduced short-term survival at 1 and 2 years from the time of first Pittsburgh evaluation (p=0.002). Patients with a rapid STPR were more likely to develop renal crisis within 1–2 years of follow-up. Rapid STPR was found to be an independent predictor of both mortality (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.62; p=0.01) and ‘renal crisis’ (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.85; p=0.02) within 2 years from first evaluation. Conclusion The STPR is an easy measure to perform at the time of initial evaluation for identifying those diffuse cutaneous SSc patients who are at increased risk of mortality and the development of renal crisis during the following 2 years. PMID:20679474

  13. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  14. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  15. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates. PMID:27929405

  16. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  17. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) using projections from Leslie matrices.

    PubMed

    Flores Uzeta, Olga; Solana Arellano, Elena; Echavarría Heras, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000). Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI). The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t) as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t = -0.11, p = 0.92 for n(t) and t = 0.69, p = 0.5 for mean rate of mortality). We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r = 0.70, p = 0.007) and monthly mortality rates (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 < or = i < or = x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem.

  18. Simplified HIV Testing and Treatment in China: Analysis of Mortality Rates Before and After a Structural Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zunyou; Zhao, Yan; Ge, Xianmin; Mao, Yurong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shi, Cynthia X.; Chen, Chi; Li, Yong; Qiu, Xuejun; Nong, Guide; Huang, Shanhui; Luo, Shen; Wu, Shaohui; He, Wenzhen; Zhang, Mingjie; Shen, Zhiyong; Jin, Xia; Li, Jian; Brookmeyer, Ron; Detels, Roger; Montaner, Julio; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Multistage stepwise HIV testing and treatment initiation procedures can result in lost opportunities to provide timely antiretroviral therapy (ART). Incomplete patient engagement along the continuum of HIV care translates into high levels of preventable mortality. We aimed to evaluate the ability of a simplified test and treat structural intervention to reduce mortality. Methods and Findings In the “pre-intervention 2010” (from January 2010 to December 2010) and “pre-intervention 2011” (from January 2011 to December 2011) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at health care facilities in Zhongshan and Pubei counties in Guangxi, China, followed the standard-of-care process. In the “post-intervention 2012” (from July 2012 to June 2013) and “post-intervention 2013” (from July 2013 to June 2014) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at the same facilities were offered a simplified test and treat intervention, i.e., concurrent HIV confirmatory and CD4 testing and immediate initiation of ART, irrespective of CD4 count. Participants were followed for 6–18 mo until the end of their study phase period. Mortality rates in the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases were compared for all HIV cases and for treatment-eligible HIV cases. A total of 1,034 HIV-positive participants (281 and 339 in the two pre-intervention phases respectively, and 215 and 199 in the two post-intervention phases respectively) were enrolled. Following the structural intervention, receipt of baseline CD4 testing within 30 d of HIV confirmation increased from 67%/61% (pre-intervention 2010/pre-intervention 2011) to 98%/97% (post-intervention 2012/post-intervention 2013) (all p < 0.001 [i.e., for all comparisons between a pre- and post-intervention phase]), and the time from HIV confirmation to ART initiation decreased from 53 d (interquartile range [IQR] 27–141)/43 d (IQR 15–113) to 5 d (IQR 2–12)/5 d (IQR 2–13) (all p < 0.001). Initiation of ART

  19. Mortality rates and division of labor in the leaf-cutting ant, Atta colombica.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark J F; Bot, A N M; Hart, Adam G

    2006-01-01

    Division of labor in social groups is affected by the relative costs and benefits of conducting different tasks. However, most studies have examined the dynamics of division of labor, rather than the costs and benefits that presumably underlie the evolution of such systems. In social insects, division of labor may be simplistically described as a source-sink system, with external tasks, such as foraging, acting as sinks for the work force. The implications of two distinct sinks - foraging and waste-heap working - for division of labor were examined in the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica. Intrinsic mortality rates were similar across external task groups. Exposure to waste (a task-related environment) led to a 60% increase in the mortality rate of waste-heap workers compared to workers not exposed to waste. Given the small number of workers present in the waste-heap task group, such increases in mortality are unlikely to affect division of labor and task allocation dramatically, except perhaps under conditions of stress.

  20. The health of nations in a global context: trade, global stratification, and infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Teixeira, Ana C; Shiell, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Despite the call for a better understanding of macro-level factors that affect population health, social epidemiological research has tended to focus almost exclusively on national-level factors, such as Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP/c) or levels of social cohesion. Using a world-systems framework to examine cross-national variations in infant mortality, this paper seeks to emphasize the effects of global trade on national-level population health. Rather than viewing national-level health indicators as autonomous from broader global contexts, the study uses network analysis methods to examine the effects of international trade on infant mortality rates. Network data for countries were derived from international data on the trade of capital-intensive commodities in 2000. Using automorphic equivalence to measure the degree to which actors in a network perform similar roles, countries were assigned into one of six world-system blocks, each with its own pattern of trade. These blocks were dummy-coded and tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. A key finding from this analysis is that after controlling for national-level factors, the two blocks with the lowest density in capital-intensive exchange, i.e., the periphery, are significantly and positively associated with national-level infant mortality rates. Results show the effects of peripherality and stratification on population health, and highlight the influence of broader macro-level factors such as trade and globalization on national health.

  1. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-02-10

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  2. Evaluating mortality rates with a novel integrated framework for nonmonogamous species.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Simone; Iemma, Aaron; Bragalanti, Natalia; Pedrini, Paolo; De Barba, Marta; Randi, Ettore; Groff, Claudio; Genovart, Meritxell

    2016-12-01

    The conservation of wildlife requires management based on quantitative evidence, and especially for large carnivores, unraveling cause-specific mortalities and understanding their impact on population dynamics is crucial. Acquiring this knowledge is challenging because it is difficult to obtain robust long-term data sets on endangered populations and, usually, data are collected through diverse sampling strategies. Integrated population models (IPMs) offer a way to integrate data generated through different processes. However, IPMs are female-based models that cannot account for mate availability, and this feature limits their applicability to monogamous species only. We extended classical IPMs to a two-sex framework that allows investigation of population dynamics and quantification of cause-specific mortality rates in nonmonogamous species. We illustrated our approach by simultaneously modeling different types of data from a reintroduced, unhunted brown bear (Ursus arctos) population living in an area with a dense human population. In a population mainly driven by adult survival, we estimated that on average 11% of cubs and 61% of adults died from human-related causes. Although the population is currently not at risk, adult survival and thus population dynamics are driven by anthropogenic mortality. Given the recent increase of human-bear conflicts in the area, removal of individuals for management purposes and through poaching may increase, reversing the positive population growth rate. Our approach can be generalized to other species affected by cause-specific mortality and will be useful to inform conservation decisions for other nonmonogamous species, such as most large carnivores, for which data are scarce and diverse and thus data integration is highly desirable.

  3. Resources, mortality, and disease ecology: Importance of positive feedbacks between host growth rate and pathogen dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Val H.; Holt, Robert D.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Niu, Yafen; Barfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Resource theory and metabolic scaling theory suggest that the dynamics of a pathogen within a host should strongly depend upon the rate of host cell metabolism. Once an infection occurs, key ecological interactions occur on or within the host organism that determine whether the pathogen dies out, persists as a chronic infection, or grows to densities that lead to host death. We hypothesize that, in general, conditions favoring rapid host growth rates should amplify the replication and proliferation of both fungal and viral pathogens. If a host population experiences an increase in mortality, to persist it must have a higher growth rate, per host, often reflecting greater resource availability per capita. We hypothesize that this could indirectly foster the pathogen, which also benefits from increased within-host resource turnover. We first bring together in a short review a number of key prior studies which illustrate resource effects on viral and fungal pathogen dynamics. We then report new results from a semi-continuous cell culture experiment with SHIV, demonstrating that higher mortality rates indeed can promote viral proliferation. We develop a simple model that illustrates dynamical consequences of these resource effects, including interesting effects such as alternative stable states and oscillatory dynamics. Our paper contributes to a growing body of literature at the interface of ecology and infectious disease epidemiology, emphasizing that host abundances alone do not drive community dynamics: the physiological state and resource content of infected hosts also strongly influence host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27642269

  4. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  5. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: a comparison of county and state cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, L.D.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tietjen, G.L.; Acquavella, J.F.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. This report considers cancer mortality rates in the region surrounding the Pantex nuclear weapons facility. The working hypothesis was that increased cancer mortality rates would exist in counties proximal to the Pantex Plant. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared age-adjusted cancer mortality rates for the six surrounding counties with Texas state rates for three time periods: 150 to 1959, 1960 to 1969, and 1970 to 1978. These comparisons showed that cancer mortality rates for Carson County (where the plant is located) and the five adjacent and downwind counties were not significantly different from rates for the State of Texas.

  6. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  7. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007–2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee’s classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia’s ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  8. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    PubMed

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  9. Birth rate and perinatal mortality in Italy during the years 1964 through 1986.

    PubMed

    Pecorari, D; Diani, F; Tanganelli, E

    1989-01-01

    "Between 1964 and 1986 the number of births in Italy declined from over one million per year to little more than half a million per year. The perinatal mortality rate declined from 37.3/1,000 to 12.8/1,000. Using the year 1964 as [the] reference year, the total number of babies who were saved from perinatal death by socio-economic and medical improvements during the 22 years between 1965 and 1986 can be calculated as 435,005."

  10. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  11. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  12. Mortality and diabetes mellitus in amputations of the lower limbs for gas gangrene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Janalice; Caracanhas, Lívia Andrioli

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine any association between the presence of diabetes in patients with gas gangrene of the legs and mortality following major lower limb amputation. In a retrospective study, patients submitted to amputation of lower limbs for anaerobic infections were evaluated in the period from January 2005 to January 2007 in the University Hospital de Base in Sao Jose do Rio Preto. All the patients were hospitalized for the treatment of ulcerated lesions of the leg. The study sample consisted of 30 men and 10 women aged between 46 and 87 years (mean 69 years) suffering from anaerobic infections. During treatment, the presence of crepitation in the skin was observed as was gas by radiological examination. Amputation was performed within 2 to 6 hours after diagnosis. Diabetes was identified in 33 patients and death occurred within the perioperative period in 12 cases. Diabetes is associated with the necessity of amputation for gas gangrene resulting in a high mortality rate.

  13. Heart Rate Variability is a Predictor of Mortality in CKD - A Report from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E; Babineau, Denise C; Brecklin, Carolyn; He, Jiang; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Xie, Dawei; Appleby, Dina; Anderson, Amanda H; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A 10 second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). Results In 3245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal (SDNN: HR=0.96 (95% CI 0.88–1.05); RMSSD: HR=0.97 (95% CI 0.88–1.07)) or cardiovascular outcomes (SDNN: HR=1.02 (95% CI 0.92–1.13); RMSSD: HR=1.00 (95% CI 0.90–1.10)). There was a non-linear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (P=0.04). Conclusions In a large cohort of participants with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV as measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. PMID:24356377

  14. Epidemiologic Correlates of Mortality among Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis Cases: Findings from Situation Assessment in High Endemic Foci in India

    PubMed Central

    Karthick, Morchan; Dwivedi, Shweta; Banerjee, Indranath; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Srikantiah, Sridhar; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is highly prevalent in the Indian state of Bihar and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. However, lack of efficient reporting mechanism had been an impediment in estimating the burden of mortality and its antecedents among symptomatic VL cases. The objectives of the current study were to generate a reliable estimate of symptomatic VL caseload and mortality in Bihar, as well as to identify the epidemiologic and health infrastructure-related predictors of VL mortality. Methodology and Principal Findings Using an elaborate index case tracing method, we attempted to locate all symptomatic VL patients in eight districts of Bihar. Interviews and medical-record-reviews were conducted with cases (or next-of-kin for the dead) meeting the eligibility criteria. The information collected during the interviews included socio-demographic characteristics, onset of disease symptoms, place of diagnosis, pre- and post-diagnosis treatment history, type and duration of drugs received. In total, we analyzed data on 4925 VL patients—59% were male and 68% were less than 30 years old. There were 158 (3.2%) deaths and the incidence rate of mortality was 3.2/100 person-years. In the adjusted Cox-proportional-hazards analysis, treatment at public facility [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43–0.86], shorter (≤30 days) diagnostic delay [AHR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43–0.92], and treatment completion [AHR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.02–0.05] emerged as significant negative predictors of mortality. Conclusion Mortality reduction efforts in Bihar should focus on improving access to early diagnosis, quality treatment and treatment-adherence measures, with special emphasis on marginalized communities. PMID:27870870

  15. Correlation between HLA-A2 gene frequency, latitude, ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    De Petris, Luigi; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Hising, Christina; Lundqvist, Andreas; Tholander, Bengt; Pisa, Pavel; van der Zanden, Henk G M; Masucci, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Molecular-target therapies are novel approaches to the treatment of prostate and ovarian cancer, but to ensure the best response, a very careful selection of patients, based on immunological characteristics, must be performed. We screened for HLA type, 24 patients with advanced ovarian cancer and 26 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, in order to be recruited to vaccine protocols. HLA typing was performed with PCR in ovarian cancer patients and with serological assay in prostate cancer patients. The results were then extended to a population level, comparing the HLA genotype frequencies in Europe with ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates. An overrepresentation of HLA-A2 phenotype was observed in both patient groups compared to the normal Swedish population (p = 0.01). As it is already known, the higher phenotype frequency of this allele found in Scandinavian countries decreases significantly as one moves further south in Europe. Ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates decrease as well as the demographic changes in HLA-A2. These observations have to be confirmed by more extended investigations in order to elucidate if HLA-A2 higher frequency is already present at the diagnosis (risk factor) or is selected during the course of the disease (prognostic factor). Moreover, this fact would suggest different strategies for specific immunotherapy in addition to first line conventional treatments.

  16. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  17. The effects of air pollutants on the mortality rate of lung cancer and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Keshtgar, Laila; Javaheri, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshan, Zahra; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Zuccarello, Pietro; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-03-24

    World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization. Finally, data related to number of deaths due to lung and blood cancers (leukemia) were gathered from Shiraz University Hospital. Relationship between variations of pollutant concentrations and cancers in lung and blood was investigated using statistical software R and MiniTab to perform time series analysis. Results of the present study revealed that the mortality rate of leukemia had a direct significant correlation with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air (P<0.05). Therefore, special attention should be paid to sources of these pollutants and we need better management to decrease air pollutant concentrations through, e.g., using clean energy respect to fossil fuels, better management of urban traffic planning, and the improvement of public transport service and car sharing.

  18. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  19. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Results After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R2=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R2=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. Conclusions AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. PMID:26674986

  20. Elevated Serum PCT in Septic Shock With Endotoxemia Is Associated With a Higher Mortality Rate.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Dominika; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of endotoxemia on the procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels and mortality rates of adult patients with septic shock diagnosed on the day of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).A retrospective observational study was performed over a 2-year period. Levels of PCT were compared for septic shock patients with and without endotoxemia on admission to the ICU. Endotoxemia was identified with an Endotoxin Activity Assay.One hundred fifty-seven patients with septic shock were enrolled into the study. Group 1 consisted of patients with elevated endotoxin activity (EA) (n = 95, EA = 0.57 endotoxin activity unit [EAU] [0.46-0.67]) and Group 2 consisted of patients with low EA (n = 62, EA = 0.27 EAU [0.17-0.36]). Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and SOFA score were similar in both groups (APACHE II = 23 [16-29] and 19 [16-25]; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] = 10 [7-13] and 11 [8-12] in Groups 1 and 2, respectively) (nonsignificant). The PCT level was 6 times higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (19.6 ng/mL vs. 3.1 ng/mL, P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between EA and serum PCT (P < 0.001, R = 0.5). The presence of endotoxemia on admission to the ICU was associated with an increased mortality rate: 52% in the group of patients with endotoxemia and 25% in the group without endotoxemia. EA in survivors was 0.39 EAU (0.26-0.57) and 0.53 EAU (0.4-0.61) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.004). The median PCT level in survivors was 6.7 ng/mL (2.3-28.0), compared with 16.7 ng/mL (5.3-31.0) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04).This observational study revealed that endotoxemia in patients with septic shock on admission to the ICU was frequently found and was associated with an elevated PCT level and a high mortality rate. Endotoxemia was a common occurrence in patients with septic shock, regardless of the infecting microorganism.

  1. Short-term diabetes attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and mortality rates after myocardial infarction in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot Taboas; Fang, Jiao; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Llesuy, Suzana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on left ventricular dysfunction, morphometry, myocardial infarction area, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress profile, and mortality rate in rats that had undergone seven days of myocardial infarction. INTRODUCTION: Previous research has demonstrated that hyperglycemia may protect the heart against ischemic injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control-sham, diabetes-sham, myocardial infarction, and diabetes + myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was induced 14 days after diabetes induction. Ventricular function and morphometry, as well as oxidative stress and hemodynamic parameters, were evaluated after seven days of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The myocardial infarction area, which was similar in the infarcted groups at the initial evaluation, was reduced in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (23±3%) when compared with the myocardial infarction (42±7%, p<0.001) animals at the final evaluation. The ejection fraction (22%, p = 0.003), velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (30%, p = 0.001), and left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time (26%, p = 0.002) were increased in the diabetes + myocardial infarction group compared with the myocardial infarction group. The diabetes-sham and diabetes + myocardial infarction groups displayed increased catalase concentrations compared to the control-sham and myocardial infarction groups (diabetes-sham: 32±3; diabetes + myocardial infarction: 35±0.7; control-sham: 12±2; myocardial infarction: 16±0.1 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were reduced in the diabetes-sham rats compared to the control-sham rats. These positive adaptations were reflected in a reduced mortality rate in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (18.5%) compared with the myocardial infarction animals (40.7%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that short

  2. On-admission blood pressure and pulse rate in trauma patients and their correlation with mortality: Cushing's phenomenon revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Prashant; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Roy, Nobhojit; Kumar, Vineet; Samudrala, Veda Dhruthy; Kamble, Jyoti; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injury-induced alteration in initial physiological responses such as hypertension and heart rate (HR) has a significant effect on mortality. Research on such associations from our country-India is limited. The present study investigates the injury-induced early blood pressure (BP) and HR changes and their association with mortality. Materials and Methods: The data were selected from Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes collected from October 1, 2013, to July 24, 2014. Patients above 18 years of age with documented systolic BP (SBP) and HR were selected. BP was categorized into hypotension (SBP <90 mmHg), hypertension (SBP >140 mmHg), and normal (SBP 90–140 mmHg). HR was categorized into bradycardia (HR <60 beats/min [bpm]), tachycardia (HR >100 bpm), and normal (HR 60–100 bpm). These categories were compared with mortality. Results: A total of 10,200 patients were considered for the study. Mortality rate was 24%. Mortality among females was more than males. Patients with normal BP and HR had 20% of mortality. Mortality in patients with abnormal BP and HR findings was 36%. Mortality was higher among hypotension-bradycardia patients (80%) followed by hypertension-bradycardia patients (58%) and tachycardia hypotension patients (48%). Elderly patients were at higher risk of deaths with an overall mortality of 35% compared to 23% of adults. Conclusion: The study reports that initial combination of hypotension-bradycardia had higher mortality rate. Specific precautions in prehospital care should be given to trauma patients with these findings. Further prospective study in detail should be considered for exploring this abnormality.

  3. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  4. Usefulness of the heart-rate variability complex for predicting cardiac mortality after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that decreased heart-rate variability (HRV) is related to the risk of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the conventional indices of HRV have poor predictive value for mortality. Our aim was to develop novel predictive models based on support vector machine (SVM) to study the integrated features of HRV for improving risk stratification after AMI. Methods A series of heart-rate dynamic parameters from 208 patients were analyzed after a mean follow-up time of 28 months. Patient electrocardiographic data were classified as either survivals or cardiac deaths. SVM models were established based on different combinations of heart-rate dynamic variables and compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. We tested the accuracy of predictors by assessing the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC). Results We evaluated a SVM algorithm that integrated various electrocardiographic features based on three models: (A) HRV complex; (B) 6 dimension vector; and (C) 8 dimension vector. Mean AUC of HRV complex was 0.8902, 0.8880 for 6 dimension vector and 0.8579 for 8 dimension vector, compared with 0.7424 for LVEF, 0.7932 for SDNN and 0.7399 for DC. Conclusions HRV complex yielded the largest AUC and is the best classifier for predicting cardiac death after AMI. PMID:24886422

  5. Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues Short title: U.S. Maternal Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A pregnancy question was added to the U.S. standard death certificate in 2003 to improve ascertainment of maternal deaths. The delayed adoption of this question among states led to data incompatibilities, and impeded accurate trend analysis. Our objectives were to develop methods for trend analysis, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000–2014. Methods This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year-of-adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted, to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. Results The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington D.C. (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, while Texas had a sudden increase in 2011–2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Discussion Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington D.C. increased from 2000–2014, while the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year. PMID:27500333

  6. Mortality rates among chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia: 1940-1999.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol J; Jammer, B L; Bodnar, C M

    2006-01-01

    To expand a cohort of chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley, we conducted a study of 33,225 workers who were employed at three locations between 1940 and 1999. We observed no increase in overall cancer mortality. Higher risk estimates were observed for lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma among hourly employees who worked at the Institute or South Charleston locations. This finding was limited to men hired before 1960. We observed no new cases of angiosarcoma of the liver, a cause of death previously reported in association with vinyl chloride production at the South Charleston location. Specific risk factors for lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma have not been identified in previous targeted studies of this population and it is unlikely that additional cause-specific research will elucidate the etiology. Updates of the entire cohort will continue and can be used as a comparison population for chemical specific studies within these three plants.

  7. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal

  8. High mortality rates occur in copper deficient rats exposed to a normally nonlethal endotoxin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    DiSilvestro, R.; Joseph, E.; Yang, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Endotoxin hepatotoxicity is proposed to occur by processes which could be retarded by 3 copper enzymes: ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and extracellular (EC) SOD. Weanling rats fed low copper for 40 days showed low activity levels of these enzymes, and a very high mortality rate 20 h after endotoxin injection. No rats fed adequate copper died from this treatment. In addition, serum transaminase activities, indicators of liver damage, were elevated by 3 h to a greater extent in the deficient rats than in the adequates. The high susceptibility to endotoxemia in the deficient rats was not associated with low hepatic glutathione, high liver malondialedhyde, nor restricted metallothionein induction 3 h after endotoxin injection. Endotoxin reduced serum EC SOD activities in adequate and deficient rats, but final values were lower in the latter. Studies on roles of specific copper enzymes in resistance to endotoxemia are currently underway.

  9. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  10. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy. PMID:27730182

  11. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age-period-cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was -3.6% in men and -2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  12. A Web Tool for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Check, David P.; Anderson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. METHODS We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly web tool. RESULTS Input data for the web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates; period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift); and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value (csv) file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats including R and Excel. CONCLUSIONS APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely-available user-friendly web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. IMPACT The web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. PMID:25146089

  13. Coronary artery bypass grafting in Canada: hospital mortality rates, 1992-1995

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, W A; Quan, H; Brant, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of in-hospital death after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have been studied in many regions of Canada as possible indicators of hospital-specific quality of care. This nationwide study examined observed and risk-adjusted death rates for 23 Canadian hospitals performing CABG. METHODS: Hospital discharge data were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information and were used to identify all CABG procedures performed in Canadian hospitals in fiscal years 1992/93 through 1995/96. Cases from Quebec hospitals were not studied because hospitals in that province do not report to the institute. Observed death rates were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was used to calculate a risk-adjusted death rate for each hospital for the 4-year period studied. Changes over time in hospital-specific death rates were also examined. RESULTS: A total of 50,357 CABG cases were studied, with an overall death rate of 3.6%. Interhospital comparisons showed that average severity of illness varied considerably across hospitals. Despite risk adjustment accounting for this variable severity, there was considerable variation in adjusted death rates across the 23 hospitals, from 1.95% to 5.76% (p < 0.001 for difference across hospitals). For some hospitals, death rates decreased between 1992/93 and 1995/96, whereas for others the rates were stable or increased. INTERPRETATION: Risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital death after CABG vary widely across Canadian hospitals. There may be differences in quality of care across hospitals, and focused quality-improvement initiatives may be necessary in some institutions. PMID:9834717

  14. Overcoming Stagnation in the Levels and Distribution of Child Mortality: The Case of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Raoul; Firth, Sonja; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Zeck, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related within-country inequalities continue to be a matter of great interest and concern to both policy makers and researchers. This study aims to assess the level and the distribution of child mortality outcomes in the Philippines across geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Data on 159,130 children ever borne were analysed from five waves of the Philippine Demographic and Health Survey. Direct estimation was used to construct under-five and neonatal mortality rates for the period 1980–2013. Rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated to measure disparities on absolute and relative scales. Stratification was undertaken by levels of rural/urban location, island groups and household wealth. Findings National under-five and neonatal mortality rates have shown considerable albeit differential reductions since 1980. Recently released data suggests that neonatal mortality has declined following a period of stagnation. Declines in under-five mortality have been accompanied by decreases in wealth and geography-related absolute inequalities. However, relative inequalities for the same markers have remained stable over time. For neonates, mixed evidence suggests that absolute and relative inequalities have remained stable or may have risen. Conclusion In addition to continued reductions in under-five mortality, new data suggests that the Philippines have achieved success in addressing the commonly observed stagnated trend in neonatal mortality. This success has been driven by economic improvement since 2006 as well as efforts to implement a nationwide universal health care campaign. Yet, such patterns, nonetheless, accorded with persistent inequalities, particularly on a relative scale. A continued focus on addressing universal coverage, the influence of decentralisation and armed conflict, and issues along the continuum of care is advocated. PMID:26431409

  15. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter.

