Science.gov

Sample records for case study evaluating

  1. Reflection on Four Multisite Evaluation Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    What do the findings of four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies suggest to an evaluation scholar who was not part of the research team that created them? This chapter carefully reviews the cases and summarizes their comparative findings. The four Beyond Use case studies add to the literature on levels of evaluation use, with the…

  2. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  3. Case Studies for Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Arthur E.; And Others

    This document presents the four case studies that constituted the major sources for "Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices" by the same authors. The study was undertaken to find teacher evaluation processes that produce information useful to school districts in helping teachers improve or in making personnel decisions. The four school…

  4. Case Study Evaluations: A Case in Point. An Illustrative Report and Mathodological Analysis of Case Study Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Cliff; Welch, Wayne

    To provide a real life example of case study methodology for educational evaluation, a naturalistic study of a Catholic junior college in Minneapolis, Minnesota is presented. Conducted as part of the ongoing evaluation of a federally supported project, the study provides an external observer's descriptive portrayal of the school, plus the…

  5. How to Critically Evaluate Case Studies in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjung; Mishna, Faye; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop guidelines to assist practitioners and researchers in evaluating and developing rigorous case studies. The main concern in evaluating a case study is to accurately assess its quality and ultimately to offer clients social work interventions informed by the best available evidence. To assess the quality of…

  6. Investigating Heuristic Evaluation: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Kate Haley; Bendoly, Laura

    When museum professionals speak of evaluating a web site, they primarily mean formative evaluation, and by that they primarily mean testing the usability of the site. In the for-profit world, usability testing is a multi-million dollar industry, while non-profits often rely on far too few dollars to do too much. Hence, heuristic evaluation is one…

  7. WMC Database Evaluation. Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Palounek, Andrea P. T

    2015-10-29

    The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.

  8. Metadata Evaluation and Improvement Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Powers, L. A.; Gordon, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tools have been developed for evaluating metadata records and collections for completeness in terms of specific recommendations or organizational goals and to provide guidance for improving compliance of metadata with those recommendations. These tools have been applied using a several metadata recommendations (OGC-CSW, DataCite, NASA Unified Metadata Model) and metadata dialects used by several organizations: Climate Data Initiative metadata from NASA DAACs in ECHO, DIF, and ISO 19115-2 US Geological Survey metadata from ScienceBase in CSDGM ACADIS Metadata from NCAR's Earth Observation Lab in ISO 19115-2. The results of this work are designed to help managers understand metadata recommendations (e.g. OGC Catalog Services for the Web, DataCite, and others) and the impact of those recommendations in terms of the dialects used in their organizations (e.g. DIF, CSDGM , ISO). They include comparisons between metadata recommendations and dialect capabilities, scoring of metadata records in terms of amount of missing content, and identification of specific improvement strategies for particular collections. This information is included in the Earth Science Information Partnership (ESIP) Wiki to encourage broad dissemination and participation.

  9. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy in Turkey: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of current school uniform policies according to views of stakeholders. Descriptive case study method was used for this study to understand the concerns of the stakeholders about school uniforms. Data was collected through interviews with stakeholders and also reviewing the documents in TOKI…

  10. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual elements,…

  11. The Efficacy of Math Coaching: An Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, C. Neelie

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of implementation of instructional strategies to assist middle school teachers in improving mathematics education for their students. Coaching is one solution to this problem, but its impact on student achievement is unclear. This case study evaluated the relationship between coaching and teacher efficacy and the impact of these…

  12. Success case studies contribute to evaluation of complex research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hogle, Janice A; Moberg, D Paul

    2014-03-01

    The success case studies approach examines in depth what works well in a program by describing cases and examining factors leading to successful outcomes. In this article, we describe the use of success case studies as part of an evaluation of the transformation of a health sciences research support infrastructure. Using project-specific descriptions and the researchers' perceptions of the impact of improved research infrastructure, we added depth of understanding to the quantitative data required by funding agencies. Each case study included an interview with the lead researcher, along with review of documents about the research, the investigator, and their collaborators. Our analyses elucidated themes regarding contributions of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program of the National Institutes of Health to scientific achievements and career advancement of investigators in one academic institution. PMID:23925705

  13. Success case studies contribute to evaluation of complex research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hogle, Janice A; Moberg, D Paul

    2014-03-01

    The success case studies approach examines in depth what works well in a program by describing cases and examining factors leading to successful outcomes. In this article, we describe the use of success case studies as part of an evaluation of the transformation of a health sciences research support infrastructure. Using project-specific descriptions and the researchers' perceptions of the impact of improved research infrastructure, we added depth of understanding to the quantitative data required by funding agencies. Each case study included an interview with the lead researcher, along with review of documents about the research, the investigator, and their collaborators. Our analyses elucidated themes regarding contributions of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program of the National Institutes of Health to scientific achievements and career advancement of investigators in one academic institution.

  14. How Case-Study Evaluations Are Received by Those Who Are Evaluated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan G.

    Graduate students in a program evaluation class carried out small case-study evaluations, and examined the participants' reactions to the evaluation report. The programs included an experimental high school drama course, a high school music apprenticeship program, and a sixth grade computer course on problem solving. There were three phases of…

  15. Encouraging Stakeholder Engagement: A Case Study of Evaluator Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Shulha, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes evaluator behaviors revealed by the case analysis of a participatory and developmental evaluation. The analysis revealed that the evaluator paid specific attention to individual stakeholder cues. These cues were related to three elements of the evaluation: negotiating the design, monitoring individual stakeholder needs, and…

  16. Evaluation of National Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanishi, Masato; Ridwan, Nadia Amelia

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate national adaptation planning, using the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) in Indonesia as a case. In doing so, the current study applies the methodology used in Preston et al. (2011), where a set of 57 adaptation plans from three developed countries was evaluated against 19 planning processes. The same criteria and scoring system were applied to the current study to evaluate RAN-API, both as identified in its document and as viewed by the stakeholders. A desktop review and questionnaires were undertaken to this end. It was found that discrepancies exist between the status of RAN-API as documented and the stakeholders views of some criteria, suggesting that information or knowledge gaps may still exist despite the efforts made for stakeholder engagement. In some of the other criteria, the stakeholders views match the status as identified in the document. Most notably, they both agree that the weakness of RAN-API is related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors. While the development of RAN-API is a critical step taken in the country, the current study finds that there remains room for further improvement. The criteria or indicators to be used to assess the progress of RAN-API as a whole may need to be further elaborated.

  17. Evaluation of well head loads: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Roveri, F.E.; Mourelle, M.M.; Souza, L.F.A.; Ellwanger, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    The determination of wellhead loads due to the drilling and completion phases for a subsea well has been a concern for the oil industry considering the move towards deeper waters (McIver (1991), Valka and Fowler (1985), March and Smith (1984)). Thorough study of the behavior of the wellhead system, blow-out preventer (BOP), lower marine riser package (LMRP) and riser when submitted to a variety of loads of different nature, is required in order to have an appropriate evaluation of the loads transmitted to the wellhead body by the upper part of the structure. To overcome part of this limitation, an approach to evaluate the wellhead extreme static loads without the need of performing a detailed riser analysis is presented. The objective of the analysis is to validate the methodology for a given wellhead and soil configuration rather than study the effects of variables such as casing/conductor and conductor/soil annulus cement shortfall, gaps between the wellhead body and conductor housing or load paths into the casing and conductor.

  18. An assessment of goal-free evaluation: case studies of four goal-free evaluations.

    PubMed

    Youker, Brandon W; Ingraham, Allyssa; Bayer, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    This article provides a descriptive review of four goal-free program evaluations (GFE). GFE is an evaluation model where the independent evaluator is intentionally screened from the program's stated goals and objectives in hopes of reducing potential goal-related tunnel vision. The findings from these GFE case studies are focused in three areas: (1) elements of the programs that were evaluated and their existing evaluation contexts (e.g., pre-evaluation conditions, size of evaluation budget), (2) design of the GFEs (e.g., screening method, data collection methods), and (3) expertise of the goal-free evaluators (e.g., training, degrees attained). The findings indicate that, when employed, GFE is used as a qualitative data collection method; and the GFEs conducted have been relatively small in size and scope. The conclusions are that a more explicit operationalization of GFE is needed for increased use, and that systematic and empirical study comparing GFE with other evaluation models is warranted.

  19. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  20. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  1. Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Case Studies in Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claire; Wilcock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The use of case studies to teach materials science undergraduates is an exciting and interesting educational approach. As well as helping learners to connect theory and practice, the case method is also useful for creating an active learning environment, developing key skills and catering for a range of different learning styles. This paper…

  2. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  3. A Case Study of Student Evaluation of Teaching in University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Benjamin Chan Yin; Osman, Syuhaily

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the factors (course characteristics, lecturer characteristics, and tutorial ratings) that affect student evaluation of teaching in university. A total of 88 undergraduates were selected and self-administered questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The study found that most of the respondents have high…

  4. Evaluating QR Code Case Studies Using a Mobile Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The feasibility was analyzed through a mobile learning framework, which includes the core characteristics of mobile learning. The study is part of a larger research where the aim is to develop a…

  5. Evaluation of the Start Programme: Case-Study Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Sharp, Caroline; Weaving, Harriet; Smith, Robert; Wheater, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report presents five case studies of long-term partnerships (over three years) between arts organisations and schools. The Start programme enables arts venues and schools to work together to offer disadvantaged young people opportunities to engage in creative activities that inspire them and enhance their experience of the arts. It is…

  6. Management of diabetic foot ulcers: evaluation of case studies.

    PubMed

    Torkington-Stokes, Rachel; Metcalf, Daniel; Bowler, Philip

    2016-08-11

    This article explores local barriers to diabetic foot ulcer healing, and describes the use of a dressing designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm (AQUACEL® Ag+ dressing (AQAg+)) on recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers. The authors consider four case studies that demonstrate how managing local barriers to wound healing with antimicrobial and anti-biofilm dressings in protocols of care can improve outcomes for patients.

  7. The Case of Top Beginnings and the Missing Child Outcomes: Case Study for the Early Childhood Systems Building Evaluation Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary; Kubisch, Anne C.; Bruner, Charles; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Philliber, Susan; Shaw, Greg; Dichter, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    The Case of Top Beginnings and the Missing Child Outcomes is a fictionalized case study of a set of evaluation challenges faced in evaluating comprehensive initiatives that are seeking to build systems. In this case, the issue is a multistate foundation-funded early learning system building initiative that has to date primarily employed a case…

  8. Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

    2007-06-06

    This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

  9. Case Studies in Evaluating the Benefits and Costs of Mediated Instruction and Distributed Learning: Synopses/Summaries of Eight Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank

    This report summarizes eight case studies undertaken to evaluate the benefits and costs of mediated instruction and distributed learning. The case studies included: (1) "The Master's Degree in Social Work at Cleveland State University and the University of Akron: A Case Study of the Benefits and Costs of a Joint Degree Program Offered via…

  10. Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

  11. Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

  12. Balancing Ethical Principles in Evaluation: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesteron, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Examined ethical conflicts arising in an Australian evaluation of care options for indigenous children and young people deemed to be at risk of neglect or abuse. Discusses ways the conflicts were addressed and identifies implications for evaluation practice. (SLD)

  13. Organic dairy production systems in Pennsylvania: a case study evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Kamphuis, G H; Karsten, H D; Weaver, R D

    2007-08-01

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across agroclimatic settings. Within this context, case studies of 4 actual organic dairy farms were used to characterize existing systems in Pennsylvania. Based on data from these farms, a whole-farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to compare 4 production systems representing organic grass, organic crop, conventional crop with grazing, and conventional confinement production. The performance of each of these systems was simulated over each year of 25 yr of central Pennsylvania weather data. Simulation results indicated that farm level accumulation of soil P and K may be a concern on organic farms that use poultry manure as a primary crop nutrient source, and that erosion and runoff loss of P may be of concern on organic farms producing annual crops because more tillage is required for weed control. Whole-farm budgets with prices that reflect recent conditions showed an economic advantage for organic over conventional production. A sensitivity analysis showed that this economic advantage depended on a higher milk price for producers of organic milk and was influenced by the difference in milk production maintained by herds using organic and conventional systems. Factors found to have little effect on the relative profitability of organic over conventional production included the differences between organic and conventional prices for seed, chemicals, forage, and animals and the overall costs or prices assumed for organic certification, machinery, pasture fencing, fuel, and labor. Thus, at the current organic milk price, relative to other prices, the case study organic production systems seem to provide an option for improving the economic viability of dairy

  14. Educator Evaluation: A Case Study of Massachusetts' Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Catherine; Partelow, Lisette; Konoske-Graf, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There has been a sea change in teacher evaluation over the past eight years. Inspired in part by President Barack Obama's policies, schools have instituted teacher evaluation systems that include multiple measures of teacher impact. Model systems are aligned to systems of continuous improvement, helping teachers identify areas of weakness in their…

  15. Developing a Culture of Evaluative Inquiry: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Happy Lee

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that few educational reform efforts have achieved significant, long-lasting improvement in student achievement. In order to accelerate growth in student achievement, many researchers have advocated the development of cultures of evaluative inquiry. In a culture of evaluative inquiry, teachers use data to identify instructional…

  16. The Road to Evaluation Capacity Building: A Case Study from Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Barbara; Englert, Pnina Elal

    2008-01-01

    We present an empirical case study of an Evaluation Capacity Building (ECB) initiative in a school in Israel. First, we tell the story of the school's 10-year journey toward the successful integration of evaluation through ECB. Then we examine the case according to King's (2002) four elements of ECB: teachers, students, the curriculum, and the…

  17. Case study of an evaluation coaching model: exploring the role of the evaluator.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Kallemeyn, Leanne M; Rempert, Tania; Wade, James; Polanin, Megan

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of the external evaluator as a coach. More specifically, using an evaluative inquiry framework (Preskill & Torres, 1999a; Preskill & Torres, 1999b), it explored the types of coaching that an evaluator employed to promote individual, team and organizational learning. The study demonstrated that evaluation coaching provided a viable means for an organization with a limited budget to conduct evaluations through support of a coach. It also demonstrated how the coaching processes supported the development of evaluation capacity within the organization. By examining coaching models outside of the field of evaluation, this study identified two forms of coaching--results coaching and developmental coaching--that promoted evaluation capacity building and have not been previously discussed in the evaluation literature.

  18. An Evaluative Case Study on Professional Competency of Preservice Information Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabakci Yurdakul, Isil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate preservice Information Technology (IT) teachers' professional competency in the teaching process. The study was designed on the basis of evaluative case study. The participants of the study consisted of seven preservice IT teachers attending the department of Computer Education and Instructional…

  19. Small College Teacher Preparation Program Evaluations: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saynes, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The methods of evaluating teacher preparation programs are becoming increasingly more reliant on student test data. These test data driven formats, however, are not appropriate for small colleges. Small colleges are currently left off the Tennessee Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs because the colleges did not produce…

  20. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  1. A Case Study of Youth Participatory Evaluation in Co-Curricular Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…

  2. Case study to evaluate a standing table for managing constipation.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, H; Murphy, T; Galbraith, J; Zolkewitz, M

    2001-01-01

    Standing devices have been advocated as a potentially beneficial treatment for constipation in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, definitive data are lacking. A case of a patient who requested a standing table to treat chronic constipation is presented as an illustration of a method to address this problem on an individual patient level. The patient was a 62-year-old male with T12-L1 ASIA B paraplegia who was injured in 1965. The patient was on chronic narcotics for severe, nonoperable shoulder pain. His bowel program had been inadequate to prevent impactions. A systematic approach was used to measure the effects of a standing table on frequency of bowel movements (BMs) and on length of bowel care episodes. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in frequency of BMs and a decrease in bowel care time with the use of the standing table 5 times/week versus baseline. For this patient, the use of the standing table was a clinically useful addition to his bowel care program. PMID:12035465

  3. Holistic versus Analytic Evaluation of EFL Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghalib, Thikra K.; Al-Hattami, Abdulghani A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of holistic and analytic scoring rubrics in the context of EFL writing. Specifically, the paper compares EFL students' scores on a writing task using holistic and analytic scoring rubrics. The data for the study was collected from 30 participants attending an English undergraduate program in a Yemeni…

  4. Fire risk evaluation using multicriteria analysis--a case study.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Eaturu, Anuradha; Badarinath, K V S

    2010-07-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance and environmental concerns in tropical deciduous forests of south India. In this study, we use fuzzy set theory integrated with decision-making algorithm in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to map forest fire risk. Fuzzy set theory implements classes or groupings of data with boundaries that are not sharply defined (i.e., fuzzy) and consists of a rule base, membership functions, and an inference procedure. We used satellite remote sensing datasets in conjunction with topographic, vegetation, climate, and socioeconomic datasets to infer the causative factors of fires. Spatial-level data on these biophysical and socioeconomic parameters have been aggregated at the district level and have been organized in a GIS framework. A participatory multicriteria decision-making approach involving Analytical Hierarchy Process has been designed to arrive at a decision matrix that identified the important causative factors of fires. These expert judgments were then integrated using spatial fuzzy decision-making algorithm to map the forest fire risk. Results from this study were quite useful in identifying potential "hotspots" of fire risk, where forest fire protection measures can be taken in advance. Further, this study also demonstrates the potential of multicriteria analysis integrated with GIS as an effective tool in assessing "where and when" forest fires will most likely occur.

  5. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  6. Exchanging Ideas on Evaluation: Evaluating an Initial Management Skills Course: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Pat

    1979-01-01

    Describes an evaluation study of an interpersonal effectiveness management course for first-level supervisors. The evaluator collected information using graduate appraisal of course content, skill retention, measures, significant incident techniques, analysis of work products/records, appraisal of instructor, observation checklists, and…

  7. Online and Paper Evaluations of Courses: A Literature Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on comparing online and paper course evaluations in higher education and provides a case study of a very large randomised trial on the topic. It presents a mixed but generally optimistic picture of online course evaluations with respect to response rates, what they indicate, and how to increase them. The paper…

  8. Curriculum Elements of Graduate Education: a Brief Case Study on the Evaluation of a Doctoral Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwen, Thomas M.

    A current trend in evaluation to balance quantitative measures and qualitative judgments provided the philosophical context for this case study. In the late 1960's a balanced methodology was devised to evaluate doctoral programs in the School of Education at Indiana University. The model of doctoral education that emerged facilitated analysis, but…

  9. Implementing Curriculum Evaluation: Case Study of a Generic Undergraduate Degree in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lynne; Driscoll, Peter; Lewis, Melinda; Matthews, Lynda; Russell, Cherry; Cumming, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This case study presents a longitudinal, evidence-based approach to health science curriculum reform and evaluation. Curriculum in higher education must meet the needs of diverse stakeholders and must respond to dynamic local, national and international contexts, and this creates challenges for evaluation. The long lead time prior to the…

  10. A Supplement to Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. A College Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryn

    This case study was developed as a supplement to the U. S. Department of Education publication Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs. Its purpose is to help readers get a feel for what is involved in setting up an evaluation of a college alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Although Understanding Evaluation…

  11. Auditing and Evaluating University-Community Engagement: Lessons from a UK Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Northmore, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The growing importance of community and public engagement activities in universities has led to an increasing emphasis on auditing and evaluating university-community partnerships. However, the development of effective audit and evaluation tools is still at a formative stage. This article presents a case study of the University of Brighton's…

  12. [Use of evaluation by primary healthcare managers: a case study in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nickel, Daniela Alba; Natal, Sonia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on a meta-evaluation, focused on utilization, in a state in southern Brazil. This was a single case study with primary data collection using semi-structured interviews with health department administrators and staff. Content analysis used categories defined in the evaluation matrix: political and organizational context and implementation of evaluation. The political and organizational context revealed weaknesses in the items on experience, evaluation team, and time and space for reflection. Technical autonomy was verified in the State and in one municipality. In the implementation of evaluation, evaluative quality met the established criteria, but there was no prior definition of the uses and users of evaluation. One report referred to use for planning actions and political use. The study concluded that evaluation produced important information for stakeholders, with the political and organizational context as the principal limiting factor for use.

  13. Champion or Chump: Using a Book-Length Case Study to Evaluate a Mythical Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Nicholas J.; Gilson, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how 130 participants enrolled in the University of Northern Iowa (UNI) principalship program completed a standards-based evaluation after reading a book-length case study of a mythical principal. Application of the Iowa Standards for School Leaders (ISSL), which mirror the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium…

  14. Criteria for Conducting and Evaluating Workplace Literacy Programs: Two Community College Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Pamela T.; Tollefson, Terrence A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of five workplace literacy programs operated by Wake Technical Community College in North Carolina. Presents criteria for evaluating workplace literacy programs in the areas of organizations involved, curriculum, structure and class, and recruitment/retention. Offers case studies of the most effective and least effective of the…

  15. Evaluating Creative Thinking of Rn-Bsn Students in the Course of Clinical Case Study and Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Ya-Lie

    2015-01-01

    This case study evaluated creative thinking of RN-BSN students in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Study design used quantitative and qualitative evaluations of creative thinking of RN-BSN students by triangulation method in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Sixty RN-BSN students self-perceived the changing levels of…

  16. Evaluating interactive technology for an evolving case study on learning and satisfaction of graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Marjorie A; Schaffner, Barbara H

    2016-07-01

    Nursing education is challenged to prepare students for complex healthcare needs through the integration of teamwork and informatics. Technology has become an important teaching tool in the blended classroom to enhance group based learning experiences. Faculty evaluation of classroom technologies is imperative prior to adoption. Few studies have directly compared various technologies and their impact on student satisfaction and learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate technology enhanced teaching methods on the learning and satisfaction of graduate students in an advanced pharmacology class using an unfolding case study. After IRB approval, students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: blogging group, wiki group or webinar group. Students completed the evolving case study using the assigned interactive technology. Student names were removed from the case studies. Faculty evaluated the case study using a rubric, while blinded to the assigned technology method used. No significant difference was found on case study grades, the range of grades on the assignment demonstrated little differences between the methods used. Students indicated an overall positive impact related to networking and collaboration on a satisfaction survey. Impact of technology methods needs to be explored in other areas of graduate nursing education. PMID:27428697

  17. Evaluating interactive technology for an evolving case study on learning and satisfaction of graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Marjorie A; Schaffner, Barbara H

    2016-07-01

    Nursing education is challenged to prepare students for complex healthcare needs through the integration of teamwork and informatics. Technology has become an important teaching tool in the blended classroom to enhance group based learning experiences. Faculty evaluation of classroom technologies is imperative prior to adoption. Few studies have directly compared various technologies and their impact on student satisfaction and learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate technology enhanced teaching methods on the learning and satisfaction of graduate students in an advanced pharmacology class using an unfolding case study. After IRB approval, students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: blogging group, wiki group or webinar group. Students completed the evolving case study using the assigned interactive technology. Student names were removed from the case studies. Faculty evaluated the case study using a rubric, while blinded to the assigned technology method used. No significant difference was found on case study grades, the range of grades on the assignment demonstrated little differences between the methods used. Students indicated an overall positive impact related to networking and collaboration on a satisfaction survey. Impact of technology methods needs to be explored in other areas of graduate nursing education.

  18. Case studies on clinical evaluation of biosimilar monoclonal antibody: scientific considerations for regulatory approval.

    PubMed

    Kudrin, Alex; Knezevic, Ivana; Joung, Jeewon; Kang, Hye-Na

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide considerations based on comprehensive case studies important for regulatory evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as similar biotherapeutic products (SBPs) with a special emphasis on clinical aspects. Scientific principles from WHO Guidelines on SBPs were used as a basis for the exercise. Working groups consisted of regulators, manufacturers and academia. The following topics were discussed by the working groups: clinical criteria for biosimilarity, extrapolation approach and the overall regulatory decision making process. In order to determine typical pitfalls in the design of a SBP clinical programme and evaluate the gap of knowledge, amongst different industry and regulatory stakeholders on the appraisal of the data arising from SBP clinical studies, we have presented two fictional but realistic clinical case studies. The first case consists of the fictional development programme for an infliximab SBP candidate. The second case describes clinical studies proposed for a fictional rituximab SBP candidate. In the first scenario a highly similar quality profile has been taken forward into clinical studies whereas there was an important residual difference in functional attributes for the rituximab SBP candidate. These case studies were presented at the WHO implementation workshop for the WHO guidelines on evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in May 2014. The goal was to illustrate the interpretation of the clinical data arising from studies with SBP candidates and elicit knowledge gaps in clinical assessment. This paper reflects the outcome of the exercise and discussions held in Seoul and offers an analysis of the case studies as a learning opportunity on clinical development and evaluation of SBPs.

  19. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  20. Pearls and Pitfalls in Evaluating a Student Assistance Program: A Five-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburn, Sharon T.; Wilburn, Kenneth T.; Weaver, Dax M.; Bowles, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This article presents data from a five-year evaluation-research case study of a large urban schools district's internal Student Assistance Program (SAP). The district employed specially trained and licensed school-based counselors to implement an internal SAP expanded to include tertiary prevention, and modeled after an employee assistance program…

  1. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  2. Critical Evaluation as an Aid to Improved Report Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents.…

  3. Alternative Learning Programs Evaluation: Part 3 Report. Case Studies of Alternative Schools and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Caronly; Brewer, Delores; Bauman, Amy; Groves, Paula; Rayle, Joesph; Noblit, George

    In 1996, North Carolina began a 5-year evaluation of alternative learning programs (ALPs). This report contains in-depth case studies of four ALPs during the 1996-97 school year. The ALPs were selected to represent different types of programs in the state, and include one middle school, two high school, and one elementary school programs. The case…

  4. Evaluation of Oral Performance in Outsourced Call Centres: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friginal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This case study discusses the development and use of an oral performance assessment instrument intended to evaluate Filipino agents' customer service transactions with callers from the United States (US). The design and applications of the instrument were based on a longitudinal, qualitative observation of language training and customer service…

  5. The Self-Evaluating School--A Case Study of a Special School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Peter; McEwen, Alex; Carlisle, Karen; Knipe, Damian

    2001-01-01

    A case study is presented on the process of self-evaluation carried out by a special school in Northern Ireland. The project involved the participants in the completion of research journal over a four-week period. The impact the project had on teaching, learning, and the professional development agenda is discussed. (Contains nine references.)…

  6. An Evaluation of Learning Objects in Singapore Primary Education: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Tay Pei Lyn; Suan, Ng Peck; Wanzhen, Liaw

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability and interface design of e-learning portal developed for primary schools in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: Using Singapore-based learning EDvantage (LEAD) portal as a case study, this paper reviews and analyses the usability and usefulness of embedded learning objects (LOs)…

  7. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  8. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  9. Evaluation of a proposed expert system development methodology: Two case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey

    1990-01-01

    Two expert system development projects were studied to evaluate a proposed Expert Systems Development Methodology (ESDM). The ESDM was developed to provide guidance to managers and technical personnel and serve as a standard in the development of expert systems. It was agreed that the proposed ESDM must be evaluated before it could be adopted; therefore a study was planned for its evaluation. This detailed study is now underway. Before the study began, however, two ongoing projects were selected for a retrospective evaluation. They were the Ranging Equipment Diagnostic Expert System (REDEX) and the Backup Control Mode Analysis and Utility System (BCAUS). Both projects were approximately 1 year into development. Interviews of project personnel were conducted, and the resulting data was used to prepare the retrospective evaluation. Decision models of the two projects were constructed and used to evaluate the completeness and accuracy of key provisions of ESDM. A major conclusion reached from these case studies is that suitability and risk analysis should be required for all AI projects, large and small. Further, the objectives of each stage of development during a project should be selected to reduce the next largest area of risk or uncertainty on the project.

  10. Critical evaluation as an aid to improved report writing: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They were given opportunities to practise using the framework both through exemplars and through evaluating the work of their peers. They also carried out self-assessment. The authors' analysis of this novel approach shows that most students responded well to it and benefited from it. Lessons are drawn from this work for others who wish to improve their students' report writing skills.

  11. Non-parametric Evaluation of Biomarker Accuracy under Nested Case-control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tianxi; Zheng, Yingye

    2012-01-01

    Summary To evaluate the clinical utility of new risk markers, a crucial step is to measure their predictive accuracy with prospective studies. However, it is often infeasible to obtain marker values for all study participants. The nested case-control (NCC) design is a useful cost-effective strategy for such settings. Under the NCC design, markers are only ascertained for cases and a fraction of controls sampled randomly from the risk sets. The outcome dependent sampling generates a complex data structure and therefore a challenge for analysis. Existing methods for analyzing NCC studies focus primarily on association measures. Here, we propose a class of non-parametric estimators for commonly used accuracy measures. We derived asymptotic expansions for accuracy estimators based on both finite population and Bernoulli sampling and established asymptotic equivalence between the two. Simulation results suggest that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. The new procedures were illustrated with data from the Framingham Offspring study. PMID:22844169

  12. Case study of evaluations that go beyond clinical outcomes to assess quality improvement diabetes programmes using the Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stewart B.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Tompkins, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Investments in efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes on patients and health care are critical; however, more evaluation is needed to provide evidence that informs and supports future policies and programmes. The newly developed Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE) incorporates the theoretical concepts needed to facilitate the capture of critical information to guide investments, policy and programmatic decision making. The aim of the study is to assess the applicability and value of DEFINE in comprehensive real‐world evaluation. Method Using a critical and positivist approach, this intrinsic and collective case study retrospectively examines two naturalistic evaluations to demonstrate how DEFINE could be used when conducting real‐world comprehensive evaluations in health care settings. Results The variability between the cases and the evaluation designs are described and aligned to the DEFINE goals, steps and sub‐steps. The majority of the theoretical steps of DEFINE were exemplified in both cases, although limited for knowledge translation efforts. Application of DEFINE to evaluate diverse programmes that target various chronic diseases is needed to further test the inclusivity and built‐in flexibility of DEFINE and its role in encouraging more comprehensive knowledge translation. Conclusions This case study shows how DEFINE could be used to structure or guide comprehensive evaluations of programmes and initiatives implemented in health care settings and support scale‐up of successful innovations. Future use of the framework will continue to strengthen its value in guiding programme evaluation and informing health policy to reduce the burden of diabetes and other chronic diseases. PMID:26804339

  13. Evaluating Bone Health in Egyptian Children with Forearm Fractures: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Elbatrawy, Salwa; Gobashy, Amr; Moreira, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures. Methods. A case control study of 46 children aged 3 to 10 years with or without forearm fractures. Validated questionnaires were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intake as well as sun exposure. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were collected. Bone mineral density was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Compared to the Control group, calcium and vitamin D intake was lower in the Cases group (p = 0.03). Cases had higher Body Mass Index than Controls, p = 0.01. Children in the Cases group had lower mean serum calcium values 8.3 ± 1.4 compared to 9.3 ± 1.1 in Controls (p = 0.01). Alkaline phosphatase was higher in Cases 265 ± 65.8 than Controls 226 ± 54.6 (p = 0.03). Vitamin D and bone mineral density scores were significantly lower in the Cases group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data shows an increased rate of vitamin D deficiency and decreased bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures. PMID:27651803

  14. Evaluating Bone Health in Egyptian Children with Forearm Fractures: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Elbatrawy, Salwa; Gobashy, Amr; Moreira, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures. Methods. A case control study of 46 children aged 3 to 10 years with or without forearm fractures. Validated questionnaires were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intake as well as sun exposure. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were collected. Bone mineral density was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Compared to the Control group, calcium and vitamin D intake was lower in the Cases group (p = 0.03). Cases had higher Body Mass Index than Controls, p = 0.01. Children in the Cases group had lower mean serum calcium values 8.3 ± 1.4 compared to 9.3 ± 1.1 in Controls (p = 0.01). Alkaline phosphatase was higher in Cases 265 ± 65.8 than Controls 226 ± 54.6 (p = 0.03). Vitamin D and bone mineral density scores were significantly lower in the Cases group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data shows an increased rate of vitamin D deficiency and decreased bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures.

  15. Evaluating Bone Health in Egyptian Children with Forearm Fractures: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    El-Sakka, Abeer; Penon, Cristina; Hegazy, Adham; Elbatrawy, Salwa; Gobashy, Amr; Moreira, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures. Methods. A case control study of 46 children aged 3 to 10 years with or without forearm fractures. Validated questionnaires were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intake as well as sun exposure. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were collected. Bone mineral density was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Compared to the Control group, calcium and vitamin D intake was lower in the Cases group (p = 0.03). Cases had higher Body Mass Index than Controls, p = 0.01. Children in the Cases group had lower mean serum calcium values 8.3 ± 1.4 compared to 9.3 ± 1.1 in Controls (p = 0.01). Alkaline phosphatase was higher in Cases 265 ± 65.8 than Controls 226 ± 54.6 (p = 0.03). Vitamin D and bone mineral density scores were significantly lower in the Cases group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data shows an increased rate of vitamin D deficiency and decreased bone mineral density in Egyptian children with forearm fractures. PMID:27651803

  16. Using Faculty Evaluation to Improve Teaching Quality: A Longitudinal Case Study of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of implementation of a new system of faculty teaching evaluation at a graduate school of business in Thailand. The research employed a non-experimental, longitudinal case study design in the analysis of student course evaluation data gathered over a period of 21 terms during a seven-year period. The report…

  17. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  18. Evaluation of Cirrus Cloud Simulations Using ARM Data - Development of a Case Study Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'C.Starr, David; Demoz, Belay; Lare, Andrew; Poellot, Michael; Sassen, Kenneth; Heymsfield, Andrew; Brown, Philip; Mace, Jay; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) provide an effective linkage in terms of parameters and scales between observations and the parametric treatments of clouds in global climate models (GCMs). They also represent the best understanding of the physical processes acting to determine cloud system lifecycle. The goal of this project is to improve state-of-the-art CRMs used for studies of cirrus clouds and to establish a relative calibration with GCMs through comparisons among CRMs, single column model (SCM) versions of the GCMs, and observations. This project will compare and evaluate a variety of CRMs and SCMs, under the auspices of the GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), using ARM data acquired at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This poster will report on progress in developing a suitable WG2 case study data set based on the September 26, 1996 ARM IOP case - the Hurricane Nora outflow case. The environmental data (input) will be described as well as the wealth of validating cloud observations. We plan to also show results of preliminary simulations. The science questions to be addressed derive significantly from results of the GCSS WG2 cloud model comparison projects, which will be briefly summarized.