  16. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  17. Delayed Effects of Obese and Overweight Population Conditions on All-Cause Adult Mortality Rate in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Albert A.; Rubin, Rose M.; Okunade, Adeyinka K.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic, and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed) effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation) to slow premature mortality linked with unhealthy BMIs. PMID:27734013

  18. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P.; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2–59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9–25.7%) and comparison (23.3–29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services. PMID:26787148

  19. Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada: a trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weichenthal, Scott; Wong, Joan; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of mortality and morbidity from carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada has received little attention. Our objective was to evaluate trends in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada. Methods Age- and sex-standardized mortality (1981–2009) and hospital admission (1995–2010) rates by age group, sex and site of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated for each province and for all of Canada. We quantified the long-term trends by calculating the average annual percent change. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of carbon monoxide poisoning across age groups, sex and month of occurrence. Results In Canada, there were 1808 unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths between 1981 and 2009 and 1984 admissions to hospital between 1995 and 2010. Average annual decreases of 3.46% (95% confidence interval [CI] –4.59% to –2.31%) and 5.83% (95% CI –7.79% to –3.83%) were observed for mortality and hospital admission rates, respectively. Mortality (IRR 5.31, 95% CI 4.57 to 6.17) and hospital admission (IRR 2.77, 95% CI 2.51 to 3.03) rates were elevated in males compared with females. Decreased trends in the rates were observed for all sites of carbon monoxide exposure, but the magnitude of this decrease was lowest in residential environments. Deaths and admissions to hospital were most frequent from September to April, with peaks in December and January. Interpretation Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada have declined steadily. Continued efforts should focus on reducing carbon monoxide poisoning during the cooler months and in residential environments. PMID:26389101

  20. A case-crossover analysis of forest fire haze events and mortality in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahani, Mazrura; Zainon, Nurul Ashikin; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Latif, Mohd Talib; Hod, Rozita; Khan, Md Firoz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    The Southeast Asian (SEA) haze events due to forest fires are recurrent and affect Malaysia, particularly the Klang Valley region. The aim of this study is to examine the risk of haze days due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia on daily mortality in the Klang Valley region between 2000 and 2007. We used a case-crossover study design to model the effect of haze based on PM10 concentration to the daily mortality. The time-stratified control sampling approach was used, adjusted for particulate matter (PM10) concentrations, time trends and meteorological influences. Based on time series analysis of PM10 and backward trajectory analysis, haze days were defined when daily PM10 concentration exceeded 100 μg/m3. The results showed a total of 88 haze days were identified in the Klang Valley region during the study period. A total of 126,822 cases of death were recorded for natural mortality where respiratory mortality represented 8.56% (N = 10,854). Haze events were found to be significantly associated with natural and respiratory mortality at various lags. For natural mortality, haze events at lagged 2 showed significant association with children less than 14 years old (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01-1.99). Respiratory mortality was significantly associated with haze events for all ages at lagged 0 (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.02-1.40). Age-and-gender-specific analysis showed an incremental risk of respiratory mortality among all males and elderly males above 60 years old at lagged 0 (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09-1.64 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.09-1.84 respectively). Adult females aged 15-59 years old were found to be at highest risk of respiratory mortality at lagged 5 (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99). This study clearly indicates that exposure to haze events showed immediate and delayed effects on mortality.

  1. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  2. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  3. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hospital serving a Spanish-Mediterranean population during a 30-month period. RESULTS: We studied 82 cases of death from avoidable causes and 300 controls matched on medical care indicators and age. The variables that showed a statistically significant association with in-hospital avoidable mortality were number of diagnoses (the greater the number, the higher the risk), length of stay (patients staying seven or more days presented a lower risk), and education. Those patients with low and middle educational levels showed a greater risk of avoidable mortality (adjusted odds ratio=3.57 and 2.82, respectively) than those patients with higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the findings of studies based on aggregate data, our case-control analyses indicated that among several socioeconomic variables studied, educational level was significantly associated with the risk of in-hospital avoidable mortality, regardless of age and medical care indicators. Patients with low levels of education (<6 years of schooling) were at highest risk for in-hospital avoidable mortality, followed by those with middle levels of education (7-10 years of schooling). PMID:15736332

  4. Effectiveness of traffic-related elements in tree bark and pollen abortion rates for assessing air pollution exposure on respiratory mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Amato-Lourenço, Luís F; Moreira, Tiana C L; Silva, Douglas R Rocha; Vieira, Bruna D; Mauad, Thais; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento

    2017-02-01

    The majority of epidemiological studies correlate the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution exposure by considering the concentrations of pollutants measured from conventional monitoring networks. The conventional air quality monitoring methods are expensive, and their data are insufficient for providing good spatial resolution. We hypothesized that bioassays using plants could effectively determine pollutant gradients, thus helping to assess the risks associated with air pollution exposure. The study regions were determined from different prevalent respiratory death distributions in the Sao Paulo municipality. Samples of tree flower buds were collected from twelve sites in four regional districts. The genotoxic effects caused by air pollution were tested through a pollen abortion bioassay. Elements derived from vehicular traffic that accumulated in tree barks were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). Mortality data were collected from the mortality information program of Sao Paulo City. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the concentrations of elements accumulated in tree barks. Pearson correlation and exponential regression were performed considering the elements, pollen abortion rates and mortality data. PCA identified five factors, of which four represented elements related to vehicular traffic. The elements Al, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn showed a strong correlation with mortality rates (R(2)>0.87) and pollen abortion rates (R(2)>0.82). These results demonstrate that tree barks and pollen abortion rates allow for correlations between vehicular traffic emissions and associated outcomes such as genotoxic effects and mortality data.

  5. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  6. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerber, L.R.; Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.; Jessup, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, there are no generally recognized approaches for linking detailed mortality and pathology data to population-level analyses of extinction risk. We used a combination of analytical and simulation-based analyses to examine 20 years of age- and sex-specific mortality data for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris), and we applied results to project the efficacy of alternative conservation strategies. Population recovery of the southern sea otter has been slow (rate of population increase ?? = 1.05) compared to other recovering populations (?? = 1.17-1.20), and the population declined (?? = 0.975) between 1995 and 1999. Age-based Leslie matrices were developed to explore explanations for the slow recovery and recent decline in the southern sea other population. An elasticity analysis was performed to predict effects of proportional changes in stage-specific reproductive or survival rates on the rate of population increase. A life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) was developed to evaluate the impact of changing age- and cause-specific mortality rates on ??. The information used to develop these models was derived from death assemblage, pathology, and live population census data to examine the sensitivity of sea otter population growth to different sources of mortality (e.g., disease and starvation, direct human take [fisheries, gun shot, boat strike, oil pollution], mating trauma and intraspecific aggression, shark bites, and unknown). We used resampling simulations to generate random combinations of vital rates for a large number of matrix replicates and drew on these to estimate potential effects of mortality sources on population growth (??). Our analyses suggest management actions that are likely and unlikely to promote recovery of the southern sea otter and more broadly indicate a methodology to better utilize cause-of-death data in conservation decision-making.

  7. Eisenmenger's syndrome in pregnancy: does heparin prophylaxis improve the maternal mortality rate?

    PubMed

    Pitts, J A; Crosby, W M; Basta, L L

    1977-03-01

    Seven consecutive patients with Eisenmenber's syndrome, cared for by the obstetric team in conjunction with the cardiology service, were reviewed to assess the possible role of prophylactic heparin therapy and intensive care on the outcome of these patients. In each patient, the diagnosis of Eisenmenger's syndrome was established by the demonstration of equal pulmonary arterial and aortic pressures with a predominantly right-to-left shunt at cardiac catheterization. Five of the seven patients died as follows: Three patients died between the fifth and eighth post-partum days, one patient died during the twenty-sixth week of pregnancy, and one patient died on the fifth postoperative day following tubal ligation. All of these five patients received prophylactic heparin therapy. In three patients, heparin therapy was complicated by excessive bleeding during the postoperative or postpartum period. Autopsy examination in two patients revealed no evidence of thrombosis in the main pulmonary arteries and no pulmonary infarction, contrary to the antemortem clinical suspicion. The two survivors did not receive prophylactic heparin. They comprised one patient who had normal delivery and one patient who underwent tubal ligation and induction of abortion. We conclude that the prohibitive mortality rate of Eisenmenger's syndrome during pregnancy, puerpurium, or surgical procedures probably cannot be modified with prophylactic heparin therapy. Anticoagulant treatment does not prevent deterioration of patients and probably compounds the problem by causing significant bleeding.

  8. [Maternal mortality and perinatal mortality].

    PubMed

    Boutaleb, Y; Mesbahi, M; Lahlou, D; Aderdour, M

    1982-01-01

    intrapartum mortality without maceration, 114 were caused by retroplacental hematomas, 61 by placenta previa, 74 by uterine rupture, 119 by prolapse of the cord, 51 by fetal malformation, 45 by dystochia, 53 by twin pregnancies, 104 by fetal distress, 44 by obstetrical trauma, 55 by prematurity, and 75 by undetermined causes. In 361 cases of early neonatal mortality, 88 were caused by renovascular syndromes, 24 by diabetes, 13 by Rh incompatibility, 34 by placenta previa, 94 by prematurity, 28 by fetal malformation, 35 by fetal infections, 31 by fetal distress, and 14 by obstetrical trauma. The rates of maternal and perinatal mortality are very high compared to those of European countries.

  9. Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.

  10. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context.

  11. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p = 0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p = 0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p = 0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  12. Short- and Long-Term Mortality Rates of Elderly Acute Kidney Injury Patients Who Underwent Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Harin; Jang, Keum Sook; Park, Jong Man; Kang, Jin Suk; Hwang, Na Kyoung; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background The world’s population is aging faster and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) needing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasing in elderly population. The outcome of AKI needing CRRT in elderly patients is known to be poor. However, the definitions of elderly used in the previous literatures were diverse and, there were few data that compared the long-term mortality rates of these patients with middle aged patients. This study was aimed to evaluate this issue. Methods This study was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent CRRT from January 2013 to December 2015. The patients were divided into the following four age cohorts: middle-aged (55–64), young-old (65–74), middle-old (75–84), and old-old (≥85). The short- and long-term mortality rates for each age cohort were compared. Results A total of 562 patients met the inclusion criteria. The short-term mortality rate was 57.3% in the entire cohort. Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old cohort (HR 1.48 (1.09–2.02), p = 0.012) and the old-old cohort (HR 2.33 (1.30–4.19), p = 0.005) showed an increased short-term mortality rate along with an increased SOFA score, acidemia and a prolonged prothrombin time. When we analyzed the long-term mortality rate of the 238 survived patients, the middle-old cohort (HR 3.76 (1.84–7.68), p<0.001), the old-old cohort (HR 4.40(1.20–16.10), p = 0.025), a lower BMI, the presence of liver cirrhosis, the presence of congestive heart failure and a history of sepsis were independent risk factors for the prediction of long-term mortality. Conclusion Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old and the old-old cohort showed an increased short-term and long-term mortality rate. However, in the young-old cohort, neither the short-term nor the long-term mortality rate was increased. PMID:27875571

  13. Association between resting heart rate and cardiovascular mortality: evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuechun

    2015-01-01

    The results from published studies on resting heart rate (RHR) and risk of cardiovascular mortality are not consistent. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the evidence from prospective studies about the association of RHR with risk cardiovascular mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Pubmed and Web of Knowledge to January 2015. The random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Twenty prospective articles were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest RHR level versus lowest levels was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality [summary relative risk (RR) = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.42-2.00, I2 = 87.5%]. Subjects with RHR levels of > 80 bites per minute (bpm) had a RR of 1.49 (1.24-1.79) for cardiovascular mortality. The results for subgroups analysis of geographic locations, sex and duration of follow-up are consistent with the overall results. The linear dose-response analysis indicated that an increase in RHR of 10 bpm was statistically significantly associated with a 6% increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular mortality (summary RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08). Thus, we conclude that elevated RHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26629022

  14. Demographic and clinical characteristics of red tag patients and their one-week mortality rate from the emergency department of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Rahmat, Rashdan; Hisamudin, Nik; Rahman, Nik Abdul; Noh, Abu Yazid Mohd; Mohammad, Nasir; Wahab, Sheik Farid Abdul; Zaini, Ida Zarina

    2009-11-01

    Early identification and rapid treatment of red tag patients may decrease morbidity and mortality. We examined the clinical characteristics, etiologies and one week mortality rate of red tag (life threatening and potentially life threatening illness) patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysai (HUSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Emergency Department of the HUSM from 1 August 2006 to 31 January 2007; 440 eligible patients were analyzed. The group had a mean age of 47.2 +/- 22 years, with 67.3% of the patients being male. Twenty-three percent were trauma cases with motor vehicle accident being the major mechanism of injury. Fifty-four percent of the cases had cardiac related illnesses. The mean duration of stay in the Emergency Department (ED) was 3.9 +/- 1.5 hours. The survival rate at one week was 76.6%. The non-trauma group comprised 74.0% of death cases. Acute coronary syndrome and road traffic accidents comprised 22.0% of total death cases at one week. Red tag patients constitute a large proportion of ED cases and may remain in the ED for significant periods of time.

  15. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  16. Mortality among MDR-TB Cases: Comparison with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0%) died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1–13.4) when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01), previous TB episodes (p<0.001), diabetes history (p<0.001) and HIV infection (p = 0.04) were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Conclusions MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to

  17. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  18. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  19. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  20. Misery Loves Company? A Meta-Regression Examining Aggregate Unemployment Rates and the Unemployment-Mortality Association

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. METHODS We use 6 meta-regression models (each utilizing a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). RESULTS We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (p = 0.27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (p = 0.46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (p = 0.87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (p = 0.73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; p = 0.61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (p < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macro-economic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macro-economic conditions. PMID:25795225

  1. Morbidity and mortality in respiratory burns--a prospective study of 240 cases.

    PubMed

    Leung, C M; Lee, S T

    1992-09-01

    A prospective study of 240 consecutive admissions with respiratory burns over an eight-year period beginning 1982 was carried out at the National Burns Centre, Singapore General Hospital. Diagnosis of respiratory burns was based on clinical criteria and a clinical score was then computed to grade the severity. Investigations included chest x-rays, blood gases, carboxyhaemoglobin level, lung scan and fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Treatment was carried out according to a standard protocol where a policy of early intervention in the form of endotracheal intubation was emphasised. Other respiratory support measures were chest physiotherapy, tracheobronchial suction, mucolytics and bronchoscopic lavage where indicated. We found that respiratory burns was a significant cause of mortality in burns patients. The influence on mortality was most marked in patients with large body surface area burns of more than 40%. Age was also an important determinant of survival with patients older than 50 years faring significantly worse. The routine steroids and prophylactic antibiotics did not influence the survival rate. Carbon monoxide poisoning was not a significant cause of mortality. We achieved an overall mortality rate of 18.3%, with 44 deaths out of 240 patients. The main causes of deaths at post-mortem were bronchopneumonia, septicaemia and extensive burns.

  2. Association between community management of pneumonia and diarrhoea in high-burden countries and the decline in under-five mortality rates: an ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Dilip, Thandassery Ramachandran; Costello, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the paper is to explore if the adoption of national policies to use community-based health providers for the management of pneumonia and diarrhoea is associated with the decline in under-five mortality, including achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)4 target, in high-burden countries. Setting This country level analysis covers 75 high-burden low-income and middle-income countries which accounted for 98% of the 5.9 million global under-five deaths in 2015. One-fourth of these deaths were due to pneumonia and diarrhoea. Methods χ2 tests and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the association between reduction in under-five mortality rates and community case management of pneumonia and diarrhoea by adjusting for the influence of other possible determinants. Participants No patient or population interviewed/examined for this analysis. Countries were the unit of analysis. Interventions Community case management (CCM) of pneumonia and diarrhoea policies. Outcome measures Changes in under-five mortality rates over time. Results Countries that had adopted both CCM policies were three times more likely to achieve the MDG4 target than countries that did not have both policies in place. This association was further confirmed by the multivariate analysis (β-coefficient=10.4; 95% CI 2.4 to 18.5; p value=0.012). Discussion There is a statistically significant association between adoption of CCM policies for treatment of pneumonia and diarrhoea and the rate of decline in child mortality levels. It is important to promote CCM in countries lagging behind to achieve the new target of 25 or fewer deaths per 1000 live births by 2030. PMID:28196943

  3. The Impact of Temperature on Mortality in Tianjin, China: A Case-Crossover Design with a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian G; Pan, Xiaochuan; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although interest in assessing the impacts of temperature on mortality has increased, few studies have used a case-crossover design to examine nonlinear and distributed lag effects of temperature on mortality. Additionally, little evidence is available on the temperature–mortality relationship in China or on what temperature measure is the best predictor of mortality. Objectives: Our objectives were to use a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) as a part of case-crossover design to examine the nonlinear and distributed lag effects of temperature on mortality in Tianjin, China and to explore which temperature measure is the best predictor of mortality. Methods: We applied the DLNM to a case-crossover design to assess the nonlinear and delayed effects of temperatures (maximum, mean, and minimum) on deaths (nonaccidental, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory). Results: A U-shaped relationship was found consistently between temperature and mortality. Cold effects (i.e., significantly increased mortality associated with low temperatures) were delayed by 3 days and persisted for 10 days. Hot effects (i.e., significantly increased mortality associated with high temperatures) were acute and lasted for 3 days and were followed by mortality displacement for nonaccidental, cardiopulmonary, and cardiovascular deaths. Mean temperature was a better predictor of mortality (based on model fit) than maximum or minimum temperature. Conclusions: In Tianjin, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effects of cold last longer than the effects of heat. Combining the DLNM and the case-crossover design allows the case-crossover design to flexibly estimate the nonlinear and delayed effects of temperature (or air pollution) while controlling for season. PMID:21827978

  4. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  5. Analysis of prognostic factors affecting mortality in Fournier’s gangrene: A study of 72 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Essarghini, Mohamed; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Bensal, Abdelhak; Zemmouri, Adil; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fournier’s gangrene is a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital area associated with a high mortality rate. We presented our experience in managing this entity and identified prognostic factors affecting mortality. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for Fournier’s gangrene at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014. Patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: Of the 72 patients, 64 were males (89%) and 8 females (11%), with a mean age of 51 years. The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (38%). The mortality rate was 17% (12 patients died). Statistically significant differences were not found in age, gender, and predisposing factors, except in heart disease (p = 0.038). Individual laboratory parameters significantly correlating with mortality included hemoglobin (p = 0.023), hematocrit (p = 0.019), serum urea (p = 0.009), creatinine (p = 0.042), and potassium (p = 0.026). Severe sepsis on admission and the extent of affected surface area also predicted higher mortality. Others factors, such as duration of symptoms before admission, number of surgical debridement, diverting colostomy and length of hospital stay, did not show significant differences. The median Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) was significantly higher in non-survivors (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Fournier’s gangrene is a severe surgical emergency requiring early diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Identification of prognostic factors is essential to establish an optimal treatment and to improve outcome. The FGSI is a simple and valid method for predicting disease severity and patient survival. PMID:26600888

  6. Increased heart rate on first day in Intensive Care Unit is associated with increased mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Duygu; Akinci, Seda Banu; Babaoglu, Gulcin; Aypar, Ulku

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of maximum HR during the first day of intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. Methods: Data of 850 patients over 45 years of age, who were hospitalized in ICU, was retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into two groups; Group-I, patients with maximum HR<100/min Group-II, patients with maximum HR≥100/min on first day. The groups were compared regarding age, sex, use of beta-blockers, use of inotropic and vasopressor drugs, hemodynamic parameters, anemia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization (ICU and total), mortality (ICU and total), and CHARLSON & APACHE-II scores. Results: The mean age of patients was 63±12 years and 86% were after non-cardiac surgery. Maximum HR was 83±11 in Group-I and 115±14/min in Group-II (p=0.002). Group-II patients had more frequent vasopressor and inotropic drugs usage, (p<0.001), anemia, mechanical ventilation (p<0.005), higher CHARLSON & APACHE-II scores, stayed longer in ICU and hospital, and had higher ICU and hospital mortality compared to group-I (p<0.05). APACHE-II scores and maximum HR<100/min were independent variables predicting ICU mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis whereas usage of beta-blockers was not. Conclusions: Our study showed that maximum HR less than100/minute during the first day of ICU is associated with decreased mortality in Intensive Care Unit. PMID:28083034

  7. Associated influence of hypertension and heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute on mortality rate in patients with anterior wall STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction as a form of coronary heart disease is characterized by permanent damage/loss of anatomical and functional cardiac tissue. Diagnosis of STEMI includes data on anginal pain and persistent ST-segment elavation. According to the numerous epidemiological studies, arterial blood pressure and heart rate are offten increased especially during the first hours of pain due to domination of sympathetic response. We wanted to investigate the associated influence of heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute and hypertension on the mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. Research included 140 patients treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac form January 2001 to June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission, recorded on monitor and electrocardiogram. Data for history of hypertension were collected and blood pressure levels were measured in a lying position after 5 minutes of rest, and classified according to the VII JNC recommendations as confirmation of hypertension. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Heart rate greater than 80 bpm influences the hospital mortality. Systolic blood pressure levels were higher in the survivors, while for the diastolic there was no difference. History of hypertension was singled out as a significant predictor of mortality without difference between the respondents with heart rate greater and lower than 80 bpm in the survivors and fatal. Increased heart rate and hypertension at admission are significant predictors of mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. PMID:23724155

  8. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  9. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  10. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-31

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  11. Self-rated health and mortality in older men and women: a time-dependent covariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Leskinen, Esko; Jylhä, Marja; Heikkinen, Eino

    2009-01-01

    Although the relation between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality is widely known, most of the studies have relied in baseline measurements unheeding the dynamics of the phenomenon. Our aim was to analyze how SRH both as a constant and as a time-dependent covariate predicts mortality in older men and women and to compare these different approaches. Subjects consisted of 110 male and 208 female (n=318) residents in the city of Jyväskylä, central Finland, aged 75 years at the baseline in 1989. The follow-up data was gathered in 1994 and mortality was followed for 10 years. Results showed that poor SRH was strongly associated with higher mortality risk in women in all models. In men, the association was found only in time-dependent and 5 year follow-up models and these associations were explained by baseline health status. To conclude, our analyses showed that there are gender differences in association between SRH and mortality and that the use of time-dependent covariate in a Cox regression model enables advantage to be taken of all the information in a longitudinal study design.

  12. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  13. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  14. Bird mortality during nocturnal migration over Lake Michigan: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.; Bates, John M.; Willard, David E.; Gnoske, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of birds die each year during migration. Most of this mortality goes unobserved and conditions surrounding the actual events are often not thoroughly documented. We present a case study of substantial migrant casualties along the shores of southwestern Lake Michigan during May 1996 when we found 2,981 dead birds of 114 species, mostly migrant passerines. An unusual sequence of events allowed us to document the circumstances surrounding this migratory bird kill. Bird carcasses appeared on the southwestern shores of Lake Michigan in the days following storm systems that produced high rain and in one case, hail. Encounters between birds and precipitation over open water were recorded by weather radar, and were followed by winds that drifted dead birds toward highly populated shorelines where the kill was observed and documented. Climatologically, May 1996 was exceptional for producing weather conditions that both killed birds en masse and allowed the mortality to be documented. As a result, this is one of the more thoroughly documented instances of a weather-related mass mortality event during migration.

  15. [Early and late hospital mortality in myocardial infarction. Causes and prognostic factors. Apropos of 140 cases].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Derbal, F; Ezzine, M; Ezzaouia, K; Ben Ismail, M

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the causes of early and late in-hospital mortality of myocardial infarction, to define elements of prognosis and to attempt to prevent the fatal outcome of the coronary disease. This study concerns 107 men and 33 women, between the ages of 30 and 83 years (mean age 62.8 years). The total mortality is 12% (early: 6.5%, late: 5.5%. 66% of the patients are over 60 and 45% present 3 or more coronary risks factors. The clinical picture is characterized by frequent initial complications (84% of the cases), dominated by hemodynamic failure. The infarction is most of the time located anteriorly (56.6% of the cases). Primary cardiogenic shock represents the main cause of early mortality (55.3%). A recurrent infarction represents 75% of the causes of late deaths. Tri-vessels involvement and alteration of the ventricular function are noted in 9 out of 14 coronary arteriograms. Prognosis factors are proposed to differentiate high risk patients requiring an early coronary arteriogram in view of a specific medical and/or surgical treatment. The best signs of a poor prognosis are: tri-vessels involvement and alteration of the ventricular function.

  16. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  17. Improved mortality rate for congenital diaphragmatic hernia in the modern era of management: 15 year experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Zalla, Jennifer M.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Yoder, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Mortality rates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have remained at approximately 30% for the last 2 decades. Therapies targeting pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) have not been systematically studied in this population, but are increasingly used. We hypothesized that incremental changes in treatments for PHTN have improved mortality for CDH infants. Methods Prospective data from 1998–2013 on all liveborn CDH patients treated at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. Based on management of PHTN, 4 Eras were identified for comparison. Logistic and linear regression were used to compare characteristics. The primary outcome of death prior to discharge was analyzed by multivariable Cox regression modeling. Results The study included 192 infants who met inclusion criteria. Length of stay increased, while rates of primary repair decreased, suggesting a sicker cohort in the most recent Eras. Analysis of mortality across 4 Era’s showed no difference. By post-hoc analysis, ECMO availability was associated with mortality reduction for Era’s 3–4 versus 1–2 (HR=0.27, p < 0.001). Conclusions Improved survival at our institution may be related to recent introduction of ECMO and more aggressive approaches to pulmonary hypertension. Further systematic studies of these PHTN therapies in this specific population are warranted. PMID:25840055

  18. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  19. Self-Rated Health and Mortality: Does the Relationship Extend to a Low Income Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan R.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relationship between poor self-reported health status and excess mortality risk has been well-established for industrialized countries, almost no research considers developing countries. We use data from Indonesia to show that in a low-income setting, as in more advantaged parts of the world, individuals who perceive their health to be…

  20. Measuring child mortality from maternity histories collected at time of childbirth. Case of the EMIS surveys.

    PubMed

    Mbacke, C S

    1991-01-01

    A researcher has developed a new research methodology to indirectly estimate infant mortality using data from conditional samples which usually are from hospitals or health centers. This methodology is different from other similar methodologies in that it groups mothers by parity instead of age or marital duration. Parity is used since it is more likely to be accurately mortality levels by the mean length of the birth interval. Mortality patterns are not sensitive to the length of the birth interval. He uses data from the 1983 EMIS follow up survey conducted in Bobodioulasso, Burkina Faso and 1919, 1924, and 1933 data from birth registration areas in the United States to demonstrate the new methodology. The methodology shows that the estimated infant mortality rate (IMR) remained basically the same between 1968-1974 in Bobodioulasso (199-122) and began to fall in 1975. By 1983, it had fallen to 88. These results reflect the estimate from the EMIS survey. The methodology demonstrates that, in the US, estimated trends in IMR agreed with observed IMRs. The new methodology derived IMRs fell in the US between 1919-1932 from 92.8-65.5. Since maternity clinics and hospitals in many Sub-Saharan African countries maintain records with answers to routine questions, the new methodology can analyze these data to determine infant mortality trends. Yet conditional samples are not necessarily representative of the whole population. Thus researchers could apply data from unconditional samples such as those from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys to a variety of indirect estimation methods discussed in this report to complement the estimated trends of the conditional samples.

  1. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  2. Association of Hospital-Level Volume of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Cases and Mortality. Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry

    PubMed Central

    Odetola, Folafoluwa O.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Paden, Matthew L.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Davis, Matthew M.; Annich, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Recent pediatric studies suggest a survival benefit exists for higher-volume extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers. Objectives: To determine if higher annual ECMO patient volume is associated with lower case-mix–adjusted hospital mortality rate. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed an international registry of ECMO support from 1989 to 2013. Patients were separated into three age groups: neonatal (0–28 d), pediatric (29 d to <18 yr), and adult (≥18 yr). The measure of hospital ECMO volume was age group–specific and adjusted for patient-level case-mix and hospital-level variance using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression modeling. The primary outcome was death before hospital discharge. A subgroup analysis was conducted for 2008–2013. Measurements and Main Results: From 1989 to 2013, a total of 290 centers provided ECMO support to 56,222 patients (30,909 neonates, 14,725 children, and 10,588 adults). Annual ECMO mortality rates varied widely across ECMO centers: the interquartile range was 18–50% for neonates, 25–66% for pediatrics, and 33–92% for adults. For 1989–2013, higher age group–specific ECMO volume was associated with lower odds of ECMO mortality for neonates and adults but not for pediatric cases. In 2008–2013, the volume–outcome association remained statistically significant only among adults. Patients receiving ECMO at hospitals with more than 30 adult annual ECMO cases had significantly lower odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.46–0.80) compared with adults receiving ECMO at hospitals with less than six annual cases. Conclusions: In this international, case-mix–adjusted analysis, higher annual hospital ECMO volume was associated with lower mortality in 1989–2013 for neonates and adults; the association among adults persisted in 2008–2013. PMID:25695688

  3. Warmer is healthier: effects on mortality rates of changes in average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and temperatures in 100 U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that reducing particulate pollution would substantially reduce average daily mortality rates, prolonging lives, especially among the elderly (age ≥ 75). These benefits are projected by statistical models of significant positive associations between levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and daily mortality rates. We examine the empirical correspondence between changes in average PM2.5 levels and temperatures from 1999 to 2000, and corresponding changes in average daily mortality rates, in each of 100 U.S. cities in the National Mortality and Morbidity Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) data base, which has extensive PM2.5, temperature, and mortality data for those 2 years. Increases in average daily temperatures appear to significantly reduce average daily mortality rates, as expected from previous research. Unexpectedly, reductions in PM2.5 do not appear to cause any reductions in mortality rates. PM2.5 and mortality rates are both elevated on cold winter days, creating a significant positive statistical relation between their levels, but we find no evidence that reductions in PM2.5 concentrations cause reductions in mortality rates. For all concerned, it is crucial to use causal relations, rather than statistical associations, to project the changes in human health risks due to interventions such as reductions in particulate air pollution.

  4. Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: Population register based study for Denmark 1980–2004

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David C.; Coleman, Priscilla K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Material/Method Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women’s births, were also calculated. Results A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Conclusions Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1

  5. Effect modification of individual- and regional-scale characteristics on heat wave-related mortality rates between 2009 and 2012 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-Jin; Kim, Ho

    2017-04-03

    Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012. We defined a heat wave as having at least two consecutive days with a daily mean temperature greater than or equal to the 95th percentile recorded in each of Seoul's twenty-five districts. At the individual scale, citizens classified as belonging to a lower education group had a higher vulnerability to heat wave-related morbidity or mortality [odds ratio (OR) 1.261; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.538]. At a regional scale, death during heat waves was more likely to occur in districts with a high deprivation index (OR=1.194; 95% CI: 1.028-1.388). And a low proportion of green space around buildings (OR=1.178; 95% CI: 1.016-1.366), a low proportion of rooftop green space (OR=1.207; 95% CI: 1.042-1.399), or those that had fewer hospitals (OR=1.186; 95% CI: 1.019-1.379). Our data show that mortality during heat waves is more likely where these individual and regional-scale vulnerabilities overlap. Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and provide a basis for selection to policy makers choose on the target groups to reduce the public health burden of heat waves.

  6. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  7. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study.

  8. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  9. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover.

  10. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management.

  11. Reductions in hospital admissions and mortality rates observed after integrating emergency care: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Vazeer; Palmer, Christopher R; Bennett, Tom J H; Robinson, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Reducing emergency admissions is a priority for the NHS. A single hospital's emergency care system was reorganised with the principles of front-loaded investigations, integration of specialties, reduced duplication, earlier decision making by senior clinicians and a combined emergency assessment area. The authors relocated our Medical Assessment Unit into our emergency department in 2006. The authors evaluated changes in admissions and mortality before and after 2006, compared with other similar hospitals. Design Quasi-experimental before and after study using routinely collected data. Setting and participants 1 acute hospital in England, the intervention site, was compared with 23 other English hospitals between 2001 and 2009. Outcome measures Our outcome measures were hospital standardised mortality ratios (HSMRs) for non-elective admissions and standardised admission ratios (SARs). Results The authors observed a statistically and clinically significant decrease in HSMR and SAR. The intervention hospital had the lowest HSMR and SAR of all the hospitals in our sample. This was statistically significant, p=0.0149 and p=0.0002, respectively. Conclusion Integrating emergency care in one location is associated with a meaningful reduction in mortality and emergency admissions to hospital. PMID:22858459

  12. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  13. Mortality rates of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Christian; Xie, Hu; Seo, Sachiko; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence; Leisenring, Wendy; Boeckh, Michael; Englund, Janet A

    2013-08-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a common respiratory virus, can cause severe disease in pre- and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis in HCT patients with HMPV (n = 23) or respiratory syncytial virus (n = 23) detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples by reverse transcription PCR between 2006 and 2011 to determine disease characteristics and factors associated with outcome. Mortality rates at 100 days were 43% for both HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease. Steroid therapy, oxygen requirement >2 L or mechanical ventilation, and bone marrow as cell source were significant risk factors for overall and virus-related mortality in multivariable models, whereas the virus type was not. The presence of centrilobular/nodular radiographic infiltrates was a possible protective factor for mechanical ventilation. Thus, HMPV lower respiratory tract disease is associated with high mortality in HCT recipients. Earlier detection in combination with new antiviral therapy is needed to reduce mortality among HCT recipients.

  14. A Case of Cerebral Sinus Venous Thrombosis Resulting in Mortality in Severe Preeclamptic Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Ozler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Basaranoglu, Serdar; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rarely encountered condition during pregnancy. A 21-year-old pregnant woman with labour pains was hospitalized in our clinic. Diagnosis of severe preeclampsia was made based on her clinical and laboratory findings. She suffered from convulsive episodes during postpartum period which lead to initiation of treatment for eclampsia. However neurological and radiological examinations were performed after emergence of additional neurological symptoms disclosed the diagnosis of CVST. In this paper, we aimed to present a case with CVST which diagnosis was confused with eclampsia and resulting in maternal mortality. PMID:23509646

  15. When bad mothers lose good babies: understanding fetal and infant mortality case reviews.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how the practices of the Fetal and Infant Mortality Review-Case Review Team (FIMR CRT) in "Florida City" constructs particular types of maternal and fetal subjects and how these narratives about fetal and infant death reflect particular discourses about "bad mothers" and "good babies." I argue that the very methods of the Florida City FIMR committee structure the types of conversations and, in effect, judgments that can be made about women who experience a fetal or neonatal death. In addition, I examine how many of these ideas resonate with the discourses around fetal rights that pervade contemporary abortion politics in the United States.

  16. Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures

    PubMed Central

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. Methodology/Principal Findings As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Conclusions Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality. PMID:23152764

  17. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM(2.5) generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karine Vila Real; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM(2.5) concentrations > 25µg/m(3) divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM(2.5) in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.

  18. Fine Root Mortality Rates in a Temperate Forest: Estimates using Radiocarbon Data and Numerical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William J.; Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; JoslinJr., John D.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (C) fluxes through roots are the most uncertain of all C exchanges between the atmosphere, plants, and soil. Yet the three dominant methods to characterize root C fluxes (minirhizotron, sequential coring, and isotopes) yield significantly different estimates of temperate forest root mortality turnover times. We contend that these discrepancies result from limitations in interpreting these very distinct types of observations. In this study we used a whole-ecosystem 14C label to develop, parameterize, and test a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root mortality and decomposition. Radix simulates two live roots pools (one with structural and non-structural C components), two dead root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored C pool, seasonal growth and respiration patterns, a best-fit to measurements approach to estimate model parameters, and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We applied Radix at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge Tennessee using 14C measurements from two root size classes (<0.5 mm and 0.5−2.0 mm) and three soil depth increments (O horizon, 0−15, and 30−60 cm). Predicted root lifetimes were 0.1-0.9 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow live root pools respectively, and 0.1-4 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow dead root pool decomposition turnover times, respectively. We estimated that C fluxes through fine roots <2 mm diameter are ~40, 220, and 90 g C m-2 y 1 in the O horizon, 0−15 cm, and 30−60 cm depth intervals, respectively. We conclude that accurate characterization of C flows through fine roots required a model with two live fine-root pools, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. Further, root turnover times on the order of a decade imply different response times in biomass and growth than are currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  19. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Go, Dong Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook; Konig, Maximilian Ferdinand; Park, Jin Kyun

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients.

  20. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  1. Restructuring fundamental predator-prey models by recognising prey-dependent conversion efficiency and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Montagnes, David J S

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating protozoa into population models (from simple predator-prey explorations to complex food web simulations) is of conceptual, ecological, and economic importance. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, we expose unappreciated complexity in the traditional predator-prey model structure and provide a parsimonious solution, especially for protistologists. We focus on how prey abundance alters two key components of models: predator conversion efficiency (e, the proportion of prey converted to predator, before mortality loss) and predator mortality (δ, the portion of the population lost though death). Using a well-established model system (Paramecium and Didinium), we collect data to parameterize a range of existing and novel population models that differ in the functional forms of e and δ. We then compare model simulations to an empirically obtained time-series of predator-prey population dynamics. The analysis indicates that prey-dependent e and δ should be considered when structuring population models and that both prey and predator biomass also vary with prey abundance. Both of these impact the ability of the model to predict population dynamics and, therefore, should be included in theoretical model evaluations and assessment of ecosystem dynamics associated with biomass flux.

  2. Long-term suicide mortality rates decrease in men and increase in women after the Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Oyama, Mari; Yamazaki, Osamu; Nakagawa, Izumi; Ishigami, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2010-02-01

    A devastating earthquake causes psychological distress, and may increase suicide mortality thereafter, yet previous studies have made inconsistent conclusions regarding this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Japan affected long-term mortality from suicide. We conducted a comparative study of suicide mortality rates during the 5-year period preceding and the 3-year period following the earthquake in the disaster area and a control area in Niigata Prefecture, by analyzing death certificate data from October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2007. In men, baseline suicide mortality rates (5 years preceding the earthquake) were 48.4 per 100,000 person-years in the disaster area and 46.1 in the control area, and suicide mortality rates during the 3-year period following the earthquake were 46.0 and 45.1, respectively. In women, baseline suicide mortality rates were 22.3 in the disaster area and 18.7 in the control area, and post-earthquake suicide mortality rates were 20.2 and 15.3, respectively. In consequence, the decrease in suicide mortality rate during the 3 years post-earthquake was significantly higher in the disaster area (2.5) than in the control area (1.0) (p = 0.0013) in men, whereas the decrease in suicide mortality rate was 2.1 in the disaster area and 3.0 in the control area (p = 0.1246) in women. We have concluded that the long-term mortality from suicide after the earthquake decreases in men and increases in women, suggesting that post-earthquake suicide mortality is sex-dependent. Post-earthquake suicide prevention strategies should more aggressively target women.

  3. Mortality by homicide in homosexuals: characterization of the cases registered in Mexico between 1995 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Granados, José Arturo; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2008-03-01

    This work shows a first approximation to the magnitude and characteristics of mortality by homicide in homosexuals in Mexico using the cases registered between the years 1995 and 2000. A statistical analysis was performed of the homicides against homosexuals that were registered through the review of newspaper articles published by the National Press. Sex, age of the victims, kind and number of weapons used, wounds endured, and the situation in which the corpses found were registered. The greater mortality by homicide due to homosexual orientation was recorded in men (95%); it was found that the cases accumulated in the cohort of the third and fourth decades of their age (43%). The homicides were characterized by extreme violence which included the use of various arm types (33%) and wounds (32%). The most frequent situations that occurred were finding the corpses naked and tied (13%). The features of the homicide against homosexuals are associated to the general attributes of the predominant masculinity model; therefore, at a macro social level, some reasons are found in the social construction of homophobia. The degree of violence in these crimes adduces the consideration that they are hate crimes.

  4. Cumulative Resting Heart Rate Exposure and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: Results from the Kailuan Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Quanhui; Li, Haibin; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Yu, Junxing; Luo, Yanxia; Chen, Shuohua; Tao, Lixin; Li, Yuqing; Li, Aiping; Guo, Xiuhua; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cumulative exposure to resting heart rate (cumRHR) and mortality remain unclear in the general population. In the Kailuan cohort study, resting heart rate (RHR) was repeatedly measured at baseline and at years 2 and 4 by electrocardiogram among 47,311 adults aged 48.70 ± 11.68. The cumRHR was defined as the summed average RHR between two consecutive examinations multiplied by the time interval between with two examinations [(beats/min) * year]. A higher RHR was defined as ≥80 beats/min, and the number of visits with a higher RHR was counted. During a median of 4.06 years of follow-up, a total of 1,025 participants died. After adjusting for major traditional cardiovascular risk factors and baseline RHR, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quartile of cumRHR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.07–1.81) for all-cause mortality. Each 1-SD increment in cumRHR was associated with a 37% (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.23–1.52) increased risk of death and displayed a J-shaped relationship. Compared with no exposure, adults who had a higher RHR at all 3 study visits were associated with a 1.86-fold higher risk (95% CI: 1.33–2.61) of mortality. In summary, cumulative exposure to higher RHR is independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. PMID:28067310

  5. Assessing and Mapping Spatial Associations among Oral Cancer Mortality Rates, Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil, and Land Use Types Based on Multiple Scale Data

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk. PMID:24566045

  6. Saharan dust and association between particulate matter and case-specific mortality: a case-crossover analysis in Madrid (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saharan dust intrusions are a common phenomenon in the Madrid atmosphere, leading induce exceedances of the 50 μg/m3- EU 24 h standard for PM10. Methods We investigated the effects of exposure to PM10 between January 2003 and December 2005 in Madrid (Spain) on daily case-specific mortality; changes of effects between Saharan and non-Saharan dust days were assessed using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Results Saharan dust affected 20% of days in the city of Madrid. Mean concentration of PM10 was higher during dust days (47.7 μg/m3) than non-dust days (31.4 μg/m3). The rise of mortality per 10 μg/m3 PM10 concentration were always largely for Saharan dust-days. When stratifying by season risks of PM10, at lag 1, during Saharan dust days were stronger for respiratory causes during cold season (IR% = 3.34% (95% CI: 0.36, 6.41) versus 2.87% (95% CI: 1.30, 4.47)) while for circulatory causes effects were stronger during warm season (IR% = 4.19% (95% CI: 1.34, 7.13) versus 2.65% (95% CI: 0.12, 5.23)). No effects were found for cerebrovascular causes. Conclusions We found evidence of strongest effects of particulate matter during Saharan dust days, providing a suggestion of effect modification, even though interaction terms were not statistically significant. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism by which Saharan dust increases mortality. PMID:22401495

  7. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  8. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  9. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions.

  10. Improving the Prediction of Mortality and the Need for Life-Saving Interventions in Trauma Patients Using Standard Vital Signs With Heart-Rate Variability and Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    IMPROVING THE PREDICTION OF MORTALITY AND THE NEED FOR LIFE-SAVING INTERVENTIONS IN TRAUMA PATIENTS USING STANDARD VITAL SIGNS WITH HEART -RATE...effectiveness of using traditional and new vital signs ( heart rate variability and complexity [HRV, HRC]) for predicting mortality and the need for life...from the point of injury via helicopter. Heart rate variability and HRC were calculated using criterion standard R-R interval sequences manually

  11. A comparison of the surgical mortality due to colorectal perforation at different hospitals with data from 10,090 cases in the Japanese National Clinical Database

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Miyata, Hiroaki; Sato, Yasuto; Saida, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal perforation has a high rate of mortality. We compared the incidence and fatality rates of colorectal perforation among different hospitals in Japan using data from the nationwide surgical database. Patients were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013. Patients with colorectal perforation were identified from surgery records by examining if acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP) and diseases associated with a high probability of colorectal perforation were noted. The primary outcome measures included the 30-day postsurgery mortality and surgical mortality of colorectal perforation. We analyzed differences in the observed-to-expected mortality (O/E) ratio between the two groups of hospitals, that is, specialized and non-specialized, using the logistic regression analysis forward selection method. There were 10,090 cases of disease-induced colorectal perforation during the study period. The annual average postoperative fatality rate was 11.36%. There were 3884 patients in the specialized hospital group and 6206 in the non-specialized hospital group. The O/E ratio (0.9106) was significantly lower in the specialized hospital group than in the non-specialized hospital group (1.0704). The experience level of hospitals in treating cases of colorectal perforation negatively correlated with the O/E ratio. We conducted the first study investigating differences among hospitals with respect to their fatality rate of colorectal perforation on the basis of data from a nationwide database. Our data suggest that patients with colorectal perforation should choose to be treated at a specialized hospital or a hospital that treats five or more cases of colorectal perforation per year. The results of this study indicate that specialized hospitals may provide higher quality medical care, which in turn proves that government policy on healthcare is effective at improving the medical system in Japan. PMID:28079809

  12. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  13. A propensity score analysis shows that empirical treatment with linezolid does not increase the thirty-day mortality rate in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

  14. A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific relative growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Christopher D; Dent, Daisy H; O’Brien, Michael J; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Nilus, Reuben; Philips, Sam; Reynolds, Glen; Saner, Philippe; Hector, Andy

    2014-01-01

    A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of Dipterocarpaceae planted into logged-over forest in Malaysian Borneo, and the relationships between these demographic rates and four key functional traits: wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass, and leaf C:N ratio. Species-specific differences in growth rates were separated from seedling size effects by fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models, to repeated measurements taken on individuals at multiple time points. Mortality data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions in a mixed-effects models framework. Growth increased and mortality decreased with increasing light availability. Species differed in both their growth and mortality rates, yet there was little evidence for a statistical interaction between species and light for either response. There was a positive relationship between growth rate and the predicted probability of mortality regardless of light environment, suggesting that this relationship may be driven by a general trade-off between traits that maximize growth and traits that minimize mortality, rather than through differential species responses to light. Our results indicate that wood density is an important trait that indicates both the ability of species to grow and resistance to mortality, but no other trait was correlated with either growth or mortality. Therefore, the growth mortality trade-off among species of dipterocarp appears to be general in being independent of species crossovers in performance in different light environments

  15. Exploring scale-dependent correlations between cancer mortality rates using factorial kriging and population-weighted semivariograms

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a geostatistical methodology which accounts for spatially varying population size in the processing of cancer mortality data. The approach proceeds in two steps: (1) spatial patterns are first described and modeled using population-weighted semivariogram estimators, (2) spatial components corresponding to nested structures identified on semivariograms are then estimated and mapped using a variant of factorial kriging. The main benefit over traditional spatial smoothers is that the pattern of spatial variability (i.e. direction-dependent variability, range of correlation, presence of nested scales of variability) is directly incorporated into the computation of weights assigned to surrounding observations. Moreover, besides filtering the noise in the data the procedure allows the decomposition of the structured component into several spatial components (i.e. local versus regional variability) on the basis of semivariogram models. A simulation study demonstrates that maps of spatial components are closer to the underlying risk maps in terms of prediction errors and provide a better visualization of regional patterns than the original maps of mortality rates or the maps smoothed using weighted linear averages. The proposed approach also attenuates the underestimation of the magnitude of the correlation between various cancer rates resulting from noise attached to the data. This methodology has great potential to explore scale-dependent correlation between risks of developing cancers and to detect clusters at various spatial scales, which should lead to a more accurate representation of geographic variation in cancer risk, and ultimately to a better understanding of causative relationships. PMID:16915345

  16. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list.

  17. Differences in cancer mortality rates in Ohio communities with respect to uraniferous geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dzik, A.J.

    1989-07-01

    Populations in areas of uraniferous geology may be at risk from radon emissions. Twenty-eight municipalities were examined as to their location with respect to uraniferous geology. Communities with possible radon risk had higher rates for all cancers and cancer of the respiratory system, but differences were not statistically significant. Some possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  18. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  19. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    PubMed

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators.