  19. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  20. Quantitative evaluation of reactive nitrogen emissions with urbanization: a case study in Beijing megacity, China.

    PubMed

    Xian, Chaofan; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lu, Fei; Xiao, Yang; Li, Yanmin

    2016-09-01

    The rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) load in urbanized environment threatens urban sustainability. In this study, we estimated the amount of reactive N (Nr) as an index of N pollution potential caused by human activities, using the megacity of Beijing as a case study. We investigated the temporal changes in Nr emissions in the environment from 2000 to 2012 using a multidisciplinary approach with quantitative evaluation. The Nr emissions presented slightly increasing during study period, and the annual emission was 0.19 Tg N, mainly resulting from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the Nr output intensity resulting from inhabitants' livelihoods and material production had weakened over the study period. The evaluation results showed that the environmental measures to remove Nr in Beijing were efficient in most years, suggesting that progress in mitigating the growth of the Nr load in this urban environment was significant. Further measures based on N offset are suggested that could help alleviate the environmental pressure resulting from anthropogenic Nr emissions. These could provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of megacities. PMID:27240830

  1. Quantitative evaluation of reactive nitrogen emissions with urbanization: a case study in Beijing megacity, China.

    PubMed

    Xian, Chaofan; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lu, Fei; Xiao, Yang; Li, Yanmin

    2016-09-01

    The rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) load in urbanized environment threatens urban sustainability. In this study, we estimated the amount of reactive N (Nr) as an index of N pollution potential caused by human activities, using the megacity of Beijing as a case study. We investigated the temporal changes in Nr emissions in the environment from 2000 to 2012 using a multidisciplinary approach with quantitative evaluation. The Nr emissions presented slightly increasing during study period, and the annual emission was 0.19 Tg N, mainly resulting from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the Nr output intensity resulting from inhabitants' livelihoods and material production had weakened over the study period. The evaluation results showed that the environmental measures to remove Nr in Beijing were efficient in most years, suggesting that progress in mitigating the growth of the Nr load in this urban environment was significant. Further measures based on N offset are suggested that could help alleviate the environmental pressure resulting from anthropogenic Nr emissions. These could provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of megacities.

  2. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report II, Part A: Program Case Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Lynn, Ed.

    These 8 case studies are part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. Each case study reviews the planning year at a PDC demonstration site in one…

  3. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report II, Part A: Program Case Studies. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Lynn, Ed.

    These 7 case studies are part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. Each case study reviews the planning year at a PDC demonstration site in one…

  4. Evaluating institutional capacity for research ethics in Africa: a case study from Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in the volume of research conducted in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), has brought a renewed international focus on processes for ethical conduct of research. Several programs have been initiated to strengthen the capacity for research ethics in LMIC. However, most such programs focus on individual training or development of ethics review committees. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to institutional capacity assessment in research ethics and application of this approach in the form of a case study from an institution in Africa. Methods We adapted the Octagon model originally used by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency to assess an organization along eight domains in research ethics: basic values and identity; structure and organization; ability to carry out activities; relevance of activities to stated goals; capacity of staff and management; administrative, financing and accounting systems; its relations with target groups; and the national context. We used a mixed methods approach to collect empirical data at the University of Botswana from March to December 2010. Results The overall shape of the external evaluation Octagon suggests that strengths of the University of Botswana are in the areas of structure, relevance, production and identity; while the university still needs more work in the areas of systems of finance, target groups, and environment. The Octagons also show the similarities and discrepancies between the 'external' and 'internal' evaluations and provide an opportunity for exploration of these different assessments. For example, the discrepant score for 'identity' between internal and external evaluations allows for an exploration of what constitutes a strong identity for research ethics at the University of Botswana and how it can be strengthened. Conclusions There is a general lack of frameworks for evaluating research ethics capacity in LMICs. We presented an approach that

  5. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    methodology and experience of the urban river health evaluation illustrated in the paper can be good case study materials for other cities with the similar situation.

  6. A Qualitative Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in an Introductory Engineering Course at Two Southeastern Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huett, Kim C.; Kawulich, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Collaborating at two universities to improve teaching and learning in undergraduate engineering, an interdisciplinary team of researchers, instructors, and evaluators planned and implemented the use of multimedia case studies with students enrolled in an introductory engineering course. This qualitative action evaluation study focuses on results…

  7. [The development of evaluation capacity in primary healthcare management: a case study in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Nickel, Daniela Alba; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Natal, Sonia; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando Torres de; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo

    2014-04-01

    This article analyzes evaluation capacity-building based on the case study of a State Health Secretariat participating in the Project to Strengthen the Technical Capacity of State Health Secretariats in Monitoring and Evaluating Primary Healthcare. The case study adopted a mixed design with information from documents, semi-structured interviews, and evaluation of primary care by the State Health Secretariat in 2008-2011. Process analysis was used to identify the logical events that contributed to evaluation capacity-building, with two categories: evaluation capacity-building events and events for building organizational structure. The logical chain of events was formed by negotiation and agreement on the decision-making levels for the continuity of evaluation, data collection and analysis by the State Health Secretariat, a change in key indicators, restructuring of the evaluation matrix, and communication of the results to the municipalities. The three-way analysis showed that the aim of developing evaluation capacity was achieved.

  8. Evaluation of Cirrus Cloud Simulations using ARM Data-Development of Case Study Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Demoz, Belay; Wang, Yansen; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lare, Andrew; Mace, Jay; Poellot, Michael; Sassen, Kenneth; Brown, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are being increasingly used to develop parametric treatments of clouds and related processes for use in global climate models (GCMs). CRMs represent the integrated knowledge of the physical processes acting to determine cloud system lifecycle and are well matched to typical observational data in terms of physical parameters/measurables and scale-resolved physical processes. Thus, they are suitable for direct comparison to field observations for model validation and improvement. The goal of this project is to improve state-of-the-art CRMs used for studies of cirrus clouds and to establish a relative calibration with GCMs through comparisons among CRMs, single column model (SCM) versions of the GCMs, and observations. The objective is to compare and evaluate a variety of CRMs and SCMs, under the auspices of the GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), using ARM data acquired at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This poster will report on progress in developing a suitable WG2 case study data set based on the September 26, 1996 ARM IOP case - the Hurricane Nora outflow case. Progress is assessing cloud and other environmental conditions will be described. Results of preliminary simulations using a regional cloud system model (MM5) and a CRM will be discussed. Focal science questions for the model comparison are strongly based on results of the idealized GCSS WG2 cirrus cloud model comparison projects (Idealized Cirrus Cloud Model Comparison Project and Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project), which will also be briefly summarized.

  9. Learning from Evaluation by Peer Team: A Case Study of a Family Counselling Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniute-Cobb, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept-based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. Team Primacy Concept-based evaluation is a type of multirater evaluation. The distinctive characteristic of such evaluation is its peer feedback component during which the employee's…

  10. Predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test: an evaluation and case study.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Wakeford, Richard; Powis, David; James, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in the use of pre-admission selection tests for medicine. Such tests need to show good psychometric properties. Here, we use a paper by Emery and Bell [2009. The predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ 43:557-564] as a case study to evaluate and comment on the reporting of psychometric data in the field of medical student selection (and the comments apply to many papers in the field). We highlight pitfalls when reliability data are not presented, how simple zero-order associations can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the predictive validity of a test, and how biases need to be explored and reported. We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine.

  11. Evaluating the military potential of a developing nation's space program: A case study of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michael J.

    1991-09-01

    This thesis examines how and why a developing nation may use its civilian space program to acquire ballistic missiles. Using a single case study of Brazil, this analysis looks for universal patterns in space program development and for how Third World nations use their civilian space programs for military purposes. This thesis analyzes the relationship between space and missile development, the Missile Technology Control Regime, reasons for building missiles (political, economic, national security, geopolitical, need for technology), Brazilian civil-military relations, and various technologies and space systems. It identifies the critical technologies required for a successful space program; identifies the critical industries that are missing in Brazil and the technologies that it must import; highlights indicators of military intentions of a civilian space program; and evaluates how the generalizations developed throughout the thesis may be applied to other nations.

  12. Development and Formative Evaluation of Multimedia Case Studies for Instructional Design and Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development of three case studies that included a combination of multimedia production and instructional design skills within a particular setting. These case studies incorporated real-life incidents from 47 professional instructional designers. These instructional designers described a total of 146 activities involving…

  13. Due Permafrost: a Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation and Application Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Elger, K. K.; Rinke, A.; Gellhorn, C.; Matthes, H.; Buchhorn, M.; Klehmet, K.; Soliman, A. S.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Schwamborn, G.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.; Lantuit, H.; Herzschuh, U.; Seifert, F.

    2012-12-01

    The task of the ESA Data User Element DUE Permafrost project is to build up a Remote Sensing Service for permafrost applications. The DUE Permafrost remote sensing products are land temperature, soil moisture, frozen/thawed surface status, terrain parameters, land cover, and surface waters. The DUE Permafrost products are freely available for download under http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost/. The products are also published at the world data centre PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.780111, 2012: ESA Data User Element Permafrost), Snow parameters (snow extent and snow water equivalent) can be derived from the ESA DUE project GlobSnow. A major component is the evaluation of the DUE Permafrost products to test their scientific validity for high-latitudinal permafrost landscapes. The primary programme providing ground data is the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the remote sensing derived products make the DUE Permafrost products accepted by the scientific community. We show evaluation case studies of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products using GTN-P in-situ data in Alaska and Siberia. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale Klimaänderungen/Regional climate change) is a climate research program where regional observations and process studies are innovatively coupled with model simulations (http://www.reklim.de/en/home/). Within the REKLIM framework we spatio-temporally compare the geophysical surface parameters derived from regional climate modelling with the DUE Permafrost and DUE GlobSnow remote sensing products. The case studies are: i) spatio-temporal comparison of the ESA GlobSnow satellite-derived snow-water equivalent data with the output from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for Central Siberia for 1987-2010. ii) circum-arctic spatio-temporal comparison of the ESA DUE Permafrost

  14. Exploring Operational Test and Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Qualitative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliceti, Jose A.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore and identify strategies that may potentially remedy operational test and evaluation procedures used to evaluate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology. The sample for analysis consisted of organizations testing and evaluating UASs (e.g., U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and Customs Border Protection). A purposeful sampling technique was used to select 15 subject matter experts in the field of operational test and evaluation of UASs. A questionnaire was provided to participants to construct a descriptive and robust research. Analysis of responses revealed themes related to each research question. Findings revealed operational testers utilized requirements documents to extrapolate measures for testing UAS technology and develop critical operational issues. The requirements documents were (a) developed without the contribution of stakeholders and operational testers, (b) developed with vague or unrealistic measures, and (c) developed without a systematic method to derive requirements from mission tasks. Four approaches are recommended to develop testable operational requirements and assist operational testers: (a) use a mission task analysis tool to derive requirements for mission essential tasks for the system, (b) exercise collaboration among stakeholders and testers to ensure testable operational requirements based on mission tasks, (c) ensure testable measures are used in requirements documents, and (d) create a repository list of critical operational issues by mission areas. The preparation of operational test and evaluation processes for UAS technology is not uniform across testers. The processes in place are not standardized, thus test plan preparation and reporting are different among participants. A standard method to prepare and report UAS technology should be used when preparing and reporting on UAS technology. Using a systematic process, such as mission

  15. Case Studies in a Physiology Course on the Autonomic Nervous System: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of case studies on the autonomic nervous system in a fourth-semester physiology course unit for Pharmacy students is described in this article. This article considers how these case studies were developed and presents their content. Moreover, it reflects on their implementation and, finally, the reception of such a transformation…

  16. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  17. Insights on Using Developmental Evaluation for Innovating: A Case Study on the Cocreation of an Innovative Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Yan; Shulha, Lyn M.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to research on evaluation by examining the capacity and contribution of developmental evaluation for innovating. This case study describes the "preformative development" of an educational program (from conceptualization to pilot implementation) and analyzes the processes of innovation within a developmental…

  18. A Case Study of a Community-Based Participatory Evaluation Research (CBPER) Project: Reflections on Promising Practices and Shortcomings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community…

  19. Developing and Using a Logic Model for Evaluation and Assessment of University Student Affairs Programming: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses theory and practice of evaluation and assessment in university student affairs, by applying logic modeling/program theory to a case study. I intend to add knowledge to ongoing dialogue among evaluation scholars and practitioners on student affairs program planning and improvement as integral considerations that serve…

  20. Developing Complex Interventions for Rigorous Evaluation--A Case Study from Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, R.; Langhaug, L. F.; Nyamurera, T.; Wilson, D.; Bassett, M. T.; Cowan, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Much attention has been placed on the need to develop and evaluate complex interventions targeting public health issues, such as reproductive health. However, and as has been the case in the recent past, even well-designed trials will be flawed unless meticulous attention is paid to ensuring the most appropriate intervention is designed and…

  1. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    . Screening for chemical contributions to breast cancer risk: a case study for chemical safety evaluation. Environ Health Perspect 123:1255–1264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408337 PMID:26032647

  2. Assessment of multiple sustainability demands for wastewater treatment alternatives: a refined evaluation scheme and case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Yu, Han-Qing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Guo, Xuesong

    2012-05-15

    Current estimation schemes as decision support tools for the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives focus primarily on the treatment efficiency, effluent quality, and environmental consequences for receiving water bodies. However, these schemes generally do not quantify the potential to convert pollutants in wastewater to recoverable resources. This study proposes a refined evaluation scheme for choices of wastewater treatment processes that quantifies not only adverse environmental effects but also bioenergy and nutrient recovery indices. An original means of data processing was established and clear estimate indicators were consequently obtained to allow a smooth overall estimation. An array of wastewater treatment alternatives that meet three effluent limits were used as case studies to demonstrate how the present scheme works, simultaneously, to identify optimum choices. It is concluded in the overall estimation that the lower sustainability of wastewater treatment contributed by increasingly stringent discharge demands was offset and mitigated by the resource-recovery scenarios involved, and the scenario of recovering nutrients via excess-sludge composting was of more benefit. Thus, before tightening wastewater discharge requirements, one should bear in mind the situation of multiple sustainability by setting a goal to achieve not only the greatest reduction in environmental burden but also the maximum resource-recovery benefits. PMID:22530769

  3. Evaluation of sleep disturbances in children with epilepsy: a questionnaire-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bosco; Cheong, Eric Yau Kin; Ng, Sui Fun Grace; Chan, Yick Chun; Lee, Qun Ui; Chan, Kwok Yin

    2011-08-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder accompanied by a wide range of comorbid conditions that can adversely affect the quality of life of children. Sleep disturbances not only predispose children to mood, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, but also have a significant impact on physical health. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep patterns among Chinese children with epilepsy and healthy subjects in Hong Kong, and examine the relationship between parent-reported sleep problems and specific epilepsy parameters. We conducted a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, case-control study and included 63 children with epilepsy and 169 healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used as an assessment tool. Our results indicated that children with epilepsy have similar sleep patterns but greater sleep disturbances compared with healthy subjects. Sleep problems should not be overlooked, and a comprehensive review of the sleep habits of this group of patients should be conducted. PMID:21704566

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Multi-Institutional Case Studies-Based Course in Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Chapin, Travis K.; Hammons, Susan R.; Stelten, Anna Van; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Wiedmann, Martin; Johnston, Lynette M.; Oliver, Haley F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel, engaging courses in food safety is necessary to train professionals in this discipline. Courses that are interactive and case-based encourage development of critical thinking skills necessary for identifying and preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a case study…

  5. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  6. Evaluation of a Modified Scheme for Shallow Convection: Implementation of CuP and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Gustafson, William I.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Deng, Liping

    2013-01-01

    A new treatment for shallow clouds has been introduced into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The new scheme, called the cumulus potential (CuP) scheme, replaces the ad-hoc trigger function used in the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization with a trigger function related to the distribution of temperature and humidity in the convective boundary layer via probability density functions (PDFs). An additional modification to the default version of WRF is the computation of a cumulus cloud fraction based on the time scales relevant for shallow cumuli. Results from three case studies over the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma are presented. These days were selected because of the presence of shallow cumuli over the ARM site. The modified version of WRF does a much better job predicting the cloud fraction and the downwelling shortwave irradiance thancontrol simulations utilizing the default Kain-Fritsch scheme. The modified scheme includes a number of additional free parameters, including the number and size of bins used to define the PDF, the minimum frequency of a bin within the PDF before that bin is considered for shallow clouds to form, and the critical cumulative frequency of bins required to trigger deep convection. A series of tests were undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity of the simulations to these parameters. Overall, the scheme was found to be relatively insensitive to each of the parameters.

  7. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  8. Evaluation of total nitrogen pollution reduction strategies in a river basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drolc, A; Kondan, J Z; Cotman, M

    2001-01-01

    The enrichment of groundwater and rivers by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) and their consequences is one of the most severe problems across Europe as well in Slovenia. Transfer of nutrients from different sources into the environment causes eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate accumulation in groundwater, and others. In this paper, the methodology of the material flow analysis is presented and applied to develop a nitrogen balance in a river basin and to evaluate different scenarios for total nitrogen pollution reduction. Application of the methodology is illustrated by means of a case study on the Krka river, Slovenia. Different scenarios are to be considered: the present level of sewerage and treatment capacities, different stages of wastewater treatment and management of agricultural activities on land. The results show that beside effluents from wastewater treatment plants, agriculture contributes significantly to the total annual nitrogen load. Beside reduction of point sources by means of wastewater collection and implementation of nutrient removal technology, managing agricultural nitrogen in order to protect river water quality and drinking water supply should become a major challenge in the Krka river basin.

  9. Evaluating Cumulative OP Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Cohen, Jonathan; Castorina, Rosemary; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals, and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data, and to apply it using NHANES 1999–2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the non-specificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data, and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1,000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intra-individual and temporal variability. PMID:19921915

  10. Case studies in cervicothoracic spine function evaluation and treatment of two dancers with mechanical neck pain.

    PubMed

    Sandow, Emily

    2011-03-01

    It has been reported that manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine followed by exercise may improve outcomes in patients with mechanical neck pain. At this point, there is little available data on dancers with neck pain, and it is unclear whether this type of treatment is appropriate for restoring the rigorous level of activity required of the dancer. The purpose of this study was to review the evaluation, clinical decision-making process, and treatment of two dancers-one with acute and the other with chronic neck pain-who fell into the classification of patients who might benefit from an intervention to the thoracic spine. The two participants were a musical theater dancer with an acute onset of neck pain and a retired dancer who was an active dance company director with an 11-year history of chronic neck pain. Both participants went through a standard examination and were treated with mobilizations to the upper thoracic spine followed by therapeutic exercises. In both cases, successful outcomes were achieved immediately after treatment and up to six months after discharge from physical therapy.

  11. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  12. Project success: A methodological and evaluative case study of the early alert program interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkins, Randy James

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, to methodologically examine the use of three types of focus groups 1), traditional face-to face, 2), online video and audio, and 3) online text only. Second, to examine the impact of academic intervention attempts offered by university and department support services. Methodologically, the three types of focus groups were compared in terms of ease of use, comfort, richness of data and ethical considerations. Contextually, support services for a general chemistry course taken primarily by new students were examined using an evaluation method involving effort, monitoring, process, component and treatment specification types of implementation. For this research, fourteen students enrolled in the general chemistry course at Rocky Mountain University in fall term 2014 participated in one of the three types of focus groups to discuss support services for the course. Since the increase of technological advances in the late twentieth century, the use of electronic focus groups has been viewed as a viable alternative to traditional in-person meetings. However, different methods within a methodology might produce different results for both students and researchers. This study inspected differences in ease of use for participants and the researcher, comfort in terms of using technology and in discussing academic issues and support services, richness of the data, and ethical issues surrounding privacy and confidentiality. For this case study, methodological findings were that in-person groups still had relevance in this age of advanced technology. Audio-video groups were more limited than in-person groups in terms of interaction and administration, while text-only groups were easiest to transcribe, but seemed to be the most limited in terms of all other aspects of the research. Finally, ethical concerns were not considered important by members in any group; therefore, it is incumbent on the researcher to provide the best ethical

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Initiative to Develop Leadership among Women in Africa: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakahiu, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study assesses the impact of a three-year Hilton Foundation-supported, Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI) in five African nations. The goal was to evaluate the SLDI program for increasing leadership capacities of 340 women in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ghana and Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine…

  14. Issues in Course Development, Evaluation, and Testing: A Case Study from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwold, Lorne O.

    This study evaluated one professor's teaching of English as a Second Language courses at three Japanese universities. Instruction was modified to make the courses similar communicatively to one another. The professor administered a test, found in a journal, at the three universities, comparing results to evaluate the appropriateness of his own…

  15. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  16. Investigating Religion and Computing: A Case for Using Standpoint Theory in Technology Evaluation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyche, Susan Porter

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and study of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that support religious practices and the use of standpoint theory in ICT evaluation studies. Three phases makeup this work: formative studies to understand how megachurches, their members and leaders use ICT in ways tied to their Protestant…

  17. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%. PMID:26253498

  18. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  19. Evaluation of deep vadose zone contaminant flux into groundwater: Approach and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostrom, M.; Truex, M. J.; Last, G. V.; Strickland, C. E.; Tartakovsky, G. D.

    2016-06-01

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone.

  20. Evaluation of deep vadose zone contaminant flux into groundwater: Approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Oostrom, M; Truex, M J; Last, G V; Strickland, C E; Tartakovsky, G D

    2016-06-01

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone. PMID:27107320

  1. Evaluation of deep vadose zone contaminant flux into groundwater: Approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Oostrom, M; Truex, M J; Last, G V; Strickland, C E; Tartakovsky, G D

    2016-06-01

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone.

  2. Case study of preliminary cyclic load evaluation and triaxial soil testing in offshore wind farm planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Daniel; Ossig, Benjamin; Kreiter, Stefan; Kouery, Saed; Moerz, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    compared to literature results. The shown case study is intended to demonstrate a feasible procedure for evaluating cyclic loads, designing test procedures, presenting results and interpreting data in a so far unregulated field without common standards. The presented data has been produced within the framework of germanwind, a science industry partnership including RWE-Innogy, ENOVA and MARUM.

  3. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  4. Can Teaching Be Evaluated through Reflection on Student Performance in Continuous Assessment? A Case Study of Practical Engineering Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabola, Aonghus; O'Farrell, Ciara

    2015-01-01

    Research and practice is presented on the use of student assessments as part of reflective practice to evaluate teaching. Case studies are presented in the delivery of Engineering modules across a number of years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Both student performance in continuous assessment and student feedback on assessments…

  5. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  6. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  7. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Competency-Based Syllabi: A Chilean Case Study Applying Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerez, Oscar; Valenzuela, Leslier; Pizarro, Veronica; Hasbun, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Orsini, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, higher education institutions worldwide have been moving from knowledge-based to competence-based curricula. One of the greatest challenges in this transition is the difficulty in changing the knowledge-oriented practices of teachers. This study evaluates the consistency between syllabus design and the requirements imposed by a…

  9. Evaluating the Sustainability of SPARK Physical Education: A Case Study of Translating Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Rosengard, Paul; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2005-01-01

    Dissemination and sustainability of evidence-based physical education programs (PE) has been studied rarely. The sustainability of a health-related PE program (SPARK) was independently evaluated in 111 elementary schools in 7 states. Surveys were mailed to schools that had received SPARK curriculum books, training, and follow-up (response rate =…

  10. The Caring Child: An Evaluative Case Study of the Cornwall Young Carers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Allister H.; Astbury, Gaynor

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Cornwall Young Carers project (jointly funded by social services and the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Health Action Zone), conducted during the period 2000-2002. A diverse range of methodological approaches were adopted (comparative national statistics, local pilot study, monthly and quarterly data…

  11. Utility in a Fallible Tool: A Multi-Site Case Study of Automated Writing Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Douglas; Warschauer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Automated writing evaluation (AWE) software uses artificial intelligence (AI) to score student essays and support revision. We studied how an AWE program called MY Access![R] was used in eight middle schools in Southern California over a three-year period. Although many teachers and students considered automated scoring unreliable, and teachers'…

  12. Learning Online: A Case Study Exploring Student Perceptions and Experience of a Course in Economic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Batura, Neha; Hughes, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions and experiences of a group of students enrolled in an online course in Economic Evaluation. A mixed methods approach was adopted for the data collection, and thematic analysis was used to synthesize the data collected and highlight key findings. The participants identified several positive and negative perceived…

  13. Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Therapy for Deaf Children: Four Treatment Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rosalind; Ford, Katie; Thomas, Jane; Oyebade, Natalie; Bennett, Danita; Dodd, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether core vocabulary intervention (CVT) improved single word speech accuracy, consistency and intelligibility in four 9-11-year-old children with profound sensori-neural deafness fitted with cochlear implants and/or digital hearing aids. Their speech was characterized by inconsistent production of different error forms for…

  14. Re-Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Learning System: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaromiligkos, Yannis; Retalis, Symeon

    2003-01-01

    Much is unknown about the effectiveness of networked technology in education. Although a great deal of research exists dealing with the effectiveness of various types of web-based learning systems, the focal question of most evaluation studies does not concern the innovation of the delivery model itself and the factors that contribute to its…

  15. Teaching Basic Production Economic Principles to Secondary School Students of Vocational Agriculture: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James E.

    Four modules of instruction on basic production economic principles were developed, tried in high school classes of students preparing for on- and off-farm agricultural occupations, and evaluated for content and teaching. Basic principles studied were supply and demand, value theory, variable proportions, and marginal analysis. Total and part…

  16. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  17. Engineering evaluation of projected solid-waste-disposal practices. Volume 2: Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, J. C.; Rothfuss, E. H., Jr.; Flick, W. J.; Hawk, T. S.; Quay, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Estimates of the cost impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for hazardous and non-hazardous large volume waste classification scenarios on eight power plants was presented. Seven of the power plants were chosen to represent the range of waste management technologies and disposal site conditions existing in the United States today. The eighth site was a fictitious site used to further evaluate the feasibility of ocean disposal of large volume utility wastes. For each site, the professional design team acted in the role of a consultant retained by the utility to bring its waste disposal program into complete compliance with RCRA. First, a conceptual design was developed for each scenario. Then, cost estimates were developed for both scenarios, as well as for current operations. The cost estimates for current operations were performed in order to show the base cases necessary to determine RCRA's cost impacts.

  18. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed.

  19. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed. PMID:26364204

  20. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists.

  1. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists. PMID:11168474

  2. Evaluating Pillar Industry’s Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China’s steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities’ abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  3. Driving simulators for robust comparisons: a case study evaluating road safety engineering treatments.

    PubMed

    Jamson, Samantha; Lai, Frank; Jamson, Hamish

    2010-05-01

    Road authorities considering the implementation of speed management interventions should have access to the results of scientifically robust evaluations on which to base their decisions. However, studies that evaluate a diverse range of interventions with comparable metrics are rare, with most focussing on one type, for example, types of signage, perceptual countermeasures or physical traffic calming. This paper describes a driving simulator study designed to overcome these constraints. Twenty diverse speed-reducing treatments were developed and tested in urban and rural road environments. Forty participants encountered all the treatments allowing a comparison to be made with their driving behaviour when the treatment was not present. A number of speed parameters were developed to encapsulate the range of effects of the treatments. The results suggest that whilst straight sections of road are difficult to treat, speed reductions can be obtained by increasing risk perception. In contrast, alerting treatments had more effect at junctions, particularly in an urban environment; drivers approaching curves demonstrated improved speed adaptation if the curve radius was highlighted (either implicitly or explicitly). The study highlights how driving simulators can be used to overcome methodological constraints encountered in real-world evaluations of this type.

  4. Osha`s 1974 vinyl chloride standard. Retrospective evaluation of the rulemaking`s feasibility/impact estimates. Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Boroush, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This report documents a case study of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) permanent health standard of 1974 for workplace exposures to vinyl chloride (monomer). OSHA`s assessment of hazard control options and estimates of compliance costs and other regulatory impacts prepared as part of the rationale for the rulemaking are reviewed and then compared and contrasted with the actual post-promulgation outcomes as affected industries adjusted to the new compliance requirements. This case study has been prepared as part of a larger Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) evaluation of the control technology and regulatory impact analyses that OSHA prepares to support its rulemakings. Congress requested in May 1992 that OTA examine OSHA`s procedures and methods in these regards. The case reported here is one of eight OSHA health and safety standards that have been similarly studied on a pre- and post-promulgation basis.

  5. The evaluation of body image in children with type 1 diabetes: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Troncone, Alda; Prisco, Francesco; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the body image perception in children with type 1 diabetes in order to identify symptoms of disordered eating behaviours early. Children with type 1 diabetes and controls showed underestimation and dissatisfaction with body size. The patients, especially girls, were more accurate in their perception of body size than the control group. The study sheds light on some of the underlying factors that may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviours in adolescence. The causes of the differences of perception of body size are discussed. PMID:24752557

  6. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of environmental projects: Case studies in aerospace and defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shunk, James F.

    1995-01-01

    Using the replacement technology of high pressure waterjet decoating systems as an example, a simple methodology is presented for developing a cost effectiveness model. The model uses a four-step process to formulate an economic justification designed for presentation to decision makers as an assessment of the value of the replacement technology over conventional methods. Three case studies from major U.S. and international airlines are used to illustrate the methodology and resulting model. Tax and depreciation impacts are also presented as potential additions to the model.

  7. Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: a case study of RetroGuide.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Narus, Scott P; Rocha, Roberto A

    2010-02-01

    Provision of query systems which are intuitive for non-experts has been recognized as an important informatics challenge. We developed a prototype of a flowchart-based analytical framework called RetroGuide that enables non-experts to formulate query tasks using a step-based, patient-centered paradigm inspired by workflow technology. We present results of the evaluation of RetroGuide in comparison to Structured Query Language (SQL) in laboratory settings using a mixed method design. We asked 18 human subjects with limited database experience to solve query tasks in RetroGuide and SQL, and quantitatively compared their test scores. A follow-up questionnaire was designed to compare both technologies qualitatively and investigate RetroGuide technology acceptance. The quantitative comparison of test scores showed that the study subjects achieved significantly higher scores using the RetroGuide technology. Qualitative study results indicated that 94% of subjects preferred RetroGuide to SQL because RetroGuide was easier to learn, it better supported temporal tasks, and it seemed to be a more logical modeling paradigm. Additional qualitative evaluation results, based on a technology acceptance model, suggested that a fully developed RetroGuide-like technology would be well accepted by users. Our study is an example of a structure validation study of a prototype query system, results of which provided significant guidance in further development of a novel query paradigm for EHR data. We discuss the strengths and weakness of our study design and results, and their implication for future evaluations of query systems in general.

  8. Epidemiological Evaluation of Head and Neck Sarcomas in Iran (the Study of 105 Cases Over 13 Years)

    PubMed Central

    Alishahi, Batoul; Kargahi, Neda; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Head and neck sarcomas are exceedingly rare and they include 4% - 10% of all sarcomas and less than 1% of all neoplasm of head and neck. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of head and neck sarcomas of patients in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, from the 16000 patients whose files were evaluated, the total number of 105 head and neck sarcomas were collected. They were evaluated with due attention to age, gender of the patients and the most common location of the lesion. Results: From the total number of 105 (0.6%) patients with sarcomas, 56 were men (53.33%) and 49 women (46.66%). The most common head and neck sarcomas among this population were Osteosarcoma (32 cases, 30.47%), Chondrosarcoma (14 cases, 13.33%), and Ewing sarcoma (11 cases, 10.47%).The most common soft tissue sarcoma was Rabdomiosarcoma. Mandible was the most common location for these lesions. Conclusions: In this study, the hard tissue sarcomas were more prevalent than soft tissue ones. Hence, special attention should be paid to the patients when being diagnosed. PMID:26478791

  9. Statistical Evaluation of Turkey Earthquake Cataloque: A Case study (1900-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, Dogan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Turkey earthquake catalog of the events within the time period of 1900-2015 prepared by Boǧaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute is analyzed. The catalog consists of earthquakes occurred in Turkey and surrounding area (32o-45oN/23o-48oE). The current earthquake catalog data has been checked in two aspects; the time dependent variation and compliance for different regions. Specifically the data set prior to 1976 was found deficient. In total, 7 regions were evaluated according to the tectonic specifications and data set. In this study for every region original data were used without any change; b- values, a- values, Magnitude of completeness (Mc) were calculated. For the calculation of b- values focal depth was selected as h= 0-50 km. One of the important complications for the seismic catalogs is discriminating real (natural) seismic events from artificial (unnatural) seismic events. Therefore within the original current catalog events especially artificial quarry blasts and mine blasts have been separated by declustering and dequarry methods. Declustering process eliminates induced earthquakes especially occurred in thermal regions, large water basins, mine regions from the original catalogs. Current moment tensor catalog prepared by Kalafat, 2015 the faulting type map of the region was prepared. As a result, for each region it is examined if there is a relation between fault type and b- values. In this study, the hypothesis of the relation between previously evaluated and currently ongoing extensional, compression, strike-slip fault regimes in Turkey and b- values are tested one more time. This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs (2014-2219) of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Councilof Turkey). It also encourages the conduct of the study and support the constructive contributionthat Prof.Dr. Nafi TOKSÖZ to offer my eternal gratitude.

  10. [The influence of intellectual capital in performance evaluation: a case-study in the hospital sector].