  20. Causes of the Change in the Rates of Mortality and Severe Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: 1992 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yashkin, Arseniy P.; Picone, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the causes of the changes in the rates of mortality and select severe complications of diabetes mellitus, type 2 (T2D) among the elderly between 1992 and 2012. Research Design A retrospective cohort study design based on Medicare 5% administrative claims data from 1992 to 2012 was used. Traditional fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, age 65 and older, diagnosed with T2D and living in the United States between 1992 and 2012 were included in the study. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to quantify the potential causes of the change in the rates of death, congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, amputation of lower extremity and end stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1992 and 2012. Results The number of beneficiaries in the analysis sample diagnosed with T2D increased from 152,191 in 1992 to 289,443 in 2012. Over the same time period, rates of mortality decreased by 1.2, CHF and/or AMI by 2.6, stroke by 1.6, amputation by 0.6 while rates of ESRD increased by 1.5 percentage points. Improvements in the management of precursor conditions and utilization of recommended health care services, not population composition, were the primary causes of the change. Conclusions With the exception of ESRD, outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with T2D improved. Analysis suggests that persons diagnosed with T2D are living longer with fewer severe complications. Much of the improvement in outcomes likely reflects more regular contact with health professionals and better management of care. PMID:25675404

  1. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  2. Metropolitan Social Environments and Pre-HAART/HAART Era Changes in Mortality Rates (per 10,000 Adult Residents) among Injection Drug Users Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Hall, H. Irene; Cantrell, Jennifer; Tempalski, Barbara; Chatterjee, Sudip; Hu, Xiaohong; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Galea, Sandro; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993–2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993–1995 to 2004–2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993–1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in ‘hard drug’ arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered

  3. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  7. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  8. Prehospital Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Increase the Positive Predictive Value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for High-Mortality Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    Prehospital Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Increase the Positive Predictive Value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for High-Mortality Traumatic Brain Injury...pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384...pressure; Glasgow Coma Scale; heart rate; prehospital; traumatic brain injury Introduction The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was developed to stan-dardize the

  9. Nuclear cardiology and CVD in the developing world: Are we applying our scarce resources appropriately? Why is our mortality rate so high?

    PubMed

    Vitola, João V

    2016-10-01

    While mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases have progressively decreased in developed nations, this has not been observed to the same extent in the developing world. Nuclear Cardiology utilization remains low or non-existent for most of those living in the low-to-middle-income countries. How much of the decline in mortality observed in the developed world has to do with advanced cardiac imaging? Are we applying our scarce resources appropriately for myocardial perfusion imaging? Are myocardial revascularizations being guided by appropriate use criteria? Is more imaging necessary to reduce the mortality rates further in the developing world?

  10. Predictors of inpatient mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Sehra, Shiv T; Kelly, Andrew; Baker, Joshua F; Derk, Chris T

    2016-06-01

    There are few studies on predictors of inpatient mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Knowledge of these predictors is important for the early identification of patients at high risk of inpatient death and for the recognition of modifiable factors. The aim of this study was to define factors associated with greater inpatient mortality in SSc. All admissions coded for SSc (ICD-9-710.1) at the Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, between 2001 and 2011, were reviewed. The diagnosis of SSc was confirmed, and deaths were identified by chart review. For each death, an age, sex, and race matched control with SSc (who did not die during their hospitalization) was identified. We hypothesized group differences in SSc characteristics, non-SSc co-morbidities, and admission labs. Group differences were analyzed using Student's t test as well as Chi(2) tests for dichotomous variables. Exposures associated with death in univariate analyses were used to form a final parsimonious multivariable logistic regression model. After analysis of 658 SSc admissions, 29 cases and 29 matched controls were studied. A significant difference in non-SSc lung disease (p = 0.03), aspiration events (p < 0.01), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p < 0.01), and hemoglobin (p = 0.03) was noted between subjects that died compared to matched controls. Odds of death were higher in patients with a higher BUN (OR = 1.06, CI = 1.02-1.11), non-SSc lung disease (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.26-11.88), and aspiration events (OR = 30, CI = 3.58-250.80) and lower in patients with a higher hemoglobin (OR = 0.73, CI = 0.54-0.97). A high BUN, a history of aspiration events, and low Hgb were found to be independently associated with risk of death. A history of lung disease, anemia, renal dysfunction, and aspiration events is associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with SSc. The odds of dying in the hospital were 30 times higher among patients with an

  11. Estimation of fine-root production using rates of diameter-dependent root mortality, decomposition and thickening in forests.

    PubMed

    Van Do, Tran; Osawa, Akira; Sato, Tamotsu

    2016-04-01

    Current studies indicate that fine roots of different diameter classes show different rates of decomposition. This study developed a new method to estimate fine-root production by considering the difference in the production of fine roots of two size classes, fine roots thinner than 1 mm and those between 1 and 2 mm, and their corresponding rates of decomposition. A litter bag experiment was used to estimate the decomposition rates, while the sequential soil core technique was used to identify mass values of live roots and dead roots at a given period of observation. The continuous inflow method was applied to estimate the amount of root decomposition, mortality and production with a framework of two diameter classes of fine roots and for quantification of the amount of mass transfer from the thicker fine-root class to the coarser root category (>2 mm). The results indicated that the estimate of fine-root production was greater when two size classes of fine roots were distinguished. Using a framework of two size classes developed in this study resulted in 21.3% higher fine-root production than a method that did not recognize fine-root size classes or mass transfer to the category of coarse roots. In addition, using shorter collection intervals led to higher production estimates than longer intervals. The production estimate with a 1-month interval was 21.4% higher than that with a 6-month interval. We consider that the use of the sequential soil core technique with continuous inflow estimate method by differentiating size classes of fine roots is likely to minimize the underestimation of the parameters of fine-root dynamics by accounting for decomposition and mortality of fine roots more appropriately.

  12. Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Smith, Stephanie

    2007-10-13

    Why do some global health initiatives receive priority from international and national political leaders whereas others receive little attention? To analyse this question we propose a framework consisting of four categories: the strength of the actors involved in the initiative, the power of the ideas they use to portray the issue, the nature of the political contexts in which they operate, and characteristics of the issue itself. We apply this framework to the case of a global initiative to reduce maternal mortality, which was launched in 1987. We undertook archival research and interviewed people connected with the initiative, using a process-tracing method that is commonly employed in qualitative research. We report that despite two decades of effort the initiative remains in an early phase of development, hampered by difficulties in all these categories. However, the initiative's 20th year, 2007, presents opportunities to build political momentum. To generate political priority, advocates will need to address several challenges, including the creation of effective institutions to guide the initiative and the development of a public positioning of the issue to convince political leaders to act. We use the framework and case study to suggest areas for future research on the determinants of political priority for global health initiatives, which is a subject that has attracted much speculation but little scholarship.

  13. Age, differential growth and mortality rates in unexploited populations of Florida gar, an apex predator in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Herod, J.J.; Loftus, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower rates of annual mortality (Z = 0.21) than males from L-31W (Z = 0.31) or males from Tamiami (Z = 0.54). As a large and long-lived apex predator in the Everglades, Florida gar may structure lower trophic levels. Regional- and sex-specific population parameters for Florida gar will contribute to the simulation models designed to evaluate Everglades restoration alternatives. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    PubMed

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  15. Impact of Starting an Emergency Medicine Residency Program on Overall Mortality Rate in a Regional Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blow, Osbert; Herrick, John; Richman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background CHRISTUS Spohn Hospital Corpus Christi - Memorial began an Emergency Medicine Residency Program in March 2007. During each of the three years of their residency, residents are required to complete a trauma surgery rotation. These emergency medicine residents are the only residents participating on this rotation as there is no surgical residency. The Department of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care analyzed the impact of the residents on trauma patient care outcomes with the hypothesis that there were no differences. Methods Data including length of stay in the hospital, length of stay in the intensive care unit, time spent in the emergency department (ED), morbidities and mortalities were compiled from the trauma registry for patients from the year before the residents began (March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007) and compared with patients from the first year the residents began their trauma rotations (March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008). T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables and a Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variable (mortality). Linear and logistic regression analyses were also performed in order to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results Trauma patient admission rates were 1,316 before and 1,391 after the residents began. No statistically significant differences were found among all of the outcome variables during the two time periods except for time spent in the ED (P = 0.00), which increased during the year the residents began (236.83 ± 4.53 minutes in 2006 compared to 297.40 ± 5.55 minutes in 2007). Linear and logistic regression analyses confirmed these results with the exception of a statistically significant decrease in mortality with the residents on the trauma service (2.8% in 2006 and 2.1% in 2007, P = 0.00) after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusion The addition of emergency medicine residents to the trauma care service did increase

  16. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), < 4 years of schooling (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.47-2.28), a rural area (OR =2.84, 95% CI = 2.19-3.69), hospitalization (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.17-1.73), and a high hematocrit (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.85-3.28). Factors associated with a lower chance of dying were female sex (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.67-0.87), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths.

  17. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in urban settings: the case of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Arias, A

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to describe the relationship between health and socioeconomic indicators in the 38 neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona, Spain. DESIGN--Mortality data for 1983-89 and socioeconomic data for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona were used. Mortality indicators used were the comparative mortality figure, the ratio of potential years of life lost, and life expectancy at birth. Socioeconomic indicators were the percentage of unemployed, the percentage of illiteracy, monthly telephone usage, the average power and age of cars, and the average rateable value of buildings and of land. The statistical correlation between socioeconomic indicators and mortality indicators was studied by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. SETTING--The 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The comparative mortality figure ranged from 87.41-152.43 and the ratio of potential years of life lost from 74.94-237.31 in both sexes. Both the absolute difference and the ratio of the value for the neighbourhood with lowest mortality and that with highest mortality were larger when premature mortality was examined. Life expectancy at birth ranged from 64.77-75.32 years in men and 75.04-81.51 in women. All correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indicators were high and statistically significant: the higher the unemployment and illiteracy levels and the older the cars, the greater the comparative mortality figure and ratio of potential years of life lost, and the lower the life expectancy (negative correlations). Conversely, the higher the telephone use, the more powerful the cars, and the greater the rateable value, the lower the mortality (negative correlations) and the greater the life expectancy. These correlations were greater in males than in females. The highest correlations were with illiteracy. CONCLUSIONS--This study has detected significant differences in mortality in a large town in the Mediterranean region

  18. Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hyperuricemic Patients without Gout: A Case-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tsay, Gregory J; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increased risk of mortality in patients with hyperuricemia has been reported. We examined (1) the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in untreated hyperuricemic patients who did not receive urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and (2) the impact of ULT on mortality risk in patients with hyperuricemia. Methods In this retrospective case-matched cohort study during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 40,118 Taiwanese individuals aged ≥17 years who had never used ULT and who had never had gout were examined. The mortality rate was compared between 3,088 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT and reference subjects (no hyperuricemia, no gout, no ULT) matched for age and sex (1:3 hyperuricemic patients/reference subjects), and between 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who received ULT and 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT (matched 1:1 based on their propensity score and the index date of ULT prescription). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate the respective risk of all-cause and CVD (ICD-9 code 390–459) mortality. Results After adjustment, hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT had increased risks of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–1.59) and CVD (2.13; 1.34–3.39) mortality relative to the matched reference subjects. Hyperuricemic patients treated with ULT had a lower risk of all-cause death (0.60; 0.41–0.88) relative to hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT. Conclusion Under-treatment of hyperuricemia has serious negative consequences. Hyperuricemic patients who received ULT had potentially better survival than patients who did not. PMID:26683302

  19. Trends in the neonatal mortality rate in the last decade with respect to demographic factors and health care resources

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Amy R.; Koneru, Madhavi; Beeram, Madhava

    2015-01-01

    To understand factors contributing to the neonatal mortality rate (NMR), we studied trends in the NMR during 2000 to 2009 with respect to demographic factors and health care resources. Birth- and death-linked mortality data for 14,168 neonatal deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health and Human Services. Demographic factors and health care resource data were analyzed using analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and linear regression analysis. The average NMR increased from 3.37 in 2000 to 3.77 in 2009. The NMR in blacks ranged from 6.57 to 8.97 during the study period. Among the babies who died, the mean birthweight decreased from 1505 to 1275 g (P < 0.001) and the mean gestational age decreased from 28.4 to 27.8 weeks (P < 0.001). Cesarean section deliveries increased from 32.7% to 44.9% (P < 0.001). The percentage of mothers receiving prenatal care increased from 81.4% to 86.6% (P < 0.001). Mothers with a college education increased from 8.8% to 20.5% (P < 0.001). The median household income increased from $41,047 to $49,189 (P < 0.001). The number of neonatal intensive care unit beds increased from 33.4 to 56 per 10,000 births, and the number of neonatologists increased from 0.27 to 0.40 per 10,000 women of 15 to 44 years of age. In conclusion, the NMR didn't improve despite improvements in demographic factors and health care resources. Racial disparities persist, with a high NMR in the black population. We speculate a possible genetic predisposition related to ethnicity, and a potentially higher rate of extreme prematurity might have contributed to a high NMR in the study population. PMID:26130873

  20. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population. Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients’ outcomes. Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 556 patients had a normal eGFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2). A total of 694 patients suffered from cerebral artery stenosis, in which 293 patients only had intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS), 110 only with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), and 301 with both ICAS and ECAS. The patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 had a higher proportion of death and newly ischemic events compared with those with a relatively normal eGFR. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 increased the risk of mortality by 3.089-fold and newly ischemic events by 4.067-fold. In further analysis, a reduced eGFR was associated with increased rates of mortality and newly events both in ICAS patients and ECAS patients. However, only an increased risk of newly events was found as the degree of renal function deteriorated in ICAS patients (odds ratio = 8.169, 95% confidence interval = 2.445–14.127). A low baseline eGFR predicted a high mortality and newly ischemic events at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent

  1. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration.

  2. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases among French Uranium Miners: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laroche, Pierre; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the

  3. The genetic architecture of life span and mortality rates: gender and species differences in inbreeding load of two seed-feeding beetles.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Scheibly, Kristy L; Wallin, William G; Hitchcock, Lisa J; Stillwell, R Craig; Smith, Benjamin P

    2006-10-01

    We examine the inbreeding load for adult life span and mortality rates of two seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. Inbreeding load differs substantially between males and females in both study populations of C. maculatus--life span of inbred females was 9-13% shorter than the life span of outbred females, whereas the life span of inbred males did not differ from the life span of outbred males. The effect of inbreeding on female life span was largely due to an increase in the slope of the mortality curve. In contrast, inbreeding had only a small effect on the life span of S. limbatus--life spans of inbred beetles were approximately 5% shorter than those of outbred beetles, and there was no difference in inbreeding load between the sexes. The inbreeding load for mean life span was approximately 0.4-0.6 lethal equivalents per haploid gamete for female C. maculatus and approximately 0.2-0.3 for both males and females of S. limbatus, all within the range of estimates commonly obtained for Drosophila. However, contrary to the predictions of mutation-accumulation models, inbreeding load for loci affecting mortality rates did not increase with age in either species, despite an effect of inbreeding on the initial rate of increase in mortality. This was because mortality rates decelerated with age and converged to a mortality plateau for both outbred and inbred beetles.

  4. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  5. Necrotizing soft tissue infection: analysis of the factors related to mortality in 30 cases of a single institution for 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jin; Choi, Chang In; Yun, Sung Pil; Kim, Jae Hun; Seo, Hyung Il; Jo, Hong Jae; Jun, Tae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Necrotizing soft tissue infection is the infection of the soft tissue with necrotic changes. It is rare, but results in high mortality. We analyzed the characteristics of patients, prognosis, and mortality factors after reviewing 30 cases of a single hospital for 5 years. Methods From January 2009 to December 2013, 30 patients diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis or Fournier's gangrene in Pusan National University Hospital were enrolled for this study. The following parameters were analyzed retrospectively: demographics, infection site, initial laboratory finding, initial antibiotics, isolated microorganisms, number of surgeries, time to first operation, length of intensive care unit, and total hospital stays. Results The overall mortality rate was 23.3%. Mean body mass index (BMI) of the survival group (24.7 ± 5.0 kg/m2) was significantly higher than the nonsurvival group (22.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2, P = 0.029). When BMI was less than 23 kg/m2, the mortality rate was significantly higher (P = 0.025). Two patients (6.7%) with chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis died (P = 0.048). Initial WBC count (>13×103/µL), CRP (>26.5 mg/dL), and platelet (PLT) count (<148×103/µL) were found to have negative impact on the prognosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection. Factors such as potassium level, blood urea nitrogen (>27.6 mg/dL), serum creatinine (>1.2 mg/dL) that reflected kidney function were significant mortality factors. Conclusion Patients with low BMI or abnormal values of WBC count, CRP, and PLT count reflecting the degree of infection or abnormal renal function will need more intensive care. PMID:27433464

  6. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle O; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves de Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola da Costa, Antonio C; Di Fiore, Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C L; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Baker, Timothy R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influences AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs.

  7. Differences in coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer mortality rates between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: the role of diet and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert David; Webster, Premila; Rayner, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It is unclear how much of the geographical variation in coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer mortality rates within the UK is associated with diet. The aim of this study is to estimate how many deaths from CHD, stroke and cancer would be delayed or averted if Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland adopted a diet equivalent in nutritional quality to the English diet. Methods Mortality data for CHD, stroke and 10 diet-related cancers for 2007–2009 were used to calculate the mortality gap (the difference between actual mortality and English mortality rates) for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Estimates of mean national consumption of 10 dietary factors were used as baseline and counterfactual inputs in a macrosimulation model (DIETRON). An uncertainty analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation with 5000 iterations. Results The mortality gap in the modelled scenario (achieving the English diet) was reduced by 81% (95% credible intervals: 62% to 108%) for Wales, 40% (33% to 51%) for Scotland and 81% (67% to 99%) for Northern Ireland, equating to approximately 3700 deaths delayed or averted annually. For CHD only, the mortality gap was reduced by 88% (69% to 118%) for Wales, 58% (47% to 72%) for Scotland, and 88% (70% to 111%) for Northern Ireland. Conclusion Improving the average diet in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to a level already achieved in England could have a substantial impact on reducing geographical variations in chronic disease mortality rates in the UK. Much of the mortality gap between Scotland and England is explained by non-dietary risk factors. PMID:22080528

  8. Not just smoking and high-tech medicine: socioeconomic inequities in U.S. mortality rates, overall and by race/ethnicity, 1960-2006.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on the post-1980 widening of U.S. socioeconomic inequalities in mortality has emphasized the contribution of smoking and high-tech medicine, with some studies treating the growing inequalities as effectively inevitable. No studies, however, have analyzed long-term trends in U.S. mortality rates and inequities unrelated to smoking or due to lack of basic medical care, even as a handful have shown that U.S. socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality shrank between the mid-1960s and 1980. The authors accordingly analyzed U.S. mortality data for 1960-2006, stratified by county income quintile and race/ethnicity, for mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s' standards of medical care. Key findings are that relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities in U.S. mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s' medical care standards shrank between the 1960s and 1980 and then increased and stagnated, with absolute rates on a par with several leading causes of death, and with the burden greatest for U.S. populations of color. None of these findings can be attributed to trends in smoking-related deaths and access to high-tech medicine, and they also demonstrate that socioeconomic inequities in mortality can shrink and need not inevitably rise.

  9. Risk factors for malformations and impact on reproductive performance and mortality rates of Schmallenberg virus in sheep flocks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Luttikholt, Saskia; Veldhuis, Anouk; van den Brom, René; Moll, Lammert; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne; Peperkamp, Klaas; van Schaik, Gerdien; Vellema, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In Northwestern Europe, an epizootic outbreak of congenital malformations in newborn lambs due to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) started at the end of 2011. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical symptoms of SBV infection, the effect of infection on mortality rates, and reproductive performance in sheep, as well as to identify and quantify flock level risk factors for SBV infections resulting in malformations in newborn lambs. A case-control study design was used, with 93 case flocks that had notified malformed lambs and 84 control flocks with no such lambs. Overall animal seroprevalence in case flocks was estimated at 82.0% (95% CI: 74.3-87.8), and was not significantly different from the prevalence in control flocks being 76.4% (95% CI: 67.2-83.6). The percentages of stillborn lambs or lambs that died before weaning, repeat breeders, and lambs with abnormal suckling behaviour were significantly higher in case flocks compared to control flocks. However, effect of SBV infection on mortality rates and reproductive performance seemed to be limited. Multivariable analysis showed that sheep flocks with an early start of the mating season, i.e. before August 2011 (OR = 33.1; 95% CI: 10.0-109.8) and in August 2011 (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 2.7-24.6) had increased odds of malformations in newborn lambs caused by SBV compared to sheep flocks with a start of the mating season in October 2011. Other flock-level risk factors for malformations in newborn lambs were purchase of silage (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.7-15.0) and flocks with one or more dogs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3-8.3). Delaying mating until October could be a potential preventive measure for naïve animals to reduce SBV induced losses. As duration of immunity after infection with SBV is expected to last for several years, future SBV induced congenital malformations are mainly expected in offspring of early mated seronegative animals.

  10. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  11. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  12. Sporadic mortality in chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque): Cases of characterization and control

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, P.J.; Fleming, K.; Guinn, R.; Chapman, N.; Varner, P.; Cooney, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    In whole effluent toxicity tests, organisms are exposed to various effluent concentrations for a specific time period to estimate the potential effects of an effluent on a receiving stream. Laboratories typically have good success performing valid chronic toxicity tests. However, some difficulty in conducting valid chronic whole effluent toxicity tests with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) has been encountered as a result of sporadic control mortality. Some investigators report an interference that causes anomalous patterns of survival in chronic fathead minnow tests. This interference has been termed sporadic mortality phenomenon. Characteristics of sporadic mortality phenomenon include high variability among replicates, nonmonotonic dose responses, mortality beginning on or about day 4 of the test, and fungal growths often observed on the larvae. Histopathologic examinations often indicate bacterial and/or fungal infections on fish exhibiting symptoms of sporadic mortality phenomenon. The most plausible explanation of sporadic mortality phenomenon is a naturally occurring pathogen or pathogens that interfere with the test method. This interference may invalidate tests or falsely indicate toxicity. Sporadic mortality phenomenon can be reduced or eliminated by sample treatments intended to inactivate (heating, antibiotics, or ultraviolet light) or remove (filtration) pathogenic microorganisms. These methods must be used with forethought because of their potential to alter the toxicity of a sample.

  13. Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: a case-referent study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Peña, Rodolfo; Ellsberg, Mary Carroll; Persson, Lars Ake

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of violence against mothers on mortality risks for their offspring before 5 years of age in Nicaragua. METHODS: From a demographic database covering a random sample of urban and rural households in Le n, Nicaragua, we identified all live births among women aged 15-49 years. Cases were defined as those who had died before the age of 5 years, between January 1993 and June 1996. For each case, two referents, matched for sex and age at death, were selected from the database. A total of 110 mothers of the cases and 203 mothers of the referents were interviewed using a standard questionnaire covering mothers' experience of physical and sexual violence. The data were analysed for the risk associated with maternal experience of violence of infant and under-5 mortality. FINDINGS: A total of 61% of mothers of cases had a lifetime experience of physical and/or sexual violence compared with 37% of mothers of referents, with a significant association being found between such experiences and mortality among their offspring. Other factors associated with higher infant and under-5 mortality were mother's education (no formal education), age (older), and parity (multiparity). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an association between physical and sexual violence against mothers, either before or during pregnancy, and an increased risk of under-5 mortality of their offspring. The type and severity of violence was probably more relevant to the risk than the timing, and violence may impact child health through maternal stress or care-giving behaviours rather than through direct trauma itself. PMID:12640470

  14. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5–10) and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan’s largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006–2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), PM2.5–10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%–17%) and 4% (95% CI = 1%–7%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5–10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5–10 remained significant when SO2 or O3 was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed. PMID:27011197

  15. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  16. Recanalization and Mortality Rates of Thrombectomy With Stent-Retrievers in Octogenarian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Parrilla, G.; Carreón, E.; Zamarro, J.; Espinosa de Rueda, M.; García-Villalba, B.; Marín, F.; Hernández-Fernández, F.; Morales, A.; Fernández-Vivas, M.; Núñez, R.; Moreno, A.