    PubMed

    Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan; Araújo, Adriana Maria Procópio de

    2010-06-01

    This paper contributes to public institutions with the adaptation of a performance evaluation tool based on private companies. The objective is to demonstrate how the impact of an educational activity might be measured in the economic value added for the society of a public university hospital. The paper was divided in four parts, despite the introductory and methodological aspects and the final remarks. First, the hospital sector is explained, specifically in the context of the public university hospitals. Then, the definitions, the nature and measure of the intellectual capital are presented, followed by the disclosure of the main economic performance evaluation models. Finally, an adapted model is presented, under the approach of the value based management, considering adjustments of the return and the respective investment measures, showing the impacts of the intellectual capital management and the education activity on the economic result of those institutions. The study was developed based on a methodology supported by a bibliographical research, using a comparative method procedure in the descriptive modality. At last, it is highlighted the importance of accountability for the society regarding the use of public resources and how this study can help in this way. PMID:20640284

  11. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and, in Europe, Italy is leader in rice production. The intensive cultivation of rice leads to continuous inputs chemicals as fertilizers, weeding and pesticides. The intensification of sustainable rice production by minimizing the impact on the environment of cultivation is a main issue . In this context this study, supported by the Italian National Project POLORISO (MIPAAF), aims to afford preliminary indications about the evaluation of ecological impact by different managements on soil mesofauna biodiversity. Biomonitoring of soil mesofauna, in particular nematodes and microarthropods, allows to determine the effects of crop management on the communities; the lack and/or reduction of these organisms can allow inference on the soil quality. This preliminary study aims at evaluate the different influence of conventional, integrated and biological managements on mesofauna communities. The samplings were conducted in Summer and Autumn 2013 near Vercelli (North Italy) in three study sites with similar pedologic characteristics but different in control strategies (conventional, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)). The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods was performed by Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological soil quality was evaluated by Maturity Index (MI) for nematodes, BSQar and the soil Biological Classes (sBC)(range I-VII) for microarthropods. Regarding nematodes, Rhabditidae, Dorylamidae, Mononchidae, Tylenchidae and Heteroderidae were the most represented families. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) evidenced that the trophic group of plant parasites was favored in organic farming, while groups of omnivores and predators were abundant in the other managements. The lowest nematodes' abundance was found in submerged rice soil with dominance of omnivores and plant

  12. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    SciTech Connect

    Euling, Susan Y.; White, Lori D.; Kim, Andrea S.; Sen, Banalata; Wilson, Vickie S.; Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Gaido, Kevin W.

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  13. Evaluating the use of citizens’ juries in food policy: a case study of food regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deliberative engagement techniques and citizens’ juries are touted as means of incorporating the public into policy decision-making, managing community expectations and increasing commitment to public health policy. This paper reports a study to examine the feasibility of citizens’ juries as a means of collecting data to inform public health policy related to food regulation through evaluation of the conduct of a citizens’ jury. Methods A citizens’ jury was conducted with a representative sample of 17 South Australians to explore their willingness to consider the proposition that food and drink advertising and/or sponsorship should be banned at children’s sporting events. Results The results showed that, in relation to the central proposition and evaluation data from the jury, opinion on the proposition remained comparatively stable. Most jurors indicated that they thought that food and drink sponsorship and/or advertising at children’s sporting events would have little or no effect on altering children’s diet and eating habits, with the proportion increasing during the jury process. Jurors were given evaluation sheets about the content of the jury and the process of the citizens’ jury to complete at the end of the session. The evaluation of the citizens’ jury process revealed positive perceptions. The majority of jurors agreed that their knowledge of the issues of food and drink sponsorship in children’s sport had increased as a result of participation in the citizens’ jury. The majority also viewed the decision-making process as fair and felt that their views were listened to. One important response in the evaluation was that all jurors indicated that, if given the opportunity, they would participate in another citizens’ jury. Conclusions The findings suggest that the citizens’ jury increased participant knowledge of the issue and facilitated reflective discussion of the proposition. Citizens’ juries are an effective means

  14. Evaluating cumulative risk assessment for environmental justice: a community case study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A

    2002-04-01

    A key feature of cumulative risk assessment (CRA) is the ability to estimate differential health risks from environmental exposures within populations. Identifying populations at increased risk from environmental exposures is the first step toward mitigating such risks as required by the fair treatment mandate of environmental justice. CRA methods remain under development except for a limited application in pesticide regulations. The goals of this research were to advance CRA methods and to test their application in a community case study. We compared cumulative risk and health assessments for South and Southwest Philadelphia communities. The analysis found positive correlations between cumulative risk and mortality measurements for total mortality in Whites and non-Whites when we conducted the risk assessment using a multi-end point toxicological database developed for this project. Cumulative risk scores correlated positively with cause-specific mortality in non-Whites. Statistically significant increases in total and respiratory mortality rates were associated with incremental increases in the hazard ratio cumulative risk scores, with ranges of 2-6% for total and 8-23% for respiratory. Regression analyses controlled for percent non-White population and per capita income, indicating that risk scores represent an environmental effect on health independent of race and income. This case study demonstrated the successful application of CRA at the community level. CRA adds a health dimension to pollutant concentrations to produce a more comprehensive understanding of environmental inequities that can inform decision making. CRA is a viable tool to identify high-risk areas and to guide surveillance, research, or interventions.

  15. Method of evaluating the impact of ERP implementation critical success factors - a case study in oil and gas industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajic, Gordana; Stankovski, Stevan; Ostojic, Gordana; Tesic, Zdravko; Miladinovic, Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    The so far implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have in many cases failed to meet the requirements regarding the business process control, decrease of business costs and increase of company profit margin. Therefore, there is a real need for an evaluation of the influence of ERP on the company's performance indicators. Proposed in this article is an advanced model for the evaluation of the success of ERP implementation on organisational and operational performance indicators in oil-gas companies. The recommended method establishes a correlation between a process-based method, a scorecard model and ERP critical success factors. The method was verified and tested on two case studies in oil-gas companies using the following procedure: the model was developed, tested and implemented in a pilot gas-oil company, while the results were implemented and verified in another gas-oil company.

  16. Evaluation of pituitary function in cases with the diagnosis of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury: Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Aylanç, Hakan; Tütüncüler, Filiz; Süt, Necdet

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was to determine whether pituitary dysfunction occurs after head trauma in children or not and which axis is affected more; to define the association of pituitary dysfunction with the severity of head trauma and duration time after the diagnosis of head trauma. Materials and Methods: In this study, 24 children who were diagnosed with head trauma were evaluated regarding pituitary dysfunction. In all cases, after 12 h fasting, serum cortisol, fT3, fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serum sodium, urine density, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, in female cases E2, in male cases, TT levels were determined. Results: Mean age of children was 9.5 ± 3.1 years, 14 children (58.3%) had mild, 9 children (37.5%) had moderate, and 1 children (4.2%) had severe head trauma according to the Glasgow coma scale. Mean duration time after head trauma was 29.4 ± 9.8 months. In all cases, no pathologic condition was determined in the pituitary hormonal axis. In one children (4.2%), low basal cortisol level was found. There were no children with hormonal deficiency in this study. Conclusion: Although pituitary dysfunction after head trauma may develop in the early period, some may present in the late period; therefore, all cases should be followed up at outpatient clinics for a longer period. PMID:27695233

  17. Evaluation of pituitary function in cases with the diagnosis of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury: Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Aylanç, Hakan; Tütüncüler, Filiz; Süt, Necdet

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was to determine whether pituitary dysfunction occurs after head trauma in children or not and which axis is affected more; to define the association of pituitary dysfunction with the severity of head trauma and duration time after the diagnosis of head trauma. Materials and Methods: In this study, 24 children who were diagnosed with head trauma were evaluated regarding pituitary dysfunction. In all cases, after 12 h fasting, serum cortisol, fT3, fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serum sodium, urine density, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, in female cases E2, in male cases, TT levels were determined. Results: Mean age of children was 9.5 ± 3.1 years, 14 children (58.3%) had mild, 9 children (37.5%) had moderate, and 1 children (4.2%) had severe head trauma according to the Glasgow coma scale. Mean duration time after head trauma was 29.4 ± 9.8 months. In all cases, no pathologic condition was determined in the pituitary hormonal axis. In one children (4.2%), low basal cortisol level was found. There were no children with hormonal deficiency in this study. Conclusion: Although pituitary dysfunction after head trauma may develop in the early period, some may present in the late period; therefore, all cases should be followed up at outpatient clinics for a longer period.

  18. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand. PMID:23304417

  19. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand.

  20. Guiding the Design of Evaluations of Innovations in Health Informatics: a Framework and a Case Study of the SMArt SHARP Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand. PMID:23304417

  1. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Zomeni, Maria S; Pantis, J D

    2016-02-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7%) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented. PMID:26411554

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Zomeni, Maria S; Pantis, J D

    2016-02-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7%) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  5. MIDAS case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model

    DOE PAGES

    Gan, Yanjun; Duan, Qingyun; Gong, Wei; Tong, Charles; Sun, Yunwei; Chu, Wei; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Di, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a commonly used approach for identifying important parameters that dominate model behaviors. We use a newly developed software package, a Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of ten widely used SA methods, including seven qualitative and three quantitative ones. All SA methods are tested using a variety of sampling techniques to screen out the most sensitive (i.e., important) parameters from the insensitive ones. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, which has thirteen tunable parameters, is used for illustration. The South Branch Potomac River basin nearmore » Springfield, West Virginia in the U.S. is chosen as the study area. The key findings from this study are: (1) For qualitative SA methods, Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), and Gaussian Process (GP) screening methods are shown to be not effective in this example. Morris One-At-a-Time (MOAT) screening is the most efficient, needing only 280 samples to identify the most important parameters, but it is the least robust method. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Delta Test (DT) and Sum-Of-Trees (SOT) screening methods need about 400–600 samples for the same purpose. Monte Carlo (MC), Orthogonal Array (OA) and Orthogonal Array based Latin Hypercube (OALH) are appropriate sampling techniques for them; (2) For quantitative SA methods, at least 2777 samples are needed for Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to identity parameter main effect. McKay method needs about 360 samples to evaluate the main effect, more than 1000 samples to assess the two-way interaction effect. OALH and LPτ (LPTAU) sampling techniques are more appropriate for McKay method. For the Sobol' method, the minimum samples needed are 1050 to compute the first-order and total sensitivity indices correctly. These comparisons show that qualitative SA methods are more

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yanjun; Duan, Qingyun; Gong, Wei; Tong, Charles; Sun, Yunwei; Chu, Wei; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Di, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a commonly used approach for identifying important parameters that dominate model behaviors. We use a newly developed software package, a Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of ten widely used SA methods, including seven qualitative and three quantitative ones. All SA methods are tested using a variety of sampling techniques to screen out the most sensitive (i.e., important) parameters from the insensitive ones. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, which has thirteen tunable parameters, is used for illustration. The South Branch Potomac River basin near Springfield, West Virginia in the U.S. is chosen as the study area. The key findings from this study are: (1) For qualitative SA methods, Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), and Gaussian Process (GP) screening methods are shown to be not effective in this example. Morris One-At-a-Time (MOAT) screening is the most efficient, needing only 280 samples to identify the most important parameters, but it is the least robust method. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Delta Test (DT) and Sum-Of-Trees (SOT) screening methods need about 400–600 samples for the same purpose. Monte Carlo (MC), Orthogonal Array (OA) and Orthogonal Array based Latin Hypercube (OALH) are appropriate sampling techniques for them; (2) For quantitative SA methods, at least 2777 samples are needed for Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to identity parameter main effect. McKay method needs about 360 samples to evaluate the main effect, more than 1000 samples to assess the two-way interaction effect. OALH and LPτ (LPTAU) sampling techniques are more appropriate for McKay method. For the Sobol' method, the minimum samples needed are 1050 to compute the first-order and total sensitivity indices correctly. These comparisons show that qualitative SA methods are more efficient

  8. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  9. A unified method for evaluating real-time computer controllers: A case study. [aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.; Lee, Y. H.

    1982-01-01

    A real time control system consists of a synergistic pair, that is, a controlled process and a controller computer. Performance measures for real time controller computers are defined on the basis of the nature of this synergistic pair. A case study of a typical critical controlled process is presented in the context of new performance measures that express the performance of both controlled processes and real time controllers (taken as a unit) on the basis of a single variable: controller response time. Controller response time is a function of current system state, system failure rate, electrical and/or magnetic interference, etc., and is therefore a random variable. Control overhead is expressed as a monotonically nondecreasing function of the response time and the system suffers catastrophic failure, or dynamic failure, if the response time for a control task exceeds the corresponding system hard deadline, if any. A rigorous probabilistic approach is used to estimate the performance measures. The controlled process chosen for study is an aircraft in the final stages of descent, just prior to landing. First, the performance measures for the controller are presented. Secondly, control algorithms for solving the landing problem are discussed and finally the impact of the performance measures on the problem is analyzed.

  10. A Lesson in Carefully Managing Resources: A Case Study from an Evaluation of a Music Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Kristin A.; Burkhardt, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A music education program with a goal of enhancing cognitive development of preschool-aged children enrolled in local preschools is evaluated by The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University. The budget for the evaluation was small, and therefore presented several challenges to the evaluation team. Purpose: Through a case study…

  11. Course Evaluation in Open and Distance Learning: A Case Study from Indira Gandhi National Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaba, Ashok K.; Dash, Nirod K.

    2004-01-01

    The success of any open and distance learning course depends on how well it is designed, executed, and evaluated. Evaluation of a course not only demonstrates its strengths, but also points out any inherent shortcomings in the course. This is why course evaluation constitutes an important function in an open and distance learning system. The…

  12. Evaluating Open Source Software for Use in Library Initiatives: A Case Study Involving Electronic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Ruth Gallegos; Griffy, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses best practices for evaluating open source software for use in library projects, based on the authors' experience evaluating electronic publishing solutions. First, it presents a brief review of the literature, emphasizing the need to evaluate open source solutions carefully in order to minimize Total Cost of Ownership. Next,…

  13. Management Development of Internal Evaluation in the Islamic Republic of Iran (Case Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, many higher education systems in the world have attempted to evaluate and improve the quality of education, research and services at the university and higher education level. Countries which have been successful in these attempts have initiated continuous evaluation and applied internal evaluation as a basis for…

  14. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  15. Empirical evaluation of partitioning schemes for phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic data: an avian case study.

    PubMed

    Powell, Alexis F L A; Barker, F Keith; Lanyon, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Whole mitochondrial genome sequences have been used in studies of animal phylogeny for two decades, and current technologies make them ever more available, but methods for their analysis are lagging and best practices have not been established. Most studies ignore variation in base composition and evolutionary rate within the mitogenome that can bias phylogenetic inference, or attempt to avoid it by excluding parts of the mitogenome from analysis. In contrast, partitioned analyses accommodate heterogeneity, without discarding data, by applying separate evolutionary models to differing portions of the mitogenome. To facilitate use of complete mitogenomic sequences in phylogenetics, we (1) suggest a set of categories for dividing mitogenomic datasets into subsets, (2) explore differences in evolutionary dynamics among those subsets, and (3) apply a method for combining data subsets with similar properties to produce effective and efficient partitioning schemes. We demonstrate these procedures with a case study, using the mitogenomes of species in the grackles and allies clade of New World blackbirds (Icteridae). We found that the most useful categories for partitioning were codon position, RNA secondary structure pairing, and the coding/noncoding distinction, and that a scheme with nine data groups outperformed all of the more complex alternatives (up to 44 data groups) that we tested. As hoped, we found that analyses using whole mitogenomic sequences yielded much better-resolved and more strongly-supported hypotheses of the phylogenetic history of that locus than did a conventional 2-kilobase sample (i.e. sequences of the cytochrome b and ND2 genes). Mitogenomes have much untapped potential for phylogenetics, especially of birds, a taxon for which they have been little exploited except in investigations of ordinal-level relationships. PMID:23000817

  16. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and Tsunami Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2015-12-01

    On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced tsunami flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this tsunami) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the tsunami. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the tsunami are obtained with the MOST model (T itov and S ynolakis, J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; T itov and G onzalez, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational tsunami forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean tsunami data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for Tsunamis) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the tsunami event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event ( r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run

  17. Prediction interval evaluation in modelling of soil texture for regional mapping: methodology and a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Martin, Manuel; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Richer de Forges, Anne C.; Nehlig, Pierre; Martelet, Guillaume; Arrouays, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Model uncertainty mapping represents a practical way to describe efficiency and limits of models prediction and can be calculated using different techniques. The object of this study is to determine and apply a procedure for the prediction interval (PI) evaluation for extended maps of soil granulometric fractions (i.e. clay, silt, sand) in the region "Centre" of France. Among the various methodologies for PI determination, a recent approach is the use of a non-parametric procedure evaluating the prediction interval. The PI is defined as a conventional bound of the predicted values (i.e. 95th percentile) and can be calculated as follows. Assuming a relationship between the inputs of the model and the resulting prediction error (Shrestha et al., 2006, Malone et al., 2011), the input variables-space is classified into different clusters having similar errors with a fuzzy c-means clustering technique. Then, a prediction interval (PI) is calculated for each cluster on the basis of the associated empirical distributions of the errors and considering the degree of membership belonging to each cluster. A relationship between the input variables and the computed prediction intervals is founded using a modelling procedure (calibration), then; the relationship is applied to estimate the prediction interval for the out-of-sample data (validation) (e.g. Solomatine et al., 2008, 2009, Malone et al., 2011). This approach requires the assumption of a relationships between the input variables and the errors, and, obviously the relevancy and accuracy of such approach depends on the validity of the assumption. These assumptions have been accepted in all the studies quoted above. In this work we adopted a similar procedure to the third approach. Our hypothesis is, if a correspondence is supposed and identified between confidence interval and predictors (i.e., 2.5-97.5% values, respectively), a model between predictors and PI may be used to extrapolate it to the whole map. This

  18. Airborne gamma ray surveying in radon hazard evaluation: a case study from Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Mark A.; Liv Rudjord, Anne; Finne, Ingvild

    2010-05-01

    currently underway over a geologically complex area known to be strongly affected by radon. A test of the approach in this area will be entirely independent of earlier studies and we are currently unaware of how well the hazard evaluation will perform. We expect to be able to show results from this survey during the meeting.

  19. Evaluating National Weather Service Seasonal Forecast Products in Reservoir Operation Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, A.; Guihan, R.; Polebistki, A.; Palmer, R. N.; Werner, K.; Wood, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasts of future weather and streamflow can provide valuable information for reservoir operations and water management. A challenge confronting reservoir operators today is how to incorporate both climate and streamflow products into their operations and which of these forecast products are most informative and useful for optimized water management. This study incorporates several reforecast products provided by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) which allows a complete retrospective analysis of climate forecasts, resulting in an evaluation of each product's skill in the context of water resources management. The accuracy and value of forecasts generated from the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) are compared to the accuracy and value of using an Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) approach. Using the CFSv2 may offer more insight when responding to climate driven extremes than the ESP approach because the CFSv2 incorporates a fully coupled climate model into its forecasts rather than using all of the historic climate record as being equally probable. The role of forecast updating frequency will also be explored. Decision support systems (DSS) for both Salt Lake City Parley's System and the Snohomish County Public Utility Department's (SnoPUD) Jackson project will be used to illustrate the utility of forecasts. Both DSS include a coupled simulation and optimization model that will incorporate system constraints, operating policies, and environmental flow requirements. To determine the value of the reforecast products, performance metrics meaningful to the managers of each system are to be identified and quantified. Without such metrics and awareness of seasonal operational nuances, it is difficult to identify forecast improvements in meaningful ways. These metrics of system performance are compared using the different forecast products to evaluate the potential benefits of using CFSv2 seasonal forecasts in systems decision making.

  20. Evaluation of village piped water: a case study in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Mo-suwan, L

    1993-12-01

    This study was conducted in a district of southern Thailand to evaluate village piped water (VPW) systems with respect to the process of planning and operation. Of 67 villages in the district, 31 were installed with one or more VPW systems using water obtained from artesian wells and distributed through the pipe with neither prior filtering nor chlorination. Seven systems were found to have stopped functioning for more than 6 months. The direct causes of failure were lack of participation from the villagers, mechanical problems and serious conflicts among the leaders. Of the running systems, only 4 were operating with meters for individual households. The charge rates were probably too low to cope with sustainable maintenance costs. The water had rust, unpleasant odors, slightly salty taste and oily surface in 50, 33, 29 and 4% of the systems respectively. Among VPW users, 8% drank water from shallow wells and 77% drank unboiled water. It was concluded that VPW in the study area was not effective for several reason. Prior assessment of management feasibility and proper community education were lacking. The running costs were probable too high, not well recognized and not covered. This led to failure in gaining participation from the villagers, which eventually led to failure or potential failure of the system and waste of capital investment. These pitfalls should be prevented prior to installation of any VPW system in the future.

  1. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  2. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of organized screening for esophageal cancer: a case-control study in Linzhou city, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiong; Yu, Liang; Hao, Changqing; Wang, Jinwu; Liu, Shuzheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Shaokai; Guo, Lanwei; Quan, Peiliang; Germain, Patrick; Zhang, Yawei; Sun, Xibin

    2016-01-01

    In China, esophageal cancer has remained a large burden, and endoscopic screening is expected to reduce esophageal cancer mortality. Therefore, a population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of screening. Cases were defined as individuals who had died of esophageal cancer, and controls were residents from the same area (three per case) who had not died of esophageal cancer, matched by gender and birth year. The exposure status (whether cases and controls had ever attended the screening or not) was acquired by inspecting the well documented screening records. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There were 253 cases and 759 controls. The reduction in risk of esophageal cancer mortality in individuals who had ever attended screening was 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37–0.77). Compared with never-screened subjects, the ORs for screened subjects within 36 and 48 months before the reference date were 0.59(0.39–0.89) and 0.59(0.40–0.87); the ORs for 50–59 year old subjects were 0.48(0.28–0.85). The results suggest a 47% reduction in esophageal cancer mortality risk due to endoscopic screening, which may have significant implications for esophageal cancer screening in China, especially in rural areas. PMID:27759094

  4. Evaluating Climate Predictability Signals in Response to Forcing: Mount Pinatubo as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, A. L.; Drake, J.; Evans, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions serve as a benchmark for assessing aspects of predictability because they provide a sudden global impulse to the Earth's climate system. In particular, the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines is of interest since it was the largest aerosol perturbation to the stratosphere in the twentieth century and the most intensely observed eruption on record. Using instrumental measurements during the eruption, the predictive capabilities of climate models may be evaluated and the predictability of climate variables under forcing may be inferred. In this study, the evolution of the climate response to volcanic forcing is simulated in the Community Earth System Model, CESM1.0, using ensembles of forced and unforced global climate model runs. The predictability signals of all atmospheric climate model variables are systematically calculated using a unitless signal to noise ratio. The signals are compared to determine the most sensitive variables. Additionally, this work examines spatial predictability patterns, important for regional predictability, by mapping the signals globally and using empirical orthogonal functions. Phase plots are employed to highlight the response of variables to forcing, and comparisons with observations of the eruption are made to provide validation of the results.

  5. Corrosion-induced Whole Effluent Toxicity from a cooling tower: A toxicity reduction evaluation case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.; Talley, J.M.; Copenhaver, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    As the result of Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) test failures with Daphnia pulex, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required an industrial facility discharging approximately 5 million gallons per day (MGD) of recirculating cooling water obtained from a large freshwater river to conduct a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) program. Under the terms of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, the facility was required to conduct 48-hour acute toxicity tests with D. pulex and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). Although effluent toxicity to D. pulex was consistently observed, no toxicity was induced to the fathead minnow during the TRE program. The situation was further complicated by the fact that the recirculating cooling water was discharged back into the same river. The objectives of the TRE program were to investigate the causes of toxicity, locate potential sources of the suspected toxicant(s), and identify practicable toxicity reduction methodologies to be used. The TRE program approach and results from the associated studies are presented in this report, including a successful remedy for the WET problem.

  6. The development and evaluation of the Citizen Telehealth Care service System: case study in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun; Yang, Jhih-Jyun; Chen, Ju-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Mu-Lien; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yao, Grace; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2009-01-01

    Because of the rapid aging population in Taiwan and the trend of fewer children, people are looking into technical solutions for continuous/intermittent monitoring of vital signs in the home setting environment and the interactions between family members. In this study we developed a smart medical services system for managing chronic disease, called Citizen Telemedical Care service System (CTCS). The system integrates biosignal measurement, hypertension risk estimation expert system, clinic appointment service, video communication service, medical assistance referral, health frequency program record, and health/hygiene education. The demo version CTCS is exhibited in the center of INSIGHT opened for visit and trial use. In order to verify the demand and acceptability of the system and services, we have interviewed 251 volunteers with a questionnaire survey with the help from Taipei City Government. The results showed that people have positive expectation about the service program for health care and the capability of home devices. They also expressed high motivation on learning to use the system and to participate in the program. According to the evaluation results, the system is processing a small user test led by Taipei City Government, in order to further verify the acceptability and satisfaction of the system.

  7. Mobile Therapy: Case Study Evaluations of a Cell Phone Application for Emotional Self-Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K; Gorenstein, Ethan E; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; Deleeuw, William

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. Objective This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. Methods We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood reporting and therapeutic exercises for cognitive reappraisal (ie, examination of maladaptive interpretations) and physical relaxation. The application was deployed in a one-month field study with eight individuals who had reported significant stress during an employee health assessment. Participants were prompted via their mobile phones to report their moods several times a day on a Mood Map—a translation of the circumplex model of emotion—and a series of single-dimension mood scales. Using the prototype, participants could also activate mobile therapies as needed. During weekly open-ended interviews, participants discussed their use of the device and responded to longitudinal views of their data. Analyses included a thematic review of interview narratives, assessment of mood changes over the course of the study and the diurnal cycle, and interrogation of this mobile data based on stressful incidents reported in interviews. Results Five case studies illustrate participants' use of the mobile phone application to increase self-awareness and to cope with stress. One example is a participant who had been coping with longstanding marital conflict. After reflecting on his mood data, particularly a drop in energy each evening, the participant began practicing relaxation therapies on the phone before entering his house, applying cognitive reappraisal techniques to cope with stressful family interactions, and talking more openly with his wife. His mean anger, anxiety and sadness

  8. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  9. Using EPAS[TM] to Evaluate School-Based Intervention Programs: GEAR UP. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief examines how the ACT's EPAS[TM] (Educational Planning and Assessment System) can be used to evaluate school-based intervention programs. Specific evaluation considered is that of the federal government's Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP), an initiative designed to increase the college awareness…

  10. Evaluation of Distance Learning in an "Introduction to Biostatistics" Class: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Scott R.; Wang, Rui; Yeh, Tzu-Min; Anderson, Jeff; Haija, Rammy; McBratney-Owen, Paul Madoc; Peeples, Lynne; Sinha, Subir; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Rajicic, Natasa; Zhang, Jiameng

    2007-01-01

    Biostatistics is not universally available in colleges/universities and is thus an attractive course to offer via distance education. However, evaluation of the impact of distance education on course enrollment and student success is lacking. We evaluated an "Introduction to Biostatistics" course at Harvard University that offered the distance…

  11. Applying a Framework to Evaluate Assignment Marking Software: A Case Study on Lightwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva; Milne, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative evaluation on the effect of a specialised software tool on the efficiency and quality of assignment marking. The software, Lightwork, combines with the Moodle learning management system and provides support through marking rubrics and marker allocations. To enable the evaluation a framework has…

  12. An evaluation of soil erosion hazard: A case study in Southern Africa using geomatics technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiswerth, Barbara Alice

    Accelerated soil erosion in Malawi, Southern Africa, increasingly threatens agricultural productivity, given current and projected population growth trends. Previous attempts to document soil erosion potential have had limited success, lacking appropriate information and diagnostic tools. This study utilized geomatics technologies and the latest available information from topography, soils, climate, vegetation, and land use of a watershed in southern Malawi. The Soil Loss Estimation Model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA), developed for conditions in Zimbabwe, was evaluated and used to create a soil erosion hazard map for the watershed under Malawi conditions. The SLEMSA sub-models of cover, soil loss, and topography were computed from energy interception, rainfall energy, and soil erodibility, and slope length and steepness, respectively. Geomatics technologies including remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provided the tools with which land cover/land use, a digital elevation model, and slope length and steepness were extracted and integrated with rainfall and soils spatial information. Geomatics technologies enable rapid update of the model as new and better data sets become available. Sensitivity analyses of the SLEMSA model revealed that rainfall energy and slope steepness have the greatest influence on soil erosion hazard estimates in this watershed. Energy interception was intermediate in sensitivity level, whereas slope length and soil erodibility ranked lowest. Energy interception and soil erodibility were shown by parameter behavior analysis to behave in a linear fashion with respect to soil erosion hazard, whereas rainfall energy, slope steepness, and slope length exhibit non-linear behavior. When SLEMSA input parameters and results were compared to alternative methods of soil erosion assessment, such as drainage density and drainage texture, the model provided more spatially explicit information using 30 meter grid cells. Results of this

  13. Crosswell electromagnetic and magnetotelluric imaging of geothermal reservoirs - evaluation and case studies from Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, F.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are considered important contributors to any future energy mix, as they are renewable and can potentially provide a constant (i.e., baseload) and long-term energy output. However, most regions worldwide are lacking natural, convective hydrothermal resources. As a result, when relatively high subsurface temperatures exist in low-permeability rocks ("hot-dry" rocks), it has been suggested to artificially increase permeability to enable deep fluid circulation and associated advective heat transfer to a production well. One technique to enhance permeability, and thus the ability to extract geothermal heat, is hydraulic stimulation, creating (permeability) enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). In the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory in Switzerland, a meso-scale field experiment is planned, where pre-existing fault systems are hydraulically sheared. The aim of this experiment is to better understand the processes occurring during artificial reservoir creation. We present our 3D numerical modeling study evaluating the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography using magnetic dipole sources to map stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. This geophysical parameter is affected by several subsurface properties including temperature, interconnected porosity, permeability, and the presence of fluids. Electrical conductivity thus provides important information on the effectiveness of geothermal reservoir creation. Besides numerical modeling studies, we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory. Furthermore, we present preliminary results of a magnetotelluric (MT) survey conducted at a prominent heat flow anomaly in Northern Switzerland. Here, we test methods to improve data quality of MT measurements in regions that exhibit substantial electromagnetic noise. We also discuss how information on the electrical conductivity

  14. Dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer: A case study for model evaluation using aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, Rei; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Diskin, Glenn S.; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical and microphysical processes that influence water vapor concentrations in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated in simulations of ice clouds along backward trajectories of air parcels sampled during three flights of the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in boreal fall 2011. ERA-Interim reanalysis temperatures interpolated onto the flight tracks have a negligible (-0.09 K) cold bias compared to aircraft measurements of tropical cold point temperature thus permitting case study simulations of TTL dehydration. When the effects of subgrid-scale waves, cloud microphysical processes, and convection are considered, the simulated water vapor mixing ratios on the final day of 40 day backward trajectories exhibit a mean profile that is within 20-30% of the mean of the aircraft measurements collected during vertical profiling maneuvers between the 350 and 410 K potential temperature levels. Averaged over the three flights, temperature variability driven by subgrid-scale waves dehydrated the 360-390 K layer by approximately -0.5 ppmv, whereas including homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols and subsequent sublimation and rehydration of ice crystals increased water vapor below the 380 K level by about +1 ppmv. The predominant impact of convection was to moisten the TTL, resulting in an average enhancement below the 370 K level by +1 to 5 ppmv. Accurate (to within 0.5-1 ppmv) predictions of TTL water vapor using trajectory models require proper representations of waves, in situ ice cloud formation, and convective influence, which together determine the saturation history of air parcels.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES: STUDY OF 200 CASES

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; da Silva, Luciano Lucindo; Ferreira, Fábio Vieira; Ferro, Ademar Martins; da Rocha, Valney Luís; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate epidemiological and radiological characteristics of the femoral shaft fractures, surgically treated from 1990 to 2005 at Hospital de Acidentados – Clínica Santa Isabel – in Goiânia, Goiás, aiming to contribute to better preventive and therapeutic measures planning to adopt on those fractures. Methods: 200 patients' files and x-rays with femoral shaft fractures have been retrospectively evaluated. Patients below the age of 10 years were not included because the treatment for this group was conservative. 25 files have been discarded for not supplying all the necessary data to the study. The patients were assessed for sex, age, side of the fracture, bone exposure, mechanisms of trauma, classification of the fractures, associated trauma, time for bone healing and types of surgical devices. Statistic analyses were made by chi-squared, Fisher and Student's-t tests, adopting as a significance level p<0.05. Results: significant results (p < 0.05) were found in: 70% of men, 80% closed fractures and 65% of women above the age of 60. Fractures resulting from simple falls were more frequent in women, above 60 years old, with simpler traces, and the ones caused by projectiles of firearm in men, from 20 to 60 years, with unstable traces. Trampling accidents were prevalent among youngsters between 10 and 19 years old. Car accidents showed all the types of fractures, mostly associated to other traumas, reaching its peak incidence in the age group of 20-30 years. The treatment with Küntscher Nail resulted in a longer mean consolidation time, as well as fractures with unstable traces (B3,C1,C2,C3). Conclusion: we found a bi-modal characteristic the femoral shaft fractures, consistently to literature data, where the high energy mechanisms (traffic accidents, high falls and wounds from firearms), have been more frequent in young adults, men, generating unstable traces of fractures, with more serious associated trauma, while the other group with low

  16. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    harbour protection, and installed at -10m depth (length=300 m) may produce about 2.7 GWh/y with a total costs of about 12,000,000 €, where only the 50% of the amount are the costs of the SSG device. Obviously the environmental impact of the two solutions is quite different. Aim of this study is to provide a multicriteria decision support framework to evaluate the best WEC typology and location in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. The general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects will be described. Colonisation patterns and biofouling will be discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. In addition, impacts for fish, fishery and marine mammals will be also considered. We suggest that wave power projects should be evaluated also on the basis of their environmental impacts in the perspective of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) analysis, as implemented by the European Commission (SEA Directive 2001/42/EC). The early incorporation of the environmental aspects involved in the evaluation of wave power projects will give the opportunity for early mitigations or design modifications, most likely making wave projects more acceptable in the long run and more suitable for the marine environment.