    2015-04-15

    BackgroundOur objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians suffering an acute ischemic stroke.MethodsA total of 150 consecutive patients with acute stroke who were treated with stent-retrievers between April 2010 and June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those <80 years old (n = 116) and those ≥80 (n = 34). Baseline characteristics, procedure data, and endpoints (postprocedural NIHSS, death, and mRS at 3 months) were compared.ResultsHigh blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and anticoagulation were more frequent in octogenarians (p = 0.01, 0.003, and 0.04 respectively). There were no differences between both groups regarding previous intravenous thrombolysis (32.4 vs. 48.3 %, p = 0.1), preprocedural NIHSS (18.1 vs. 16.8, p = 0.3), procedure time (74.5 (40–114) min vs. 63 (38–92) min, p = 0.2), revascularization time (380.5 (298–526.3) min vs. 350 (296.3–452.8), p = 0.3), TICI ≥ 2B (88.2 vs. 93.9 %, p = 0.1), and symptomatic haemorrhage (5.9 vs. 2.6 %, p = 0.3). Discharge NIHSS was higher in octogenarians (9.7 vs. 6.5, p = 0.03). Death and 3-month mRS ≥3 were more frequent in octogenarians (35.3 vs. 17.2 %, p = 0.02 and 73.5 vs. 37.1 %, p = 0.02). ICA-involvement and prolonged revascularization involved higher mortality (66.7 vs. 27.6 %, p = 0.03) and worse mRS (50 vs. 24.4 %, p = 0.06) in octogenarians.ConclusionsIn our series, treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians with acute ischemic stroke achieved good rates of recanalization but with a high mortality rate. ICA involvement and revascularization times beyond 6 hours associated to a worse prognosis. These data might be of value in the design of prospective studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of the endovascular treatments in octogenarians.

  17. A case-control study to identify predictors of 14-day mortality following carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Nutman, A; Glick, R; Temkin, E; Hoshen, M; Edgar, R; Braun, T; Carmeli, Y

    2014-12-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an increasingly common nosocomial pathogen. We sought to identify clinical and microbiological predictors of 14-day mortality among patients with CRAB bacteraemia. This case-control study included all adult patients in one Israeli hospital with CRAB on blood culture between July 2008 and June 2011. Cases were defined as patients who died within 14 days of bacteraemia onset and controls as patients who survived over 14 days. Sequence-typing of the blaOXA-51-like gene and REP-PCR identified CRAB clone groups. Logistic regression was performed to analyze predictors of 14-day all-cause mortality. To correct for differences in treatment onset, Cox regression was used to examine the effect of receiving an active antibiotic. Eighty-three cases and 89 controls were included. Six major CRAB clone groups were identified, with 14-day mortality ranging from 17 to 66%. Independent predictors of 14-day mortality were severity of illness (OR = 1.38 for each 1-point increase in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.56), independence in activities of daily living (ADL) on admission (OR = 3.40; 95% CI, 1.20, 9.67, for fully dependent vs. independent), surgery before bacteraemia (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.59) and clone group (OR = 7.76; 95% CI, 2.52, 23.85, for the most virulent group vs. the reference group). In the multivariate Cox model using a propensity score to adjust for SOFA, clone, ADL and surgery, active antibiotic treatment was protective (HR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.15, 0.60). Differences in virulence between CRAB clones may partly explain heterogeneous results in previous studies of mortality following CRAB infection.

  18. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  19. Air pollution and mortality rates: a note on Lave and Seskin's pooling of cross-section and time-series data

    SciTech Connect

    Christainsen, G.B.; Degen, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    Air Pollution and Human Health (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1977) by Lester Lave and Eugene Seskin reports the results of regressions which suggest a strong association between air pollution and mortality rates. This note questions assumptions made by Lave and Seskin which underlie their estimation of a single-equation model using pooled cross-section and time-series data. If, in fact, these assumptions cannot be made, the association between air pollution and mortality rates appears considerably weakened, but it still appears to be significant.

  20. Natural toxoplasma gondii infections in European brown hares and mountain hares in Finland: proportional mortality rate, antibody prevalence, and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Isomursu, Marja; Näreaho, Anu; Oksanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    In material examined postmortem in Finland from May 2006 to April 2009, acute generalized toxoplasmosis was the immunohistochemically confirmed cause of death in 14 (8.1%) of 173 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and four (2.7%) of 148 mountain hares (Lepus timidus). Sera from 116 of the European brown hares and 99 of the mountain hares were screened with a commercial direct agglutination test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies at a dilution of 1:40. All sera from cases of fatal toxoplasmosis had high titers of antibodies reactive to T. gondii. In contrast, none of 107 European brown hares and four (4%) of 96 mountain hares that died of other causes were antibody-positive. The proportional mortality rates and the T. gondii antibody prevalences among noncases differed significantly between the two host species (P<0.05). Direct genetic characterization of the causative agent was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the hares with fatal toxoplasmosis. Based on the results with six microsatellite markers (B18, TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, and M33; all six in 15 cases and four in three cases), all the cases were caused by T. gondii genotype II; the size of the PCR product at the seventh marker (M48) varied (213-229 base pairs). The presence of T. gondii genotype II, which is endemic in Europe, is now confirmed in Finnish wildlife: Natural infections with T. gondii parasites belonging to this widespread genotype caused fatal generalized toxoplasmosis in the two species of wild hares.

  1. The "Improvement Rate Difference" for Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Brown, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and field-tests the improved rate difference (IRD), a new effect size for summarizing single-case research data. Termed "risk difference" in medical research, IRD expresses the difference in successful performance between baseline and intervention phases. IRD can be calculated from visual analysis of nonoverlapping data, and…

  2. The relationship between Vitamin D, clinical outcomes and mortality rate in ICU patients: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vosoughi, Nooshin; Kashefi, Parviz; Abbasi, Behnood; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholamreza; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency, a few studies have been conducted to clarify the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to determine this probable association. Materials and Methods: Serum 25(OH)D, C-reactive protein, malnutrition measurements, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infection from 185 patients in ICU were assessed in the first 24 h of admission and they were followed for the other outcomes. Results: About 93.5% of patients were classified as deficient and insufficient while the others were categorized in sufficient group. 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with mortality rate (P = 0.66), and no significant differences in ventilation time were observed (P = 0.97). Sufficient group left the ICU sooner, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.75). Besides the results of relationship between 25(OH)D concentration and nutritional status (P = 0.69) were not significant. In addition, sufficient group suffered from infection more than insufficient patients, but this relationship was not significant (P = 0.11). Conclusion: In this study, we found that 25(OH)D insufficiency is common in ICU patients, but no significant association between low 25(OH)D levels and ICU outcomes were observed. Hence, because of vital roles of Vitamin D in human's body, comprehensive study should conduct to determine the decisive results. PMID:27904620

  3. Dependent coverage provision led to uneven insurance gains and unchanged mortality rates in young adult trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Sommers, Benjamin D; Tsai, Thomas C; Scott, Kirstin W; Schwartz, Aaron L; Song, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Insurance coverage has increased among young adults as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provision that allows young adults to remain covered under their parents' plans until age twenty-six. However, little is known about the provision's effects on the clinical outcomes and insurance coverage of patients with trauma--the most frequent cause of death and physical disability among young adults. Using 2007-12 data from the National Trauma Data Bank, we conducted a difference-in-differences analysis of coverage rates among trauma patients ages 19-25 (compared to patients ages 26-34, who served as the control group), and we examined trauma-relevant outcomes by patient, injury, and hospital characteristics. We found a 3.4-percentage-point decrease in uninsurance status among younger trauma patients following the policy change. The decrease was concentrated among men, non-Hispanic whites, those with relatively less severe injuries, and those who presented to nonteaching hospitals. We did not detect significant changes in the use of intensive care or in overall mortality. The heterogeneous coverage impact of the ACA dependent coverage provision on high- versus low-risk trauma patients has implications for future efforts to expand coverage.

  4. Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Millennium Development Goals prompted renewed international efforts to reduce under-five mortality and measure national progress. However, scant evidence exists about the distribution of child mortality at low sub-national levels, which in diverse and decentralized countries like India are required to inform policy-making. This study estimates changes in child mortality across a range of markers of inequalities in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, two of India’s largest, poorest, and most disadvantaged states. Methods Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using seven datasets from three available sources – sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Inequalities were gauged by comparison of mortality rates within four sub-state populations defined by the following characteristics: rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and district. Results Trend estimates suggest that progress has been made in mortality rates at the state levels. However, reduction rates have been modest, particularly for neonatal mortality. Different mortality rates are observed across all the equity markers, although there is a pattern of convergence between rural and urban areas, largely due to inadequate progress in urban settings. Inter-district disparities and differences between socioeconomic groups are also evident. Conclusions Although child mortality rates continue to decline at the national level, our evidence shows that considerable disparities persist. While progress in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality rates in urban areas appears to be levelling off, polices targeting rural populations and scheduled caste and tribe groups appear to have achieved some success in reducing mortality differentials. The results of this study thus add weight to recent government initiatives targeting these groups. Equitable progress, particularly for neonatal mortality, requires continuing efforts to

  5. Dysplastic change rate in cases of oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 112 cases in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Esfahani, Alireza Monsef; Ghorbani, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lichen planus is a chronic systemic disease and oral mucosa is commonly involved. Oral lichen planus (OLP) most commonly affects middle-aged women. The prevalence of the disease ranges between 0.5% and 2.6% in the general population and the range of malignant transformation varies between 0% and 10%. Objectives: To assess the rate of malignant transformation of OLP samples. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 112 medical records of patients with histological diagnosis of OLP who attended the Department of Pathology at the Educational Hospital from 2005 to 2012. H&E-stained slides were reviewed by two pathologists using strict clinical and histopathological diagnostic World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Dysplastic changes were diagnosed and graded according to the latest WHO classification. Results: Of the 112 cases diagnosed as OLP, there were 39 males and 73 females and the patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 86 years (mean age 44.5 years). The erosive form with fifty cases was the most common clinical type and the papular type with one case was the least common clinical type. Regarding the site, the buccal mucosa was the most common site with 52 cases. Totally, dysplastic changes were found in 12 samples, among them five cases showed mild dysplasia and seven cases showed moderate dysplasia. One case developed oral squamous cell carcinoma after 3 years. Conclusion: OLP is considered as a premalignant condition by the WHO and several authors. Although the malignancy rate is not so high, to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer arising on OLP lesions, a regular follow-up examination is recommended. PMID:27721603

  6. Dropout rate of training cases: who and when.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Margaret; Wininger, Lionel; Roose, Steven P

    2009-06-01

    Training cases define clinical immersion for candidates and are essential to their education, progression, and graduation. While dropouts from treatment are expected, repeated dropouts can be detrimental to a candidate's education and progression. In a study of the rate and timing of dropout in 145 cases at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, 40 percent of patients were found to have dropped out within the first twelve months of treatment, though converted cases were less likely to drop out than were new patients evaluated at intake. This high dropout rate raises many questions about the reasons for it and suggests that there are critical educational issues regarding supervision and/or regarding candidates' technique during the induction phase.

  7. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  8. What Pertussis Mortality Rates Make Maternal Acellular Pertussis Immunization Cost-Effective in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Louise B.; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Cosgriff, Ben; Sinha, Anushua

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite longstanding infant vaccination programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), pertussis continues to cause deaths in the youngest infants. A maternal monovalent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, in development, could prevent many of these deaths. We estimated infant pertussis mortality rates at which maternal vaccination would be a cost-effective use of public health resources in LMICs. Methods. We developed a decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of maternal aP immunization plus routine infant vaccination vs routine infant vaccination alone in Bangladesh, Nigeria, and Brazil. For a range of maternal aP vaccine prices, one-way sensitivity analyses identified the infant pertussis mortality rates required to make maternal immunization cost-effective by alternative benchmarks ($100, 0.5 gross domestic product [GDP] per capita, and GDP per capita per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY]). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis provided uncertainty intervals for these mortality rates. Results. Infant pertussis mortality rates necessary to make maternal aP immunization cost-effective exceed the rates suggested by current evidence except at low vaccine prices and/or cost-effectiveness benchmarks at the high end of those considered in this report. For example, at a vaccine price of $0.50/dose, pertussis mortality would need to be 0.051 per 1000 infants in Bangladesh, and 0.018 per 1000 in Nigeria, to cost 0.5 per capita GDP per DALY. In Brazil, a middle-income country, at a vaccine price of $4/dose, infant pertussis mortality would need to be 0.043 per 1000 to cost 0.5 per capita GDP per DALY. Conclusions. For commonly used cost-effectiveness benchmarks, maternal aP immunization would be cost-effective in many LMICs only if the vaccine were offered at less than $1–$2/dose. PMID:27838677

  9. Does absorption of ultraviolet B by stratospheric ozone and urban aerosols influence colon and breast cancer mortality rates? Contributions from NASA and NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Frank C.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Grant, William B.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2005-08-01

    Although most ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is absorbed by stratospheric ozone, dense anthropogenic sulfate aerosols in the troposphere may further attenuate UVB in some regions. Mortality rates from colon and breast cancer tend to be much higher in areas with low levels of UVB radiation. These high rates may be due in part to inadequate cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. Satellite data on atmospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and cloud cover were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These data were combined with age-adjusted mortality rates from 175 countries reporting to the World Health Organization. Regression was used to assess the relationship of stratospheric ozone thickness, aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, average skin exposure, and a dietary factor with colon and breast cancer mortality rates. Solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, total cloud cover, and atmospheric aerosols had the strongest associations with mortality rates, apart from a strong influence of diet. Since 95% of circulating vitamin D is derived from current or stored products of photosynthesis, which may be nonexistent or minimal much of the year above 37°N or below 37°S, attenuation of UVB by atmospheric aerosols and clouds may have a greater than expected adverse effect on human health.

  10. Hospitalization rates, length of stay and in-hospital mortality in a cohort of HIV infected patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Lara E; Ribeiro, Sayonara R; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2016-12-03

    In this study, we evaluated trends in hospitalization rates, length of stay and in-hospital mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2007 through 2013. Among the 3991 included patients, 1861 hospitalizations occurred (hospitalization rate of 10.44/100 person-years, 95% confidence interval 9.98-10.93/100 person-years). Hospitalization rates decreased annually (per year incidence rate ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.95) as well as length of stay (median of 15 days in 2007 vs. 11 days in 2013, p-value for trend<0.001), and in-hospital mortality (13.4% in 2007 to 8.1% in 2013, p-value for trend=0.053). Our results show that, in a middle-income setting, hospitalization rates are decreasing over time and non-AIDS hospitalizations are currently more frequent than those related to AIDS. Notwithstanding, compared with high-income settings, our patients had longer length of stay and higher in-hospital mortality. Further studies addressing these outcomes are needed to provide information that may guide protocols and interventions to further reduce health-care costs and in-hospital mortality.

  11. Standardised mortality rate for cerebrovascular diseases in the Slovak Republic from 1996 to 2013 in the context of income inequalities and its international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gavurová, Beáta; Kováč, Viliam; Vagašová, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    Non-communicable diseases represent one of the greatest challenges for health policymakers. The main objective of this study is to analyse the development of standardised mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease, which is one of the most common causes of deaths, in relation to income inequality in individual regions of the Slovak Republic. Direct standardisation was applied using data from the Slovak mortality database, covering the time period from 1996 to 2013. The standardised mortality rate declined by 4.23% in the Slovak Republic. However, since 1996, the rate has been higher by almost 33% in men than in women. Standardised mortality rates were lower in the northern part of the Slovak Republic than in the southern part. The regression models demonstrated an impact of the observed income-related dimensions on these rates. The income quintile ratio and Gini coefficient appeared to be the most influencing variables. The results of the analysis highlight valuable baseline information for creating new support programmes aimed at eliminating health inequalities in relation to health and social policy.

  12. Gaseous air pollution and acute myocardial infarction mortality in Hong Kong: A time-stratified case-crossover study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; An, Qingzhu; Luo, Chao; Pun, Vivian C.; Chan, Chi Sing; Tian, Linwei

    2013-09-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common disease with serious consequences in mortality and morbidity. An association between gaseous air pollution and AMI has been suggested, but the epidemiological evidence is still limited. For the study period 1998-2010, daily counts of AMI deaths were collected, as well as daily air pollution data including concentrations of particulates (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) were also obtained. The associations between gaseous air pollutants and AMI mortality were estimated using time-stratified case-crossover analyses. NO2 and SO2 were found to be significantly associated with increased AMI mortality. The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.0455 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.017-1.0748) and 1.0256 (95% CI: 1.0027-1.0489) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the current day's NO2 and SO2 concentration, respectively, and this association persisted in 2-pollutant models; and no association was observed for CO and O3. It is likely that exposure to elevated ambient NO2 and SO2 air pollution contributed to increased AMI mortality.

  13. The effects of strong shock waves on mortality rates and percentages of pulmonary lesions in rats as a function of the number of exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassout, P.; Parmentier, G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the study reveal that with regard to the pulmonary lesions, twice the number of exposures is compensated for by quartering the overpressure of the wave crest. With regard to the mortality rates, it reveals that halving the overpressure of the wave crest is offset by a 20-fold increase in the number of exposures.

  14. REGIONAL TRENDS IN THE WORKING-AGE POPULATION MORTALITY RATE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A A; Kakorina, E P; Timofeev, L F; Potapov, A F; Aprosimov, L A

    2015-01-01

    Regions of the Russian Federation differ in climatic-geographic, medical-demographic and social-economic situations. One of the regions with distinct peculiarities is the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Ranking first by the territory (3,103.2 thousand sq x km), Yakutia is on the 81th place by the population density among regions of the Russian Federation (0.3 people per 1 km2).Yakutia is one of the most isolated and inaccessible regions of the world: 90% of the territory lacks all-the-year-round transportation. Regions of the republic, as well, differ significantly in the climatic conditions and the levels of social-economic development, which influences the population health indicators, including mortality. This survey aimed to study the trends of mortality in the working-age population in different groups of regions. To do this, basing on the statistical data, we compared the levels, trends and structure of mortality in 1990-2012. It was established that the different groups of regions show a significant variation in the working-age population mortality, depending on the social-economic conditions. Since 2000, the Arctic group of regions has demonstrated higher mortality in working-age men and women, especially of cardiovascular and digestive system diseases, and external causes. Lying beyond the Arctic Circle, these regions have severe conditions and a relatively low level of social-economic development. As for the rural regions, despite the relatively favourabe situation, they also show a high level of mortality of external causes. The industrial regions are characterized by higher social-economic development, better transport infrastructure, a satisfactory material base of medical institutions. They also have sufficient resources of health institutions, including the staff and modern equipment for treatment and diagnostics, as well as, which is critical, the full range of medical specialists. Thus, these regions demonstrate lower population mortality; however

  15. The Contribution of Ebola Viral Load at Admission and Other Patient Characteristics to Mortality in a Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Case Management Centre, Kailahun, Sierra Leone, June-October 2014.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Gabriel; Vogt, Florian; Moi Gbabai, Osman B; Decroo, Tom; Keane, Marian; De Clerck, Hilde; Grolla, Allen; Brechard, Raphael; Stinson, Kathryn; Van Herp, Michel

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes patient characteristics, including Ebola viral load, associated with mortality in a Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola case management centre (CMC).Out of 780 admissions between June and October 2014, 525 (67%) were positive for Ebola with a known outcome. The crude mortality rate was 51% (270/525). Ebola viral load (whole-blood sample) data were available on 76% (397/525) of patients. Univariate analysis indicated viral load at admission, age, symptom duration prior to admission, and distance traveled to the CMC were associated with mortality (P < .05). The multivariable model predicted mortality in those with a viral load at admission greater than 10 million copies per milliliter (P < .05, odds ratio >10), aged ≥ 50 years (P = .08, odds ratio = 2) and symptom duration prior to admission less than 5 days (P = .14). The presence of confusion, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis were significantly higher (P < .05) in Ebola patients who died.These findings highlight the importance viral load at admission has on mortality outcomes and could be used to cohort cases with viral loads greater than 10 million copies into dedicated wards with more intensive medical support to further reduce mortality.

  16. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  17. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly's method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899t−0.916max, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞ , prediction error = 0.6) otherwise.

  18. Deciphering infant mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  19. White phosphorus at Eagle River Flats, Alaska: a case history of waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY--White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of P4 in swans (and presumably other species that use small grit size) and the potential for swans to fly away after ingesting a lethal dose of P4 could greatly underestimate the overall mortality. Inhibition of laying, reduced fertility and hatchability, and teratogenesis in hens ingesting even a small amount of P4 could potentially have, an effect on populations greater than that exhibited by direct mortality. Predators such as bald eagles and gulls are also at risk due to the toxicity of pelletized, dissolved, and assimilated P4 in prey organisms. Although the U.S. Army stopped using P4 in wetlands in 1993 and remediation efforts have been underway since 1995, waterfowl mortality is expected to continue for several more years. Because Eagle River Flats is only one of several sites where P4 has been found in wetland conditions, further biological investigation is warranted at these other sites.

  20. Spatial variation in mortality risk for haematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. Material and methods A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied. We mapped (1) adptive kernel density relative risk estimation (KDE) for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls’ densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using generalized additive models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. Results No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2–6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Conclusion Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. PMID:26073202

  1. Does transport time help explain the high trauma mortality rates in rural areas? New and traditional predictors assessed by new and traditional statistical methods

    PubMed Central

    Røislien, Jo; Lossius, Hans Morten; Kristiansen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death. Trauma mortality rates are higher in rural areas, constituting a challenge for quality and equality in trauma care. The aim of the study was to explore population density and transport time to hospital care as possible predictors of geographical differences in mortality rates, and to what extent choice of statistical method might affect the analytical results and accompanying clinical conclusions. Methods Using data from the Norwegian Cause of Death registry, deaths from external causes 1998–2007 were analysed. Norway consists of 434 municipalities, and municipality population density and travel time to hospital care were entered as predictors of municipality mortality rates in univariate and multiple regression models of increasing model complexity. We fitted linear regression models with continuous and categorised predictors, as well as piecewise linear and generalised additive models (GAMs). Models were compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results Population density was an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates, while the contribution of transport time to hospital care was highly dependent on choice of statistical model. A multiple GAM or piecewise linear model was superior, and similar, in terms of AIC. However, while transport time was statistically significant in multiple models with piecewise linear or categorised predictors, it was not in GAM or standard linear regression. Conclusions Population density is an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates. The added explanatory value of transport time to hospital care is marginal and model-dependent, highlighting the importance of exploring several statistical models when studying complex associations in observational data. PMID:25972600

  2. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Wang, Zhan; Liu, Yisi; Chen, Xi; Chu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Zhongmin; Tian, Liqiao; Xiang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified–case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified analyses were performed by age, sex, and diseases. A 10 μg/m3 increment in SO2 level was associated with an increase in relative risk for all respiratory disease mortality of 2.4% and 1.9% in the case-crossover and time-series analyses in single pollutant models, respectively. Strong evidence of an association between NO2 and daily respiratory disease mortality among men or people older than 65 years was found in the case-crossover study. There was a positive association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. Both time-series and case-crossover analyses consistently reveal the association between three air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality. The estimates of association between air pollution and respiratory disease mortality from the case–crossover analysis displayed greater variation than that from the time-series analysis.