  17. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    , infrastructure and society in the Arctic cities. We use CMIP-5 ensemble projection to evaluate future changes in these parameters and identify regions where immediate attention is needed to develop appropriate adaptation strategies. Acknowledgement. This study is supported by the German-Russian Otto Schmidt Laboratory, project OSL-13-02, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects 13-05-0072 and 13-05-91171.

  18. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    SciTech Connect

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  19. Doing Effective Evaluations: A Case Study of Family Empowerment Due to Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnagan, Tim; Duncan, Stephen F.; Paul, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive evaluation framework and applies it to a family empowerment program in Montana that was developed as an aspect of welfare reform. The framework encompasses seven areas from developing objectives to developing a sound conceptual framework. (SLD)

  20. Evaluating sampling designs by computer simulation: A case study with the Missouri bladderpod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, L.W.; Smith, D.R.; Young, C.C.; Nichols, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To effectively manage rare populations, accurate monitoring data are critical. Yet many monitoring programs are initiated without careful consideration of whether chosen sampling designs will provide accurate estimates of population parameters. Obtaining accurate estimates is especially difficult when natural variability is high, or limited budgets determine that only a small fraction of the population can be sampled. The Missouri bladderpod, Lesquerella filiformis Rollins, is a federally threatened winter annual that has an aggregated distribution pattern and exhibits dramatic interannual population fluctuations. Using the simulation program SAMPLE, we evaluated five candidate sampling designs appropriate for rare populations, based on 4 years of field data: (1) simple random sampling, (2) adaptive simple random sampling, (3) grid-based systematic sampling, (4) adaptive grid-based systematic sampling, and (5) GIS-based adaptive sampling. We compared the designs based on the precision of density estimates for fixed sample size, cost, and distance traveled. Sampling fraction and cost were the most important factors determining precision of density estimates, and relative design performance changed across the range of sampling fractions. Adaptive designs did not provide uniformly more precise estimates than conventional designs, in part because the spatial distribution of L. filiformis was relatively widespread within the study site. Adaptive designs tended to perform better as sampling fraction increased and when sampling costs, particularly distance traveled, were taken into account. The rate that units occupied by L. filiformis were encountered was higher for adaptive than for conventional designs. Overall, grid-based systematic designs were more efficient and practically implemented than the others. ?? 2008 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  1. Case study on the evaluation of the ground reinforcement with complex resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recently complex resistivity (CR) method is applied to the various engineering purpose mainly due to the development of measurement instruments, which enables the detection of small IP effect in the subsurface. CR method is one of frequency-domain IP method, and it measures the amplitude and absolute phase with respect to the transmitted current. It is known as a spectral IP (SIP) method. With the recent development of instrument, the modeling and analysis algorithm for the CR method were already developed and nearly completed. In this study, we applied CR method to characterize the effect of ground reinforcement which uses grouting with the injection of cement mortar material. As curing the injected cement mortar, the electric conductivity changes, and average conductivity of it is very high. Because of it, we used the DC resistivity monitoring as the way of evaluating the grouting performance. In addition to this, we applied the CR method after that the ground reinforcement with grouting was completed because we thought that cement mortar may show a strong IP effect. For the DC monitoring, we acquired the surface resistivity data before, during and after grouting. Total six data sets were acquired and processed with the recently developed 4D inversion algorithm. CR data is also processed with the developed two-dimensional inversion algorithm and then inverted sections from CR method were compared to the results of DC monitoring data. The area which was identified by 4D DC monitoring as the region where the cement mortar was injected and infiltrated were well matched the anomalous area shown in the phase section of CR method. Resistivity change was not clear with the injection of cement mortar, but phase change was clearly noticeable in the inverted section. From this, we hoped that CR method could provide a way of the quantitative estimation of ground improvement.

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  3. Exposing the key functions of a complex intervention for shared care in mental health: case study of a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Byng, Richard; Norman, Ian; Redfern, Sally; Jones, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Complex interventions have components which can vary in different contexts. Using the Realistic Evaluation framework, this study investigates how a complex health services intervention led to developments in shared care for people with long-term mental illness. Methods A retrospective qualitative interview study was carried out alongside a randomised controlled trial. The multi-faceted intervention supported by facilitators aimed to develop systems for shared care. The study was set in London. Participants included 46 practitioners and managers from 12 participating primary health care teams and their associated community mental health teams. Interviews focussed on how and why out comes were achieved, and were analysed using a framework incorporating context and intervening mechanisms. Results Thirty-one interviews were completed to create 12 case studies. The enquiry highlighted the importance of the catalysing, doing and reviewing functions of the facilitation process. Other facets of the intervention were less dominant. The intervention catalysed the allocation of link workers and liaison arrangements in nearly all practices. Case discussions between link workers and GPs improved individual care as well as helping link workers become part of the primary care team; but sustained integration into the team depended both on flexibility and experience of the link worker, and upon selection of relevant patients for the case discussions. The doing function of facilitators included advice and, at times, manpower, to help introduce successful systems for reviewing care, however time spent developing IT systems was rarely productive. The reviewing function of the intervention was weak and sometimes failed to solve problems in the development of liaison or recall. Conclusion Case discussions and improved liaison at times of crisis, rather than for proactive recall, were the key functions of shared care contributing to the success of Mental Health Link. This

  4. A probability model for evaluating the bias and precision of influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates from case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Haber, M; An, Q; Foppa, I M; Shay, D K; Ferdinands, J M; Orenstein, W A

    2015-05-01

    As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended, randomized clinical trials are no longer ethical in many populations. Therefore, observational studies on patients seeking medical care for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are a popular option for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a probability model for evaluating and comparing bias and precision of estimates of VE against symptomatic influenza from two commonly used case-control study designs: the test-negative design and the traditional case-control design. We show that when vaccination does not affect the probability of developing non-influenza ARI then VE estimates from test-negative design studies are unbiased even if vaccinees and non-vaccinees have different probabilities of seeking medical care against ARI, as long as the ratio of these probabilities is the same for illnesses resulting from influenza and non-influenza infections. Our numerical results suggest that in general, estimates from the test-negative design have smaller bias compared to estimates from the traditional case-control design as long as the probability of non-influenza ARI is similar among vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. We did not find consistent differences between the standard errors of the estimates from the two study designs.

  5. Building on People's Strengths: The Case for Contextual Child Development. Studies and Evaluation Papers 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salole, Gerard

    It is often the case that lip service is paid to the strength of indigenous culture while the implications of indigenous peoples' strengths are disregarded in actual project design. This paper shows that indigenous peoples and societies are able to cope with an extraordinary number of permutations, and that their coping mechanisms are both…

  6. Using Visual Analysis to Evaluate and Refine Multilevel Models of Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eun Kyeng; Petit-Bois, Merlande; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In special education, multilevel models of single-case research have been used as a method of estimating treatment effects over time and across individuals. Although multilevel models can accurately summarize the effect, it is known that if the model is misspecified, inferences about the effects can be biased. Concern with the potential for model…

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Medical Explorers a Case Study Curriculum on Critical Thinking, Attitude toward Life Science, and Motivational Learning Strategies in Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Lance G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the "Medical Explorers" case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the "Medical Explorers" case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the "Medical Explorers" case-based curriculum…

  8. Direct Loan Evaluation. Case Study Summary Report: Academic Year 1996-97. Volume One--Study Findings [and] Volume Two-- Case Study Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD.

    As part of a 5-year evaluation of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, 12 participating institutions of higher education were visited to examine the diversity of approaches used by schools in planning for and implementing the program. The schools included public and private two- and four-year institutions and proprietary schools. Major…

  9. Spore trap analysis and MSQPCR in evaluating mold burden: a flooded gymnasium case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A school gymnasium was accidentally flooded by the fire-suppression sprinkler system. The surface water was removed but after 25 days, the school decided to evaluate whether there was any mold growth in the gymnasium. Thirty, five-minute air samples (75 m3 air) were collected w...

  10. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  11. Infusing Two Models of Evaluation into a Military Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the worth and effectiveness of training used within a military environment is the same accountability responsibility that educational organizations, businesses, and social agencies are charged with for improving programs and services to society. The need for accountability implies the process of evaluation, particularly in governmental…

  12. CASE STUDY 6.26: UNSUCCESSFUL TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATIONS MANIPULATIONS: SEAWATER BUFFERS AND STERILIZATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes several unsuccessful attempts to develop Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) manipulations for aqueous samples during the first 5 years of our research. The first part of the paper explores irradiation as a sterilization technique to discern if sam...

  13. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  14. Self Evaluation: A Case Study of a School in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokeyo, Carolyne Adhiambo; Oluoch, John

    2015-01-01

    External evaluation of schools purpose to monitor delivery of education with a view to ensuring adherence to stipulated curriculum and set standards as well as efficient and effective quality education. However, school improvement scholars in developed economies now argue that schools must take their own initiative to assess the extent to which…

  15. Heuristic and Formative Evaluation: A Case Study Illustrator of a New Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Chin, Kevin; Luppicini, Rocci J.

    As the value of media-delivered information is increasingly emphasized as a powerful instructional tool, user knowledge gains are being more frequently investigated. Formative evaluation techniques that assess learning are often employed. While it is important to appraise this aspect of an instructional program or Web site, it is also necessary to…

  16. Methodology for Evaluating a Novel Education Technology: A Case Study of Handheld Video Games in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jesse L.; Nussbaum, Miguel; Rodriguez, Patricio; Rosas, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Many school systems, in both the developed and developing world, are implementing educational technology to assist in student learning. However, there is no clear consensus on how to evaluate these new technologies. This paper proposes a comprehensive methodology for estimating the value of a new educational technology in three steps: benefit…

  17. An Evaluation System for Training Programs: A Case Study Using a Four-Phase Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingham, Tony; Richley, Bonnie; Rezania, Davar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: With the increased importance of training in organizations, creating important and meaningful programs are critical to an organization and its members. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a four-phase systematic approach to designing and evaluating training programs that promotes collaboration between organizational leaders, trainers,…

  18. Evaluation of the clinical process in a critical care information system using the Lean method: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are numerous applications for Health Information Systems (HIS) that support specific tasks in the clinical workflow. The Lean method has been used increasingly to optimize clinical workflows, by removing waste and shortening the delivery cycle time. There are a limited number of studies on Lean applications related to HIS. Therefore, we applied the Lean method to evaluate the clinical processes related to HIS, in order to evaluate its efficiency in removing waste and optimizing the process flow. This paper presents the evaluation findings of these clinical processes, with regards to a critical care information system (CCIS), known as IntelliVue Clinical Information Portfolio (ICIP), and recommends solutions to the problems that were identified during the study. Methods We conducted a case study under actual clinical settings, to investigate how the Lean method can be used to improve the clinical process. We used observations, interviews, and document analysis, to achieve our stated goal. We also applied two tools from the Lean methodology, namely the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 problem-solving tools. We used eVSM software to plot the Value Stream Map and A3 reports. Results We identified a number of problems related to inefficiency and waste in the clinical process, and proposed an improved process model. Conclusions The case study findings show that the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 reports can be used as tools to identify waste and integrate the process steps more efficiently. We also proposed a standardized and improved clinical process model and suggested an integrated information system that combines database and software applications to reduce waste and data redundancy. PMID:23259846

  19. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  20. Improvement during baseline: three case studies encouraging collaborative research when evaluating caregiver training.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, M M; Glang, A; Todis, B

    1998-04-01

    The trend in cognitive rehabilitation toward reduced services, which provide more functionally relevant outcomes and the recognition of limited maintenance and generalization with many existing interventions, challenges current research models. There is a need to develop and evaluate interventions that can be implemented by persons other than rehabilitation professionals and that are well suited to naturalistic settings. The researchers responded to these challenges by designing a series of single subject experiments evaluating the effectiveness of training caregivers to provide appropriate cognitive support to persons with brain injury within their own natural living environments. The goal of the original research project included evaluating a collaborative mode of interaction with the subjects and their support persons (as opposed to traditional directive treatment models) where the caregivers and subjects were instrumental in designing the intervention and collective performance data. This paper presents the data from the initial three subject/caregiver groups all of whom demonstrated improvement in the target behaviours during the baseline period. It appeared that the act of measuring client performance changed the behaviours of the support persons and resulted in positive changes in baseline levels. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  2. A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.E.; Guldry, F.K.; Graham, R.L.; Curtis, J.B.; Shaw, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the data collected on the well, to present the data analyses, and to demonstrate how the various analyses are being integrated to form a better overall understanding of Devonian shale gas reservoirs.

  3. Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

  4. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  5. Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products. PMID:20122100

  6. Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Wearable Sensor Systems: A Case Study in Moderate-Scale Deployment in Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Ge, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wong, Wai-Choong

    2015-09-25

    A wearable sensor system enables continuous and remote health monitoring and is widely considered as the next generation of healthcare technology. The performance, the packet error rate (PER) in particular, of a wearable sensor system may deteriorate due to a number of factors, particularly the interference from the other wearable sensor systems in the vicinity. We systematically evaluate the performance of the wearable sensor system in terms of PER in the presence of such interference in this paper. The factors that affect the performance of the wearable sensor system, such as density, traffic load, and transmission power in a realistic moderate-scale deployment case in hospital are all considered. Simulation results show that with 20% duty cycle, only 68.5% of data transmission can achieve the targeted reliability requirement (PER is less than 0.05) even in the off-peak period in hospital. We then suggest some interference mitigation schemes based on the performance evaluation results in the case study.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Wearable Sensor Systems: A Case Study in Moderate-Scale Deployment in Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Ge, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wong, Wai-Choong

    2015-01-01

    A wearable sensor system enables continuous and remote health monitoring and is widely considered as the next generation of healthcare technology. The performance, the packet error rate (PER) in particular, of a wearable sensor system may deteriorate due to a number of factors, particularly the interference from the other wearable sensor systems in the vicinity. We systematically evaluate the performance of the wearable sensor system in terms of PER in the presence of such interference in this paper. The factors that affect the performance of the wearable sensor system, such as density, traffic load, and transmission power in a realistic moderate-scale deployment case in hospital are all considered. Simulation results show that with 20% duty cycle, only 68.5% of data transmission can achieve the targeted reliability requirement (PER is less than 0.05) even in the off-peak period in hospital. We then suggest some interference mitigation schemes based on the performance evaluation results in the case study. PMID:26426015

  9. Application of a methodology for evaluation of intertechnology tradeoffs: an illustrative case study

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Buehring, W.A.; Jusko, M.J.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    The problem is to select the best R and D strategy for developing long-term energy technologies that use coal. Best is defined in terms of 11 attributes, or measures of performance. Uncertainties were determined for the many, complex outcomes that may result from each strategy, and the information was systematically structured for evaluation. Preferences for the various outcomes were quantified by assessing a multi-attribute utility function over the 11 single attributes. The best alternative was chosen using maximization of expected utility as a guide. Extensive sensitivity analyses showed that one strategy, evolutionary development, was best over a wide range of plausible assumptions. This is partly because the alternative coal technologies are quite similar. However, the insights gained justify the extra effort spent in doing the utility analysis.

  10. Life-cycle-based multicriteria sustainability evaluation of industrial parks: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as "Ecoindustrial Park" and "Low Carbon Industrial Park" are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks. PMID:23304091

  11. Life-Cycle-Based Multicriteria Sustainability Evaluation of Industrial Parks: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as “Ecoindustrial Park” and “Low Carbon Industrial Park” are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks. PMID:23304091

  12. Life-cycle-based multicriteria sustainability evaluation of industrial parks: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as "Ecoindustrial Park" and "Low Carbon Industrial Park" are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks.

  13. Evaluation of Hospital Information Systems in Iran: A Case Study in the Kerman Province.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Somayeh Noori; Dehnavieh, Reza; Behmard, Tahereh; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Poursheikhali, Atousa

    2016-01-01

    The Hospital Information system (HIS) is a comprehensive solution that offers complete data integration for different administrative levels in hospitals. To the extent that this system is close to its aim, the efficiency and quality of health care would increase in hospitals. The performance of HIS systems in 13 hospitals in Kerman province that they were evaluated based on four major criteria of ownership, location, education and software design. Seven hospitals were located in the capital city of Kerman province. According to teaching status of hospitals, four were teaching and based on their ownership three were public. The checklist of Iranian ministry of health and medical education, containing 20 indexes were used to evaluate each hospital's HIS system in three main supportive, diagnosis and clinical sectors. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between major sectors. The highest score (mean±SD) was observed in laboratory information systems (88.19±13.69), resource management (84.47±8.94), and registration information systems (84.47±18.06); the lowest scores were for telemedicine (45.58±3.86), staff information and timing systems (40±16.64), and decision support systems (23.6±4.97). The total score of HIS software was positively correlated with all its three components. There were strong positive correlations between all three components. The three factors of decision support systems, staff information systems and telemedicine have an important role in providing solutions for non-structured management problems and for leading decision-makers to insights, improving human resource management and solving the problem of access to services. Thus, based on the survey findings, those three factors need to be improved in the Iranian hospital information system. PMID:27357880

  14. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit

    2016-04-01

    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  15. An Evaluation of the Undergraduate TEFL Program in Iran: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimnia, Amin; Kay, Elham

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of Islamic Azad University TEFL program at B.A. (undergraduate) level in Iran. To do so, five IAU branches were selected through cluster sampling. Within each branch selected, twenty senior students were randomly sampled as the participants of the study. In addition to the students, five…

  16. Student Workload: A Case Study of Its Significance, Evaluation and Management at the Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelock, Denise; Thorpe, Mary; Galley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Distance students are time poor and some drop out of their studies because they fall behind with coursework. This raises the issue of how course teams decide upon how many study hours should be included in a course. This article presents a number of Open University projects that have addressed student workload management and relates how learning…

  17. A Case Study Evaluation of the Flex Time Program in a South Jersey Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Griffin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on students' responses toward an experimental instructional program called Flex-time that was offered in grades three through five in a Southeast NJ school district. The study aimed to determine: (1) if the Flex program motivated and/or engaged students to have a love for learning and (2) if characteristics, such as grade level,…

  18. Evidence of gender bias in legal insanity evaluations: a case vignette study of clinicians, judges and students.

    PubMed

    Yourstone, Jenny; Lindholm, Torun; Grann, Martin; Svenson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Forensic psychiatric decision-making plays a key role in the legal process of homicide cases. Research show that women defendants have a higher likelihood of being declared legally insane and being diverted to hospital. This study attempted to explore if this gender difference is explained by biases in the forensic psychiatric assessments. Participants were 45 practicing forensic psychiatric clinicians, 46 chief judges and 80 psychology students. Participants received a written vignette describing a homicide case, with either a female or a male perpetrator. The results suggested strong gender effects on legal insanity judgements. Forensic psychiatric clinicians and psychology students assessed the case information as more indicative of legal insanity if the perpetrator was a woman than a man. Judges assessed offenders of their own gender, as they were more likely to be declared legally insane than a perpetrator of the opposite gender. Implications of and possible ways to minimize such gender biases in forensic psychiatric evaluations need to be thoroughly considered by the legal system.

  19. Using of Spatial multi criteria evaluation for landslide zoning Case study Malach Aram basin -north of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi-Nezamabad, A.; Hoseini Sarrafi, N.; Sadat Mousavi, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Land slide is one of the major disasters which usually happens in specific area and causes different kinds of financial damage and loss of lives. Different places in IRAN are susceptible for occurring landslide. The study area, Malach Aram basin in Ramian County which is located in north part of Iran, is extended about 3500 hectare. Ever different methods are using for zoning and evaluation this natural disaster. Spatial multi criteria evaluation (SMCE) is a structure that implements statistical analysis of multi criteria evaluation on the Georefrence data. This model can be implemented on the GIS software, Ilwis and ArcGIS are major software for running this study. With defining criterion and sub criteria that are effective in occurring landslide and also specifying in groups and inter groups weight of values on the data layers and defining objectives in this classification and with using different effective criteria that are related to this issue, landslide zoning in the case study area has been prepared. The most important criteria that have been used for running this model are Topography, Slope, Aspect, Hillshade,landuse, climate (mouthy, seasonal and annual precipitation during 15 years ago from 2001 until 2007), state of earth dynamic ( earthquake density, distance of faults and others factors), state of existing flora ( density and percentage flora, kind of specious) geomorphology (geomorphology unit , landforms and fancies geomorphologic). After running the this model, output of this model is classification and part of area defined with height potential of landslide occurring. Output of classification landslide zoning with survey GPS pointes that defined real position landslide used in artificial neural network with supervised learning (Multi-Layer Perceptions) . Recently have defined that 5 area of total of suitable area with height potential landslide occurring are important areas with highly positional landslide occurring. Key words: Land slide- Natural

  20. Standardization of SOPs to Evaluations: Impacts on Regulatory Decisions using Learning and Memory as Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential, particularly for non­ standard assays and variable endpoints. Because there is flexibility in the selection of ...

  1. Evaluating solar radiation on a tilted surfaces - a study case in Timis (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Prostean, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the last years the usage of solar energy has grown considerably in Romania, as well as in Europe, stimulated by various factors as government programs, green pricing policies, decreasing of photovoltaic components cost etc. Also, the rising demand of using Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS) is driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain energy from a clean renewable source. In many applications, remote consumers far from other energetic grids can use solar systems more cost-effectively than extending the grid to reach the location. Usually the solar energy is measured or forecast on horizontal surface, but in SECS there is needed the total solar radiation incident on the collector surface, that is oriented in a position that maximize the harvested energy. There are many models that convert the solar radiation from horizontal surface to a tilted surface, but they use empirical coefficients and the accuracy is influenced by different facts as geographical location or sky conditions. Such models were used considering measured values for solar radiation on horizontal plane, in the western part of Romania. Hourly values measured for global solar irradiation on the horizontal plane, diffuse solar irradiation on the horizontal plane and reflected solar irradiation by ground are used to compute the total solar radiation incident on different tilted surfaces. The calculated incident radiation is then compared with the real radiation measured on tilted surface in order to evaluate the performance of the considered conversion models.

  2. Spore trap analysis and MSQPCR in evaluating mold burden: a flooded gymnasium case study.

    PubMed

    Lin, King-Teh; Schrantz, Michael; Sandagdorj, Oyungerel; Keng, Yen-Fang; Boothe, Gregory; Vesper, Stephen Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A school gymnasium was accidentally flooded by the fire-suppression sprinkler system. The surface water was removed immediately and, after 10 days, a professional firm engaged to dry the environment. Twenty five days after the flooding, the school decided to evaluate whether there was any mold growth in the gymnasium. The inspector used two approaches, traditional air samples or a DNA-based analysis of dust samples. Thirty five-minute air samples (for total of 75 L of air each sample) were collected with Air-O-Cell™ (AOC) cassettes and the mold structures (MS) were quantified by microscopy. These samples were compared to two identical outdoor air samples. As an alternative, two dust samples were collected and quantified by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR). Comparisons of indoor to outdoor mold concentrations in air samples were inconclusive, but applying MSQPCR to the investigation of this water-damaged environment provided a more reliable and useful answer to the extent of mold contamination than did the spore trap analysis.

  3. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    SciTech Connect

    Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Wilson, Michael P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated three exposure models with data obtained from measurements among workers who use"aerosol" solvent products in the vehicle repair industry and with field experiments using these products to simulate the same exposure conditions. The three exposure models were the: 1) homogeneously-mixed-one-box model, 2) multi-zone model, and 3) eddy-diffusion model. Temporally differentiated real-time breathing zone volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration measurements, integrated far-field area samples, and simulated experiments were used in estimating parameters, such as emission rates, diffusivity, and near-field dimensions. We assessed differences in model input requirements and their efficacy for predictive modeling. The One-box model was not able to resemble the temporal profile of exposure concentrations, but it performed well concerning time-weighted exposure over extended time periods. However, this model required an adjustment for spatial concentration gradients. Multi-zone models and diffusion-models may solve this problem. However, we found that the reliable use of both these models requires extensive field data to appropriately define pivotal parameters such as diffusivity or near-field dimensions. We conclude that it is difficult to apply these models for predicting VOC exposures in the workplace. However, for comparative exposure scenarios in life-cycle assessment they may be useful.

  4. Using faculty development to solve a problem of evaluation and management coding: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rose, E A; Roth, L M; Werner, P T; Keshwani, A; Vallabhaneni, V

    2000-04-01

    Compliance with billing and coding rules put forth by the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA) is a challenge for practicing physicians, including those in academic settings. The authors, members of the academic practice at Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, designed and delivered a comprehensive curriculum as part of the practice's faculty development initiative surrounding the coding challenge. The authors defined outcomes expected on the way to achieving 100% compliance with HCFA's guidelines. Their curriculum covered topics of coding theory, chart auditing for coding, team building, effective meetings, and structured problem solving. The curriculum was delivered from January to May 1998. Chart audits of 251 charts (office notes) from before the intervention and 263 charts from after the intervention were performed to evaluate differences in coding accuracy. Errors were significantly reduced. The total error rate dropped from 50.2% to 31.1% (p < .05). Overcoding errors were reduced by one third (29.1% versus 19.7%), while undercoding errors were reduced by half (16.3% versus 8.4%). Other errors fell from 4.7% to 3%. The approach of defining and developing work teams and then using standard quality improvement tools may be an effective way to improve compliance with HCFA billing and coding rules. In addition, faculty development can be incorporated into the process of solving a problem that faces a faculty.

  5. Evaluation of organic matter concentration in winery wastewater: a case study from Australia.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Wendy C; Fattore, Alison; Zandona, Roy; Christen, Evan W; Arienzo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) remains a key indicator for proof of compliance with environmental regulators in the monitoring and management of winery effluent. Inter-conversion factors from alternative tests that are more rapid, accurate and simpler to perform have been determined that allow prediction of BOD(5) in winery wastewaters, generally, and at different stages of production and treatment. Mean values obtained from this dataset offer rule of thumb inter-conversion factors: BOD(5) = 0.7 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), BOD(5) = 2.3 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and BOD(5) = 2.7 Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Specific predictive linear relationships are also provided. Out of the relationships between BOD(5) vs COD, TOC and DOC, in winery wastewater, irrespective of vintage or non-vintage production periods and stage of treatment, TOC offered the most reliable prediction of BOD(5). Ethanol, glucose and fructose were evaluated in untreated wastewater as predictors of BOD(5) due to their high specificity in winery effluent. A significant relationship was determined between BOD(5) and (ethanol + glucose + fructose; R(2) = 0.64, n = 19; p<0.05), but relationships between BOD(5) and ethanol and BOD(5) vs (glucose + fructose) were weak (R(2) = 0.45 and 0.34; n = 19; p<0.05 respectively,). There was a very strong linear correlation (y = 0.9767x + 52.8; R(2) = 0.97; n = 23; p<0.05) in COD data in winery effluents when using a commercially available mercury free test kit compared with using a traditional COD test kit that contained mercury. This suggests that mercury free COD test kits could be used by the wine industry for organic pollution assessment with associated reductions to user and environmental risk, as well as reducing the costs of kit waste disposal.

  6. Pragmatic Meta-Analytic Studies: Learning the Lessons from Naturalistic Evaluations of Multiple Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Paul; McNaught, Carmel; Cheng, Kin-Fai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of pragmatic meta-analytic studies in eLearning. Much educational technology literature focuses on developers and teachers describing and reflecting on their experiences. Few connections are made between these experiential "stories". The data set is fragmented and offers few generalisable lessons. The field needs…

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  8. A Case Study of Design and Usability Evaluation of the Collaborative Problem Solving Instructional Platform System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Jen-Yi; Chao, Shu-Jen; Yao, Lo-Yi; Liu, Chuan-His

    2016-01-01

    This study used Focus Group to analyze user requirements for user interface so as to understand what capabilities of the Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) Instructional Platform were expected by users. After 12 focus group interviews, the following four functions had been identified as essential to the CPS Instructional Platform: CPS…

  9. Evaluation framework for translational research: case study of Australia's get healthy information and coaching service(R).

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian E; Eakin, Elizabeth G; King, Lesley; Haas, Marion; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Owen, Neville; Cardona-Morell, Magnolia; Farrell, Louise; Milat, Andrew J; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2013-05-01

    The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS), a free government-funded telephone-delivered information and coaching service was launched in February 2009 by the Australian New South Wales state government. It represents the translation of research evidence applied in the real world (T4 or Phase 4 translation), aimed at addressing the modifiable risk factors associated with the overweight and obesity. In controlled settings, it has been established that telephone-based lifestyle counseling programs are efficacious in reducing anthropometric and behavioral risk factors. This article presents the GHS case study as a population-wide intervention and describes the quasi-experimental evaluation framework used to evaluate both the process (statewide implementation) and impact (effectiveness) of the GHS in a real-world environment. It details the data collection, measures, and statistical analysis required in assessing the process of implementation-reach and recruitment, marketing and promotion, service satisfaction, intervention fidelity, and GHS setting up and operations costs-and in assessing the impact of GHS-increasing physical activity, improving dietary practices, and reducing body weight and waist circumference. The comprehensive evaluation framework designed for the GHS provides a method for building effectiveness evidence of a rare translation of efficacy trial evidence into population-wide practice.

  10. Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Distribution Changes of LST Using Landsat Images (case STUDY:TEHRAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachar, H.; Vafsian, A. R.; Modiri, M.; Enayati, H.; Safdari Nezhad, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    In traditional approach, the land surface temperature (LST) is estimated by the permanent or portable ground-based weather stations. Due to the lack of adequate distribution of weather stations, a uniform LST could not be achieved. Todays, With the development of remote sensing from space, satellite data offer the only possibility for measuring LST over the entire globe with sufficiently high temporal resolution and with complete spatially averaged rather than point values. the remote sensing imageries with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution are used as suitable tools to uniformly LST estimation. Time series, generated by remote sensed LST, provide a rich spatial-temporal infrastructure for heat island's analysis. in this paper, a time series was generated by Landsat8 and Landsat7 satellite images to analysis the changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the Tehran's LST. In this process, The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) threshold method was applied to extract the LST; then the changes in spatial and temporal distribution of LST over the period 1999 to 2014 were evaluated by the statistical analysis. Finally, the achieved results show the very low temperature regions and the middle temperature regions were reduced by the rate of 0.54% and 5.67% respectively. On the other hand, the high temperature and the very high temperature regions were increased by 3.68% and 0.38% respectively. These results indicate an incremental procedure on the distribution of the hot regions in Tehran in this period. To quantitatively compare urban heat islands (UHI), an index called Urban Heat Island Ratio Index(URI) was calculated. It can reveal the intensity of the UHI within the urban area. The calculation of the index was based on the ratio of UHI area to urban area. The greater the index, the more intense the UHI was. Eventually, Considering URI between 1999 and 2014, an increasing about 0.03 was shown. The reasons responsible for the changes

  11. Evaluation of spatio-temporal variability in Land Surface Temperature: A case study of Zonguldak, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sekertekin, Aliihsan; Kutoglu, Senol Hakan; Kaya, Sinasi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze spatio-temporal variability in Land Surface Temperature (LST) in and around the city of Zonguldak as a result of the growing urbanization and industrialization during the last decade. Three Landsat 5 data and one Landsat 8 data acquired on different dates were exploited in acquiring LST maps utilizing mono-window algorithm. The outcomes obtained from this study indicate that there exists a significant temperature rise in the region for the time period between 1986 and 2015. Some cross sections were selected in order to examine the relationship between the land use and LST changes in more detail. The mean LST difference between 1986 and 2015 in ERDEMIR iron and steel plant (6.8 °C), forestland (3 °C), city and town centers (4.2 °C), municipal rubbish tip (-3.9 °C), coal dump site (12.2 °C), and power plants' region (7 °C) were presented. In addition, the results indicated that the mean LST difference between forestland and city centers was approximately 5 °C, and the difference between forestland and industrial enterprises was almost 8 °C for all years. Spatio-temporal variability in LST in Zonguldak was examined in that study and due to the increase in LST, policy makers and urban planners should consider LST and urban heat island parameters for sustainable development. PMID:26666659

  12. Evaluation of spatio-temporal variability in Land Surface Temperature: A case study of Zonguldak, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sekertekin, Aliihsan; Kutoglu, Senol Hakan; Kaya, Sinasi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze spatio-temporal variability in Land Surface Temperature (LST) in and around the city of Zonguldak as a result of the growing urbanization and industrialization during the last decade. Three Landsat 5 data and one Landsat 8 data acquired on different dates were exploited in acquiring LST maps utilizing mono-window algorithm. The outcomes obtained from this study indicate that there exists a significant temperature rise in the region for the time period between 1986 and 2015. Some cross sections were selected in order to examine the relationship between the land use and LST changes in more detail. The mean LST difference between 1986 and 2015 in ERDEMIR iron and steel plant (6.8 °C), forestland (3 °C), city and town centers (4.2 °C), municipal rubbish tip (-3.9 °C), coal dump site (12.2 °C), and power plants' region (7 °C) were presented. In addition, the results indicated that the mean LST difference between forestland and city centers was approximately 5 °C, and the difference between forestland and industrial enterprises was almost 8 °C for all years. Spatio-temporal variability in LST in Zonguldak was examined in that study and due to the increase in LST, policy makers and urban planners should consider LST and urban heat island parameters for sustainable development.

  13. A case study evaluation of edible plants curriculum implemented in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Leila

    The main purpose of this study was to describe elementary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward plant science. The secondary purpose was to create an edible plant curriculum as a vehicle for integrating STEM and 21st Century skills into Common Core Content. Results indicate that teachers and STEM coordinators did find the curriculum to be effective in teaching the interdisciplinary standard-based and inquiry based content and skills targeted. Additionally, the curriculum development process produced a hybrid design framework that facilitated the creation of life science content as a vehicle for integrating STEM into common core content. However, several significant barriers will need to be overcome with regard to the teachers', STEM coordinators' and administrators' perception that plant science and nutrition literacy are "special" content activities versus important STEM content. Keywords; STEM, Curriculum development, 21st Century skills, Common Core Content, Plant Science and Nutrition Literacy, Interdisciplinary Standard-based and inquiry based.

  14. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5. PMID:22318740

  15. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5.