  3. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Wang, Zhan; Liu, Yisi; Chen, Xi; Chu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Zhongmin; Tian, Liqiao; Xiang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified–case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified analyses were performed by age, sex, and diseases. A 10 μg/m3 increment in SO2 level was associated with an increase in relative risk for all respiratory disease mortality of 2.4% and 1.9% in the case-crossover and time-series analyses in single pollutant models, respectively. Strong evidence of an association between NO2 and daily respiratory disease mortality among men or people older than 65 years was found in the case-crossover study. There was a positive association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. Both time-series and case-crossover analyses consistently reveal the association between three air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality. The estimates of association between air pollution and respiratory disease mortality from the case–crossover analysis displayed greater variation than that from the time-series analysis. PMID:28084399

  4. A Case-Only Study of Vulnerability to Heat Wave–Related Mortality in New York City (2000–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiko; Johnson, Sarah; Kinney, Patrick L.; Matte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of climate change, the frequency of extreme temperature events is expected to increase, and such events are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Vulnerability patterns, and corresponding adaptation strategies, are most usefully conceptualized at a local level. Methods We used a case-only analysis to examine subject and neighborhood characteristics that modified the association between heat waves and mortality. All deaths of New York City residents from 2000 through 2011 were included in this analysis. Meteorological data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Modifying characteristics were obtained from the death record and geographic data sets. Results A total of 234,042 adult deaths occurred during the warm season of our study period. Compared with other warm-season days, deaths during heat waves were more likely to occur in black (non-Hispanic) individuals than other race/ethnicities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], more likely to occur at home than in institutions and hospital settings (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and more likely among those living in census tracts that received greater public assistance (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09). Finally, deaths during heat waves were more likely among residents in areas of the city with higher relative daytime summer surface temperature and less likely among residents living in areas with more green space. Conclusion Mortality during heat waves varies widely within a city. Understanding which individuals and neighborhoods are most vulnerable can help guide local preparedness efforts. Citation Madrigano J, Ito K, Johnson S, Kinney PL, Matte T. 2015. A case-only study of vulnerability to heat wave–related mortality in New York City (2000–2011). Environ Health Perspect 123:672–678; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408178 PMID:25782056

  5. Risk factors for liver-related mortality in chronic hepatitis C patients: A deceased case-living control study

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing-Lei; Feng, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yan; Yang, Bin; Huang, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Xue-Xiu; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for liver-related mortality in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: All deceased CHC inpatient data were collected from the Beijing 302 Hospital clinical database, which includes more than 8250 CHC inpatients during the period from 2002 to 2012. The controls were matched to cases by age (± 2 years), sex and date of hospital admission (within the same year). Potential risk factors were included for the evaluation, and odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI were estimated using univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted OR, AOR) conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Based on examinations of 144 CHC-related deceased cases and 576 controls, we found that antiviral therapy with interferon-α was associated with a 47% decrease in the risk of hepatic mortality (AOR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.28-0.99, P = 0.048). Additionally, the initial diagnostic stage of the disease (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.83-4.56 and P < 0.001 for liver cirrhosis/AOR = 8.82, 95%CI: 3.99-19.53 and P < 0.001 for HCC compared with CHC), diabetes (AOR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.40-3.95, P = 0.001), hypertension (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.82, P = 0.020), alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.03-2.81, P = 0.037) and HBsAg positivity (AOR = 22.28, 95%CI: 5.58-89.07, P < 0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the risk of liver-related mortality in CHC patients. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that interferon-α treatment, the stage at the initial diagnosis of the disease and comorbidities are all independent risk factors for liver-related mortality in CHC patients. PMID:24833882

  6. Prediction using patient comparison vs. modeling: a case study for mortality prediction.

    PubMed

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; El Hassouni, Ali; Mok, Kwongyen; Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Information in Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) can be used to generate accurate predictions for the occurrence of a variety of health states, which can contribute to more pro-active interventions. The very nature of EMRs does make the application of off-the-shelf machine learning techniques difficult. In this paper, we study two approaches to making predictions that have hardly been compared in the past: (1) extracting high-level (temporal) features from EMRs and building a predictive model, and (2) defining a patient similarity metric and predicting based on the outcome observed for similar patients. We analyze and compare both approaches on the MIMIC-II ICU dataset to predict patient mortality and find that the patient similarity approach does not scale well and results in a less accurate model (AUC of 0.68) compared to the modeling approach (0.84). We also show that mortality can be predicted within a median of 72 hours.

  7. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality

  8. Association between self-rated health and mortality: 10 years follow-up to the Pró-Saúde cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality is well documented in the literature, but studies on the subject among young adults in Latin America are rare, as are those evaluating this association using repeated SRH measures, beyond the baseline measurement. This study aims to evaluate the association between SRH evaluated at three data collection stages and mortality. Methods Cox regression models were used to examine the association between SRH (Very good, Good, Fair/Poor) varying over time and mortality, over a 10 year period, in a cohort of non-faculty civil servants at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, n = 4009, men = 44.4%). Results About 40% of the population changed their self-rating over the course of follow-up. After adjustment for self-reported physician-diagnosed chronic diseases and other covariates, men who reported “Fair/Poor” SRH showed relative hazard of death of 2.13 (CI95% 1.03-4.40) and women, 3.43 (CI95% 1.23-9.59), as compared with those who reported “Very good” SRH. Conclusions In a population of young adults, our findings reinforce the role of SRH as a predictor of mortality, even controlling for objective measures of health. PMID:22905737

  9. Risk factors of mortality during the first year after low energy osteoporosis fracture: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Aurore; Coiffier, Guillaume; Couchouron, Tiffen; Perdriger, Aleth; Guggenbuhl, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality of fracture complications. The objective of this study was to examine predictive factors of mortality during the first year after an osteoporotic fracture. Methods It is a retrospective case-control study using data of a group of 1081 patients aged over 50 years with severe osteoporotic fractures by the Rennes university hospital emergency department from August 2007 to September 2008. Patients (cases) who died during the year following the fracture were compared with others who had survived (controls) one year after the fracture, matched on age, sex and type of fracture. Pre-fracture comorbidities and complications after the fractures were studied. Results Forty-two cases and 126 controls were analyzed without significant differences in age, sex or type of fracture. On univariate analysis, previous neoplasia, neurodegenerative disease, walking aids, thromboembolic complication, post fracture infection, post fracture heart failure, post fracture acute respiratory failure were associated with more mortality after osteoporotic fracture. After multivariate analysis, only previous neoplasia (OR = 4.63 [1.79 – 11.95]; p = 0.02) and acute respiratory failure after fracture (OR = 28.15 [5.75 – 137.9]; p<0.001) were retained as predictive factors during the year following the fracture. Conclusion Patients died more often from their co-morbidities than direct complications of their fractures. Osteoporotic fracture seems to be a marker of poor health status and a factor which may hasten the death. PMID:27920808

  10. Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California, 1980-1986. [Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; Scrivner, J.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Harris, C.E.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) were studied from 1980 to 1986. Of 270 foxes radiocollared, 225 were recovered dead. Of the 225 recovered dead 53.8% (121) were killed by predators, 10.7% (24) were killed by vehicles, 4.4% (10) died from causes other than predation, and 31.1% (70) died from unknown causes. Contingency-table analysis was used to assess the relationship between cause of death and sex, age class (juvenile and adult), habitat type (undeveloped and developed), and year of death (1980-1986). More adults in undeveloped habitat were killed by vehicles than were juveniles; more female juveniles in developed habitat were killed by vehicles than female adults; more juveniles were killed by vehicles in developed habitat than in undeveloped habitat; and more adults in developed habitat were killed by predators in later years of the study than in early years. Over 90% of the foxes collared as juveniles were recovered in their first or second year. Fourteen mortality rates based on age class and year of death were estimated using maximum-likelihood estimation. Mortality rates were higher for juvenile foxes (x-bar = 0.74) than for adult foxes (x-bar = 0.52). For foxes collared as juveniles, there was no significant difference in survival between the two habitat types or between the sexes. Mortality of adults increased between 1980 and 1986. Because coyote predation was a major cause of kit fox mortality the coyote control program implemented in 1985 should be continued and its effectiveness should be evaluated by continued monitoring of kit fox, coyote, and prey populations.

  11. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  12. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart disease mortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T; Barrett-Connor, E

    1987-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between 24-hour dietary fiber intake at baseline survey in 1972-1974 and subsequent 12-year ischemic heart disease mortality in a southern Californian population-based cohort of 859 men and women aged 50-79 years. Relative risks of ischemic heart disease mortality in those with dietary fiber intake of 16 gm/24 hours or more compared with those with intake less than 16 gm/24 hours were 0.33 in men and 0.37 in women. A 6 gm increment in daily fiber intake was associated with a 25% reduction in ischemic heart disease mortality (p less than 0.01). This effect was independent of other dietary variables, including calories, fat, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, alcohol, calcium, and potassium. Some, but not all, of this effect appears to be mediated through the known cardiovascular risk factors: after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and cigarette smoking habit, the magnitude of the protective effect of fiber was reduced but still significant in both sexes combined. These findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is protective for ischemic heart disease mortality.

  13. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  14. Determination of florfenicol dose rate in feed for control of mortality in nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotica infected with streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dose titration study was conducted to determine the dosage of florfenicol (FFC) in feed to control Streptococcus iniae-associated mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six tanks were assigned to each of five treatments: (1) not challenged with S. iniae and fed unmedicated feed; (2) chal...

  15. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  16. Air pollution and mortality: effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Pun, Vivian C; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2015-04-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m(3) increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥ ∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9-1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO2, and SO2. People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6-2.3% additional increase in PM and NO2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution.

  17. Mass mortality in bivalves and the intricate case of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Solomieu, Valérie; Renault, Tristan; Travers, Marie-Agnès

    2015-10-01

    Massive mortality outbreaks in cultured bivalves have been reported worldwide and they have been associated with infection by a range of viral and bacterial pathogens. Due to their economic and social impact, these episodes constitute a particularly sensitive issue in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) production. Since 2008, mortality outbreaks affecting C. gigas have increased in terms of intensity and geographic distribution. Epidemiologic surveys have lead to the incrimination of pathogens, specifically OsHV-1 and bacteria of the Vibrio genus, in particular Vibrio aestuarianus. Pathogen diversity may partially account for the variability in the outcome of infections. Host factors (age, reproductive status...) including their genetic background that has an impact on host susceptibility toward infection, also play a role herein. Finally, environmental factors have significant effects on the pathogens themselves, on the host and on the host-pathogen interaction. Further knowledge on pathogen diversity, classification, and spread, may contribute toward a better understanding of this issue and potential ways to mitigate the impact of these outbreaks.

  18. [Avoidable mortality. The case of the North border of Mexico, 1980-1990].

    PubMed

    Molina, C A; López, M V

    1995-01-01

    When the death causes are understood as a result of morbility process that may have been avoided with different kinds of economic, social and welfare services policies and the advance of scientific and technologic knowledges, there is clearly a structural determinism so that many population social sectors can't reach the "modern epidemiological patterns". This study used annual data bases of register death 1979-1991 brought by INEGI/DGE-SSA from five Mexican federal border entities. It were adjusted by Preston-Coale method and Life Tables were generated in 1980 and 1990. The percentage contributions of avoidable causes' groups by sex and age of the increases in the Expectation of Life (Ex) were calculated in the same years following Pollard's method. As result of this research, limited increments of Ex were found because of the permanence of high contribution of deaths, that may have been avoided (50%). Contrary to popular beliefs, Ex male diminished the difference compared with Ex female. Highest male mortality is explained even for this kind of causes, where accidents and violence deaths are bringing high percentages of total mortality.

  19. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew; de Jong, Paul; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Gansevoort, Ron T; Levey, Andrew; El-Nahas, Meguid; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kasiske, Bertram L; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Chalmers, John; Macmahon, Stephen; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Sacks, Frank; Curhan, Gary; Collins, Allan J; Li, Suying; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Hawaii Cohort, K P; Lee, Brian J; Ishani, Areef; Neaton, James; Svendsen, Ken; Mann, Johannes F E; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon K; Gao, Peggy; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Bilo, Henk J; Joosten, Hanneke; Kleefstra, Nanno; Groenier, K H; Auguste, Priscilla; Veldhuis, Kasper; Wang, Yaping; Camarata, Laura; Thomas, Beverly; Manley, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 10 cohorts with 266,975 patients selected because of increased risk for chronic kidney disease, defined as a history of hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Risk for all-cause mortality was not associated with eGFR between 60-105 ml/min per 1.73 m², but increased at lower levels. Hazard ratios at eGFRs of 60, 45, and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² were 1.03, 1.38 and 3.11, respectively, compared to an eGFR of 95, after adjustment for albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors. Log albuminuria was linearly associated with log risk for all-cause mortality without thresholds. Adjusted hazard ratios at albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 10, 30 and 300 mg/g were 1.08, 1.38, and 2.16, respectively compared to a ratio of five. Albuminuria and eGFR were multiplicatively associated with all-cause mortality, without evidence for interaction. Similar associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Findings in cohorts with dipstick data were generally comparable to those in cohorts measuring albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Thus, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria are risk factors for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in high-risk populations, independent of each other and of cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. An index of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with coronary heart disease mortality rates for small areas in England after adjustment for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Rayner, M; Goldacre, M

    2011-03-01

    Indices of socio-economic deprivation are often used as a proxy for differences in the health behaviours of populations within small areas, but these indices are a measure of the economic environment rather than the health environment. Sets of synthetic estimates of the ward-level prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol and smoking were combined to develop an index of unhealthy lifestyle. Multi-level regression models showed that this index described about 50% of the large-scale geographic variation in CHD mortality rates in England, and substantially adds to the ability of an index of deprivation to explain geographic variations in CHD mortality rates.

  1. Top-Predator Survivor Region Is Affected by Bottom-Prey Mortality Rate on the Monte-Carlo Simulation in Lattice Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Minori; Nagata, Hiroyasu

    This article is a continuance of [9] that study brings into focus on the n species systems food chain. Computer simulation is important today, and its results may be reflected to policy. Now, we change the mortality rate of the bottom-prey, in order to inspect the survivor region of the top-predator that is crucial for the conservation of the ecosystem. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on finite-size lattices composed of the species . The bottom-prey mortality rate is changed from 0 to the extinction value. Thereafter, we find the steady state densities against the species n and plot the predator survivor region. To realize the conservation of the top-predator population, substantial amount of hardship is anticipated, because the bottom-prey density gradually becomes a little.

  2. Race and Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses increasing racial and socioeconomic disparities in mortality despite general declines in mortality, examining disparities in infant mortality and explaining that whenever two groups differ in their susceptibility to some condition, the less prevalent the condition, the greater will be the disparity in rates of experiencing the condition.…

  3. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  4. What is past is prologue: A population-based case-control study of repeat victimization, premature mortality, and homicide.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Berg, Mark T

    2017-04-01

    We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk-heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits. Research on health outcomes and premature mortality provides related, but often overlooked, conceptual assumptions about the co-occurring health burden of preventable injuries and disease. We extend and apply each of these perspectives in the current study to assess the nature and sources of repeat violent victimization. Data were from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control study. Cases (n = 1750) were all male deaths aged 25-54 living in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1750) were randomly selected from a city population register. Key independent variables were prior year prevalence of violent, property, and residential victimization. We used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios. Results provided evidence for state dependence. We found that (i) after controlling for indicators of risk heterogeneity men who had been victims of violence (but not property or residential crime) within the past year were 2.6 times more likely than those who had not to die prematurely; and (ii) the only type of death for which risk was higher was homicide. Aggr. Behav. 43:176-189, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia’s efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Noriko; Abe, Kimiko; Rotem, Arie; Tung, Rathavy; Keat, Phuong; Robins, Ann; Zwi, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that have contributed to the systematic development of the Cambodian human resources for health (HRH) system with a focus on midwifery services in response to high maternal mortality in fragile resource-constrained countries. Design Qualitative case study. Review of the published and grey literature and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders using an HRH system conceptual framework developed by the authors (‘House Model’; Fujita et al, 2011). Interviews focused on the perceptions of respondents regarding their contributions to strengthening midwifery services and the other external influences which may have influenced the HRH system and reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Setting Three rounds of interviews were conducted with senior and mid-level managers of the Ministries of Health (MoH) and Education, educational institutes and development partners. Participants A total of 49 interviewees, who were identified through a snowball sampling technique. Main outcome measures Scaling up the availability of 24 h maternal health services at all health centres contributing to MMR reduction. Results The incremental development of the Cambodian HRH system since 2005 focused on the production, deployment and retention of midwives in rural areas as part of a systematic strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The improved availability and access to midwifery services contributed to significant MMR reduction. Other contributing factors included improved mechanisms for decision-making and implementation; political commitment backed up with necessary resources; leadership from the top along with a growing capacity of mid-level managers; increased MoH capacity to plan and coordinate; and supportive development partners in the context of a conducive external environment. Conclusions Lessons from this case study point to the importance of a systemic and comprehensive approach to health and HRH system strengthening and

  6. The Effects of Particulate Matter Sources on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study of Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Aurelio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects. Although a few studies exist on the effects of species and sources in U.S. cities, European cities—which have a higher proportion of diesel engines and denser urban populations—have not been well characterized. Information on the effects of specific sources could aid in targeting pollution control and in articulating the biological mechanisms of PM. Objectives: Our study examined the effects of various PM sources on daily mortality for 2003 through 2007 in Barcelona, a densely populated city in the northeast corner of Spain. Methods: Source apportionment for PM ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) using positive matrix factorization identified eight different factors. Case-crossover regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of each factor. Results: Several sources of PM2.5, including vehicle exhaust, fuel oil combustion, secondary nitrate/organics, minerals, secondary sulfate/organics, and road dust, had statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Also, in some cases relative risks for a respective interquartile range increase in concentration were higher for specific sources than for total PM2.5 mass. Conclusions: These results along with those from our multisource models suggest that traffic, sulfate from shipping and long-range transport, and construction dust are important contributors to the adverse health effects linked to PM. PMID:21846610

  7. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209

  8. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  9. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  10. Temperature, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute Daily Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean daily temperature, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.

  11. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Pasmans, Frank; Blahak, Silvia; Martel, An; Pantchev, Nikola; Zwart, Peer

    2008-05-01

    A mass die-off of imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis) occurred in 2004 in Belgium and the Netherlands. In addition to massive infection with Rhabdias tokyoensis, Ranavirus was isolated from three dead newts examined virologically and the gene coding for the major capsid protein of the virus was sequenced. The isolate showed 99.8% similarity to the published sequence of frog virus 3. Upon experimental infection of axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) with this isolate, no marked pathology was noticed and the virus could not be re-isolated at 9weeks post-inoculation. Apart from the possibility of exposure of a non-sensitive host, the mortality episode in the newts may be related to stress resulting from the importation of the newts in breeding condition. This possibility is supported by the presence of degenerating egg-follicles in the females.

  12. SWOT analysis of program design and implementation: a case study on the reduction of maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Qudratullah; Danesh, Homayoon; Makharashvili, Vasil; Mishkin, Kathryn; Mupfukura, Lovemore; Teed, Hillary; Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2016-07-01

    This case study analyzes the design and implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan by synthesizing the literature with a focus on maternal health services. The authors are a group of graduate students in the Brandeis University International Health Policy and Management Program and Sustainable International Development Program who used the experience in Afghanistan to analyze an example of successfully implementing policy; two of the authors are Afghan physicians with direct experience in implementing the BPHS. Data is drawn from a literature review, and a unique aspect of the case study is the application of the business-oriented SWOT analysis to the design and implementation of the program that successfully targeted lowering maternal mortality in Afghanistan. It provides a useful example of how SWOT analysis can be used to consider the reasons for, or likelihood of, successful or unsuccessful design and implementation of a policy or program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Impact of Glasgow Coma Scale score and pupil parameters on mortality rate and outcome in pediatric and adult severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emami, Pedram; Czorlich, Patrick; Fritzsche, Friederike S; Westphal, Manfred; Rueger, Johannes M; Lefering, Rolf; Hoffmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Prediction of death and functional outcome is essential for determining treatment strategies and allocation of resources for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, by using pupillary status and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, if patients with severe TBI who are ≤ 15 years old have a lower mortality rate and better outcome than adults with severe TBI. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of patients suffering from severe TBI registered in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery between 2002 and 2013 was undertaken. Severe TBI was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head (AIShead) score of ≥ 3 and an AIS score for any other part of the body that does not exceed the AIShead score. Only patients with complete data (GCS score, age, and pupil parameters) were included. To assess the impact of GCS score and pupil parameters, the authors also used the recently introduced Eppendorf-Cologne Scale and divided the study population into 2 groups: children (0-15 years old) and adults (16-55 years old). Each patient's outcome was measured at discharge from the trauma center by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS A total of 9959 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria; 888 (8.9%) patients were ≤ 15 years old (median 10 years). The overall mortality rate and the mortality rate for patients with a GCS of 3 and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils (19.9% and 16.3%, respectively) were higher for the adults than for the pediatric patients (85% vs 80.9%, respectively), although cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were significantly higher in the pediatric patients (5.6% vs 8.8%, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no motor response (OR 3.490, 95% CI 2.240-5.435) and fixed pupils (OR 4.197, 95% CI 3.271-5.386) and bilateral dilated pupils (OR 2.848, 95% CI 2.282-3.556) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Patients ≤ 15 years old had a

  14. Usefulness of heart rate to predict one-year mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction (from the OMEGA trial).

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Becker, Ruediger; Rauch, Bernhard; Schiele, Rudolf; Schneider, Steffen; Riemer, Thomas; Diller, Frank; Gohlke, Helmut; Gottwik, Martin; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Sabin, Georg; Katus, Hugo A; Senges, Jochen

    2013-03-15

    In the setting of acute myocardial infarction and sinus rhythm, the heart rate (HR) has been demonstrated to correlate closely with mortality. In patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation (AF) on admission, however, the prognostic relevance of the HR has not yet been systematically addressed. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the data from the OMEGA trial was conducted to analyze whether the admission HR determines the 1-year mortality in patients presenting with AF in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Of 3,851 patients enrolled in the OMEGA study, 211 (6%) presented with AF on admission. This subgroup was dichotomized according to the admission HR (cutoff 95 beats/min). Multiple regression analysis revealed that an admission HR of ≥95 beats/min independently determined the 1-year mortality in patients with AF (odds ratio 4.69, 95% confidence interval 1.47 to 15.01; p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that a high HR (≥95 beats/min) on admission in patients with AF and acute myocardial infarction is associated with an almost fivefold mortality risk.

  15. Improvement in glomerular filtration rate may decrease mortality among type-2 diabetics with chronic kidney disease lacking proteinuria: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thajudeen, Bijin; Budhiraja, Pooja; Meister, Edward; Popovtzer, Mordecai

    2015-01-01

    Twenty percent of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus without albuminuria progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The various factors related to development of CKD, the natural course of renal dysfunction as well as mortality in this sub-group of diabetics has not been studied in detail. The medical records of 121 patients (all males) above the age of 40 years with type-2 diabetes mellitus and CKD, and without proteinuria, were reviewed in this retrospective study. The outcomes measured included: (a) all-cause mortality, (b) need for hemodialysis (HD), (c) appearance of proteinuria and (d) trend in kidney function. The all-cause mortality was 33%, with mean age at death being 75.9 years. Sixty-three percent of the patients had improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of the follow-up period. The mortality was higher in patients with worsening eGFR compared with those with improvement in eGFR (61% vs 39%, P = 0.040). 5.8% of the patients ended up on HD and 16.51% developed proteinuria at the end of the follow-up period. Patients who developed proteinuria showed a higher tendency for progression of renal failure. Multivariate logistic regression for trend toward improving versus worsening of the eGFR revealed no statistically significant predictors. This observational study suggests that in type-2 diabetic patients with CKD, a substantial number of patients will have improvement in eGFR over time. Careful search for potential reversible causes of kidney damage could help in reducing mortality.

  16. Mortality rate and gross pathology due to tuberculosis in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) following low dose subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor; Whitford, Jackie; Cross, Martin L

    2013-04-01

    Gross pathology due to tuberculosis can be established experimentally in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) within 7 weeks of injection of virulent Mycobacterium bovis into subcutaneous connective tissues of the peripheral limbs. This pathology involves lymphadenomegaly and development of gross lesions in peripheral lymph nodes, with subsequent gross lesions in the lungs and reticuloendothelial organs. Using this artificial infection model, we here assessed the mortality rate for possums in the wild, to provide new information on the likely survival period for New Zealand's major wildlife host. Possums were trapped and inoculated with <50 CFU of M. bovis, then fitted with mortality signal emitting radio tracking collars, released and re-tracked for 6 months. Possum survival probability was 89% up to 12 weeks post-injection (p.i.), but cumulative mortality was rapid from then on. The median survival period, based on study of 38 possums, was 18 weeks p.i.; this corresponds with a predicted time interval of 11 weeks between first presentation of TB as palpable lymphadenomegaly and death for an average possum, shorter than period values currently used in possum TB epidemiological modelling. We also examined gross pathology in 11 possums by post mortem necropsy, and confirmed lymphadenomegaly and tuberculous lesions at 7 and 12 weeks p.i. Extra-peripheral gross lesions were more frequent among possums at 12 weeks p.i. than at 7 weeks, while the occurrence of lung lesions (the most likely cause of disease-induced mortality) was apparent in animals at 12 weeks but not at 7 weeks p.i. Our results suggest that the time course of TB from development of gross lesions to mortality may be shorter than previously estimated from field studies of naturally tuberculous possums.

  17. Consequences of differential residence designations for rural health policy research: the case of infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Farmer, F L; Clarke, L L; Miller, M K

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, members of the rural caucus proposed numerous bills designed to attenuate the rural-urban differences in health care delivery and health status. Implicit in the legislative process is the assumption that "rural America" differs systematically from "urban America." However, research has consistently demonstrated that there is not a single rural America but rather, those areas outside of the major metropolitan areas represent a complex mosaic of varying social and environmental settings. Rural communities differ in meaningful ways along a number of socioenvironmental parameters, and accordingly, health status indicators also differ across rural communities. Thus, health outcome statistics averaged across rural communities will often mask important disparities experienced by certain population groups. Policies based on these aggregate indicators may overlook the needs of the most disadvantaged. While a number of measures of rurality have emerged in the last decade, much of the information presented to policy-makers is either too aggregated (i.e., metropolitan-nonmetropolitan) to identify important differences across the range of communities, or it is gathered in agency-specific categories that are not comparable. The central question under examination in the current context is the possibility of distorting the picture of infant health status by aggregating the diverse rural locales of the United States. Empirical results indicate that when considering infant mortality, any rural disadvantage is contingent upon how 'rural' and 'urban' have been defined. Further, the results indicate that conclusions must be conditioned on other important sociodemographic parameters such as region of the country and race.