  16. Evaluation of Two Globigerinoides ruber (white) Morphotypes in Paleoceanographic Reconstruction: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. A.; Flower, B. P.; Williams, C.

    2012-12-01

    Globigerinoides ruber is a relatively abundant low-latitude planktic foraminiferal species widely used as a geochemical proxy to reconstruct modern and past oceanographic conditions. In addition to the two color variants (pink and white), G. ruber (white) can be further subdivided into morphological variants. G. ruber sensu stricto (s.s.) has three increasingly large spherical chambers in the final whorl each forming symmetrically over the previous suture, high-arched apertures, and a relatively thin CaCO3 test. G. ruber sensu lato (s.l.) has compressed subspherical chambers forming asymmetrically over the previous suture, with compressed apertures, and thick test walls. These morphological differences indicate that G. ruber s.s. and G. ruber s.l. may occupy different ecological niches. Previous plankton tow and sediment trap studies show that G. ruber s.s. generally inhabits the upper 30 m of the water column, while G. ruber s.l. calcifies at depths up to 50 m. Core-top studies from the South China Sea reveal statistically significant differences in δ18O and Mg/Ca ratios between morphotypes, suggesting that modern G. ruber s.l. calcifies at cooler temperatures (0.8° to 2°C) and/or deeper depths than G. ruber s.s. One previous study further hypothesized that the difference in δ18O diminished to near 0‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of greater mixing in the upper water column due to intensified monsoon activity. Geochemical differences between G. ruber (white) morphotypes may therefore have important implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions. Here we present new stable isotope and trace element (δ18O and Mg/Ca) data from modern and fossil G. ruber (white) morphotypes, and compare our results with previously reported homogenized G. ruber (s.s.+ s.l.) data from core-tops and LGM (23 to 19 ka) sediments in Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico . Analyses were conducted on Orca Basin core MD02-2550 (26°56.78' N, 91°20.74' W; 2248 m water depth

  17. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  18. Evaluating anthropogenic N inputs to diverse lake basins: A case study of three Chinese lakes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Swaney, Dennis P; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-11-01

    The environmental degradation of lakes in China has become increasingly serious over the last 30 years and eutrophication resulting from enhanced nutrient inputs is considered a top threat. In this study, a quasi-mass balance method, net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), was introduced to assess the human influence on N input into three typical Chinese lake basins. The resultant NANI exceeded 10,000 kg N km(-2) year(-1) for all three basins, and mineral fertilizers were generally the largest sources. However, rapid urbanization and shrinking agricultural production capability may significantly increase N inputs from food and feed imports. Higher percentages of NANI were observed to be exported at urban river outlets, suggesting the acceleration of NANI transfer to rivers by urbanization. Over the last decade, the N inputs have declined in the basins dominated by the fertilizer use but have increased in the basins dominated by the food and feed import. In the foreseeable future, urban areas may arise as new hotspots for nitrogen in China while fertilizer use may decline in importance in areas of high population density.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of exercises for performing a forward handspring - case study.

    PubMed

    Zivčić-Marković, Kamenka; Sporiš, Goran; Cavar, Ines; Aleksić-Veljković, Aleksandra; Milanović, Zoran

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was based on the kinematic parameters, extracted at different stages of performing a forward handspring to determine the interconnection of methodological procedures of learning with the final structure of the movement. The respondent is an active competitor with years of experience, elite athlete, many times Croatian champion, and competitor at European, World Championships and the Olympics. The team composed of six gymnastic experts, chose one of the best performances by twelve methodological procedures and the best performance (of six) two-leg forward handsprings basing their choice on a detailed review of recorded material. Assessment of quality of performance was done according to the defined rules prescribed by the regulations (Code of Points). The forward handspring technique consists of four phases based on which 45 space and time kinematic parameters were selected (30 parameters in the phase of hand contact and push-off, 7 in the flight phase, and 8 parameters in the landing phase). By extraction of space and time parameters, there was a differentiation of certain methodological procedures that are the best for learning forward handspring in each phase of its performance. This research indicates that these methodological procedures mostly coincide in space kinematic parameters by which the technique of a forward handspring is described.

  20. Evaluating anthropogenic N inputs to diverse lake basins: A case study of three Chinese lakes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Swaney, Dennis P; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-11-01

    The environmental degradation of lakes in China has become increasingly serious over the last 30 years and eutrophication resulting from enhanced nutrient inputs is considered a top threat. In this study, a quasi-mass balance method, net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), was introduced to assess the human influence on N input into three typical Chinese lake basins. The resultant NANI exceeded 10,000 kg N km(-2) year(-1) for all three basins, and mineral fertilizers were generally the largest sources. However, rapid urbanization and shrinking agricultural production capability may significantly increase N inputs from food and feed imports. Higher percentages of NANI were observed to be exported at urban river outlets, suggesting the acceleration of NANI transfer to rivers by urbanization. Over the last decade, the N inputs have declined in the basins dominated by the fertilizer use but have increased in the basins dominated by the food and feed import. In the foreseeable future, urban areas may arise as new hotspots for nitrogen in China while fertilizer use may decline in importance in areas of high population density. PMID:25698057

  1. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics.

  2. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics. PMID:24355858

  3. Evaluation of hydrochemical changes due to intensive aquifer exploitation: case studies from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Rodríguez, R; Cardona, A; Padilla-Sánchez, L

    2012-09-01

    The impact of intensive aquifer exploitation has been observed in numerous places around the world. Mexico is a representative example of this problem. In 2010, 101 out of the 653 aquifers recognized in the country, showed negative social, economic, and environmental effects related to intensive exploitation. The environmental effects include, among others, groundwater level decline, subsidence, attenuation, and drying up of springs, decreased river flow, and deterioration of water quality. This study aimed at determining the hydrochemical changes produced by intensive aquifer exploitation and highlighting water quality modifications, taking as example the Valle de Toluca, Salamanca, and San Luis Potosi aquifers in Mexico's highlands. There, elements such as fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese have been detected, resulting from the introduction of older groundwater with longer residence times and distinctive chemical composition (regional flows). High concentrations of other elements such as chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and vanadium, as well as pathogens, all related to anthropogenic pollution sources (wastewater infiltration, irrigation return flow, and atmospheric pollutants, among others) were also observed. Some of these elements (nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese) have shown concentrations above Mexican and World Health Organization drinking water standards. PMID:21997844

  4. Distributional Analysis in Educational Evaluation: A Case Study from the New York City Voucher Program

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily; Hoynes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    We use quantile treatment effects estimation to examine the consequences of the random-assignment New York City School Choice Scholarship Program (NYCSCSP) across the distribution of student achievement. Our analyses suggest that the program had negligible and statistically insignificant effects across the skill distribution. In addition to contributing to the literature on school choice, the paper illustrates several ways in which distributional effects estimation can enrich educational research: First, we demonstrate that moving beyond a focus on mean effects estimation makes it possible to generate and test new hypotheses about the heterogeneity of educational treatment effects that speak to the justification for many interventions. Second, we demonstrate that distributional effects can uncover issues even with well-studied datasets by forcing analysts to view their data in new ways. Finally, such estimates highlight where in the overall national achievement distribution test scores of children exposed to particular interventions lie; this is important for exploring the external validity of the intervention’s effects. PMID:26207158

  5. Evaluation of hydrochemical changes due to intensive aquifer exploitation: case studies from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Rodríguez, R; Cardona, A; Padilla-Sánchez, L

    2012-09-01

    The impact of intensive aquifer exploitation has been observed in numerous places around the world. Mexico is a representative example of this problem. In 2010, 101 out of the 653 aquifers recognized in the country, showed negative social, economic, and environmental effects related to intensive exploitation. The environmental effects include, among others, groundwater level decline, subsidence, attenuation, and drying up of springs, decreased river flow, and deterioration of water quality. This study aimed at determining the hydrochemical changes produced by intensive aquifer exploitation and highlighting water quality modifications, taking as example the Valle de Toluca, Salamanca, and San Luis Potosi aquifers in Mexico's highlands. There, elements such as fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese have been detected, resulting from the introduction of older groundwater with longer residence times and distinctive chemical composition (regional flows). High concentrations of other elements such as chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and vanadium, as well as pathogens, all related to anthropogenic pollution sources (wastewater infiltration, irrigation return flow, and atmospheric pollutants, among others) were also observed. Some of these elements (nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese) have shown concentrations above Mexican and World Health Organization drinking water standards.

  6. Habitat evaluation using GIS a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrard, R.; Stine, P.; Church, R.; Gilpin, M.

    2001-01-01

    Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species' abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value, using the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) of California (USA) as an example. Over the last 30 years, many field studies and surveys have enhanced our knowledge of the life history, behavior, and needs of the kit fox, which has been proposed as an umbrella or indicator species for grassland habitat in the San Joaquin Valley of California. There has yet been no attempt to convert much of this field knowledge into a model of spatial habitat value useful for planning purposes. This is a significant omission given the importance and visibility of the imperiled kit fox and increasing trends toward spatially explicit modeling and planning. In this paper we apply data from northern California to derive a small-cell GIS raster of habitat value for the kit fox that incorporates both intrinsic habitat quality and neighborhood context, as well the effects of barriers such as roads. Such a product is a useful basis for assessing the presence and amounts of good (and poor) quality habitat and for eventually constructing GIS representations of viable animal territories that could be included in future reserves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Self-evaluation System for Low carbon Industrial Park--A Case Study of TEDA Industrial Park in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenyan, W.; Fanghua, H.; Ying, C.; Ouyang, W.; Yuan, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Massive fossil fuel burning caused by industrialization development is one major reason of global climate change. After Copenhagen climate summit, the studies of low-carbon city gain attentions from many countries. On 25th Nov. 2009, the State Council executive meeting announced that by 2020 China will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% compared with the level of 2005. Industrial Park as an important part of city, has developed rapidly in recent years, and turns into a key element and an alternative mechanism to achieve emission reduction target. Thus, establishing a low carbon development model for industrial park is one of the most effective ways to build sustainable low carbon cities. By adopting the self-evaluation system of low carbon industrial park, this research aims to summarize the low carbon concept in industrial park practice. According to The Guide for Low Carbon Industrial Development Zones, the quantitative evaluation system is divided into 4 separate categories with 23 different quantitative indicators. The 4 categories include: 1) energy and GHG management (weigh 60%), 2) circular economy and environmental protection (weigh 15%), 3) administration and incentive mechanisms of industrial parks (weigh 15%), and 4) planning and urban forms (weigh 10%). By going through the necessary stages and by leading continuous improvements low carbon development goals can be achieved. Tianjin TEDA industrial park is selected as one case study to conduct an assessment on TEDA low-carbon development condition. Tianjin TEDA Industrial Park is already an ecological demonstration industrial park in China, with good foundations on environmental protection, resource recycling, etc. Based on the self-evaluation system, the indicators, such as the energy using efficiency and the degree of land intensive utilization, are also analyzed and assessed. Through field survey and data collection, in accordance with the quantitative self-evaluation

  8. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  9. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  10. Evaluation of WRF-CHEM Model: A case study of Air Pollution Episode in Istanbul Metropolitan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydınöz, Esra; Gürer, Kemal; Toros, Hüseyin

    2014-05-01

    constructing this abstract, the model runs were still being conducted and the results will be discussed at the conference. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for the air quality data. This study is a background of the online integrated air quality and meteorology modeling project funding by the TUBITAK (Project No: 111Y319) and COST Action ES1004.

  11. Understanding and Evaluating Assurance Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Xu, Xidong; Rangarajan, Murali; Weaver, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Assurance cases are a method for providing assurance for a system by giving an argument to justify a claim about the system, based on evidence about its design, development, and tested behavior. In comparison with assurance based on guidelines or standards (which essentially specify only the evidence to be produced), the chief novelty in assurance cases is provision of an explicit argument. In principle, this can allow assurance cases to be more finely tuned to the specific circumstances of the system, and more agile than guidelines in adapting to new techniques and applications. The first part of this report (Sections 1-4) provides an introduction to assurance cases. Although this material should be accessible to all those with an interest in these topics, the examples focus on software for airborne systems, traditionally assured using the DO-178C guidelines and its predecessors. A brief survey of some existing assurance cases is provided in Section 5. The second part (Section 6) considers the criteria, methods, and tools that may be used to evaluate whether an assurance case provides sufficient confidence that a particular system or service is fit for its intended use. An assurance case cannot provide unequivocal "proof" for its claim, so much of the discussion focuses on the interpretation of such less-than-definitive arguments, and on methods to counteract confirmation bias and other fallibilities in human reasoning.

  12. Study on ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation based on cloud model: a case study of Miaotan town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-lin; Fan, Min; Yang, Xiao-yu; Liu, Hui

    2008-10-01

    Combining the basic theory of cloud model and the process of ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation, the author constructs the rule of ecological impact evaluation and the cloud models of the antecedent and the consequent, by translating the uncertain factor conditions into quantitative values with the uncertain illation based on cloud model, computes the evaluation factor scores and comprehensive scores of MiaoTan, and then, comparing the results with composite index computation method and fuzzy comprehensive assessment, a feasible method used in Ecological Impact Evaluation for Land Consolidation is proposed.

  13. Approaches and Obstacles to the Evaluation of Investment in Continuing Vocational Training: Discussion and Case Studies from Six Member States of the European Union. CEDEFOP Panorama. Discussion Paper/Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Uwe; Moraal, Dick; Sorensen, John Houman; Luttringer, Jean-Marie; Pasco, Nicolas; Kohler, Alexander; Barrett, Alan; O'Connell, Philip; Garibaldo, Francesco; Lorenzoni, Stefan; Mandl, Dieter

    This report summarizes six case studies on different aspects of the issue of evaluating investing in continuing vocational training (CVT). Part 1 (chapters 1-2) contains "Conceptual Introduction" (Jean-Marie Luttringer), which explores practical problems in considering training expenses as an investment, and "Methodological Introduction" (Alan…

  14. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  15. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  16. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  17. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. Incidental Nodal Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Is Not a Harbinger of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Study of 19 Cases with Evaluation of Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Schoolmeester, J. Kenneth; Park, Kay J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a proliferation of perivascular epithelioid cells typically affecting the lung as a low grade, destructive and progressive disease, but may also be found in lymph nodes and other organs. LAM is sometimes seen as an incidental finding in lymph node dissections performed for staging of gynecologic tumors. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the clinical significance of incidental nodal LAM in relation to subsequent development of pulmonary LAM. We identified 19 patients from our institution with LAM in lymph nodes. Follow up was available for 100% of patients and ranged from 3 to 123 months (mean 33.8 months). All were women and ages ranged from 35 to 71 years (mean 56.3). None had a history of tuberous sclerosis, renal angiomyolipoma or pulmonary LAM. LAM involvement spanned 1 to 6 nodes (mean 2) ranging from 1 to 100% of the total excised lymph nodes. The single largest focus of nodal LAM ranged from 1 to 9 mm (mean 4.3) in 18 patients without evidence of persistent or recurrent nodal LAM. In the one patient with persistent local nodal LAM, the greatest diameter was 25 mm. Affected lymph node sites were regional pelvic and retroperitoneal chains routinely sampled in staging operations. An immunohisotchemical panel of HMB45, A103 and β-catenin was evaluated in 18 cases. HMB45 showed strong, but usually focal staining in every case compared to A103 which was very focally expressed (39%) or negative. β-catenin showed strong, diffuse cytoplasmic and membranous (nonnuclear) reactivity in 100% of cases. At last clinic visit, all 19 patients had no manifestations of pulmonary LAM. In an absence of signs of symptoms of extranodal LAM, patients with incidentally discovered nodal LAM smaller than 10 mm are not at risk for developing pulmonary LAM. PMID:26135558

  19. Half-day release in vocational GP training: a case study of redesign based on qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Carolyn

    2010-11-01

    Mindful of the changes to general practice (GP) and GP training over recent years, one vocational training scheme (VTS) decided to thoroughly evaluate its long-running half-day release scheme to decide if it remained fit for purpose, and to plan and implement changes in the light of findings. A literature review was first carried out to ascertain what is known about the contribution that day release and half-day release (HDR) programmes make to GP training. Little has been published on content or evaluation but there is varied experience of incorporating release training into hospital training. This case study reports the views of trainers and trainees on the HDR at Tees Valley Vocational Training Scheme, and the resultant changes made to this HDR programme by the participants. Trainers mostly valued their commitment to HDR small group teaching for their personal development as teachers and for the opportunity to 'keep in touch' with trainees during their hospital posts. Trainees were positive about the HDR programme, but requested more continuity. The plan that evolved is to continue weekly HDR throughout the training programme, keeping trainees in the same small group for three years. In ST1 and ST3 years one programme director per group facilitates each session, maintaining consistency over the year, and liaising with specialists around content. Trainers each teach two sessions in ST2 year. Elective sessions are planned for extended training.

  20. The Impacts of Using a Collaborative Evaluation Approach in Higher Education: A Case Study of Local YMCAs Providing College Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Johnavae E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation offers a case study of the YMCA of the USA's pilot Higher Education Service Project (YHESP) with 61 local YMCAs on how the collaborative evaluation approach functioned to facilitate an organizational culture around evaluation and reinvention strategies of YMCAs as college access service providers. Multiple data collection sources…

  1. DUE PERMAFROST: A Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation Case Studies and Intercomparison with Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Bartsch, Annett; Elger, Kirsten; Rinke, Annette; Klehmet, Katharina; Matthes, Heidrun; Gellhorn, Catrin; Buchhorn, Marcel; Soliman, Aiman; Duguay, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project provides a Circumpolar remote sensing service for permafrost-related applications. The data products are freely downloadable (http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost) and published at the PANGAEA World Data Centre (DUE Permafrost Project Consortium, 2012). Remote sensing products are land surface temperature, surface soil moisture, ground frozen/non frozen state, terrain parameters, land cover parameters, and surface waters. Snow parameters (snow extent and snow water equivalent) can be derived from the DUE project GlobSnow (http://www.globsnow.info). The time series of Circumpolar land surface temperature and surface soil moisture offer weekly and monthly averaged data products from 2007 to 2010, Circumpolar ground frozen/non frozen state is provided as daily dataset. The ongoing service will also include the time series of 2011 and 2012. The Circumpolar terrain and land cover products are static, e.g. the first Circumpolar Digital Elevation Model (DEM) north of 55° N with a spatial resolution of 100 m (S. Maurizio & T. Strozzi, 2012). Evaluation is crucial to test the scientific validity of the DUE Permafrost data products for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. The primary programme providing ground data is the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA) in the 1990s. The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the remote sensing derived products make the DUE Permafrost products widely accepted by the scientific community. Evaluation case studies of DUE Permafrost remote-sensing derived products (e.g., land surface temperature and ground frozen/non frozen state) show good agreement with ground data from GTN-P monitoring sites in Alaska and Siberia. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale Klimaänderungen/Regional climate change) is a climate research program where regional observations and

  2. The Effectiveness of Professional Development in Teaching Writing-to-Learn Strategies for Science: An Evaluative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchuk, Deborah A.

    With the adoption of the Common Core Learning Standards and the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, New York State students are expected to write in science classes with science writing assessments becoming an indicator of grade level literacy proficiency. The introduction of these assessments raises questions concerning the readiness of teachers to help students learn the skills needed in order to be successful on standardized tests. While such mandates stress the need for incorporating writing into the classroom, few secondary science teachers receive content-specific training in how to teach writing strategies; rather, they often receive the same professional development as their non-science colleagues. This evaluative case study examined how eight secondary science teachers in the Hyde Park Central School District perceived student outcomes as they focused on identifying the challenges encountered and overcome by transferring writing-to-learn (WTL) strategies into the classroom. Targeted professional development (PD) allowed the group of eight secondary science teachers to research WTL strategies, practice them in the classroom, and assess their success through personal and collegial reflection. The results of this study showed a positive correlation between introducing low-stakes writing in the science classroom and increased student understanding of the content presented, that short low-stakes writing prompts helped the students focus on thinking and organizing their thoughts in the science settings (Totten, 2005), and that the secondary science teachers participating in this study perceived the inclusion writing in the classroom to have a positive effect on student outcomes.

  3. Evaluation of community-driven smallholder irrigation in dryland South Pare Mountains, Tanzania: A case study of Manoo micro dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Mul, M. L.; Vyagusa, N. F.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Water is the main limiting factor for crop production in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of community-driven smallholder irrigation schemes using micro dams under current operational practices. The research site is the semi-arid Vudee sub-catchment within the Makanya Catchment, which is part of the Pangani River Basin (Northern Tanzania). A micro dam is presented as a case study. Micro dams are popular in the study area they have water sharing system between upstream and downstream users put in place with minimum input from external agencies. The effectiveness of micro dams on dry spell mitigation is investigated. The significance of dam size, total water diverted per season, system losses and approximate amounts of water received by each farmer in a given season is analysed. Local smallholder farmers have put up the micro dams to address their need for extra water for agriculture. The capacities of the micro dams are very small but without them there is insufficient water to allocate to at least one irrigation event per farmer in a season, the dams serve a useful purpose when operated as night storage reservoirs. The study found out that the micro dam system, under current operational rules, is inefficient as the high system losses put to question the wisdom of irrigating over scattered sites as opposed to one common irrigation plot near the dam site where each participant would be allocated a small piece of land to irrigate.

  4. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  5. Natural water as the test medium for Ag and CuO nanoparticle hazard evaluation: An interlaboratory case study.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Muna, Marge; Knöbel, Melanie; Kistler, David; Odzak, Niksa; Kühnel, Dana; Müller, Josefine; Gupta, Govind Sharan; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shanker, Rishi; Sigg, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have realistic potential of reaching natural waterbodies and of exerting toxicity to freshwater organisms. The toxicity may be influenced by the composition of natural waters as crucial NP properties are influenced by water constituents. To tackle this issue, a case study was set up in the framework of EU FP7 NanoValid project, performing an interlaboratory hazard evaluation of NPs in natural freshwater. Ag and CuO NPs were selected as model NPs because of their potentially high toxicity in the freshwater. Daphnia magna (OECD202) and Danio rerio embryo (OECD236) assays were used to evaluate NP toxicity in natural water, sampled from Lake Greifen and Lake Lucerne (Switzerland). Dissolution of the NPs was evaluated by ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and metal specific sensor bacteria. Ag NP size was stable in natural water while CuO NPs agglomerated and settled rapidly. Ag NP suspensions contained a large fraction of Ag(+) ions and CuO NP suspensions had low concentration of Cu(2+) ions. Ag NPs were very toxic (48 h EC50 1-5.5 μg Ag/L) to D. magna as well as to D. rerio embryos (96 h EC50 8.8-61 μg Ag/L) in both standard media and natural waters with results in good agreement between laboratories. CuO NP toxicity to D. magna differed significantly between the laboratories with 48 h EC50 0.9-11 mg Cu/L in standard media, 5.7-75 mg Cu/L in Lake Greifen and 5.5-26 mg Cu/L in Lake Lucerne. No toxicity of CuO NP to zebrafish embryos was detected up to 100 mg/L independent of the medium used. The results show that Ag and CuO NP toxicity may be higher in natural water than in the standard media due to differences in composition. NP environmental hazard evaluation can and should be carried out in natural water to obtain more realistic estimates on the toxicity.

  6. Natural water as the test medium for Ag and CuO nanoparticle hazard evaluation: An interlaboratory case study.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Muna, Marge; Knöbel, Melanie; Kistler, David; Odzak, Niksa; Kühnel, Dana; Müller, Josefine; Gupta, Govind Sharan; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shanker, Rishi; Sigg, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have realistic potential of reaching natural waterbodies and of exerting toxicity to freshwater organisms. The toxicity may be influenced by the composition of natural waters as crucial NP properties are influenced by water constituents. To tackle this issue, a case study was set up in the framework of EU FP7 NanoValid project, performing an interlaboratory hazard evaluation of NPs in natural freshwater. Ag and CuO NPs were selected as model NPs because of their potentially high toxicity in the freshwater. Daphnia magna (OECD202) and Danio rerio embryo (OECD236) assays were used to evaluate NP toxicity in natural water, sampled from Lake Greifen and Lake Lucerne (Switzerland). Dissolution of the NPs was evaluated by ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and metal specific sensor bacteria. Ag NP size was stable in natural water while CuO NPs agglomerated and settled rapidly. Ag NP suspensions contained a large fraction of Ag(+) ions and CuO NP suspensions had low concentration of Cu(2+) ions. Ag NPs were very toxic (48 h EC50 1-5.5 μg Ag/L) to D. magna as well as to D. rerio embryos (96 h EC50 8.8-61 μg Ag/L) in both standard media and natural waters with results in good agreement between laboratories. CuO NP toxicity to D. magna differed significantly between the laboratories with 48 h EC50 0.9-11 mg Cu/L in standard media, 5.7-75 mg Cu/L in Lake Greifen and 5.5-26 mg Cu/L in Lake Lucerne. No toxicity of CuO NP to zebrafish embryos was detected up to 100 mg/L independent of the medium used. The results show that Ag and CuO NP toxicity may be higher in natural water than in the standard media due to differences in composition. NP environmental hazard evaluation can and should be carried out in natural water to obtain more realistic estimates on the toxicity. PMID:27357482

  7. Evaluation of operational, economic, and environmental performance of mixed and selective collection of municipal solid waste: Porto case study.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Carlos A; Russo, Mário; Matos, Cristina; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    This article describes an accurate methodology for an operational, economic, and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste collection. The proposed methodological tool uses key performance indicators to evaluate independent operational and economic efficiency and performance of municipal solid waste collection practices. These key performance indicators are then used in life cycle inventories and life cycle impact assessment. Finally, the life cycle assessment environmental profiles provide the environmental assessment. We also report a successful application of this tool through a case study in the Portuguese city of Porto. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the methodological tool to real cases. Some of the findings focus a significant difference between average mixed and selective collection effective distance (2.14 km t(-1); 16.12 km t(-1)), fuel consumption (3.96 L t(-1); 15.37 L t(-1)), crew productivity (0.98 t h(-1) worker(-1); 0.23 t h(-1) worker(-1)), cost (45.90 € t(-1); 241.20 € t(-1)), and global warming impact (19.95 kg CO2eq t(-1); 57.47 kg CO2eq t(-1)). Preliminary results consistently indicate: (a) higher global performance of mixed collection as compared with selective collection; (b) dependency of collection performance, even in urban areas, on the waste generation rate and density; (c) the decline of selective collection performances with decreasing source-separated material density and recycling collection rate; and (d) that the main threats to collection route efficiency are the extensive collection distances, high fuel consumption vehicles, and reduced crew productivity. PMID:25369976

  8. An application of a hybrid MCDM method for the evaluation of entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rostamzadeh, Reza; Ismail, Kamariah; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM) techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement. PMID:25197707

  9. An application of a hybrid MCDM method for the evaluation of entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rostamzadeh, Reza; Ismail, Kamariah; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM) techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement.

  10. Occupational exposures, animal exposure and smoking as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia evaluated in a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, M.; Hardell, L.; Magnuson, A.; Hagberg, H.; Rask-Andersen, A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), a population-based case-control study on 121 male HCL patients and 484 controls matched for age and sex was conducted. Elevated odds ratio (OR) was found for exposure to farm animals in general: OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2. The ORs were elevated for exposure to cattle, horse, hog, poultry and sheep. Exposure to herbicides (OR 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9), insecticides (OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.5), fungicides (OR 3.8, CI 1.4-9.9) and impregnating agents (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.6) also showed increased risk. Certain findings suggested that recall bias may have affected the results for farm animals, herbicides and insecticides. Exposure to organic solvents yielded elevated risk (OR 1.5, CI 0.99-2.3), as did exposure to exhaust fumes (OR 2.1, CI 1.3-3.3). In an additional multivariate model, the ORs remained elevated for all these exposures with the exception of insecticides. We found a reduced risk for smokers with OR 0.6 (CI 0.4-1.1) because of an effect among non-farmers. PMID:9667691

  11. Evaluating the effects of mountain resort development on snowmelt and runoff production: a case study from northern New England, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peral, A.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, significant developments at mountain resorts in northern New England, USA have occurred to maintain competitiveness with western (USA) ski resorts. This development has included expansion of trail networks and snowmaking and development of resort base infrastructure, including housing, retail and amenities. Permitting these developments has posed particular challenges for predicting the effects of development on runoff and water quality. In this study, we describe efforts to model the effects of ski area development on snowmelt and runoff using a distributed rainfall-runoff model. Our test cases include a forested control watershed and an adjacent watershed encompassing a premier New England alpine ski resort. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences in spring snowmelt and annual water yield between the watersheds. We are evaluating the performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to model snowmelt and runoff from these watersheds in order to assess its utility for predicting changes in runoff associated with resort development. We use distributed snow pack measurements to validate model simulations of snow accumulation and melt. Our results replicate observed patterns of runoff production in the watershed and can be used to test the effects of alternate development schemes on spring stream flow and annual water yield.

  12. Evaluating performance of a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) in a low-income country: a case study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ahmed, Aizaz

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively. PMID:23631447

  13. A case study of the evaluation and application of NO/sub x/ control systems to internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Rouge, J.D.; Zarytkiewicz, E.D.; Thomas, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Champlin Petroleum Company - Production Department (Champlin) operates a large oil production operation in the Wilmington, California field in the Los Angeles area. The nature of the produced oil reservoirs has resulted in evaluating and planning several enhanced oil recovery projects, including a major steam drive project and expansion of an existing CO/sub 2/ injection projects. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is responsible for stationary sources of air pollution in the greater metropolitan Los Angeles area. The SCAQMD new source review rule requires that emissions of air contaminants from new or modified sources be controlled through application of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and that emissions after control be offset by the control of emissions from existing sources. The enhanced oil recovery projects being considered by Champlin would result in several sources of air pollution, even after application of BACT, consequently, Champlin recognized the need for obtaining extensive emissions offsets. Champlin proposed and is implementing a program for reducing NO/sub x/, CO, and HC emissions from existing rich-burn internal combustion engines. This paper presents a case study of the selection and application of non-selective catalytic reduction systems for Caterpillar, Waukesha, and White Superior engines.

  14. An Application of a Hybrid MCDM Method for the Evaluation of Entrepreneurial Intensity among the SMEs: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Kamariah; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM) techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement. PMID:25197707

  15. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Reactive-Dispersive Plume Model: TexAQS II 2006 Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Chul Han

    2015-04-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a reactive-dispersive plume model (RDPM) that combines a photo-chemistry model with a plume dilution driven by turbulent dispersion of a power-plant plume. The plume transport and turbulent dispersion are derived from a Gaussian plume model and the plume chemistry model uses 71 HxOy-NxOy-CH4 chemistry-related reactions and 184 NMHC-related reactions. Emissions from large-scale point sources have continuously increased due to the rapid industrial growth. To extensively understand and assess atmospheric impacts of the power-plant emissions, a general RDPM was applied to simultaneously simulate the dynamics and photo-chemistry of the Texas power-plant plumes. During the second Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS II 2006) on 16 September 2006, pollutant concentrations were measured by NOAA WP-3D aircraft with successive transects across power-plant plumes in Texas, USA. The simulation performances of the RDPM were evaluated by a comparison study, using the observation data obtained from the measurements of a NOAA WP-3D flight during TexAQS II 2006 airborne field campaign. On 16 September, the WP-3D aircraft observed mainly meteorological parameters and particulate species concentrations, traversing the Monticello and Welsh power-plant plumes four times from transects A to D. In addition, some meteorological variables in an initial condition for model simulation were obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model output for the specific objects. These power-plant plume cases were selected in this study, because a large number of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide concentrations inside the power-plant plumes were measured without any interruption of other emission sources. For the Monticello and Welsh power-plant plumes, the model-predicted concentrations showed good agreements with the observed concentrations of ambient species (e.g., nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, etc.) at the four transects. Based

  17. Developing a Tool to Evaluate Differences in Beliefs about Science Teaching and Learning among Freshman Science Student Teachers from Different Science Teaching Domains: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo; Valanides, Nicos

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot case study on developing a qualitative tool to evaluate science student teachers' beliefs concerning science teaching and learning. The study is based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in a typical classroom situation and four open questions. Data was collected from 104 freshman science student teachers, and…

  18. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  19. Development and Evaluation of English Listening Study Materials for Business People Who Use Mobile Devices: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Masanori; Kitamura, Satoshi; Shimada, Noriko; Utashiro, Takafumi; Shigeta, Katsusuke; Yamaguchi, Etsuji; Harrison, Richard; Yamauchi, Yuhei; Nakahara, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effectiveness of English language materials using mobile devices for business people in terms of the effect on motivation, overall learning performance, and practical performance in real business situations. We compared the use of materials developed from business English for a sales department in a company…

  20. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  1. Teaching for Transformative Experiences and Conceptual Change: A Case Study and Evaluation of a High School Biology Teacher's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin J.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Manzey, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model is designed to foster transformative experiences (e.g., experiences with science content involving the application of that content in ways that expand perception and value in everyday experience). This study presents a case study of a high school biology teacher learning to…

  2. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume III: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. The case studies which comprise this volume function as a brief organizational analysis of the Mulligan Stew effort at…

  3. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  4. Program Evaluation of the English Language Proficiency Program for Foreign Students a Case Study: University of the East, Manila Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimi, Esmaeel Ali; Farsi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This study on evaluating an English program of studies for foreign students seeking admission to the UE Graduate School attempts to examine the prevailing conditions of foreign students in the UE Graduate School with respect to their competence and competitiveness in English proficiency. It looks into the existing English programs of studies in…

  5. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  6. Monitoring iCCM: a feasibility study of the indicator guide for monitoring and evaluating integrated community case management

    PubMed Central

    Roberton, Timothy; Kasungami, Dyness; Guenther, Tanya; Hazel, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have now adopted integrated community case management (iCCM) of common childhood illnesses as a strategy to improve child health. In March 2014, the iCCM Task Force published an Indicator Guide for Monitoring and Evaluating iCCM: a ‘menu’ of recommended indicators with globally agreed definitions and methodology, to guide countries in developing robust iCCM monitoring systems. The Indicator Guide was conceived as an evolving document that would incorporate collective experience and learning as iCCM programmes themselves evolve. This article presents findings from two studies that examined the feasibility of collecting the Indicator Guide’s 18 routine monitoring indicators with the iCCM monitoring systems that countries currently have in place. We reviewed iCCM monitoring tools, protocols and reports from a purposive sample of 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a scorecard system to assess which of the Indicator Guide’s 18 routine monitoring indicators could be calculated with the given monitoring tools, and at which level of the health system the relevant information would be available. We found that the data needed to calculate many of the Indicator Guide’s routine monitoring indicators are already being collected through existing monitoring systems, although much of these data are only available at health facility level and not aggregated to district or national levels. Our results highlight challenge of using supervision checklists as a data source, and the need for countries to maintain accurate deployment data for CHWs and CHW supervisors. We suggest that some of the recommended indicators need revising. Routine monitoring will be more feasible, effective and efficient if iCCM programmes focus on a smaller set of high-value indicators that are easy to measure, reliably interpreted and useful both for global and national stakeholders and for frontline health workers themselves. PMID:26758538

  7. [Case and studies].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  8. The Evaluation of the Studies Related to the New Curriculum of Physics Course: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to state the points when choosing a method in studies concerning physics course new curriculum by evaluating researches whose topics are secondary physics course curriculum (in Turkey) in terms of subject, objective, method and consequences. 24 researches conducted within the lines of secondary physics course curriculum…

  9. An Evaluation of the Use of Case Studies in Economics at Advanced Level in Schools. Research Papers in Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, N. J.