  18. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Dolejs, Josef; Marešová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background The answer to the question “At what age does aging begin?” is tightly related to the question “Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?” Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Materials and methods Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category “all diseases” is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994–2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category. Results Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05–8.95) years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes. Conclusion Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age–mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in the model c/x. All-disease mortality represents an alternative tool to study the impact of age. All results are based on published data. PMID:28176929

  19. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients 80 years old or older: a retrospective case-series study

    PubMed Central

    Konstanty-Kalandyk, Janusz; Kiełbasa, Grzegorz; Olszewska, Marta; Song, Bryan HyoChan; Wierzbicki, Karol; Milaniak, Irena; Darocha, Tomasz; Sobczyk, Dorota; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Background Age remains a significant and unmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and an increasing number of patients older than 80 years of age undergo Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). Old age is also an independent risk factor for postoperative complications. The aim of this study is to describe the population of patients 80 years of age or older who underwent CABG procedure and to assess the mortality rate and risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Methods A retrospective case-series study analyzing 388 consecutive patients aged 80 years of age or older who underwent isolated CABG procedure between 2010 and 2014 in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow. Results In-hospital mortality stood at 7%, compared to 3.4% for all isolated CABG procedures at our Institution. In an univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for in-hospital mortality were as follows: NYHA class (p = 0.005, OR 1.95, 95% CI [1.23–3.1]), prolonged mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001, OR 7.08, 95% CI [2.47–20.3]), rethoracotomy (p = 0.04, OR 3.31, 95% CI [1.04–10.6]), duration of the procedure and ECC (for every 10 min p = 0.01, OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.0–1.01]; p = 0.03, OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.0–1.02], respectively), PRBC, FFP, and PLT transfusion (for every unit transfused p = 0.004, OR 1.42, 95% CI [1.12–1.8]; p = 0.002, OR 1.55, 95% CI [1.18–2.04]; p = 0.009, OR 1.93, 95% CI [1.18–3.14], respectively). Higher LVEF (p = 0.02, OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94–0.99]) and LIMA graft implantation (p = 0.04, OR 0.36, 95% CI [0.13–0.98) decreased the in-hospital mortality. Death before discharge was more often observed in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (0–2 –5.7%; 3–7.4%, 4–26.6%; p = 0.03). Conclusions Older age is associated with higher in-hospital mortality after isolated CABG at our Institution. Risk stratification scores and individualized risk

  20. [Mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a case control study].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Expósito, María J; Mestres, Carlos A; Claramonte, Xavier; Cartañá, Ramón; Josa, Miquel; Pomar, José L; Mulet, Jaume; Miró, José M

    2006-03-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection has improved survival. This improvement combined with the metabolic effects of treatment has increased cardiovascular risk and the need for cardiac surgery in these patients. We compared morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients (cases, n=7) and non-HIV-infected patients (controls, n=21) who underwent isolated coronary artery surgery between 1997 and 2004. The durations of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamping were shorter in HIV-infected patients (P=.002 and P=.014, respectively). The percentage of patients who experienced complications was similar, at 57.1% in both groups, but there was a slightly higher number of complications per patient in non-HIV-infected individuals. The mean length of total hospitalization was greater in HIV-infected patients (27.1 [13.3] versus 8.8 [5.3] days; P=.003), as was that of postoperative hospitalization (18.2 [15.4] vs 7.9 [4.2] days; P=.08). No HIV-infected patient died or needed a repeat cardiac operation. No progression of the HIV infection was observed. Isolated coronary artery surgery in HIV-infected patients produces good results, and there is no increase in morbidity or mortality. Extracorporeal circulation did not influence disease progression.

  1. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  2. Increasing Disparity in Waitlist Mortality Rates with Increased MELD Scores for Candidates with versus without Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    David, Goldberg; French, Benjamin; Abt, Peter; Feng, Sandy; Cameron, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria receive standardized Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception points due to the projected risk of tumor expansion beyond Milan criteria, meant to be equivalent to a 15% risk of 90-day mortality from listing, with additional points every 3 months, equivalent to a 10% increased mortality risk. We analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing database from 1/1/05–5/31/09 to compare 90-day waitlist outcomes of HCC vs. non-HCC candidates with similar MELD scores. 259 (4.2%) HCC candidates initially listed with 22 MELD exception points were removed for death or clinical deterioration within 90 days of listing vs. 283 (11.0%) non-HCC candidates with initial laboratory MELD scores of 21–23. 93 (4.6%) HCC candidates with 25 exception points (after 3–6 months wait-time) were removed for death or clinical deterioration within 90 days vs. 805 (17.3%) non-HCC candidates with laboratory MELD scores of 24–26. 20 (3.0%) HCC candidates with 28 exception points (after 6–9 months wait-time) were removed for death or clinical deterioration within 90 days vs. 646 (23.6%) non-HCC candidates with laboratory MELD scores of 27–29. In multivariable logistic regression models, HCC candidates had a significantly lower 90-day odds of waitlist removal for death or clinical deterioration (P<0.001). Over time, the risk of waitlist removal for death or clinical deterioration was unchanged for HCC candidates (P=0.17), while it increased significantly for non-HCC candidates. The current allotment of HCC exception points should be reevaluated given the stable risk of waitlist dropout for these candidates. PMID:22271656

  3. Major morbidity or mortality from office anesthetic procedures: a closed-claim analysis of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Jastak, J T; Peskin, R M

    1991-01-01

    A closed-claim analysis of anesthetic-related deaths and permanent injuries in the dental office setting was conducted in cooperation with a leading insurer of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and dental anesthesiologists. A total of 13 cases occurring between 1974 and 1989 was included. In each case, all available records, reports, depositions, and proceedings were reviewed. The following were determined for each case: preoperative physical status of the patient, anesthetic technique used (classified as either general anesthesia or conscious sedation), probable cause of the morbid event, avoidability of the occurrence, and contributing factors important to the outcome. The majority of patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status II or III. Most patients had preexisting conditions, such as gross obesity, cardiac disease, epilepsy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, that can significantly affect anesthesia care. Hypoxia arising from airway obstruction and/or respiratory depression was the most common cause of untoward events, and most of the adverse events were determined to be avoidable. The disproportionate number of patients in this sample who were at the extremes of age and with ASA classifications below I suggests that anesthesia risk may be significantly increased in patients who fall outside the healthy, young adult category typically treated in the oral surgical/dental outpatient setting.

  4. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: an empirical demonstration using fitness distributions

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D.; Miller, Paige M.; Rice, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size (Ne) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce Ne by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on Ne, we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on Ne, which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on Ne, a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. PMID:26374275

  5. Length frequency distribution, mortality rate and reproductive biology of kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis-Cantor, 1849) in the coastal waters of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M G; Tamatamah, A R

    2013-11-01

    This study explored important aspect of the basis for the highly complex population of kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) within the coastal waters of Tanzania; by investigating length frequency distribution, mortality rate and reproductive characteristics. This information is essential for the sustainable management of the regionally-important recreational and economic E. affinis fishery. Fish were sampled on a monthly basis for two monsoon seasons using a ring net and artisanal fishermen boat. Maximum and minimum total length was 85 and 31 cm, respectively. Nonlinear least square fitting provided a complete set of von Bertalanffy growth estimates: L8 = 89.25 cm total length and K = 0.78. The estimated value of total mortality based on length converted catch curve using these growth parameters is Z = 1.78 year(-1). Natural mortality based on growth parameters and mean environmental temperature (T = 26.9 degrees C) is M = 1.09 year(-1). The estimated annual instantaneous fishing mortality (F = 0.69 year(-1)) was considerably grater than the target (Fopt = 0.43 year(-1)) and limit (Flimit = 0.58 year(-1)) biological reference point indicating that E. affinis is heavily overexploited. Reproductive aspects were assessed whereby female E. affinis was reported to reach maturity earlier than males which is an indication of phenotypic response toward a decline in population. Two peaks was revealed by the use of Gonad-Somatic Index (GSI), however an extended spawning period was noticed in a period between November to February following an increased water temperature. Although, these findings presents a snapshot concerning population structure and reproduction of E. affinis, further studies covering the entire coastal waters of Tanzania are recommended to aid the management and conservation strategies.

  6. Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Investigators. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makikallio, T. H.; Hoiber, S.; Kober, L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Huikuri, H. V.

    1999-01-01

    A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling (exponent beta) were studied in 159 patients with depressed LV function (ejection fraction <35%) after an AMI. By the end of 4-year follow-up, 72 patients (45%) had died and 87 (55%) were still alive. Short-term scaling exponent alpha (1.07 +/- 0.26 vs 0.90 +/- 0.26, p <0.001) and power-law slope beta (-1.35 +/- 0.23 vs -1.44 +/- 0.25, p <0.05) differed between survivors and those who died, but none of the traditional HR variability measures differed between these groups. Among all analyzed variables, reduced scaling exponent alpha (<0.85) was the best univariable predictor of mortality (relative risk 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.96 to 5.15, p <0.0001), with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 65% and 86%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, mortality was independently predicted by the reduced exponent alpha (p <0.001) after adjustment for several clinical variables and LV function. A short-term fractal-like scaling exponent was the most powerful HR variability index in predicting mortality in patients with depressed LV function. Reduction in fractal correlation properties implies more random short-term HR dynamics in patients with increased risk of death after AMI.

  7. Device-associated infection rates, mortality, length of stay and bacterial resistance in intensive care units in Ecuador: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium’s findings

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Yepez, Estuardo; Bovera, Maria M; Rosenthal, Victor D; González Flores, Hugo A; Pazmiño, Leonardo; Valencia, Francisco; Alquinga, Nelly; Ramirez, Vanessa; Jara, Edgar; Lascano, Miguel; Delgado, Veronica; Cevallos, Cristian; Santacruz, Gasdali; Pelaéz, Cristian; Zaruma, Celso; Barahona Pinto, Diego

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days. The central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate was 6.5 per 1000 central line (CL)-days, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 44.3 per 1000 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate was 5.7 per 1000 urinary catheter (UC)-days. CLABSI and CAUTI rates in our ICUs were similar to INICC rates [4.9 (CLABSI) and 5.3 (CAUTI)] and higher than NHSN rates [0.8 (CLABSI) and 1.3 (CAUTI)] - although device use ratios for CL and UC were higher than INICC and CDC/NSHN’s ratios. By contrast, despite the VAP rate was higher than INICC (16.5) and NHSN’s rates (1.1), MV DUR was lower in our ICUs. Resistance of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem was 75.0%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam was higher than 72.7%, all them higher than CDC/NHSN rates. Excess length of stay was 7.4 d for patients with CLABSI, 4.8 for patients with VAP and 9.2 for patients CAUTI. Excess crude mortality in ICUs was 30.9% for CLABSI, 14.5% for VAP and 17.6% for CAUTI. CONCLUSION DA-HAI rates in our ICUs from Ecuador are higher than United States CDC/NSHN rates and similar to INICC international rates. PMID:28289522

  8. Circulating microRNAs in Sera Correlate with Soluble Biomarkers of Immune Activation but Do Not Predict Mortality in ART Treated Individuals with HIV-1 Infection: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel D.; Suzuki, Kazuo; Law, Matthew; Trebicka, Jonel; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Wentworth, Deborah; Johnson, Margaret; Vjecha, Michael J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Emery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality. However, HIV-1 infected individuals have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to the non-HIV-1 infected population and this appears to be related to end-organ diseases collectively referred to as Serious Non-AIDS Events (SNAEs). Circulating miRNAs are reported as promising biomarkers for a number of human disease conditions including those that constitute SNAEs. Our study sought to investigate the potential of selected miRNAs in predicting mortality in HIV-1 infected ART treated individuals. Materials and Methods A set of miRNAs was chosen based on published associations with human disease conditions that constitute SNAEs. This case: control study compared 126 cases (individuals who died whilst on therapy), and 247 matched controls (individuals who remained alive). Cases and controls were ART treated participants of two pivotal HIV-1 trials. The relative abundance of each miRNA in serum was measured, by RTqPCR. Associations with mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and malignancy) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Correlations between miRNAs and CD4+ T cell count, hs-CRP, IL-6 and D-dimer were also assessed. Results None of the selected miRNAs was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular or malignancy mortality. The levels of three miRNAs (miRs -21, -122 and -200a) correlated with IL-6 while miR-21 also correlated with D-dimer. Additionally, the abundance of miRs -31, -150 and -223, correlated with baseline CD4+ T cell count while the same three miRNAs plus miR-145 correlated with nadir CD4+ T cell count. Discussion No associations with mortality were found with any circulating miRNA studied. These results cast doubt onto the effectiveness of circulating miRNA as early predictors of mortality or the major underlying diseases that contribute to mortality in participants treated for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26465293

  9. Structural pluralism and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Young, F W; Lyson, T A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that "structural pluralism" reduces age-standardized mortality rates. Structural pluralism is defined as the potential for political competition in communities. METHODS: US counties were the units of analysis. Multiple regression techniques were used to test the hypothesis. RESULTS: Structural pluralism is a stronger determinant of lower mortality than any of the other variables examined--specifically, income, education, and medical facilities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the case for a new structural variable, pluralism, as a possible cause of lower mortality, and they indirectly support the significance of comparable ecologic dimensions, such as social trust. PMID:11189808

  10. Comparison of different exposure settings in a case--crossover study on air pollution and daily mortality: counterintuitive results.

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Hänninen, Otto; Marchesi, Stefano; Lauriola, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Because of practical problems associated with measurement of personal exposures to air pollutants in larger populations, almost all epidemiological studies assign exposures based on fixed-site ambient air monitoring stations. In the presence of multiple monitoring stations at different locations, the selection of them may affect the observed epidemiological concentration--response (C-R) relationships. In this paper, we quantify these impacts in an observational ecologic case--crossover study of air pollution and mortality. The associations of daily concentrations of PM(10), O(3), and NO(2) with daily all-cause non-violent mortality were investigated using conditional logistic regression to estimate percent increase in the risk of dying for an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the previous day air pollutant concentrations (lag 1). The study area covers the six main cities in the central-western part of Emilia-Romagna region (population of 1.1 million). We used four approaches to assign exposure to air pollutants for each individual considered in the study: nearest background station; city average of all stations available; average of all stations in a macro-area covering three cities and average of all six cities in the study area (50 × 150 km(2)). Odds ratios generally increased enlarging the spatial dimension of the exposure definition and were highest for six city-average exposure definition. The effect is especially evident for PM(10), and similar for NO(2), whereas for ozone, we did not find any change in the C-R estimates. Within a geographically homogeneous region, the spatial aggregation of monitoring station data leads to higher and more robust risk estimates for PM(10) and NO(2), even if monitor-to-monitor correlations showed a light decrease with distance. We suggest that the larger aggregation improves the representativity of the exposure estimates by decreasing exposure misclassification, which is more profound when using individual stations vs regional

  11. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-08

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  12. Antenatal exposure to doxylamine succinate and dicyclomine hydrochloride (Benedectin) in relation to congenital malformations, perinatal mortality rate, birth weight, and intelligence quotient score.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S; Heinonen, O P; Siskind, V; Kaufman, D W; Monson, R R; Slone, D

    1977-07-01

    In a prospective cohort study of 20, 282 gravidas and their offspring, congenital malformation rates were similar in the children of over 1,000 women exposed and those not exposed to two components of Bendectin (doxylamine succinate and dicyclomine hydrochloride) during the first four lunar months of pregnancy. In a cohort reduced to 41,337 mother-child pairs for technical reasons, mean birth weight and perinatal mortality rates were similar according to exposure or nonexposure to either drug, as were intelligence quotient scores measured at four years of age in 28,358 of the children. Control of potential confounding factors with a variety of multivariate techniques did not materially alter these findings.

  13. Early and late morbidity and mortality and life expectancy following thoracoscopic talc insufflation for control of malignant pleural effusions: a review of 400 cases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural effusion is a common sequelae in patients with certain malignancies. It represents a terminal condition with short median survival (in terms of months) and the goal is palliation. Aim of our study is to analyze morbidity, mortality and life expectancy following videothoracoscopic talc poudrage. Materials and methods From September 2004 to October 2009, 400 patients underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for malignant pleural effusion. The conditions of patients were assessed and graded before and after treatment concerning morbidity, mortality, success rate of pleurodesis and median survival. Results The median duration of follow up was 40 months (range 4-61 months). All patients demonstrated notable improvement in dyspnea. Intraoperative mortality was zero. The procedure was well tolerated and no significant adverse effects were observed. In hospital mortality was 2% and the pleurodesis success rate was 85%. A poor Karnofsky Performance Status and delay between diagnosis of pleural effusion and pleurodesis were statistically significant factors for in-hospital mortality. The best survival was seen in breast cancer, followed by ovarian cancer, lymphoma and pleural mesothelioma. Conclusions Video-assisted thoracoscopic talc poudrage is an effective and safe procedure that yields a high rate of successful pleurodesis and achieves long-term control with marked dyspnea decrease. PMID:20403196

  14. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  15. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  16. Foreign-Accented Speech Perception Ratings: A Multifactorial Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraut, Rachel; Wulff, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-eight native English speakers rated the foreign-accented speech (FAS) of 24 international students enrolled in an Intensive English programme at a public university in Texas on degree of accent, comprehensibility and communicative ability. Variables considered to potentially impact listeners' ratings were the sex of the speaker, the first…

  17. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  18. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Prevention. (2013). CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ... M. (2008). The fall and rise of U.S. inequalities in premature mortality: 1960–2002. PLOS Medicine, 5 ( ...

  19. [The mortality rate for homicide among women in Italy: a historical and geographical analysis as a contribution to the study of femicide].

    PubMed

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Petrella, Marco; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    As 70% of the killings of women takes place in the context of relational dynamics and in 80% of the cases the perpetrator is a man, we can presume that femicide constitutes much of the homicide mortality among women. Epidemiological surveillance of the killings of women can, therefore, provide indicators on the trends and geographical distribution of femicide and, indirectly, of the more general phenomenon of harassment and violence against women. The analysis of 40 years of mortality shows only a slight decrease of the murders of women nationwide. This suggests that the factors that underline this phenomenon are deeply rooted in the relationship between men and women. The decrease has taken place mainly in the South and Islands and the percentage SMRs point to a reversal of the relationship between geographic areas: thus, at the end of the observation period the North-West assumes a greater weight than the South and Islands. So we cannot exclude that part of the decrease in murders of women can be attributed to the overall decrease in homicides related to criminal activity, most pronounced in the South and Islands.

  20. Changing Trends in Complications and Mortality Rates Among US Youth and Young Adults With HIV Infection in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mirani, Gayatri; Williams, Paige L.; Chernoff, Miriam; Abzug, Mark J.; Levin, Myron J.; Seage, George R.; Oleske, James M.; Purswani, Murli U.; Hazra, Rohan; Traite, Shirley; Zimmer, Bonnie; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–related opportunistic infections and deaths in US youth, but both continue to occur. Methods. We estimated the incidence of complications and deaths in IMPAACT P1074, a long-term US-based prospective multicenter cohort study conducted from April 2008 to June 2014. Incidence rates of selected diagnoses and trends over time were compared with those from a previous observational cohort study, P219C (2004–2007). Causes of death and relevant demographic and clinical features were reviewed. Results. Among 1201 HIV-infected youth in P1074 (87% perinatally infected; mean [standard deviation] age at last chart review, 20.9 [5.4] years), psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, asthma, pneumonia, and genital tract infections were among the most common comorbid conditions. Compared with findings in P219C, conditions with significantly increased incidence included substance or alcohol abuse, latent tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, atypical mycobacterial infections, vitamin D deficiency or metabolic bone disorders, anxiety disorders, and fractures; the incidence of pneumonia decreased significantly. Twenty-eight deaths occurred, yielding a standardized mortality rate 31.5 times that of the US population. Those who died were older, less likely to be receiving cART, and had lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads. Most deaths (86%) were due to HIV-related medical conditions. Conclusions. Opportunistic infections and deaths are less common among HIV-infected youth in the US in the cART era, but the mortality rate remains elevated. Deaths were associated with poor HIV control and older age. Emerging complications, such as psychiatric, inflammatory, metabolic, and genital tract diseases, need to be addressed. PMID:26270680

  1. Depressed Exercise Peak Ejection Rate Detected on Ambulatory Radionuclide Monitoring Reflects End-Stage Cardiac Inotropic Reserve and Predicts Mortality in Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Carboni, Gian Piero

    2012-01-01

    Background Fifteen patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and inducible ischaemia were studied to determine the mechanisms of mortality. Failure of the contractile reserve during daily life activities may reflect a prognostic index. Methods Single photon emission cardiac tomography and radionuclide ambulatory monitoring (Vest) data were analysed in all patients with a 7-year follow-up. Results At peak exercise on Vest, the 7 non-survivors (N-SURV) showed worse peak ejection rates (PERs) and ejection fractions (EFs) compared with the 8 survivors (SURV), (2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.3 ± 0.7; end-diastolic volumes (EDVs), P < 0.003), and (34 ± 10% vs. 50 ± 13%; P < 0.02), respectively. However, exercise peak filling rates (PFRs) (1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 2.7 ± 0.9; EDVs/s) and exercise heart rates (HRs), (97 ± 17 vs. 106 ± 10), did not differ between the two groups (P > 0.05). In SURV, exercise PERs, which represented rapid left ventricular (LV) emptying, were significantly correlated with exercise PFRs, representing rapid LV filling, (r = 0.71, P < 0.04) but not in N-SURV (r = 0.66, P > 0.05). Among SURV, the Frank-Starling mechanism was thus preserved but not in N-SURV. Upon Cox analysis, overall LV function parameters, exercise PER was the only predictive measure associated with mortality (b = - 0.018, relative hazard ratio = 0.98, P = 0.02). Conclusions Exercise PER reduced values reflected failure of the Frank-Starling mechanism, the incapacity of the heart to perform rapid contractile adaptations to daily life activities and a poor prognosis.

  2. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Rate of royalty on casing-head gas. 213.26 Section 213.26... royalty on casing-head gas. (a) On casing-head gas used or sold for the manufacture of casing-head gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas,...

  3. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rate of royalty on casing-head gas. 213.26 Section 213.26... royalty on casing-head gas. (a) On casing-head gas used or sold for the manufacture of casing-head gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas,...

  4. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rate of royalty on casing-head gas. 213.26 Section 213.26... royalty on casing-head gas. (a) On casing-head gas used or sold for the manufacture of casing-head gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas,...

  5. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rate of royalty on casing-head gas. 213.26 Section 213.26... royalty on casing-head gas. (a) On casing-head gas used or sold for the manufacture of casing-head gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas,...

  6. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rate of royalty on casing-head gas. 213.26 Section 213.26... royalty on casing-head gas. (a) On casing-head gas used or sold for the manufacture of casing-head gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas,...

  7. A global social contract to reduce maternal mortality: the human rights arguments and the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Mulumba, Moses; Hammonds, Rachel; Latif Laila, Abdul; Waris, Attiya; Forman, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5a, reducing maternal deaths by 75% between 1990 and 2015, has been substantial; however, it has been too slow to hope for its achievement by 2015, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. This suggests that both the Government of Uganda and the international community are failing to comply with their right-to-health-related obligations towards the people of Uganda. This country case study explores some of the key issues raised when assessing national and international right-to-health-related obligations. We argue that to comply with their shared obligations, national and international actors will have to take steps to move forward together. The Government of Uganda should not expect additional international assistance if it does not live up to its own obligations; at the same time, the international community must provide assistance that is more reliable in the long run to create the 'fiscal space' that the Government of Uganda needs to increase recurrent expenditure for health - which is crucial to addressing maternal mortality. We propose that the 'Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa', adopted by the African Union in July 2012, should be seen as an invitation to the international community to conclude a global social contract for health.

  8. The role of city income inequality, sex ratio and youth mortality rates in the effect of violent victimization on health-risk behaviors in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dandara de Oliveira; Daly, Martin; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2017-03-27

    This study integrates insights from evolutionary psychology and social epidemiology to present a novel approach to contextual effects on health-risk behaviors (unprotected sex, drunkenness episodes, drugs and tobacco experimentation) among adolescents. Using data from the 2012 Brazilian National Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE), we first analyzed the effects of self-reported violent victimization on health-risk behaviors of 47,371 adolescents aged 10-19 nested in the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We then explored whether the magnitude of these associations was correlated with cues of environmental harshness and unpredictability (youth external mortality and income inequality) and mating competition (sex ratio) from the city level. Results indicated that self-reported violent victimization is associated with an increased chance of engagement in health-risk behaviors in all Brazilian state capitals, for both males and females, but the magnitude of these associations varies in relation to broader environmental factors, such as the cities' age-specific mortality rates, and specifically for females, income inequality and sex ratio. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to contextual effects on adolescent health-risk behaviors, our findings reinforce the need to consider synergies between people's life experiences and the conditions where they live, when studying health-risk behaviors in adolescence.