    It is hypothesized that, in comparison to the traditional approach, the case studies approach is a more effective way to teach the concept of elasticity of demand. The sample consisted of 26 students, with an average age of 16 years, 9.3 months, who were enrolled in an advanced economics course in an English boy's school. The students were divided…

  10. Quality Management: An "Essential Attributes" Approach. A Case Study towards a Sustainable Model of Course Effectiveness Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Francis S.

    2005-01-01

    Education of potential professional engineers should take account of the type of employment that they will eventually obtain. The quality of an engineering degree course can be judged by assessing whether the correct balance of "essential attributes" has been effectively obtained. This case study is concerned with assessing the balance of…

  11. BladeRunners and Picasso Cafe: A Case Study Evaluation of Two Work-Based Training Programs for Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Sheila; Foley, Kelly; Schwartz, Saul; Taylor-Lewis, Musu

    In 1998, Canada's Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) conducted case studies of two work-based training and skill development programs for street youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. The BladeRunners program places youth on construction sites while encouraging them to work toward an apprenticeship in the building trades. The…

  12. Pathways for Success in Developing a Nature Trail at a Zoo: A Mixed-Methods Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Modern zoos serve as tourist attractions and recreational facilities, while providing educational outreach programs in ecology, conservation, and animal needs. However, in the 21st century, there has been a negative backlash of people associating zoos with animals being shut away in cages or pits. This case study included an examination of the…

  13. Pulling Together: Keeping Track of Pedagogy, Design and Evaluation Through the Development of Scenarios--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Josie; Evans, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes the multipurpose use of scenarios in a large multinational research project (MOBIlearn) whose aims are to design and develop a pedagogically sound mobile learning environment. Maintaining effective communication and design focus in large consortia is a well-known problem (see Carroll, 2000), and we describe the role of…

  14. A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS FROM CLOSED OR ABANDONED FACILITIES--SOUTH KINGSTOWN, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a case study that applies EPA/600/R-05/123a, the guidance for conducting air pathway analyses of landfill gas emissions that are of interest to superfund remedial project managers, on-scene coordinators, facility owners, and potentially responsible parties. T...

  15. Work Sharing Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maureen E.; And Others

    Designed to provide private sector employers with the practical information necessary to select and then to design and implement work sharing arrangements, this book presents case studies of some 36 work sharing programs. Topics covered in the case studies include the circumstances leading to adoption of the program, details of compensation and…

  16. Case Study: Challenging Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…

  17. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  18. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised.

  19. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through a variety…

  20. Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

    Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The

  1. Use of Viremia to Evaluate the Baseline Case Fatality Ratio of Ebola Virus Disease and Inform Treatment Studies: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Magassouba, N’Faly; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Koivogui, Lamine; Diallo, Boubacar; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Keita, Sakoba; Konde, Mandy Kader; Fowler, Robert; Fall, Gamou; Cauchemez, Simon; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2015-01-01

    Background The case fatality ratio (CFR) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) can vary over time and space for reasons that are not fully understood. This makes it difficult to define the baseline CFRs needed to evaluate treatments in the absence of randomized controls. Here, we investigate whether viremia in EVD patients may be used to evaluate baseline EVD CFRs. Methods and Findings We analyzed the laboratory and epidemiological records of patients with EVD confirmed by reverse transcription PCR hospitalized in the Conakry area, Guinea, between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015. We used viremia and other variables to model the CFR. Data for 699 EVD patients were analyzed. In the week following symptom onset, mean viremia remained stable, and the CFR increased with viremia, V, from 21% (95% CI 16%–27%) for low viremia (V < 104.4 copies/ml) to 53% (95% CI 44%–61%) for intermediate viremia (104.4 ≤ V < 105.2 copies/ml) and 81% (95% CI 75%–87%) for high viremia (V ≥ 105.2 copies/ml). Compared to adults (15–44 y old [y.o.]), the CFR was larger in young children (0–4 y.o.) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% CI 1.02–5.86) and older adults (≥45 y.o.) (OR: 2.84; 95% CI 1.81–4.46) but lower in children (5–14 y.o.) (OR: 0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.86). An order of magnitude increase in mean viremia in cases after July 2014 compared to those before coincided with a 14% increase in the CFR. Our findings come from a large hospital-based study in Conakry and may not be generalizable to settings with different case profiles, such as with individuals who never sought care. Conclusions Viremia in EVD patients was a strong predictor of death that partly explained variations in CFR in the study population. This study provides baseline CFRs by viremia group, which allow appropriate adjustment when estimating efficacy in treatment studies. In randomized controlled trials, stratifying analysis on viremia groups could reduce sample size requirements by 25%. We hypothesize that

  2. Responsive Evaluation as a Guide to Design and Implementation: Case Study of an E-Health Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Kim, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the design and implementation of a web-based e-health application offers an opportunity to apply extensive research findings and evidence-based practices from the learning and performance literature. In this study, we examined how interactions between stakeholders influenced the design, implementation, and outcomes of an e-health…

  3. Trends in EFL Technology and Educational Coding: A Case Study of an Evaluation Application Developed on LiveCode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehara, Suwako; Noriega, Edgar Josafat Martinez

    2016-01-01

    The availability of user-friendly coding software is increasing, yet teachers might hesitate to use this technology to develop for educational needs. This paper discusses studies related to technology for educational uses and introduces an evaluation application being developed. Through questionnaires by student users and open-ended discussion by…

  4. Usability Testing and Expert Inspections Complemented by Educational Evaluation: A Case Study of an e-Learning Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granic, Andrina; Cukusic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive usability study conducted within the context of a Europe-wide project. The design of the evaluated e-learning platform is based on an innovative approach to the education of young Europeans by integrating into the curricula of a Europe-wide network of 14 schools different state-of-the-art technologies in…

  5. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report.

  6. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report. PMID:25898073

  7. Evaluating the improvements of the BOLAM meteorological model operational at ISPRA: A case study approach - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Lastoria, B.; Accadia, C.; Flavoni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Fritsch. A fully updated serial version of the BOLAM code has been recently acquired. Code improvements include a more precise advection scheme (Weighted Average Flux); explicit advection of five hydrometeors, and state-of-the-art parameterization schemes for radiation, convection, boundary layer turbulence and soil processes (also with possible choice among different available schemes). The operational implementation of the new code into the SIMM model chain, which requires the development of a parallel version, will be achieved during 2009. In view of this goal, the comparative verification of the different model versions' skill represents a fundamental task. On this purpose, it has been decided to evaluate the performance improvement of the new BOLAM code (in the available serial version, hereinafter BOLAM 2007) with respect to the version with the Kain-Fritsch scheme (hereinafter KF version) and to the older one employing the Kuo scheme (hereinafter Kuo version). In the present work, verification of precipitation forecasts from the three BOLAM versions is carried on in a case study approach. The intense rainfall episode occurred on 10th - 17th December 2008 over Italy has been considered. This event produced indeed severe damages in Rome and its surrounding areas. Objective and subjective verification methods have been employed in order to evaluate model performance against an observational dataset including rain gauge observations and satellite imagery. Subjective comparison of observed and forecast precipitation fields is suitable to give an overall description of the forecast quality. Spatial errors (e.g., shifting and pattern errors) and rainfall volume error can be assessed quantitatively by means of object-oriented methods. By comparing satellite images with model forecast fields, it is possible to investigate the differences between the evolution of the observed weather system and the predicted ones, and its sensitivity to the improvements in the model code

  8. Partners for the optimal organisation of the healthcare continuum for high users of health and social services: protocol of a developmental evaluation case study design

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Couture, Martine; Brousselle, Astrid; Couture, Eva Marjorie; Dubois, Marie-France; Fortin, Martin; Freund, Tobias; Loignon, Christine; Mireault, Jean; Pluye, Pierre; Roberge, Pasquale; Rodriguez, Charo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Case management allows us to respond to the complex needs of a vulnerable clientele through a structured approach that promotes enhanced interaction between partners. Syntheses on the subject converge towards a need for a better description of the relationships between programmes and their local context, as well as the characteristics of the clienteles and programmes that contribute to positive impacts. The purpose of this project is thus to describe and evaluate the case management programmes of four health and social services centres in the Saguenay-Lac- Saint-Jean region of Québec, Canada, in order to inform their improvement while creating knowledge on case management that can be useful in other contexts. Methods and analysis This research relies on a multiple embedded case study design based on a developmental evaluation approach. We will work with the case management programme for high users of hospital services of each centre. Three different units of analysis will be interwoven to obtain an in-depth understanding of each case, that is: (1) health and social services centre and local services network, (2) case management programme and (3) patients who are high users of services. Two strategies for programme evaluation (logic models and implementation analysis) will guide the mixed data collection based on qualitative and quantitative methods. This data collection will rely on: (1) individual interviews and focus groups; (2) participant observation; (3) document analysis; (4) clinical and administrative data and (5) questionnaires. Description and comparison of cases, and integration of qualitative and quantitative data will be used to guide the data analysis. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Research Boards of the four health and social services centres (HSSCs) involved. Findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and policy and practice partners in local and

  9. Evaluation of maternal mortality cases in the province of Elazig, Turkey, 2007-2013: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Burcin Kavak, Salih; Celik Kavak, Ebru; Demirel, Ismail; Turkoglu, Abdurrahim; Halil Akkus, Ibrahim; Ilhan, Rasit; Kaplan, Selcuk

    2014-08-31

    The aim of this study was to determine the causes and factors influencing maternal mortality. All maternal deaths occurring between January 2007 and November 2013 in the Elazig Province of Turkey were retrospectively investigated. The maternal age, obstetric history, cause of death, encountered delay model of each case, as well as the overall number of annual live births in the Province were determined. The information of cases was obtained from Directorate of Public Health and hospital records.  Families or family doctors were also interviewed to obtain details about the circumstances surrounding each death. There were a total of 64,423 live births in the Province of Elazig between 2007- 2013. The number and ratio of maternal deaths due to direct and indirect causes were 12 and 18.6, respectively. The direct causes of maternal death were hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (n=5, 41.7%), obstetric hemorrhages (n=3, 25%) and pulmonary embolism (n=1, 8.3%). The indirect causes of death were cardiac diseases (n=2, 16.7%) and malignancy (n=1, 8.3%). When classified according to the "Three Delays Model", 2 cases were in the first delay model and 3 cases in the third delay model; the second delay model led to no maternal deaths. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal mortality in our province. The preventable causes of maternal mortality and factors contributing to death must be identified to reduce the incidence.

  10. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

    SciTech Connect

    Makris, Susan L.; Euling, Susan Y.; Gray, L. Earl; Benson, Robert; Foster, Paul M.D.

    2013-09-15

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

  11. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuirong, Wang; Zhaoping, Yang; Huaxian, Liu; Fang, Han; Wenjin, Xia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  12. A re-evaluation of a case-control model with contaminated controls for resource selection studies.

    PubMed

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Kesler, Dylan C; Lehman, Chad P; Rumble, Mark A; Jachowski, Catherine M B

    2013-11-01

    1. A common sampling design in resource selection studies involves measuring resource attributes at sample units used by an animal and at sample units considered available for use. Few models can estimate the absolute probability of using a sample unit from such data, but such approaches are generally preferred over statistical methods that estimate a relative probability of use. 2. The case-control model that allows for contaminated controls, proposed by Lancaster & Imbens (1996) and Lele (2009), can estimate the absolute probability of using a sample unit from use-availability data. However, numerous misconceptions have likely prevented the widespread application of this model to resource selection studies. We address common misconceptions regarding the case-control model with contaminated controls and demonstrate its ability to estimate the absolute probability of use, prevalence and parameters associated with categorical covariates from use-availability data. 3. We fit the case-control model with contaminated controls to simulated data with varying prevalence (defined as the average probability of use across all sample units) and sample sizes (n1 = 500 used and na = 500 available samples; n1 = 1000 used and na = 1000 available samples). We then applied this model to estimate the probability Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) would use a location within a stream as a function of covariates. 4. The case-control model with contaminated controls provided unbiased estimates of all parameters at N = 2000 sample size simulation scenarios, particularly at low prevalence. However, this model produced increasingly variable maximum likelihood estimates of parameters as prevalence increased, particularly at N = 1000 sample size scenarios. We thus recommend at least 500-1000 used samples when fitting the case-control model with contaminated controls to use-availability data. Our application to hellbender data revealed selection for locations with

  13. Evaluation of airway resistance in primary small cell carcinoma of the trachea by MostGraph: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Eri; Hayashi, Kentaro; Takahashi, Mai; Iida, Yuko; Hiranuma, Hisato; Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Hataoka, Tsukasa; Mizumura, Kenji; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The case subject was a 58-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of respiratory discomfort. Wheezing could be heard in both lungs; treatment was initiated with inhaled steroids for suspected bronchial asthma. However, 1 week later, the respiratory discomfort had not improved and the wheezing sound had progressed to the neck area. Upper airway obstruction was suspected; therefore, chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, revealing tracheal stenosis caused by a tumor in the upper airway. Because of the high risk of airway obstruction, tracheotomy and tracheal tumor resection were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tumor revealed small cell lung cancer (SCLC); the stage was determined to be clinical stage IIIB (cT4N2M0), for which chemotherapy with two cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide followed by radiation therapy were administered. Pulmonary function testing revealed no change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and flow volume (FV) curve before and after tumor resection, whereas airway resistance measured by MostGraph-01 showed a marked decrease following treatment. We believe that MostGraph-01 may be useful for measuring airway resistance and evaluating a tracheal tumor, and report a case using MostGraph-01.

  14. Evaluation of airway resistance in primary small cell carcinoma of the trachea by MostGraph: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Eri; Gon, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Kentaro; Takahashi, Mai; Iida, Yuko; Hiranuma, Hisato; Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Hataoka, Tsukasa; Mizumura, Kenji; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shu

    2016-08-01

    The case subject was a 58-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of respiratory discomfort. Wheezing could be heard in both lungs; treatment was initiated with inhaled steroids for suspected bronchial asthma. However, 1 week later, the respiratory discomfort had not improved and the wheezing sound had progressed to the neck area. Upper airway obstruction was suspected; therefore, chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, revealing tracheal stenosis caused by a tumor in the upper airway. Because of the high risk of airway obstruction, tracheotomy and tracheal tumor resection were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tumor revealed small cell lung cancer (SCLC); the stage was determined to be clinical stage IIIB (cT4N2M0), for which chemotherapy with two cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide followed by radiation therapy were administered. Pulmonary function testing revealed no change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and flow volume (FV) curve before and after tumor resection, whereas airway resistance measured by MostGraph-01 showed a marked decrease following treatment. We believe that MostGraph-01 may be useful for measuring airway resistance and evaluating a tracheal tumor, and report a case using MostGraph-01. PMID:27621904

  15. Evaluation of airway resistance in primary small cell carcinoma of the trachea by MostGraph: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Eri; Hayashi, Kentaro; Takahashi, Mai; Iida, Yuko; Hiranuma, Hisato; Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Hataoka, Tsukasa; Mizumura, Kenji; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The case subject was a 58-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of respiratory discomfort. Wheezing could be heard in both lungs; treatment was initiated with inhaled steroids for suspected bronchial asthma. However, 1 week later, the respiratory discomfort had not improved and the wheezing sound had progressed to the neck area. Upper airway obstruction was suspected; therefore, chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, revealing tracheal stenosis caused by a tumor in the upper airway. Because of the high risk of airway obstruction, tracheotomy and tracheal tumor resection were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tumor revealed small cell lung cancer (SCLC); the stage was determined to be clinical stage IIIB (cT4N2M0), for which chemotherapy with two cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide followed by radiation therapy were administered. Pulmonary function testing revealed no change in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and flow volume (FV) curve before and after tumor resection, whereas airway resistance measured by MostGraph-01 showed a marked decrease following treatment. We believe that MostGraph-01 may be useful for measuring airway resistance and evaluating a tracheal tumor, and report a case using MostGraph-01. PMID:27621904

  16. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  17. Organoporosity Evaluation of Shale: A Case Study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in Southeast Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangwen; Lu, Shuangfang; Ding, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The organopores play an important role in determining total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in southeast Chongqing was selected as a case to confirm the contribution of organopores (microscale and nanoscale pores within organic matters in shale) formed by hydrocarbon generation to total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. Using the material balance principle combined with chemical kinetics methods, an evaluation model of organoporosity for shale gas reservoirs was established. The results indicate that there are four important model parameters to consider when evaluating organoporosity in shale: the original organic carbon (w(TOC0)), the original hydrogen index (IH0), the transformation ratio of generated hydrocarbon (F(Ro)), and the organopore correction coefficient (C). The organoporosity of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in the Py1 well is from 0.20 to 2.76%, and the average value is 1.25%. The organoporosity variation trends and the residual organic carbon of Longmaxi Shale are consistent in section. The residual organic carbon is indicative of the relative levels of organoporosity, while the samples are in the same shale reservoirs with similar buried depths. PMID:25184155

  18. Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Ciesielski, Heather A; Rood, Jennifer E; Froehlich, Tanya E; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning scientific literature examining the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct, very little is known about the clinical presentation of SCT. In clinical cases where SCT is suspected, it is critical to carefully assess not only for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but also for other comorbidities that may account for the SCT-related behaviors, especially internalizing symptoms and sleep problems. The current case study provides a clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl, offering a real-life portrait of SCT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies (e.g. depression, anxiety), and potentially related domains of functioning (e.g. sleep, executive functioning [EF]). "Jessica" was described by herself, parents, and teacher as being much slower than her peers in completing schoolwork, despite standardized testing showing Jessica to have above average intelligence and academic achievement. Jessica's parents completed rating scales indicating high levels of SCT symptoms and daytime sleepiness, as well as mildly elevated EF deficits. More research is needed to determine how to best conceptualize, assess, and treat SCT, and Jessica's case underscores the importance of further work in this area. PMID:25326531

  19. Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Ciesielski, Heather A; Rood, Jennifer E; Froehlich, Tanya E; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning scientific literature examining the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct, very little is known about the clinical presentation of SCT. In clinical cases where SCT is suspected, it is critical to carefully assess not only for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but also for other comorbidities that may account for the SCT-related behaviors, especially internalizing symptoms and sleep problems. The current case study provides a clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl, offering a real-life portrait of SCT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies (e.g. depression, anxiety), and potentially related domains of functioning (e.g. sleep, executive functioning [EF]). "Jessica" was described by herself, parents, and teacher as being much slower than her peers in completing schoolwork, despite standardized testing showing Jessica to have above average intelligence and academic achievement. Jessica's parents completed rating scales indicating high levels of SCT symptoms and daytime sleepiness, as well as mildly elevated EF deficits. More research is needed to determine how to best conceptualize, assess, and treat SCT, and Jessica's case underscores the importance of further work in this area.

  20. Evaluating Contaminant Flux from the Vadose Zone to the Groundwater in the Hanford Central Plateau. SX Tank Farms Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Last, George V.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, contaminants were discharged to the subsurface through engineered waste sites in the Hanford Central Plateau. Additional waste was released through waste storage tank leaks. Much of the contaminant inventory is still present within the unsaturated vadose zone sediments. The nature and extent of future groundwater contaminant plumes and the growth or decline of current groundwater plumes beneath the Hanford Central Plateau are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to the groundwater. In general, contaminant transport is slow through the vadose zone and it is difficult to directly measure contaminant flux in the vadose zone. Predictive analysis, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, was applied using a structured, systems-based approach to estimate the future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions for the vadose zone and groundwater (Truex and Carroll 2013). The SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of the existing contaminant inventory in the vadose zone, observations of elevated moisture content in portions of the vadose zone, presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount and wide variety of data available for the site. Although the SX Tank Farm case study is most representative of conditions at tank farm sites, the study has elements that are also relevant to other types of disposal sites in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  1. Evaluation of 22 genetic variants with Crohn's Disease risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Crohn's disease (CD) has the highest prevalence among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent compared to non-Jewish Caucasian populations (NJ). We evaluated a set of well-established CD-susceptibility variants to determine if they can explain the increased CD risk in the AJ population. Methods We recruited 369 AJ CD patients and 503 AJ controls, genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near 10 CD-associated genes, NOD2, IL23R, IRGM, ATG16L1, PTGER4, NKX2-3, IL12B, PTPN2, TNFSF15 and STAT3, and assessed their association with CD status. We generated genetic scores based on the risk allele count alone and the risk allele count weighed by the effect size, and evaluated their predictive value. Results Three NOD2 SNPs, two IL23R SNPs, and one SNP each at IRGM and PTGER4 were independently associated with CD risk. Carriage of 7 or more copies of these risk alleles or the weighted genetic risk score of 7 or greater correctly classified 92% (allelic count score) and 83% (weighted score) of the controls; however, only 29% and 47% of the cases were identified as having the disease, respectively. This cutoff was associated with a >4-fold increased disease risk (p < 10e-16). Conclusions CD-associated genetic risks were similar to those reported in NJ population and are unlikely to explain the excess prevalence of the disease in AJ individuals. These results support the existence of novel, yet unidentified, genetic variants unique to this population. Understanding of ethnic and racial differences in disease susceptibility may help unravel the pathogenesis of CD leading to new personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:21548950

  2. Salud Sí: a case study for the use of participatory evaluation in creating effective and sustainable community-based health promotion.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Piper, Rosalinda; Kunz, Susan; Navarro, Cecilia; Sander, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Participatory evaluation can be an essential tool for community-based organizations in tailoring programs to the needs of the populations they serve. This article provides a case study of Salud Sí, a promotora-driven health promotion program designed to encourage physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and stress reduction among Mexican American women. Through a partnership between a community health center and an academic institution, we describe how the participatory evaluation framework is applied over a 10-year period throughout the stages of program development, implementation, and sustainability. Partners used the results to identify the essential elements of the health promotion program.

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban Sprawl on Ecological Environment Using Multi-Source Data: a Case Study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ning, Xiaogang; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC), Water Density (WD), Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC), Net Primary Production (NPP), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  4. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies. PMID:25935362

  5. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies.

  6. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  7. Evaluating and comparing biomarkers with respect to the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve in two-phase case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase sampling design, where biomarkers are subsampled from a phase-one cohort sample representative of the target population, has become the gold standard in biomarker evaluation. Many two-phase case-control studies involve biased sampling of cases and/or controls in the second phase. For example, controls are often frequency-matched to cases with respect to other covariates. Ignoring biased sampling of cases and/or controls can lead to biased inference regarding biomarkers' classification accuracy. Considering the problems of estimating and comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for a binary disease outcome, the impact of biased sampling of cases and/or controls on inference and the strategy to efficiently account for the sampling scheme have not been well studied. In this project, we investigate the inverse-probability-weighted method to adjust for biased sampling in estimating and comparing AUC. Asymptotic properties of the estimator and its inference procedure are developed for both Bernoulli sampling and finite-population stratified sampling. In simulation studies, the weighted estimators provide valid inference for estimation and hypothesis testing, while the standard empirical estimators can generate invalid inference. We demonstrate the use of the analytical variance formula for optimizing sampling schemes in biomarker study design and the application of the proposed AUC estimators to examples in HIV vaccine research and prostate cancer research.

  8. A universal calibrated model for the evaluation of surface water and groundwater quality: Model development and a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxue; Yin, Xin'an; Li, Zuoyong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2015-11-01

    Water quality evaluation is an important issue in environmental management. Various methods have been used to evaluate the quality of surface water and groundwater. However, all previous studies have used different evaluation models for surface water and groundwater, and the models must be recalibrated due to changes in monitoring indicators in each evaluation. Water quality managers would benefit from a universal and effective model based on a simple expression that would be suitable for all cases of surface water and groundwater, and which could therefore serve as a standard method for a region or country. To meet this requirement, we attempted to develop a universal calibrated model based on the radial basis function neural network. In the new model, the units and values of the evaluation indicators for surface water and groundwater are normalized simultaneously to make the data directly comparable. The model's training inputs comprise the normalized value in each of a water quality indicator's grades (e.g., the nitrate contents defined in a regulatory standard for grades I to V) for all evaluation indicators. The central vector of the Gaussian function is used as the average of the evaluation indicators' normalized standard values for the five grades. The final calibrated model is expressed as an equation rather than in a programming language, and is therefore easier to use. We used the model in a Chinese case study, and found that the model was feasible (it compared well with the results of other models) and simple to use for the evaluation of surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:26280125

  9. Evaluation Case Teaching from a Participant Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, John

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation professionals can benefit from practice in the same way that lawyers, doctors, and other professionals improve their performance through practice. The case method enables practice through role plays and situational analyses. Cases provide openings for evaluators and program planners to experiment with new norms of communication…

  10. Object-based Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Retrievals: A Case Study of the Summer Season over CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xu, P.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite precipitation retrievals that have high spatial and temporal resolutions are suitable for various applications, such as hydrologic modeling and watershed management. Many validation studies have been established to understand the strengths and limitations of these satellite precipitation retrievals. In this study, an object-based validation approach is adopted to evaluate several satellite precipitation retrievals focusing on the spatial and geometric patterns of precipitation. This object-based validation approach identifies precipitation objects using an image processing technique referred to as watershed transform. Several object attributes are diagnosed and analyzed based on the distance measurement. Three object-based verification scores are summarized to determine the overall performances of satellite precipitation retrievals. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) were evaluated using the object-based approach. The NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis was utilized as the ground observations. The comparative assessments were conducted at 0.25° by 0.25° on a daily scale in the summer season of 2014 over the continental United States (CONUS). The results suggest that IMERG possesses the similar spatial pattern of local-scale precipitation areas against stage IV observations. In addition, IMERG depicts the sizes and locations of precipitation areas more accurately against stage IV.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Two Types of Immediately Loaded Implants Using Biomechanical and Histomorphometric Tests: An Animal Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Movahedian, Bijan; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid; Mohammad Razavi, Sayed; Nekouie, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In order to minimize the required time to regain esthetic and function, immediately loaded implants were suggested. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the Nisastan and XIve implants using biomechanical and histomorphometric tests. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, 6 Nisastan one-piece immediately loaded screw type implant (OPILS) and 6 Xive implants with 3.4 mm diameter and 11 mm long were used. The implants were immediately loaded with temporary coating. After three months, the torque required to break bone-implant contact was measured and was recorded. All implants were extracted with surrounding bone and histologically were evaluated. The data were inputted into the SPSS 11.5 to run student T-test statistical analyses (α = 0.05). Results. The success rates of both types of implants was 100%, and none of them failed due to mobility or bone loss. The mean removal torque value (RTV) was 142.08 and 40 N/Cm for Xive and Nisastan implants, respectively, and their RTVs showed a significant difference between two mentioned implants (P = 0.004). None of the histomorphometric values showed significant differences between the two implants (P > 0.05). Discussion. both systems have the capability to induce osseointegration under immediate loads but that Xive implants showed higher capability for bone contact. PMID:22852091

  12. An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Educational Reform in Kwara State: A Case Study of the Primary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrasaq Oladimeji, Akanbi; Ibrahim, I. A.; Adebayo, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the educational reform going on in Kwara State, Nigeria. One thousand six hundred 1600 teachers were selected from the 3 senatorial districts of Kwara State using simple random sampling technique. A researcher- designed questionnaire andchecklist were developed to collect relevant data on the educational reform going on in the state. Frequency count and the percentage were employed in analyzing the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the organizational set up, textbooks, procedure for the selection of the curriculum and teachers were quite appropriate. Instructional materials and utilization of human and material resources were moderately appropriate.Space and furniture for teaching was adjudged inadequate. It was recommended that more classroom, furniture and textbooks should be provided in the areas they are lacking and a learner-centred teaching method should be embraced in all schools.

  13. Using the Results of Teaching Evaluations to Improve Teaching: A Case Study of a New Systematic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Reid, Jackie; Wilkes, Janelle; Emmerton, Ashley J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new 14-step process for using student evaluations of teaching to improve teaching. The new process includes examination of student evaluations in the context of instructor goals, student evaluations of the same course completed in prior terms, and evaluations of similar courses taught by other instructors. The process has…

  14. Habitat evaluation using suitability index and habitat type diversity: a case study involving a shallow forest stream in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has strongly promoted the concept of ecological engineering in the hope that doing so will encourage the maintenance of the ecosystem and its integrity. As a result, the riprap spur dike is one of the most commonly used measures for protecting stream banks. Traditionally, a spur dike is used at concave banks to prevent their scouring and/or to increase their stabilization. An additional benefit of deflector structures, like spur dikes, may be to increase the weighted usable area (WUA) for aquatic life survival during periods of increased flow (examples include typhoon, flood, etc.). A two-dimensional river habitat simulation program (River2D) coupled with a developed shallow water habitat type diversity module was used for the case study at a headwater stream in central Taiwan. The habitat suitability index for this study was established using substrate, depth, and velocity from field surveys for the fish family Cyprinidae by prepositioned area electrofisher. The ungauged flood conditions were calculated using digital elevation models within a watershed delineation and hydrological modeling system in accordance with local regulations. Simulated results indicate that the spur dikes currently in use on the stream in this study need be improved from a WUA point of view more effectively handle a flood event.

  15. Habitat evaluation using suitability index and habitat type diversity: a case study involving a shallow forest stream in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has strongly promoted the concept of ecological engineering in the hope that doing so will encourage the maintenance of the ecosystem and its integrity. As a result, the riprap spur dike is one of the most commonly used measures for protecting stream banks. Traditionally, a spur dike is used at concave banks to prevent their scouring and/or to increase their stabilization. An additional benefit of deflector structures, like spur dikes, may be to increase the weighted usable area (WUA) for aquatic life survival during periods of increased flow (examples include typhoon, flood, etc.). A two-dimensional river habitat simulation program (River2D) coupled with a developed shallow water habitat type diversity module was used for the case study at a headwater stream in central Taiwan. The habitat suitability index for this study was established using substrate, depth, and velocity from field surveys for the fish family Cyprinidae by prepositioned area electrofisher. The ungauged flood conditions were calculated using digital elevation models within a watershed delineation and hydrological modeling system in accordance with local regulations. Simulated results indicate that the spur dikes currently in use on the stream in this study need be improved from a WUA point of view more effectively handle a flood event. PMID:20376557

  16. Evaluation of a Teleform-based data collection system: A multi-center obesity research case study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Todd M.; Boyce, Tawny Wilson; Akers, Rachel; Andringa, Jennifer; Liu, Yanhong; Miller, Rosemary; Powers, Carolyn; Buncher, C. Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing electronic data capture (EDC) systems in data collection and management allows automated validation programs to preemptively identify and correct data errors. For our multi-center, prospective study we chose to use TeleForm, a paper-based data capture software that uses recognition technology to create case report forms (CRFs) with similar functionality to EDC, including custom scripts to identify entry errors. We quantified the accuracy of the optimized system through a data audit of CRFs and the study database, examining selected critical variables for all subjects in the study, as well as an audit of all variables for 25 randomly selected subjects. Overall we found 6.7 errors per 10,000 fields, with similar estimates for critical (6.9/10,000) and non-critical (6.5/10,000) variables – values that fall below the acceptable quality threshold of 50 errors per 10,000 established by the Society for Clinical Data Management. However, error rates were found to widely vary by type of data field, with the highest rate observed with open text fields. PMID:24709056

  17. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  18. Unionfining: Technical case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.A.; Skripek, M.

    1994-12-31

    Hydrotreating improves the quality of FCC feeds by reducing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, asphaltenes, and polynuclear aromatic content. Four case studies presented in this paper show the benefits of hydrotreating FCC feeds: higher conversion and gasoline yield, better quality products, and lower SO{sub x} emissions.

  19. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  20. Case Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guceri, Meral; Akin, Ann Riddell

    1998-01-01

    Case studies have been welcomed by English-as-a-foreign-language professionals, especially by those involved in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the Departmental English courses at Baskent University English Language School and the English Support Unit (ELSU) of Bilkent University School of English Language in Turkey. This article…

  1. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes

  2. Evaluation of Superselective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in Treating Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Retrospective Study on Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Li, Gang; Yu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the safety and efficacy of superselective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in treating lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical data of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. The patients were treated with superselective TAE with NBCA between September 2013 and March 2015. Angiography was performed after the embolization. The clinical signs including melena, anemia, and blood transfusion treatment were evaluated. The complications including abdominal pain and intestinal ischemia necrosis were recorded. The patients were followed up to evaluate the efficacy in the long run. Results. Seven cases (2 males, 5 females; age of 69.55 ± 2.25) were evaluated in the study. The embolization was successfully performed in all cases. About 0.2–0.8 mL (mean 0.48 ± 0.19 mL) NCBA was used. Immediate angiography after the embolization operation showed that the abnormal symptoms disappeared. The patients were followed up for a range of 2–19 months and six patients did not reoccur. No serious complications, such as femoral artery puncture point anomaly, vascular injury, and intestinal necrosis perforation were observed. Conclusion. For the patients with refractory and repeated lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to angiodysplasia, superselective TAE with NBCA seem to be a safe and effective alternative therapy when endoscopy examination and treatment do not work. PMID:27528867

  3. New weathering indices for evaluating durability and weathering characterization of crystalline rock material: A case study from NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceryan, Sener

    2015-03-01

    There are several methods to characterize petrochemical properties of crystalline rocks. One method is based on the ionic model. In the model, large oxygen atoms of the rock-forming minerals are close-packed framework structures. The distribution of cations, which is defined by the "Cation-Packing Index" or the k-value for each (stoichiometric) mineral phase, can be correlated with the petrophysical properties. These properties, representing the engineering behavior of the rock materials show a dependence on the physical and chemical changes due to weathering. The fundamental systems of the chemical weathering of rocks are the leaching of the alkaline and alkali-earth elements and the redistribution of the residual elements into secondary minerals. In this study, these conditions are considered as the basis for new petro-chemical weathering indices based on the cation-packing value for evaluating weathering characterization of crystalline rocks. These indices are the k-product index, the k-leaching index and the k-weathering index. The k-product index represents the quantity of the weathering product suggested in this study, whereas the k-leaching index represents the amount of chemical leaching during the weathering. The k-weathering index was defined as the sum of the k-leaching index and the k-product index. In addition to these new engineering indices, a k-durability index based on a slake durability index and the k-value of the rock materials was suggested in this study to estimate the durability and the mechanical properties of rock materials. These indices were applied to granitic rock samples weathered to various degrees, from the Kurtun Granodiorite in northeastern Turkey. The results of the regression analysis performed in this study show that the k-weathering index can be used as a weathering indicator and that the k-durability index can be used to evaluate the durability and the mechanical behaviors of the investigated samples. It would be useful to

  4. Case study: mariner's TB.

    PubMed

    McLain, E H

    1989-08-01

    Mycobacterium marinum causes tuberculosis in fish and shellfish and cutaneous lesions in humans. It is transmitted from fish to humans by inoculation. The case presented involved a nodule on the wrist and was misdiagnosed as arthritis; the nodule was excised. Symptoms of tuberculosis persisted over a 2-year period. This case study can be generalized to a population of workers in the seafood industry, water hobbyists, and fish and shellfish enthusiasts. Education and research is needed to inform and protect populations at high risk for this disease.

  5. Assessing coastal reclamation suitability based on a fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation framework: A case study of Lianyungang, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Coastal reclamation suitability evaluation (CRSE) is a difficult, complex and protracted process requiring the evaluation of many different criteria. In this paper, an integrated framework employing a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to the suitability evaluation for coastal reclamation for future sustainable development in the coastal area of Lianyungang, China. The evaluation results classified 6.63%, 22.99%, 31.59% and 38.79% of the coastline as suitable, weakly suitable, unsuitable and forbidden, respectively. The evaluation results were verified by the marine pollution data and highly consistent with the water quality status. The fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation method (FACEM) was found to be suitable for the CRSE. This CRSE can also be applied to other coastal areas in China and thereby be used for the better management of coastal reclamation and coastline protection projects.

  6. Case study of the use of evaluation evidence to inform diabetes prevention programming in two Canadian health regions: effectiveness of evaluation evidence.

    PubMed

    Yates, Mary Jane; MacLellan-Wright, Mary Frances; Minke, Sharlene Wolbeck; Horne, Tammy; Davachi, Shahnaz; Ortiz, Lucenia; Moscardelli, Silvana

    2011-03-01

    This study compares the use of evidence in two 18-month Canadian projects with a similar goal: improved prevention of type II diabetes in women from ethno-cultural communities with a gestational diabetes diagnosis. Evidence used for both projects included epidemiological data and research literature, needs assessments with the target population, and project evaluations. Contexts for the use of evidence differed between the two projects in terms of the innovation and its level of complexity; organizational context and system readiness for change; and partnership characteristics. This study showed that while evidence played some role in determining project success, it was but one factor in deciding how project activities were (or were not) sustained.

  7. Real-time reliability evaluation methodology based on dynamic Bayesian networks: A case study of a subsea pipe ram BOP system.

    PubMed

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Ma, Yunpeng; Liu, Zengkai; Zhou, Yuming; Sun, Junhe

    2015-09-01

    A novel real-time reliability evaluation methodology is proposed by combining root cause diagnosis phase based on Bayesian networks (BNs) and reliability evaluation phase based on dynamic BNs (DBNs). The root cause diagnosis phase exactly locates the root cause of a complex mechatronic system failure in real time to increase diagnostic coverage and is performed through backward analysis of BNs. The reliability evaluation phase calculates the real-time reliability of the entire system by forward inference of DBNs. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case of a subsea pipe ram blowout preventer system. The value and the variation trend of real-time system reliability when the faults of components occur are studied; the importance degree sequence of components at different times is also determined using mutual information and belief variance. PMID:26169121

  8. Program Evaluation - Automotive Lightweighting Materials Program Research and Development Projects Assessment of Benefits - Case Studies No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2003-01-23

    This report is the second of a series of studies to evaluate research and development (R&D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the program evaluation are to assess short-run outputs and long-run outcomes that may be attributable to the ALM R&D projects. The ALM program focuses on the development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. Funded projects range from fundamental materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. Three ALM R&D projects were chosen for this evaluation: Design and Product Optimization for Cast Light Metals, Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures, and Rapid Tooling for Functional Prototyping of Metal Mold Processes. These projects were chosen because they have already been completed. The first project resulted in development of a comprehensive cast light metal property database, an automotive application design guide, computerized predictive models, process monitoring sensors, and quality assurance methods. The second project, the durability of lightweight composite structures, produced durability-based design criteria documents, predictive models for creep deformation, and minimum test requirements and suggested test methods for establishing durability properties and characteristics of random glass-fiber composites for automotive structural composites. The durability project supported Focal Project II, a validation activity that demonstrates ALM program goals and reduces the lead time for bringing new technology into the marketplace. Focal

  9. Aligning vertical interventions to health systems: a case study of the HIV monitoring and evaluation system in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Like many low- and middle-income countries, South Africa established a dedicated HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to track the national response to HIV/AIDS. Its implementation in the public health sector has however not been assessed. Since responsibility for health services management lies at the district (sub-national) level, this study aimed to assess the extent to which the HIV M&E system is integrated with the overall health system M&E function at district level. This study describes implementation of the HIV M&E system, determines the extent to which it is integrated with the district health information system (DHIS), and evaluates factors influencing HIV M&E integration. Methods The study was conducted in one health district in South Africa. Data were collected through key informant interviews with programme and health facility managers and review of M&E records at health facilities providing HIV services. Data analysis assessed the extent to which processes for HIV data collection, collation, analysis and reporting were integrated with the DHIS. Results The HIV M&E system is top-down, over-sized, and captures a significant amount of energy and resources to primarily generate antiretroviral treatment (ART) indicators. Processes for producing HIV prevention indicators are integrated with the DHIS. However processes for the production of HIV treatment indicators by-pass the DHIS and ART indicators are not disseminated to district health managers. Specific reporting requirements linked to ear-marked funding, politically-driven imperatives, and mistrust of DHIS capacity are key drivers of this silo approach. Conclusions Parallel systems that bypass the DHIS represent a missed opportunity to strengthen system-wide M&E capacity. Integrating HIV M&E (staff, systems and process) into the health system M&E function would mobilise ear-marked HIV funding towards improving DHIS capacity to produce quality and timely HIV indicators that would

  10. Risk management tools and the case study Brassica napus: evaluating possible effects of genetically modified plants on soil microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Loredana; Sbrana, Cristiana; Avio, Luciano; Felici, Barbara; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Neri, Ulderico; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The cultivation of GMPs in Europe raises many questions about the environmental risks, in particular about their ecological impact on non-target organisms and on soil properties. The aim of a multidisciplinary group engaged in a LIFE+project (MAN-GMP-ITA) was to validate and improve an existing environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology on GMPs within the European legislative framework on GMOs. Given the impossibility of evaluating GMO impact directly, as GMPs are banned in Italy, GMPs have not been used at any stage of the project. The project thus specifically focused on the conditions for the implementation of ERA in different areas of Italy, with an emphasis on some sensitive and protected areas located in the North, Centre, and South of the country, in order to lay the necessary baseline for evaluating the possible effects of a GMP on soil communities. Our sub-group carried out soil analyses in order to obtain soil health and fertility indicators to be used as baselines in the ERA model. Using various methods of chemical, biochemical, functional and genetic analysis, our study assessed the changes in diversity and functionality of bacterial populations, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The results show that plant identity and growth, soil characteristics, and field site climatic parameters are key factors in contributing to variation in microbial community structure and diversity, thus validating our methodological approach. Our project has come to the conclusion that the uneven composition and biological-agronomical quality of soils need to be taken into consideration in a risk analysis within the framework of ERA for the release of genetically modified plants.

  11. Risk management tools and the case study Brassica napus: evaluating possible effects of genetically modified plants on soil microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Loredana; Sbrana, Cristiana; Avio, Luciano; Felici, Barbara; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Neri, Ulderico; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The cultivation of GMPs in Europe raises many questions about the environmental risks, in particular about their ecological impact on non-target organisms and on soil properties. The aim of a multidisciplinary group engaged in a LIFE+project (MAN-GMP-ITA) was to validate and improve an existing environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology on GMPs within the European legislative framework on GMOs. Given the impossibility of evaluating GMO impact directly, as GMPs are banned in Italy, GMPs have not been used at any stage of the project. The project thus specifically focused on the conditions for the implementation of ERA in different areas of Italy, with an emphasis on some sensitive and protected areas located in the North, Centre, and South of the country, in order to lay the necessary baseline for evaluating the possible effects of a GMP on soil communities. Our sub-group carried out soil analyses in order to obtain soil health and fertility indicators to be used as baselines in the ERA model. Using various methods of chemical, biochemical, functional and genetic analysis, our study assessed the changes in diversity and functionality of bacterial populations, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The results show that plant identity and growth, soil characteristics, and field site climatic parameters are key factors in contributing to variation in microbial community structure and diversity, thus validating our methodological approach. Our project has come to the conclusion that the uneven composition and biological-agronomical quality of soils need to be taken into consideration in a risk analysis within the framework of ERA for the release of genetically modified plants. PMID:25014185

  12. Subjective evaluations of multiple three-dimensional displays by a stereo-deficient viewer: an interesting case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Ellis, Sharon A.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Havig, Paul R.

    2014-06-01

    A study was conducted with sixteen observers evaluating four different three-dimensional (3D) displays for usability, quality, and physical comfort. One volumetric display and three different stereoscopic displays were tested. The observers completed several different types of questionnaires before, during and after each test session. All observers were tested for distance acuity, color vision, and stereoscopic acuity. One observer in particular appeared to have either degraded or absent binocular vision on the stereo acuity test. During the subjective portions of the data collection, this observer showed no obvious signs of depth perception problems and finished the study with no issues reported. Upon further post-hoc stereovision testing of this observer, we discovered that he essentially failed all tests requiring depth judgments of fine disparity and had at best only gross levels of stereoscopic vision (failed all administered stereoacuity threshold tests, testing up to about 800 arc sec of disparity). When questioned about this, the stereo-deficiency was unknown to the observer, who reported having seen several stereoscopic 3D movies (and enjoyed the 3D experiences). Interestingly, we had collected subjective reports about the quality of three-dimensional imagery across multiple stereoscopic displays from a person with deficient stereo-vision. We discuss the participant's unique pattern of results and compare and contrast these results with the other stereo-normal participants. The implications for subjective measurements on stereoscopic three-dimensional displays and for subjective display measurement in general are considered.

  13. Evaluation of Hemodynamic Properties of Cerebral Venous Drainage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Amanian, Dayan; Roudbari, Seyed Ali; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to compare patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy control subjects as regards hemodynamics of cerebral venous drainage. Material/Methods Between December 2012 and May 2013, 44 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent the B-mode, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler evaluations of the internal jugular vein (IJV) and vertebral vein. The following four parameters were investigated: IJV stenosis, reversal of postural control of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, absence of detectable blood flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins, and reflux in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins in the sitting or supine position. Results In the study group, IJV stenosis, postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, and absence of flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins were found in 3 (6.8%), 2 (4.5%), and 3 (6.8%) patients, respectively. In the control group, IJV stenosis (P=0.12), postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways (P=0.50), and absence of flow (P=0.12) were not detected. Abnormal reflux was found neither in multiple sclerosis patients nor in healthy subjects. Conclusions No significant difference in the cerebral venous drainage through the IJV or vertebral vein was found between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects within any of the investigated ultrasonographic parameters. PMID:25250100

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study evaluating its relationship with body mass index and hand and wrist measurements.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J E; Davis, T R C

    2008-08-01

    This case-control study investigated the associations between the body mass index (BMI), hand and wrist measurements and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The hands and wrists of 50 patients with CTS and 50 age- and sex-matched controls were measured. The right and left wrist indices (wrist depth/wrist width) were significantly greater in CTS patients (mean = 0.71. SD = 0.04) than in the controls (mean = 0.69 SD = 0.04). The hand index (hand length/palm width) and BMI were not significantly different in the two groups. The hand, but not the wrist, index was found to correlate with the BMI. These results provide some support for a causative association between wrist morphometry, as measured by the wrist index, and CTS, but this difference is too small to be of diagnostic value in clinical or epidemiological practice. The results could also suggest that the previously reported association between CTS and the hand index may be secondary to differences in the BMI.

  15. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  16. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, using modelling and GIS techniques: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, M. H.; El Osta, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer (NSSA) is the main groundwater resource of the El-Bahariya Oasis, which is located in the middle of the Western Desert of Egypt. This aquifer is composed mainly of continental clastic sediments of sandstone with shale and clay intercalations of saturated thickness ranging between 100 and 1500 m. Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sustainable resources management and land use planning. Accordingly, this research aims to estimate the vulnerability of NSSA by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilising sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in the study area. The main objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and the GIS techniques as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment, and mapping the areas that are prone to deterioration of groundwater quality and quantity. Based on DRASTIC index (DI) values, a groundwater vulnerability map was produced using the GIS. The aquifer analysis in the study area highlighted the following key points: the northeastern and western parts of the NSSA were dominated by `High' vulnerability classes while the northwestern and southeastern parts were characterised by `Medium' vulnerability classes. The elevated central part of the study area displayed `Low' aquifer vulnerability. The vulnerability map shows a relatively greater risk imposed on the northeastern part of the NSSA due to the larger pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. Depth-to-water, topography and hydraulic conductivity parameters were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability.

  17. Evaluation of debris flow susceptibility by means of a transferability procedure: a study case in Messina area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, Mariaelena; Luigi, Lombardo; Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows can be described as rapid mass movements, gravity induced able to transport large quantities of material downslope. This type of landslides is strongly controlled by the topography and usually occur in region characterized by steep slopes and at least seasonal heavy rainfall. One of the problem when dealing with debris flow susceptible areas is that the eroded surface is usually very shallow and it can be masked by the vegetation already few years after a landslide event. Therefore, debris flow prone areas very often suffer from lack of reliable landslide inventories necessary to calibrate and validate susceptibility models. In order to deal with this problem, transferability procedure (spatial partition) have already proved to be efficient in areas which show analogous topographic, lithological and climatic characteristics. A procedure to evaluate whether it is possible to apply model transferability is here proposed. This approach is based on the assumption that debris flow trigger in different locations under similar topographic conditions and includes: i) a test of similarity between training and test areas aimed at identifying thresholds in catchment similarity which allow to successfully perform the transferability; ii) the calibration of the susceptibility model in the training area; iii) the validation of the model on the test area. The debris flow susceptibility is here evaluated using a stochastic approach and the all procedure is implemented in a R script which can be easily used to test the procedure in other catchments. The study areas chosen to perform this study are located in the Messina province (southern Italy) respectively on the Ionian sector (Itala catchment) and on the Tyrrhenian sector (Saponara catchment). Itala catchment was hit by the sadly known debris flow event of the 1st October 2009 (37 fatalities and huge damages) while Saponara catchment on the 22nd November 2011 (only two years after the 2009 event) experienced a very

  18. An innovative approach to the safety evaluation of natural products: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) leaf aqueous extract as a case study.

    PubMed

    Booth, Nancy L; Kruger, Claire L; Wallace Hayes, A; Clemens, Roger

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of safety for a food or dietary ingredient requires determination of a safe level of ingestion compared to the estimated daily intake from its proposed uses. The nature of the assessment may require the use of different approaches, determined on a case-by-case basis. Natural products are chemically complex and challenging to characterize for the purpose of carrying out a safety evaluation. For example, a botanical extract contains numerous compounds, many of which vary across batches due to changes in environmental conditions and handling. Key components integral to the safety evaluation must be identified and their variability established to assure that specifications are representative of a commercial product over time and protective of the consumer; one can then extrapolate the results of safety studies on a single batch of product to other batches that are produced under similar conditions. Safety of a well-characterized extract may be established based on the safety of its various components. When sufficient information is available from the public literature, additional toxicology testing is not necessary for a safety determination on the food or dietary ingredient. This approach is demonstrated in a case study of an aqueous extract of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) leaves.

  19. Evaluation of ecosystem services: A case study in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongji; Li, Zhihui; Li, Zhaohua; Yu, Jing; Liu, Bing

    Ecosystem services evaluation aims at understanding the status of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scale. In this paper, we selected the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), which is the second largest inland river basin in China, as one of the typical area to estimate the ecosystem services values (ESVs) corresponding to the land use changes. Based on the land use data and ecosystem service value coefficients, the total ecosystem services values (TESVs) of the middle reach of the HBR are quantitatively calculated, which were 9.244 × 108, 9.099 × 108, 9.131 × 108 and 9.146 × 108 USD in 1988, 2000, 2005 and 2008 respectively. During 1988-2008, the decrease of grassland, forest land, water area and unused land contributed 148.94%, 57.85%, 87.87% and 16.42% respectively to the net loss of TESVs, while the dramatic increase of cultivated land improved the TESVs with contribution of -211.08% to the net loss of TESVs. Expansion of cultivated land, which especially caused the loss of grassland and forest land, directly exerted negative impacts on the provision of ecosystem services in the study area. The findings of this research indicated that land use change was an important form of human activities, which had a strong impact on ecosystem services.

  20. Evaluation of a Full-Scale Water-Based Scrubber for Removing Siloxanes from Digester Gas: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-05-01

    Siloxanes are becoming more prominent in digester gas at water resource recovery facilities because of their wide use in personal care products. This study evaluates a full-scale water-based scrubber operating in a water resource recovery facility (Miami, FL). The digester gas is used for energy generation due to its high methane content. During energy generation, siloxanes are converted to silicates and Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), which leave deposits on engine components. Trimethylsilanol (TMSOH), Octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were detected in the digester gas. D4 and D5 were present at the highest concentrations, 5000 and 1800 μg/ m3, respectively. Sampling results have indicated that scrubbers employed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at the facility do not provide effective removal of siloxanes due to their high Henry's Constant. Post scrubber treatment is needed to remove siloxanes from the digester gas prior to combustion.

  1. Evaluation of efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment and identification of daily inspection indices: a case study in Changchun, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment has previously been conducted to prevent pollution of the environment. The current study aimed to provide a set of practical methods for efficient airport sanitary supervision. Aircraft liquid waste was collected at Longjia International Airport, Changchun from multiple flights. The efficiency of liquid waste treatment as well as the water quality of the wastewater processed via a second-stage wastewater facility were examined by measuring a number of physical, chemical, and biological indices. Our results indicated that treatment solely via resolvable sanitizing liquid was not sufficient. Although the contents of first-class pollutants all met the requirements of the standard criteria, the contents of a number of second-class pollutants did not satisfy these criteria. However, after further treatment via a second-stage wastewater facility installed at the airport, all indices reached second-grade requirements of the discharge standard. We suggest that daily inspection and quarantine indices at airports should include the suspension content, biological oxygen demands after 5 days, chemical oxygen demand total organic carbon content, amino nitrogen content, total phosphorous content, and the level of fecal coliforms.

  2. The evaluation of building occupants' public awareness on energy efficiency: The study case of Chancellery Building, USM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharum, Faizal; Zainon, Mohamad Rizal; Seng, Loh Yong

    2016-08-01

    It is increasingly perceived that considerable energy savings in building can be accomplished in buildings through changes in staff's behavior. This study explored the public awareness of energy consumption and their perceived level of control over energy use. Generally, individual awareness and attitudes about the need to conserve energy, the perceived actions and opinions of other users and views of control over the ease and opportunity to reduce energy consumption were seen by staffs to identify with whether they would expect to save energy in Chancellery Building, USM. It is important that staff engagement in the successful achievement of the target on energy saving. Therefore, the aim of this research is to create a survey instrument by using staffs as benchmark of evaluation, for the identification of problems in respect to aware the public of energy saving and energy-efficiency in Chancellery Building. This research was conducted in the office of Chancellery Building, USM. Survey forms had been distributed to the staffs in the office to determine their awareness towards energy saving. The results were investigated by utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) in order to determine its reliability and validity. The research result helped the advancement of energy-efficiency and determine the wastefulness of the existed building.

  3. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers

    PubMed Central

    ZARE, Mohsen; MALINGE-OUDENOT, Agnes; HÖGLUND, Robert; BIAU, Sophie; ROQUELAURE, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner’s viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner’s point of view in the automotive assembly plant. PMID:26423331

  4. Interactive analysis and evaluation of ERTS data for regional planning and urban development: A Los Angeles Basin case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Willoughby, G.; Mcknight, J.

    1974-01-01

    The progression endemic to the ERTS Data Use Experiment SR 124 in data quality, analysis sophistication and applications responsiveness is reviewed. The roles of the variety of ERTS products, including the supporting underflight aircraft imagery at various scales, are discussed in the context of this investigation. The versatility of interpretation techniques and outputs developed and implemented via the General Electric Multispectral Information Extraction Systems is described and exemplified by both system-expository and applications-explanatory products. The wide-ranging and in-depth applications studied in the course of this experiment can be characterized as community-oriented and agency-directed. In the former, generic category, which is primarily data-contextual, problems analyzed dealt with agricultural systems, surface water bodies, snow cover, brush fire burns, forestry, grass growth, parks - golf courses - cemeteries, dust storms, grading sites, geological features and coastal water structure. The ERTS MSS band selectivity and measurements thresholds were of primary interest here. The agency-directed application areas have been user-evaluational in nature. Beginning with overall urbanized regional analysis of land cover density-development intensity, residential areas were analyzed for ascertaining if housing types could be aggregated with any degree of reliability.

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Vahedi, M.; Mortazavi, H.; Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Hajilooi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometric and Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test. Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05). In addition, DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls. Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients. PMID:21998770

  6. Creating a Sustainable Online Instructor Observation System: A Case Study Highlighting Flaws when Blending Mentoring and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Marthann; Dennis, Kay; Eskey, Michael; Taylor, Cathy; Zeng, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Quality and accountability mandates require institutions to monitor online instruction in a uniform and complete manner. In many institutions, instructor training is sparse and faculty evaluation occurs only through end-of-course student evaluations that may or may not yield adequate information on how the instructor performs online. Consequently,…

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

  8. Evaluating Multi-Institutional Partnership Sustainability: A Case Study of Collaborative Workforce Development in Renewable Energy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, John M.; Stallings, Kevin D.; KC, Birendra; Seekamp, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Partnership evaluation typically occurs during the final stages either to assess why a collaborative effort did not work or to identify the indicators of success. Partnerships are rarely evaluated at their incipient stage, which is a critical time to assess their potential for long-term sustainability. In this paper, we present an early-stage…

  9. DUE PERMAFROST: A Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation Case Studies and Intercomparison with Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Elger, K. K.; Rinke, A.; Matthes, H.; Zhou, X.; Klehmet, K.; Buchhorn, M.; Soliman, A. S.; Duguay, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the remote sensing derived products make the DUE Permafrost products accepted by the scientific community. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale KlimaAnderungen/Regional climate change) is a climate research program where regional observations and process studies are coupled with model simulations (http://www.reklim.de/en/home/). The ESA DUE Permafrost User workshops initiated the use of the DUE time series within the REKLIM framework for inter-comparison experiments in order to assist the evaluation of calculated parameter fields of models. Within the REKLIM framework we spatio-temporally compare the geophysical surface parameters simulated by regional climate models with the spatio-temporal variability of Earth Observational remote sensing products. Earth Observational remote sensing products are: DUE Permafrost, DUE GlobSnow (http://www.globsnow.info) and the MODIS albedo product (MOD 43). We show intercomparison substudies on simulated fields of surface temperature and ground frozen, non-frozen state simulated by the regional climate models HIRHAM for the circumpolar domain and COSMO-CLM for Central Siberia.

  10. Designing case-control studies.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, T

    1979-01-01

    Identification of confounding factors, evaluation of their influence on cause-effect associations, and the introduction of appropriate ways to account for these factors are important considerations in designing case-control studies. This paper presents designs useful for these purposes, after first providing a statistical definition of a confounding factor. Differences in the ability to identify and evaluate confounding factors and estimate disease risk between designs employing stratification (matching) and designs randomly sampling cases and controls are noted. Linear logistic models for the analysis of data from such designs are described and are shown to liberalize design requirements and to increase relative risk estimation efficiency. The methods are applied to data from a multiple factor investigation of lung cancer patients and controls. PMID:540588

  11. Evaluation of expert systems - An approach and case study. [of determining software functional requirements for command management of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques that were applied in defining an expert system prototype for first-cut evaluations of the software functional requirements of NASA satellite command management activities are described. The prototype was developed using the Knowledge Engineering System. Criteria were selected for evaluating the satellite software before defining the expert system prototype. Application of the prototype system is illustrated in terms of the evaluation procedures used with the COBE satellite to be launched in 1988. The limited number of options which can be considered by the program mandates that biases in the system output must be well understood by the users.

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Medical Explorers a Case Study Curriculum on Critical Thinking, Attitude Toward Life Science, and Motivational Learning Strategies in Rural High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Lance G.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth

  13. Evaluating the power to detect temporal trends in fishery independent surveys: A case study based on Gillnets Set in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie for walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Tyson, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting variance estimates can be used to examine the statistical power to detect temporal trends in CPE in relation to sample size, duration of sampling, and decisions regarding what data are most appropriate for analysis; and (3) discuss recommendations for evaluating FI surveys and analyzing the resulting data to support fisheries management. This case study illustrated that the statistical power to detect temporal trends was low over relatively short sampling periods (e.g., 5–10 years) unless the annual decline in CPE reached 10–20%. For example, if 50 sites were sampled each year, a 10% annual decline in CPE would not be detected with more than 0.80 power until 15 years of sampling, and a 5% annual decline would not be detected with more than 0.8 power for approximately 22 years. Because the evaluation of FI surveys is essential for ensuring that trends in fish populations can be detected over management-relevant time periods, we suggest using a meta-analysis–type approach across systems to quantify sources of spatial and temporal variation. This approach can be used to evaluate and identify sampling designs that increase the ability of managers to make inferences about trends in fish stocks.

  14. Re-evaluating Science and Technology trough the lens of Arts and Graphic Design. A case study in La Spezia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locritani, Marina; Stroobant, Mascha; Talamoni, Roberta; Merlino, Silvia; Guccinelli, Giacomo; Benvenuti, Lucrezia; Zatta, Consuelo; Stricker, Federica; Zappa, Franco; Sgherri, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    and imprinted in the minds of the public thanks to the support of speed painting and visual scribing, which made it more understandable, interesting and direct. 2. Edutainment activities. Two games have been build up for children aged between 7 and 13 years as a part of the European Researchers' Night activities (2011 and 2014-2015): a great board game with questions and drawings related to marine ecology and environmental protection and a memory game through which children can learn notions on Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Environment. Children's learning is facilitated if bound by game, and in this case images are more direct than words. 3. Surveys. A graphic questionnaire has been created in order to understand science perception and/or stereotypes in children who do not yet know how to read and write. In all these cases the relationship between researchers and artists has been extremely constructive and fruitful: researchers had to simplify their object of study in order to be able to disclose concepts that have been then translated into a simple and easy language.

  15. A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS FROM CLOSED OR ABANDONED FACILITIES--SOMERSWORTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the activities described in this document is to provide a demonstration of the procedures and methodologies described within the "Guidance for Evaluating Landfill Gas Emissions from Closed or Abandoned Facilities" (Guidance). This demonstration provides an example ...

  16. Evaluation of MODIS GPP over a complex ecosystem in East Asia: A case study at Gwangneung flux tower in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Changsub; Hong, Jiyoun; Hong, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngwook; Kang, Minseok; Malla Thakuri, Bindu; Kim, Yongwon; Chun, Junghwa

    2014-12-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) gross primary productivity (GPP) has been used widely to study the global carbon cycle associated with terrestrial ecosystems. The retrieval of the current MODIS productivity with a 1 × 1 km2 resolution has limitations when presenting subgrid scale processes in terrestrial ecosystems, specifically when forests are located in mountainous areas, and shows heterogeneity in vegetation type due to intensive land use. Here, we evaluate MODIS GPP (MOD17) at Gwangneung deciduous forest KoFlux tower (deciduous forest; GDK) for 2006-2010 in Korea, where the forests comprise heterogeneous vegetation cover over complex terrain. The monthly MODIS GPP data overestimated the GDK measurements in a range of +15% to +34% and was fairly well correlated (R = 0.88) with the monthly variability at GDK during the growing season. In addition, the MODIS data partly represented the sharp GPP reduction during the Asian summer monsoon (June-September) when intensive precipitation considerably reduces solar radiation and disturbs the forest ecosystem. To examine the influence of subgrid scale heterogeneity on GPP estimates over the MODIS scale, the individual vegetation type and its area within a corresponding MODIS pixel were identified using a national forest type map (∼71-m spatial resolution), and the annual GPP in the same area as the MODIS pixel was estimated. This resulted in a slight reduction in the positive MODIS bias by ∼10%, with a high degree of uncertainty in the estimation. The MODIS discrepancy for GDK suggests further investigation is necessary to determine the MODIS errors associated with the site-specific aerodynamic and hydrological characteristics that are closely related to the mountainous topography. The accuracy of meteorological variables and the impact of the very cloudy conditions in East Asia also need to be assessed.

  17. A low cost technique to evaluate usable product for small manufacturing companies: a case study on Garcia robot.

    PubMed

    An, Vatana; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique to evaluate user interfaces is introduces. The technique is effective and affordable for small manufacturing companies. By using this technique, an integration of users' feedbacks and some usability concepts, a product can be 3 times easier to use among potential users and more than 5 times easier to use among motivated users. In addition, the technique can be implemented with the company's employees as participants.

  18. Implementation of a Community-Based Family-Centered Program in Portugal: A Multiple Case Study Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Alarcao, Madalena

    2012-01-01

    Family-centered, community-based programs are particularly suited to support families with at-risk children or maltreated children and achieve family preservation or reunification. In these child protection and child welfare cases, assessment is of great importance to inform decision making. But the implementation of services to support the…

  19. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  20. Naturalistic Evaluation--One Case. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the author's logical and empirical reflections on the practice of using naturalistic techniques to conduct evaluations. The main assertion to be supported by these reflections is that naturalistic evaluation is possible and in some cases powerful. This assertion is supported through a review of (1)…

  1. Coupling meteorological and hydrological models to evaluate the uncertainty in runoff forecasting: the case study of Maggiore Lake basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Rabuffetti, D.; Mancini, M.

    2009-04-01

    observed data to run the control simulations were supplied by ARPA-Piemonte. The study is focused on Maggiore Lake basin, an alpine basin between North-West of Italy and Southern Switzerland; results and statistical testing of the re-analyses shown in this presentation, are subdivided for each of three smaller sub-basins: Toce, Ticino and Maggia, in order to demonstrate the research progress on coupling meteorological and hydrological models in particular orographic features. It is presented how the meteorological forecasts are efficient into hydrological forecasting system, how the ensemble predictions are powerful to evaluate the uncertainty of the QPF which affects the QDF and the whole hydro-meteorological alert system for a mountain catchment. Further, in order to control the quality of the hydrological predictions in the short and medium term, statistical methods are used to calculate how the skill scores can be applied for hydrological applications and how the ensemble forecasts can help the users for decision making in management situations. Two significant events are analysed in order to compare the behaviour of the model driven by different weather scenarios: one convective in June that has yielded a high peak flow and one light stratiform in November that has been studied for the snow melt temperature which has affected the liquid precipitation and therefore the forecasted runoff. It is shown how the entire rainfall, the liquid precipitation and the runoff change in function of an areal the sub-basin scale, in order to understand where the errors are more frequently encountered.

  2. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  3. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of ‘exercised decision-space’ – traditionally used to measure local level managers’ exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority – classified as ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ – over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Results Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and

  4. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  5. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U

    2003-12-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  6. Evaluating present and future fire risk due to climate change in the Mediterranean: a case study for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, C. A.; Hatzaki, M.; Karali, A.; Roussos, A.; Xanthopoulos, G.; Kaoukis, K.