  9. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  10. Environmental conditions and catch rates of predatory fishes associated with a mass mortality on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driggers, W. B.; Campbell, M. D.; Debose, A. J.; Hannan, K. M.; Hendon, M. D.; Martin, T. L.; Nichols, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a standardized fisheries-independent longline survey in the northern Gulf of Mexico on August 20-21, 2014, dead and/or moribund fishes, estimated to number in the thousands, were observed within a well-defined area of the West Florida Shelf. Fishes from 15 families were identified; however, numerous individuals of relatively large-bodied serranid species were decomposed beyond a state that would allow for identification below the family level. Based on survey catch data from previous years and morphological characteristics associated with the decomposing fishes, it was determined that most of the large unidentified fishes were red grouper (Epinephelus morio). Water profiler cast data collected within the area demonstrated that when compared to previous years (1995-2013) bottom temperature and salinity were consistent with what would be expected; however, dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than normal, and in some cases, hypoxic and chlorophyll a and transmissivity values were anomalously high and low, respectively. Hypoxia, high chlorophyll a concentrations and low transmissivity are thought to have resulted from a bloom of Karenia brevis, which was documented to have occurred in close proximity to the sampling area. As necropsies were not performed, it was not possible to state a definitive cause of death as the effects of brevetoxins are species-specific. However, numerous individuals of most impacted species were observed floating incapacitated, yet alive, in normoxic surface waters suggesting that the impacts we observed were due to the neurotoxicological and/or hemolytic effects of a harmful algal bloom.

  11. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational

  12. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  13. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  14. Epidemiological analysis of reproductive performances and kitten mortality rates in 5,303 purebred queens of 45 different breeds and 28,065 kittens in France.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Masson, M; Corbière, F; Mila, H; Mariani, C; Grellet, A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2016-11-03

    Reproduction management and performances are evaluated in the feline species only through a limited number of animals and studies. Our objective was to provide reference figures in purebred cats, from a large-scale sample. Data were collected from an online software dedicated to cattery management (Breeding Management System®, BMS, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Information was recorded on a voluntary basis by French breeders between 2011 and 2014. Data were anonymously transferred for analysis. A total of 9,063 oestrous periods (in contact with a male) from 5,303 queens (45 breeds) were recorded from 1,521 breeders. Most matings (70.1%) occurred during increasing day length periods. The mean age at mating (±SD) was 2.7 ± 1.6 years for queens and 2.9 ± 1.9 years for tomcats. Pregnancy rate (based on breeders declaration) was 85.2%. Among queens declared pregnant, 8.4% failed to maintain pregnancy. Globally, 78% of the mated females gave birth to 28,065 kittens within 7,075 L. Mean litter size was 4.0 ± 1.9 kittens among which 8.5% were stillborn. Neonatal and paediatric mortality rate was 8.2%. In total, 16.0% of kittens born died before weaning. The results of this study are based on the largest feline database ever analysed. The figures collected can thus be used as reference to define average reproductive performances in numerous breeds for cat breeders. Further analysis will identify factors influencing reproductive performances and early mortality in the feline species.

  15. Estimation of death rates in US states with small subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Voulgaraki, Anastasia; Wei, Rong; Kedem, Benjamin

    2015-05-20

    In US states with small subpopulations, the observed mortality rates are often zero, particularly among young ages. Because in life tables, death rates are reported mostly on a log scale, zero mortality rates are problematic. To overcome the observed zero death rates problem, appropriate probability models are used. Using these models, observed zero mortality rates are replaced by the corresponding expected values. This enables logarithmic transformations and, in some cases, the fitting of the eight-parameter Heligman-Pollard model to produce mortality estimates for ages 0-130 years, a procedure illustrated in terms of mortality data from several states.

  16. Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012–April 2013

    PubMed Central

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012–April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2–1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3–2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4–42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2–75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1–79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3–36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Direct Testimony

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this testimony is to provide the context and background to the financial and risk policy objectives for BPA's WP-07 Initial Proposal. The testimony contains eight sections. The first is this introduction. Section 2 provides background regarding BPA's Subscription Strategy and the Subscription contracts to which the WP-07 rates will apply. Section 3 describes the financial policy objectives considered when establishing the WP-07 rates. Section 4 describes BPA's risk profile, the risk mitigation tools used in prior rate periods, those proposed here, and additional tools under consideration for the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Section 5 describes financial policy directives and decisions that have shaped the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Section 6 describes the uncertainties of the current litigation regarding the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion and how it is addressed in this proposal. Section 7 briefly discusses the risk mitigation package in the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Finally, Section 8 describes some liquidity tools that may be incorporated into final studies if circumstances allow.

  18. Case detection rates of impetigo by gender and age.

    PubMed

    Kiriakis, Kyriakos P; Tadros, Aline; Dimou, Anastasia; Karamanou, Marianna; Banaka, Fotini; Alexoudi, Iliana

    2012-06-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out (impetigo cases n=265, relative prevalence 5.3%, among 50,237 outpatients). Males predominated in childhood, adulthood and overall (OR 2.0) and exhibited a more protracted susceptibility. Impetigo was more prevalent in summer months. Lesions were located on the head and neck (65.4%), followed by 19.6% on an upper extremity and by 7.5% each on the trunk and a lower extremity.

  19. Impact of intensive-care-unit(ICU)-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) on hospital mortality: a matched-paired case-control study.

    PubMed

    Uno, Hideo; Takezawa, Jun; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ICU-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on hospital mortality is still a controversial issue in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICU-acquired VAP on hospital mortality in a Japanese university hospital. Our study population was comprised of patients aged 16 years or older who were admitted to our ICU and received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during a period of 42 months as of December 2003. To evaluate whether VAP was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality after controlling for other clinical factors, patients with fatal outcomes (cases) were compared to those who survived (controls). From 587 eligible patients, we analyzed 75 cases and 150 controls who were successfully matched on sex, age, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score using conditional logistic regression models. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.15; p = 0.01), surgical site infection (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.22-4.91; p = 0.01), and VAP (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.69; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with hospital mortality. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that hemodialysis (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.06-3.94; p = 0.03) and VAP (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39; p = 0.03) were independently associated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that ICU-acquired VAP significantly affects hospital mortality.

  20. A Unifying Framework for Assessing Changes in Life Expectancy Associated with Changes in Mortality: The Case of Violent Deaths*

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir

    2011-01-01

    For over forty years, demographers have worked intensely to develop methods that assess the gain in life expectancy from a reduction in mortality, either hypothetical or observed. This considerable body of research was motivated by assessing the gains in life expectancy when mortality declined in a particular manner and determining the contribution of a cause of death in observed changes in life expectancy over time. As yet, there has been no framework unifying this important demographic work. In this paper, we provide a unifying framework for assessing the change in life expectancy given a change in age and cause-specific mortality. We consider both conceptualizations of mortality change–counterfactual assessment of a hypothetical change and a retrospective assessment of an observed change. We apply our methodology to violent deaths, the leading cause of death among young adults, and show that realistic targeted reductions could have important impacts on life expectancy. PMID:21609727

  1. Heart rate variables in the Vascular Quality Initiative are not reliable predictors of adverse cardiac outcomes or mortality after major elective vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Salvatore; Bertges, Daniel; Neal, Daniel; Patel, Virendra; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack; Beck, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heart rate (HR) parameters are known indicators of cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery, but there is little evidence of their role in predicting outcome after major vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether arrival HR (AHR) and highest intraoperative HR are associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after elective vascular surgery in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). Methods Patients undergoing elective lower extremity bypass (LEB), aortofemoral bypass (AFB), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the VQI were analyzed. MACE was defined as any postoperative myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, or congestive heart failure. Controlled HR was defined as AHR <75 beats/min on operating room arrival. Delta HR (DHR) was defined as highest intraoperative HR – AHR Procedure-specific MACE models were derived for risk stratification, and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of center effects. HR, beta-blocker exposure, cardiac risk, and their interactions were explored to determine association with MACE or 30-day mortality. A Bonferroni correction with P < .004 was used to declare significance. Results There were 13,291 patients reviewed (LEB, n = 8155 [62%]; AFB, n = 2629 [18%]; open AAA, n = 2629 [20%]). Rates of any preoperative beta-blocker exposure were as follows: LEB, 66.5% (n = 5412); AFB, 57% (n = 1342); and open AAA, 74.2% (n = 1949). AHR and DHR outcome association was variable across patients and procedures. AHR <75 beats/min was associated with increased postoperative myocardial infarction risk for LEB patients across all risk strata (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.9; P = .03), whereas AHR<75 beats/min was associated with decreased dysrhythmia risk (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28–0.63; P = .0001) and 30-day death (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33–0.77; P = .001) in patients at moderate and high cardiac risk. These HR

  2. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Cristiana M.; Alencar, Gizelton P.; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T.; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R.; de Oliveira, Lucia H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. Methods This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5–13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3–23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0–91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7–44.4), respectively. Conclusion PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE. PMID:27058873

  3. Mortality among Swedish Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Furhoff, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Charts the various environmental factors that might influence the mortality rate of Swedish journalists. Concludes that, although there may be a slightly higher death rate among Swedish journalists in the 50-59 age group, the death rate for journalists is the same as for the population in general. (MM)

  4. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2017-01-30

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate.

  5. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics.

  6. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  7. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Esaú L; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Salinas, Jorge L; Queiroz, Amanda M; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  8. [Healthcare and maternal morbidity and mortality: a hospital-based case-control study in two regions of Colombia (Bogotá and Antioquia), 2009-2011].

    PubMed

    Yepes, Francisco J; Gómez, Joaquin G; Zuleta, John Jairo; Londoño, Juan Luis; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Gómez, Luz Helena; Ramírez, Marta L

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to identify whether payment forms and insurance schemes are associated with severe obstetric complications and maternal mortality. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in two regions of Colombia, 2009-2011. Data were obtained from each woman's clinical history. Unconditional logistic regression was used. The sample included 1,011 patients: 337 cases and 674 controls. No quality component was statistically significant in either region. In Bogotá, the risk of obstetric complications was significantly higher in the contributive insurance scheme than in subsidized coverage or uninsured; Antioquia showed similar associations, but not statistically significant. Differences in maternal morbidity according to payment scheme were not statistically significant in either Antioquia or Bogotá. Factors associated with maternal morbidity and mortality differed according to the study population, suggesting the need for local studies to identify determinants and make appropriate decisions.

  9. Interpregnancy intervals and the risk for infant mortality: a case control study of Arizona infants 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Ritenour, Douglas; Coonrod, Dean V

    2013-05-01

    There is well-documented evidence on how interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and how short and long IPIs are associated with increased risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intra-uterine growth restriction. However, the extremes of IPI on infant mortality are less well documented. The current study builds on the existing evidence on IPI to examine if extremes of IPI are associated with infant mortality, and also examines if IPI is associated with both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality after adjusting for several known confounders. Matched birth and death certificate data for Arizona resident infants was drawn for 2003-2007 cohorts. The analysis was restricted to singleton births among resident mothers with a previous live birth (n = 1,466) and a randomly selected cohort of surviving infants during the same time-frame was used as a comparison group (n = 2,000). Logistic regression models were utilized to assess the odds for infant mortality at monthly interpregnancy intervals (<6, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23, 24-59, ≥60), while adjusting for established predictors of infant mortality (i.e., preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age), and other potential confounders. Unadjusted analysis showed greater clustering at extreme IPIs of <6 months and ≥60 months for infants that died (32%) compared to infants that survived (24.7%). Shorter IPI (i.e., <6 months, 6-11 months, and 12-17 months) compared to 'ideal' IPI (i.e., 18-23 months), were associated with infant mortality even after adjusting for confounders. Short intervals were significantly associated with neonatal, but not post-neonatal deaths. IPI above 23 months were not associated with infant mortality in our analyses. Shorter IPIs (18 months or less) significantly increases the risk for neonatal infant mortality even after controlling for known confounders, and our study adds to the existing evidence on adverse perinatal outcomes. Counseling women

  10. Surgical Mortality Audit-lessons Learned in a Developing Nation.

    PubMed

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Saraf, Rakesh

    2015-06-01

    Surgical audit is a systematic, critical analysis of the quality of surgical care that is reviewed by peers against explicit criteria or recognized standards. It is used to improve surgical practice with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. As the pattern of surgical care is different in the developing world, we analyzed mortalities in a referral medical institute of India to suggest interventions for improvement. An analysis of total admissions, different surgeries, and mortalities over 1 year in an urban referral medical institute of northern India was performed, followed by "peer review" of the mortalities. Mortality rates as outcomes and classification was done to provide comparative results. Of 10,005 surgical patients, 337 (male = 221, female = 116) deaths were reported over 1 year. The overall mortality rate was 3.36%, while mortality in operative cases was 1.76%. Total deaths were classified into (1) Viable: 153 (45%), (2) Nonviable: 174 (52%), and (3) Indeterminate: 10 (3%). Exclusion of the nonviable group reduced the mortality rate from 3.36% to 1.62%. Trauma was the major cause of mortality (n = 235; 70%) as compared to other surgical patients (n = 102; 30%). Increased mortality was also associated with emergency procedures (3.66%) as compared to elective surgeries (0.34%). In conclusion, audit of mortality and morbidity helps in initiating and implementing preventive strategies to improve surgical practice and patient care, and to reduce mortality rates. The mortality and morbidity forum is an important educational activity. It should be considered a mandatory activity in all postgraduate training programs.

  11. Mortality rates or sociomedical indicators? The work of the League of Nations on standardizing the effects of the Great Depression on health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the first international effort by the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) to standardize the study of the effects of the economic crisis of the 1930s on health. Instead of analysing this effort with the benefit of hindsight, this article takes into account the actors' perspectives and, therefore, it relies on the documents produced by the LNHO and public health experts of the 1930s, as well as on the historical scholarship on this subject. This article shows that, despite the declining death rates in Europe and in the US during the crisis, the LNHO considered that death rates concealed a more subtle effect of the crisis on health; hence, they launched a project aimed at making the effect visible. It describes the LNHO programme and the guidelines and methods set out by the organization in 1932 to observe this subtle effect through sociomedical investigations. The results of these surveys are summarized and the article discusses how the eugenic arguments used to explain them were not accepted by the LNHO. The article also shows how some members of the LNHO considered the results of the sociomedical surveys inconclusive and questioned the usefulness of socioeconomic indicators; in so doing, they raised concerns about the intervention of the LNHO in national matters and about the risks of crossing the established limits between science and politics. This article shows that an historical analysis, which takes into account the points of view of the actors involved, illuminates the factors that led the LNHO to conclude that mortality rates were the best method for measuring the effects of the economic crisis on health and that, as they were declining, the Great Depression was not having any deleterious effect on public health.

  12. How to estimate exposure when studying the temperature-mortality relationship? A case study of the Paris area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Laura; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Desplat, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Time series studies assessing the effect of temperature on mortality generally use temperatures measured by a single weather station. In the Paris region, there is a substantial measurement network, and a variety of exposure indicators created from multiple stations can be tested. The aim of this study is to test the influence of exposure indicators on the temperature-mortality relationship in the Paris region. The relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality was assessed based on a time series analysis using Poisson regression and a generalised additive model. Twenty-five stations in Paris and its three neighbouring departments were used to create four exposure indicators. These indicators were (1) the temperature recorded by one reference station, (2) a simple average of the temperatures of all stations, (3) an average weighted on the departmental population and (4) a classification of the stations based on land use and an average weighted on the population in each class. The relative risks and the Akaike criteria were similar for all the exposure indicators. The estimated temperature-mortality relationship therefore did not appear to be significantly affected by the indicator used, regardless of study zone (departments or region) or age group. The increase in temperatures from the 90th to the 99th percentile of the temperature distribution led to a significant increase in mortality over 75 years (RR = 1.10 [95 % CI, 1.07; 1.14]). Conversely, the decrease in temperature between the 10th and 1st percentile had a significant effect on the mortality under 75 years (RR = 1.04 [95 % CI, 1.01; 1.06]). In the Paris area, there is no added value in taking multiple climatic stations into account when estimating exposure in time series studies. Methods to better represent the subtle temperature variations in densely populated areas in epidemiological studies are needed.

  13. How to estimate exposure when studying the temperature-mortality relationship? A case study of the Paris area.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Laura; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Desplat, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Time series studies assessing the effect of temperature on mortality generally use temperatures measured by a single weather station. In the Paris region, there is a substantial measurement network, and a variety of exposure indicators created from multiple stations can be tested. The aim of this study is to test the influence of exposure indicators on the temperature-mortality relationship in the Paris region. The relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality was assessed based on a time series analysis using Poisson regression and a generalised additive model. Twenty-five stations in Paris and its three neighbouring departments were used to create four exposure indicators. These indicators were (1) the temperature recorded by one reference station, (2) a simple average of the temperatures of all stations, (3) an average weighted on the departmental population and (4) a classification of the stations based on land use and an average weighted on the population in each class. The relative risks and the Akaike criteria were similar for all the exposure indicators. The estimated temperature-mortality relationship therefore did not appear to be significantly affected by the indicator used, regardless of study zone (departments or region) or age group. The increase in temperatures from the 90(th) to the 99(th) percentile of the temperature distribution led to a significant increase in mortality over 75 years (RR = 1.10 [95% CI, 1.07; 1.14]). Conversely, the decrease in temperature between the 10(th) and 1(st) percentile had a significant effect on the mortality under 75 years (RR = 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01; 1.06]). In the Paris area, there is no added value in taking multiple climatic stations into account when estimating exposure in time series studies. Methods to better represent the subtle temperature variations in densely populated areas in epidemiological studies are needed.

  14. [Political crises in Africa and infant and child mortality].

    PubMed

    Garenne, M

    1997-01-01

    Many African countries experienced severe political crises after independence, and in a number of cases the crises had significant demographic consequences, especially for child mortality. Data based on maternity histories allowed the reconstruction of child mortality trends over the past 20-30 years in Uganda, Ghana, Rwanda, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The indicator used was the child mortality quotient (number of deaths of under-5 children per 1000 births). Uganda's child mortality declined from 227/1000 in 1960 to 154/1000 in 1970, but the trend was reversed in 1971, when Idi Amin Dada came to power, and the rate reached 204/1000 in 1982 before beginning to decline again. The level of mortality remained high, however, and was still 160/1000 in 1988. Ghana suffered a political and economic crisis during 1979-84. Child mortality rose from 130/1000 in 1978 to 175/1000 in 1983. Mortality rates began a rapid decline after structural adjustment programs were begun, possibly due to improved management of health services. The child mortality rate in Rwanda increased from around 220/1000 in 1960 to 240/1000 in 1975, before beginning a decline in the late 1970s that reached 140/1000 by 1990. The period of political stability and relative prosperity during the 15-year reign of Juvenal Habyarimana was associated with the decline. Political crises marked by student and peasant uprisings were associated with Madagascar's child mortality rate increase from about 145/1000 in 1960 to 185/1000 in 1985. Mozambique was beset by civil war after independence, in which destruction of the health infrastructure was a strategy. The child mortality rate increased from 270/1000 to 470/1000 between 1975 and 1986, a peak war year. The factors by which political crises affect mortality so profoundly remain to be explained, but particular attention should be given to studying the health sector.

  15. Important Risk Factors of Mortality Among Children Aged 1-59 Months in Rural Areas of Shahroud, Iran: A Community-based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Alami, Ali; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Entezarmahdi, Rasool; Shati, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors of children mortality between 1-59 months of age. Methods: This nested case-control study was conducted among children born from June 1999 to March 2009 in rural areas of Shahroud, located in the central region of Iran using health care visit reports and follow-up data available in household health records. Results: Mortality was significantly associated with breastfeeding duration (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.93), total health care visits (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) and low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 7.38, 95% CI: 1.37-39.67). Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators. PMID:23272287

  16. Does economic development contribute to sex differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality? Hong Kong as a natural experiment using a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schooling, C Mary; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Leung, Gabriel M

    2008-01-01

    Background The male excess risk of premature ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality may be partially due to an unknown macro-environmental influence associated with economic development. We examined whether excess male risk of IHD mortality was higher with birth in an economically developed environment. Methods We used multivariable logistic regression in a population-based case-control study of all adult deaths in Hong Kong Chinese in 1998 to compare sex differences in IHD mortality (1,189 deaths in men, 1,035 deaths in women and 20,842 controls) between Hong Kong residents born in economically developed Hong Kong or in contemporaneously undeveloped Guangdong province in China. Results Younger (35–64 years) native-born Hong Kong men had a higher risk of IHD death than such women (odds ratio 2.91, 95% confidence interval 1.66 to 5.13), adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle. There was no such sex difference in Hong Kong residents who had migrated from Guangdong. There were no sex differences in pneumonia deaths by birth place. Conclusion Most of these people migrated as young adults; we speculate that environmentally mediated differences in pubertal maturation (when the male disadvantage in lipids and fat patterning emerges) may contribute to excess male premature IHD mortality in developed environments. PMID:18221504

  17. Cumulative mortality rates in Aedes polynesiensis after feeding on polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers treated with single doses of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and placebo.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Sechan, Y; Spiegel, A; Nguyen, L; Barbazan, P; Martin, P M; Roux, J F

    1991-12-01

    During a therapeutic trial, batches of 672 to 1979 laboratory-bred Aedes polynesiensis, the mosquito vector of lymphatic filariasis in French Polynesia, were fed on Wuchereria bancrofti carriers one, three and six months after they had been treated with either single doses of ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg or placebo. High mortality rates were observed during the 15-day period following the blood-meal in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with microfilaricidal drugs and were significantly higher in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with ivermectin than in those fed on carriers treated with DEC. Though its intensity decreased with the passage of time, the phenomenon was observed in mosquitoes fed on carriers up to six months after treatment, especially in those fed on carriers treated with ivermectin. By decreasing the number of mosquitoes able to transmit the infection, this lethal effect on Ae. polynesiensis might represent an additional advantage of ivermectin in lymphatic filariasis control programs.

  18. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  19. Estimating fishing mortality, natural mortality, and selectivity using recoveries from tagging young fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, H.; Brownie, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for estimation of age- and year-specific instantaneous mortality rates based on multiyear, multiple-age tagging studies assume that it is feasible to tag fish in a wide range of ages. For some species, however, only the youngest one or two age-classes are readily available for tagging. Given the practical advantages of tagging young fish only, an important question is whether such studies would provide the information needed for estimation of age-dependent mortality rates. We investigated three designs: tagging only the youngest available age-class, tagging the two youngest age-classes, and tagging the first five age-classes. We carried out simulation studies to assess estimator performance under these three designs, in each case assuming the same total number of tagged fish. Data were generated assuming fishing mortality rates to be age and year dependent and natural mortality rates to be constant or with limited age dependence. Estimator performance is best when fish are tagged in five age-classes, and tagging fish in the two youngest age-classes shows substantial improvement compared with tagging one age-class only. External information about the tag-reporting rate is necessary to obtain estimators with reasonable properties, especially in the case of models with age-dependent natural mortality. Such information can be obtained from auxiliary studies by means of high-reward tags or planted tags. Collecting recovery information for several additional years after the last release produces small improvements in precision and bias. If tagging fish in multiple age-classes is impractical, reasonable precision can be obtained by tagging one or preferably two age-classes and obtaining supplemental information on the reporting rate. For illustration, estimates of age-dependent fishing and natural mortality rates were obtained from tag returns on Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis tagged at ages 3 and 4 years. ?? Copyright by the American

  20. Breast-feeding, social variables, and infant mortality: a hazards model analysis of the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Holland, B

    1987-01-01

    A hazards model was used to estimate the relative risks of infant mortality at various points during the 1st year of life among Malaysian infants who were breastfed for various durations. Data on infant mortality, breastfeeding, and social variables were derived from the retrospective Malaysian Family Life Survey. To provide adequate samples in subperiods of the 1st year of life, analysis intervals were constructed starting at ages 0, 2, 4, and 7 months, and including up to 13 months of exposure. The preferred models for the 1st 3 analysis intervals included breastfeeding as a predictor of infant mortality. It is a particularly significant determinant in the 1st and 3rd intervals. The relative risk of death among those who received food other than human milk was 6.26 compared to those who did not, and the infant who was never breastfed was 12 times more likely to die than the infant who was breastfed at some time. Infants breastfed for intermediate durations had intermediate effects estimates. In each analysis interval, the regression coefficient for unsupplemented breastfeeding was of larger magnitude than that for supplemented breastfeeding. Overall, this study shows that breastfeeding is an important determinant of infant mortality in Malaysia. Studies with larger samples are urged to confirm the preliminary fin