    2011-12-01

    The current climate change trend in the Mediterranean causes longer summer droughts and intensification of these droughts even out of season. Extreme weather events, such as periods of high temperatures, prolonged dry spells and very strong winds, as well as sudden storms with heavy rainfall are becoming more frequent. As a result, the frequency of large-scale forest fires is on the rise and the same holds true about soil erosion which is aggravated when such fires are followed by heavy rains a few days later. When a period of drought and high temperatures is followed by a day of peak temperatures, low relative humidity and very strong winds, fire danger reaches extreme levels and multiple fires can easily get out of control creating havoc. In order to investigate the future changes in fire risk in relation to the meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean, the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is applied. FWI is a daily meteorologically-based index designed in Canada and used worldwide to estimate fire danger in a generalized fuel type. The FWI system provides numerical ratings of relative fire potential based on weather observations. FWI components depend solely on daily noon measurements of dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, 10 m open wind speed and 24 h accumulated precipitation. The scope of this study is to investigate the impacts of climate change on fire risk for the Mediterranean, for two future time periods, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, compared to the control run period 1961-1990. Subsequently, several regional climate models from EU-Project ENSEMBLES (www.ensembles-eu.org) are used to provide input for the FWI system. Moreover, an evaluation of the index is performed using current 7-year fire and meteorological data for Greece, in order to examine whether FWI values can adequately reflect fire risk as judged by actual fire occurrence and area burnt, with particular emphasis on the most vulnerable region of Southern Greece. FWI is confirmed to

  7. Evaluation of psychic change through the application of empirical and clinical techniques for a 2-year treatment: a single case study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Clara M López; Schalayeff, Cristina; Acosta, Silvia R; Vernengo, Pía; Roussos, Andrés J; Lerner, Beatríz Dorfman

    2005-07-01

    Abstract The authors present results obtained by a combination of clinical and empirical methods used in the evaluation of psychic change involving a single case study carried out during 2 years of nonmanualized psychodynamic psychotherapy (Barber & Crits-Christoph, 1993 ; Barber, Foltz, DeRubeis, & Landis, 2002 ). A multidimensional definition of change that includes clinical (psychoanalytic) and empirical perspectives is provided. The authors used material from supervision sessions and clinical meetings to assess the psychodynamic diagnosis and evolution. The following empirical techniques and instruments were used: core conflictual relationship theme (Luborsky & Crits-Christoph, 1990), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1983), and Differential Elements for a Psychodynamic Diagnostic (C. M. López Moreno et al., 1998 ). Several markers of psychic change along the therapeutic process were found. The instruments proved to be sensitive to the changes obtained during the psychotherapy. Used together, the instruments allowed an integrated evaluation of the patient's evolution during the treatment.

  8. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  9. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  10. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  11. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  12. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: the city of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  13. One Kid at a Time: Evaluative Case Studies and Description of the Alaska Youth Initiative Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, John D.; And Others

    This monograph presents an evaluative description of the Alaska Youth Initiative (AYI), a community-based interagency program serving children and adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Principles of the program include a no reject policy and a "wraparound" service delivery approach. The monograph offers information on both…

  14. Are Summer Institutes Funded by FHWA and State Departments of Transportation Effective? Case Studies of Evaluation and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleong, Chandra; Aleong, John

    2008-01-01

    For the last three years Delaware State University (DSU) and the University of Vermont (UVM) have implemented a new approach to a summer program or "Institute" that emphasizes evaluation and accountability. Beginning in 2005, both institutes changed the focus of their programs to fulfill not only the primary objectives of instilling inquiry and…

  15. Evaluation of Education of Inner City Handicapped Children, Case Studies in Five Cities. Volume I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported was an evaluation of the education of inner city (IC) handicapped children in five cities. Focused on were an assessment of present education programs, a comparison of services provided IC children with services provided non-inner city (NIC) children, a determination of needs unique to handicapped children in inner city areas, formulation…

  16. Application of Context Input Process and Product Model in Curriculum Evaluation: Case Study of a Call Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavgaoglu, Derya; Alci, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research which was carried out in reputable dedicated call centres within the Turkish telecommunication sector aims is to evaluate competence-based curriculums designed by means of internal funding through Stufflebeam's context, input, process, product (CIPP) model. In the research, a general scanning pattern in the scope of…

  17. The Personal Factor in Evaluation Use: A Case Study of a Steering Committee's Use of a Conservation Tillage Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, S. Kay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the use of a survey on a state-level conservation tillage program was conducted to assess the effects of personal influences. Personal factors influenced timeliness, user's desire for and ownership of information, interaction among decision makers and the evaluator, methodological appropriateness and quality, and use planning. (TJH)

  18. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  19. Implementation as a Focus of Consultation to Evaluate Academic Tutoring Services in an Urban School District: A Case Study Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting evidence-based…

  20. A Case Study of the Impact of a Sytematic Evaluation Process in a Graduate Medical Education Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrei, Heidi T.

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has charged institutions that sponsor accredited Graduate Medical Education programs (residency and fellowship specialty programs) with overseeing implementation of mandatory annual program evaluation efforts to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Physicians receive scant, if…

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  2. Building an Evaluation Framework of Environmental Interpretation for Chinese Geoparks--Case Study of Yuntaishan World Geopark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Dongying

    2009-01-01

    Environmental interpretation is a key tool for integrated management of tourism, with potential for greater use in managing visitor numbers, behavior and impacts, and enhancing experience. Evaluation is necessary to determine whether interpretation is achieving its goals. It is vital for park managers to know if their management is effective in…

  3. Methods And Tools For The Evaluation Of Monitored Natural Recovery Of Contaminated Sediment: Lake Hartwell Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of contami...

  4. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Josimović, Boško Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  5. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  6. Use of Live Interactive Webcasting for an International Postgraduate Module in eHealth: Case Study Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Maramba, Inocencio; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Alexander, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Background Producing “traditional” e-learning can be time consuming, and in a topic such as eHealth, it may have a short shelf-life. Students sometimes report feeling isolated and lacking in motivation. Synchronous methods can play an important part in any blended approach to learning. Objective The aim was to develop, deliver, and evaluate an international postgraduate module in eHealth using live interactive webcasting. Methods We developed a hybrid solution for live interactive webcasting using a scan converter, mixer, and digitizer, and video server to embed a presenter-controlled talking head or copy of the presenter’s computer screen (normally a PowerPoint slide) in a student chat room. We recruited 16 students from six countries and ran weekly 2.5-hour live sessions for 10 weeks. The content included the use of computers by patients, patient access to records, different forms of e-learning for patients and professionals, research methods in eHealth, geographic information systems, and telehealth. All sessions were recorded—presentations as video files and the student interaction as text files. Students were sent an email questionnaire of mostly open questions seeking their views of this form of learning. Responses were collated and anonymized by a colleague who was not part of the teaching team. Results Sessions were generally very interactive, with most students participating actively in breakout or full-class discussions. In a typical 2.5-hour session, students posted about 50 messages each. Two students did not complete all sessions; one withdrew from the pressure of work after session 6, and one from illness after session 7. Fourteen of the 16 responded to the feedback questionnaire. Most students (12/14) found the module useful or very useful, and all would recommend the module to others. All liked the method of delivery, in particular the interactivity, the variety of students, and the “closeness” of the group. Most (11/14) felt

  7. Environmental and economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction: practical case study in the Italian context.

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Galli, Alessandro; Pulselli, Riccardo Maria; Niccolucci, Valentina

    2007-11-01

    This paper focuses on appropriation of natural capital through construction of buildings. The ecological footprint and the Costanza natural capital concepts are applied. The environmental consequences of human settlement are currently of great concern, and a need is felt to reduce the impact of building on the environment. The embodied energy of building materials and the "land area" required to sustain their production are considered to evaluate the demand on nature of this activity. The ecological footprints of 2 typical Italian buildings are compared. The paper also focuses on how to reduce the natural capital appropriation of building construction by means of environmentally inexpensive materials, renewable energy resources, and optimization of the use of bioproductive land by construction of multistoried buildings. Finally, to allocate an environmental load of buildings, an economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction is proposed.

  8. An application of multiattribute decision analysis to the Space Station Freedom program. Case study: Automation and robotics technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Levin, Richard R.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an application of multiattribute analysis to the evaluation of high leverage prototyping technologies in the automation and robotics (A and R) areas that might contribute to the Space Station (SS) Freedom baseline design. An implication is that high leverage prototyping is beneficial to the SS Freedom Program as a means for transferring technology from the advanced development program to the baseline program. The process also highlights the tradeoffs to be made between subsidizing high value, low risk technology development versus high value, high risk technology developments. Twenty one A and R Technology tasks spanning a diverse array of technical concepts were evaluated using multiattribute decision analysis. Because of large uncertainties associated with characterizing the technologies, the methodology was modified to incorporate uncertainty. Eight attributes affected the rankings: initial cost, operation cost, crew productivity, safety, resource requirements, growth potential, and spinoff potential. The four attributes of initial cost, operations cost, crew productivity, and safety affected the rankings the most.

  9. Scientific evaluation of the safety factor for the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Case study: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

    PubMed

    Würtzen, G

    1993-01-01

    The principles of 'data-derived safety factors' are applied to toxicological and biochemical information on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The calculated safety factor for an ADI is, by this method, comparable to the existing internationally recognized safety evaluations. Relevance for humans of forestomach tumours in rodents is discussed. The method provides a basis for organizing data in a way that permits an explicit assessment of its relevance. PMID:8359313

  10. Case study on partnering to revitalize development, delivery, and evaluation of education programs in optics and photonics for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines Walker, Janice M.; Anderson, Susan A.; Harding, Kevin G.; Karakekes, Meg; Chen, Ray T.

    1997-12-01

    For the past three years, the National Alliance for Photonics Education in Manufacturing (NAPEM) has 'partnered' with industry to develop, deliver and evaluate continuing education programs on optics and photonics applied to manufacturing processes. NAPEM is an alliance of CREOL/University of Central Florida, the Industrial Technology Institute, the University of Connecticut, The University of Texas at Austin, and SPIE -- The International Society for Optical Engineering. NAPEM formed in 1994 as the result of partial funding through a U. S. Technology/Reinvestment Project/Manufacturing Education and Training grant monitored by the National Science Foundation. NAPEM targeted four applications of optics in manufacturing processes. Each of these manufacturing process corresponds to a geographical region in the United States: semiconductor manufacturing in the Southwest, durable goods manufacturing in the Midwest, laser materials processing in the North East, and optics manufacturing in the South East. Course programs were typically modular, offered in half- to full-day formats. This paper focuses on lessons learned by Alliance members in the process of fulfilling NAPEM's mission. Specifically this paper addresses: (1) Challenges and benefits of university and professional association partnerships on program development, promotion and evaluation; (2) challenges and benefits of partnering with industry on program development, evaluation and continuation; (3) the importance of developing 'learning partnerships' with human resources, engineering and technical managers from industry; (4) matching delivery mechanisms to industries' educational 'habits;' (5) challenges and solutions for addressing different industries' readiness to utilize high-technology.

  11. [Death from dengue fever as a sentinel event for evaluation of quality of healthcare: a case study in two municipalities in Northeast Brazil, 2008].

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de; Samico, Isabella; Siqueira Filha, Noêmia Teixeira de; Cazarin, Gisele; Braga, Cynthia; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2011-12-01

    Despite the existing resources for adequate dengue patient care in the Brazilian healthcare system, the case-fatality rate for the disease is still high in the country. In order to identify factors associated with dengue-related death, this study evaluated quality of care according to the degree of implementation of specific measures, the technical and scientific quality of care, and access to health services in two municipalities (counties) in Northeast Brazil. An evaluative study of the implementation analysis type was performed, with death from dengue as the sentinel event for quality of care. To assess the degree of implementation and quality of care, the study scored the interview criteria and patient chart analysis; access was evaluated by thematic analysis. As for structure and process, the health services were found to be partially adequate (70%). No geographic or economic barriers were found to explain the occurrence of deaths. Technical and scientific quality failed to achieve adequate levels in the municipalities (46% and 30%) or in the specific services, and clinical management of dengue by the health services proved insufficient.

  12. 'There's a letter called ef' on Challenges and Repair in Interpreter-Mediated Tests of Cognitive Functioning in Dementia Evaluations: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Plejert, Charlotta; Antelius, Eleonor; Yazdanpanah, Maziar; Nielsen, T Rune

    2015-06-01

    In the Scandinavian countries Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland, the number of first generation migrants reaching an old age, who will be in need of age-related health-care, is rapidly increasing. This situation poses new demands on health-care facilities, such as memory clinics, where patients with memory problems and other dementia symptoms are referred for examination and evaluation. Very many elderly people with a foreign background require the assistance of an interpreter in their encounter with health-care facilities. The use of, and work by an interpreter is crucial in facilitating a smooth assessment. However, interpreters, clinicians, as well as patients and their companions, may be faced with many challenges during the evaluation procedure. The aim of this case-study is to highlight some of the challenges that occur in relation to a specific activity within the dementia evaluation, namely the test of cognitive functioning. Special attention will be paid to the phenomenon 'repair', i.e., participants' joint attempts to solve upcoming difficulties during the course of interaction. Results show that sources of trouble may be related to the lack of cultural, linguistic, and educational adaptation of the test to the patient, and to interpreter and clinician practises. Findings will be discussed in terms of test-validity, clinician and interpreter training, and the institutional goals and constraints of the dementia evaluation. The methodology Conversation Analysis has been used to conduct a highly detailed analysis of participants' practices and actions during the administration of the test. PMID:25982531

  13. Numerical evaluation of community-scale aquifer storage, transfer and recovery technology: A case study from coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Jessica L. B.; Hassan, Md. Mahadi; Sultana, Sarmin; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Robinson, Clare E.

    2016-09-01

    Aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASTR) may be an efficient low cost water supply technology for rural coastal communities that experience seasonal freshwater scarcity. The feasibility of ASTR as a water supply alternative is being evaluated in communities in south-western Bangladesh where the shallow aquifers are naturally brackish and severe seasonal freshwater scarcity is compounded by frequent extreme weather events. A numerical variable-density groundwater model, first evaluated against data from an existing community-scale ASTR system, was applied to identify the influence of hydrogeological as well as design and operational parameters on system performance. For community-scale systems, it is a delicate balance to achieve acceptable water quality at the extraction well whilst maintaining a high recovery efficiency (RE) as dispersive mixing can dominate relative to the small size of the injected freshwater plume. For the existing ASTR system configuration used in Bangladesh where the injection head is controlled and the extraction rate is set based on the community water demand, larger aquifer hydraulic conductivity, aquifer depth and injection head improve the water quality (lower total dissolved solids concentration) in the extracted water because of higher injection rates, but the RE is reduced. To support future ASTR system design in similar coastal settings, an improved system configuration was determined and relevant non-dimensional design criteria were identified. Analyses showed that four injection wells distributed around a central single extraction well leads to high RE provided the distance between the injection wells and extraction well is less than half the theoretical radius of the injected freshwater plume. The theoretical plume radius relative to the aquifer dispersivity is also an important design consideration to ensure adequate system performance. The results presented provide valuable insights into the feasibility and design

  14. How Bigelow Laboratory Measured Broader Impacts: The Case Study of the Evaluation of the Keller BLOOM Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, R. A.; Repa, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss the impetus for, the results of the short and long term effects, and the impacts of the Keller BLOOM Program, hosted by Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences of West Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Each May, for the last 21 years, 16 bright high school juniors, one from each county in Maine, have been invited to spend five days with the research scientists at the lab conducting and reporting research on the bottom layers of the ocean’s food chain: phytoplankton and zooplankton. Bigelow has chosen to evaluate BLOOM through a series of questionnaires delivered during the program, and long term tracking of participants after the program, in order to better understand the impact of the program on participants. The short term effect of the experience, measured at the end of the week, found that participants are able to: 1) develop testable research questions, 2) collect multiple water samples from a local estuary, 3) measure various characteristics of those samples with the sophisticated instruments in Bigelow’s labs assisted by their research scientists, 4) analyze and integrate the results from the various labs, and 5) present their findings to a non-scientific audience. To measure long term participation effects, a random sample of 40 of the 332 participants were interviewed resulting in the following findings: 100% attend college; 62% have STEM majors; 88% graduate from college; 57% pursue STEM careers; and 60% live and work in Maine. Bigelow scientists include a description of the BLOOM Program and the evaluation results in their NSF Broader Impacts statements to demonstrate that their research activities are being integrated into a successful STEM education program. Evaluation results are also used by Bigelow scientists and program administrators to refine program content and delivery, to promote the program to potential applicants, and to strengthen proposals to funding agencies when seeking financial support for BLOOM.

  15. Health literacy training for public health nurses in fukushima: a case-study of program adaptation, implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Aya; Rudd, Rima E; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi

    2014-05-01

    Health literacy comprises not only an individual's ability to gain access to, understand and use health information, but also health care providers' ability to make health information accessible and usable. The Fukushima nuclear accident has posed challenges related to the communication of radiation-related health information. Public health nurses are gatekeepers of community health in Japan, and have primary responsibility for communicating this complex information about science and risk to lay members of the community. A health literacy training program was designed to augment communication skills of participating nurses with two primary goals: changing communication practices and norms among public health nurses, and improving access to information for community residents. Training content incorporated an overview of health literacy skills (including numeracy), processes for assessing written materials and visual displays, as well as guidelines for text improvement. The workshop was spread across two days with two-hour sessions each day. A proximal post-training evaluation survey was conducted, followed by a more distal one-month follow-up evaluation to assess the application of learned skills in practice. Twenty-six nurses in Fukushima City attended the first trial. Post-training evaluations were highly positive, with agreement from 85-100% of participants on the appropriateness and usefulness of the workshop. During a one-month follow-up, the nurses reported applying new knowledge and skills to develop written materials. However, they faced difficulties sharing their new skills with colleagues and challenges changing work norms. Participants also encountered difficulties using graphics and explaining risks in practice. This paper highlights the importance of providing health literacy training opportunities for professionals to strengthen health system's ability to accessible information and services. This program also serves as important reference for future

  16. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-15

    Exhaust ventilation and corresponding outdoor air strategies are being implemented in high-performance new construction multifamily buildings to meet program or code requirements for improved indoor air quality, but a lack of clear design guidance is resulting in poor performance of these systems despite the best intentions of the programs or standards. CARB's 2014 'Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings' consistently demonstrated that commonly used outdoor air strategies are not performing as expected. Of the four strategies evaluated in 2014, the exhaust ventilation system that relied on outdoor air from a pressurized corridor was ruled out as a potential best practice due to its conflict with meeting requirements within most fire codes. Outdoor air that is ducted directly to the apartments was a strategy determined to have the highest likelihood of success, but with higher first costs and operating costs. Outdoor air through space conditioning systems was also determined to have good performance potential, with proper design and execution. The fourth strategy, passive systems, was identified as the least expensive option for providing outdoor air directly to apartments, with respect to both first costs and operating costs. However, little is known about how they actually perform in real-world conditions or how to implement them effectively. Based on the lack of data available on the performance of these low-cost systems and their frequent use in the high-performance building programs that require a provision for outdoor air, this research project sought to further evaluate the performance of passive vents.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation after surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation may be helpful in the prevention of complications associated with the treatment of patients with pectus excavatum who are subjected to surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods. This paper presents the case of a patient who underwent successful physical rehabilitation after 8 weeks from the surgery using the combined method. As part of the Nuss procedure, two plates were implanted to form a scaffolding for the patient's chest, which had previously been corrected with the Ravitch method. The plates were to be removed after 24 months of treatment. After the procedure, in spite of the favorable cosmetic effect of the repair, there was a significant decrease in the spirometric values and physical fitness of the patient. He underwent an individual physiotherapy program, which lasted four weeks. The streamlining of the respiratory system has significantly improved the spirometric values and raised the overall performance of the patient's organism. PMID:27212987

  18. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation after surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bal-Bocheńska, Monika Anna

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitation may be helpful in the prevention of complications associated with the treatment of patients with pectus excavatum who are subjected to surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods. This paper presents the case of a patient who underwent successful physical rehabilitation after 8 weeks from the surgery using the combined method. As part of the Nuss procedure, two plates were implanted to form a scaffolding for the patient's chest, which had previously been corrected with the Ravitch method. The plates were to be removed after 24 months of treatment. After the procedure, in spite of the favorable cosmetic effect of the repair, there was a significant decrease in the spirometric values and physical fitness of the patient. He underwent an individual physiotherapy program, which lasted four weeks. The streamlining of the respiratory system has significantly improved the spirometric values and raised the overall performance of the patient's organism. PMID:27212987

  19. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    A new construction pilot community was constructed by builder-partner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes (WCHH) based on a single occupied test house that was designed to achieve greater than 30% energy savings with respect to the House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn (2010). Building America House Simulation Protocols. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.). Builders face several key problems when implementing a whole-house systems integrated measures package (SIMP) from a single test house into multiple houses. Although a technical solution already may have been evaluated and validated in an individual test house, the potential exists for constructability failures at the community scale. This report addresses factors of implementation and scalability at the community scale and proposes methodologies by which community-scale energy evaluations can be performed based on results at the occupied test house level. Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a SIMP and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  20. Reversal of Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Using the Practical Application of Neurodiagnostic Evaluation Process: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, a patient in my practice developed complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) after bunion surgery. The condition was properly diagnosed within 4 weeks with a diagnostic technique that I routinely use to diagnose chronic musculoskeletal pain, and it was successfully treated. The tests, which are based on primitive and postural reflexes in infants, were adapted to reflect normal and abnormal motor behaviors in adults after provocation of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system (afferent C fibers in peripheral nerves). Approximately 60 days after my patient’s operation, the tests indicated a positive reflex at the posterior tibial nerve in the operated foot. Surgery to remove an accessory ossicle from the talus adjacent to this nerve resolved the CRPS 1 within 2 weeks. Since CRPS 1 is a dysfunctional state of the autonomic regulatory control of pain, it was postulated that a test based on autonomic nerve function could isolate the source of CRPS 1. The Practical Application of Neurodiagnostic Evaluation process was shown to be diagnostic for the cause of acute CRPS 1 and to allow its reversal. Further evaluation of the test for diagnosis and treatment of CRPS is needed. PMID:24355904

  1. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain–Computer Interface: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best. PMID:27746714

  2. Methodological issues in the evaluation of the quality of public health nursing: a case study of the maternal and child health centres in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Twinn, S

    1997-04-01

    The demand for the evaluation of the quality of patient and client care has increased in public health nursing as in all disciplines of nursing. In Hong Kong this demand led to the development of a collaborative study with the Department of Health to evaluate the quality of public health nursing in the maternal and child health centres. A multiple case study design was developed to undertake the research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The findings from the study demonstrated not only implications for clinical practice which have been reported elsewhere, but also methodological issues for the evaluation of care. These findings indicate three major issues for consideration. The first issue is that of the cultural context of care which includes perceptions of care such as demands on the service and expectations of care. The second issue is the use of health data, including both the methods of recordings as well as the sources of data. The final issue is that of the method of data collection, in particular the implications of the use of language in data collection tools. The findings suggest that both the use of professional language and the need for translation have implications for data collection methods. Indeed in the author's view the development of methodologies for the evaluation of care must address culturally specific issues, particularly where English is not the first language of subjects in the study. In addition the use the use of language in the method of data collection highlights more general issues raised by the use of translation in the collection and analysis of qualitative data.

  3. Evaluation and Verification of Decadal Predictions using the MiKlip Central Evaluation System - a Case Study using the MiKlip Prototype Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illing, Sebastian; Schuster, Mareike; Kadow, Christopher; Kröner, Igor; Richling, Andy; Grieger, Jens; Kruschke, Tim; Lang, Benjamin; Redl, Robert; Schartner, Thomas; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    MiKlip is project for medium-term climate prediction funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) and aims to create a model system that is able provide reliable decadal climate forecasts. During the first project phase of MiKlip the sub-project INTEGRATION located at Freie Universität Berlin developed a framework for scientific infrastructures (FREVA). More information about FREVA can be found in EGU2016-13060. An instance of this framework is used as Central Evaluation System (CES) during the MiKlip project. Throughout the first project phase various sub-projects developed over 25 analysis tools - so called plugins - for the CES. The main focus of these plugins is on the evaluation and verification of decadal climate prediction data, but most plugins are not limited to this scope. They target a wide range of scientific questions. Starting from preprocessing tools like the "LeadtimeSelector", which creates lead-time dependent time-series from decadal hindcast sets, over tracking tools like the "Zykpak" plugin, which can objectively locate and track mid-latitude cyclones, to plugins like "MurCSS" or "SPECS", which calculate deterministic and probabilistic skill metrics. We also integrated some analyses from Model Evaluation Tools (MET), which was developed at NCAR. We will show the theoretical background, technical implementation strategies, and some interesting results of the evaluation of the MiKlip Prototype decadal prediction system for a selected set of these tools.

  4. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) Methodologies for School Facilities: A Case Study of the V. Sue Cleveland High School Post Occupancy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Marcel; Larroque, Andre; Maniktala, Nate

    2012-01-01

    The New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority (NMPSFA) is the agency responsible for administering state-funded capital projects for schools statewide. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is the tool selected by NMPSFA for measuring project outcomes. The basic POE process for V. Sue Cleveland High School (VSCHS) consisted of a series of field…

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Integration of a LITEE Case Study for a Freshman Level Mechanical Engineering Course at The University of Toledo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of the integration of a manufacturing case study to a freshman level mechanical engineering course at The University of Toledo. The approach to integrate this case study into the class was completed via weekly assignments analyzing the case, small group discussion, and weekly group discussion.…

  6. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission. PMID:25647027

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale - Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which community-scale energy savings can be evaluated based on results at the occupied test house level.Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a whole-house systems integrated measures package and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  8. Evaluation of sources of uncertainty in risk assessments conducted for the US Army using a case study approach.

    PubMed

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Vorhees, Donna; Moore, Dwayne; Cura, Jerome; Bridges, Todd

    2008-01-01

    We identify, categorize, and score sources of uncertainty in human health and ecological risk assessments conducted for several US Army sites to identify better analytical practices and opportunities for targeted research to improve risk estimates. The reviewed assessments are from reports completed within the past 8 y and were obtained from the US Army Environmental Technical Information Center (ETIC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, USA. Most of the risk assessments incorporated only qualitative uncertainty analysis to demonstrate the conservatism of selected data and predictive models. Food chain transfer (e.g., concentrations of contaminants across trophic levels) dominated quantifiable sources of uncertainty across the risk assessments evaluated. Factors related to dermal exposures ranked high for human health, and effects assessment for ecological endpoints.

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission.

  10. Evaluation following functional loading of titanium fixtures placed in ridges augmented by deproteinized bone mineral. A human case study.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, L J; Skoglund, A; Hising, P; Lang, N P; Attström, R

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to clinically evaluate the periimplant tissues of titanium fixtures, placed in regions augmented using deproteinized bone mineral, after initial functional loading. The original material included 18 individuals (mean age 71+/-9 years) treated using a graft material, Bio-Oss (6 Patients), or Bio-Oss+autogenous bone mixture (12 patients) for alveolar ridge augmentation. 6 titanium fixtures were placed at the time of ridge augmentation. 46 fixtures were placed at a second surgical stage, median 9.5 months after augmentation. Augmentation included crest width (26 fixtures), crest height and width (12 fixtures) and sinus floor lift (14 fixtures) procedures. In addition, 16 fixtures were placed in regions of adequate bone volume. Reconstructions were placed and patients were recalled on a yearly basis. After 4-6.5 years of functional loading, the reconstructions were removed and assessments of fixture stability and periimplant mucosal conditions were made. At this time, 3 patients (13 fixtures) were lost to follow-up (1 deceased, 1 declined to participate, and 1 too ill to attend). In the remaining 15 patients, 7 fixtures were lost due to osseo-disintegration, 2 in one patient in the mandible, and 5 in a second patient in the maxilla. Both individuals were smokers. The remaining 32 fixtures were clinically stable. Periimplant mucosa was healthy with a mean modified sulcular bleeding index of 0.1+/-0.2 and a mean probing depth of 1.5+/-1.1 mm. Radiographic evaluation showed alveolar bone levels at or above the level of the first fixture thread. There were no perifixtural radiolucencies. The survival rate, which coincided with success rate, for fixtures placed in conjunction with ridge augmentation using deproteinized bone mineral was 100% for non-smokers and 43% for smokers after 4-6.5 years of functional loading. No fixture loss occurred in non-augmented areas.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Tung

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

  12. An Evaluation of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction: A Uganda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinska, Zuki

    2008-01-01

    A year and a half after the launch of the "INEE Minimum Standards" in December 2004, a small baseline study suggested that awareness of the existence of the handbook among educational stakeholders in Uganda was low; in addition, the study found no instance of utilization of the handbook. The present report contains the findings of a study…

  13. Students' Evaluation of Their Practical Placement: The Case of the Department of Library and Information Studies, University of Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorosi, B. N.; Metzger, A. J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a questionnaire-based study of graduates of the Diploma in Library and Information Studies at the University of Botswana (Africa) regarding their practical placement experience. Discusses perceived value of the practical placement, problems relating to the management of the program, inadequate supervision, and suggestions for…

  14. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  15. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  16. Potential of environmental DNA to evaluate Northern pike (Esox lucius) eradication efforts: An experimental test and case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  17. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  18. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  19. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Häsler, Barbara; Hiby, Elly; Gilbert, Will; Obeyesekere, Nalinika; Bennani, Houda; Rushton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. Methodology/Principal Findings A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. Conclusions The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  1. Structural and Architectural Evaluation of Bimetallic Nanoparticles: A Case Study of Pt−Ru Core−Shell and Alloy Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Alayoglu, S.; Zavalij, P; Eichhorn, B; Wang, Q; Frenkel, A; Chupas, P

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive structural/architectural evaluation of the PtRu (1:1) alloy and Ru at Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) provides spatially resolved structural information on sub-5 nm NPs. A combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, Debye function simulations of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-TEM/EDS) analyses provides complementary information used to construct a detailed picture of the core/shell and alloy nanostructures. The 4.4 nm PtRu (1:1) alloys are crystalline homogeneous random alloys with little twinning in a typical face-centered cubic (fcc) cell. The Pt atoms are predominantly metallic, whereas the Ru atoms are partially oxidized and are presumably located on the NP surface. The 4.0 nm Ru at Pt NPs have highly distorted hcp Ru cores that are primarily in the metallic state but show little order beyond 8 A. In contrast, the 1-2 monolayer thick Pt shells are relatively crystalline but are slightly distorted (compressed) relative to bulk fcc Pt. The homo- and heterometallic coordination numbers and bond lengths are equal to those predicted by the model cluster structure, showing that the Ru and Pt metals remain phase-separated in the core and shell components and that the interface between the core and shell is quite normal.

  2. Nanosilver conductive ink: A case study for evaluating the potential risk of nanotechnology under hypothetical use scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Melby, Nicolas L; Jordan, Shinita M; Bednar, Anthony J; Kennedy, Alan J; Negrete, Maria E; Chappell, Mark A; Poda, Aimee R

    2016-11-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being incorporated into a variety of consumer products due to unique properties that offer a variety of advantages over bulk materials. Understanding of the nano-specific risk associated with nano-enabled technologies, however, continues to lag behind research and development, registration with regulators, and commercialization. One example of a nano-enabled technology is nanosilver ink, which can be used in commercial ink-jet printers for the development of low-cost printable electronics. This investigation utilizes a tiered EHS framework to evaluate the potential nano-specific release, exposure and hazard associated with typical use of both nanosilver ink and printed circuits. The framework guides determination of the potential for ENM release from both forms of the technology in simulated use scenarios, including spilling of the ink, aqueous release (washing) from the circuits and UV light exposure. The as-supplied ink merits nano-specific consideration based on the presence of nanoparticles and their persistence in environmentally-relevant media. The material released from the printed circuits upon aqueous exposure was characterized by a number of analysis techniques, including ultracentrifugation and single particle ICP-MS, and the results suggest that a vast majority of the material was ionic in nature and nano-specific regulatory scrutiny may be less relevant.

  3. Nanosilver conductive ink: A case study for evaluating the potential risk of nanotechnology under hypothetical use scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Melby, Nicolas L; Jordan, Shinita M; Bednar, Anthony J; Kennedy, Alan J; Negrete, Maria E; Chappell, Mark A; Poda, Aimee R

    2016-11-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being incorporated into a variety of consumer products due to unique properties that offer a variety of advantages over bulk materials. Understanding of the nano-specific risk associated with nano-enabled technologies, however, continues to lag behind research and development, registration with regulators, and commercialization. One example of a nano-enabled technology is nanosilver ink, which can be used in commercial ink-jet printers for the development of low-cost printable electronics. This investigation utilizes a tiered EHS framework to evaluate the potential nano-specific release, exposure and hazard associated with typical use of both nanosilver ink and printed circuits. The framework guides determination of the potential for ENM release from both forms of the technology in simulated use scenarios, including spilling of the ink, aqueous release (washing) from the circuits and UV light exposure. The as-supplied ink merits nano-specific consideration based on the presence of nanoparticles and their persistence in environmentally-relevant media. The material released from the printed circuits upon aqueous exposure was characterized by a number of analysis techniques, including ultracentrifugation and single particle ICP-MS, and the results suggest that a vast majority of the material was ionic in nature and nano-specific regulatory scrutiny may be less relevant. PMID:27497530

  4. An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengguang; Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in electronics and information technology, China has gradually become the largest consumer of household appliances (HAs). Increasingly, end-of-life (EOL) HAs are generated in China. EOL recycling is a promising strategy to reduce dependence on virgin production, and indium is one of the recycled substances. The potential yield of indium recycling has not been systematically evaluated in China thus far. This paper estimates the potential yield of recycled indium from waste liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in China during the period from 2015 to 2030. The quantities of indium that will be used to produce LCDs are also predicted. The estimates focus on the following three key LCD waste sources: LCD TVs, desktop computers and portable computers. The results show that the demand for indium will be increasing in the near future. It is expected that 350 tonnes of indium will be needed to produce LCDs in China in 2035. The indium recycled from EOL LCDs, however, is much less than the demand and only accounts for approximately 48% of the indium demand. The sustainable index of indium is always less than 0.5. Therefore, future indium recycling efforts should focus on the development of recycling technology and the improvement of the relevant policy.

  5. An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengguang; Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in electronics and information technology, China has gradually become the largest consumer of household appliances (HAs). Increasingly, end-of-life (EOL) HAs are generated in China. EOL recycling is a promising strategy to reduce dependence on virgin production, and indium is one of the recycled substances. The potential yield of indium recycling has not been systematically evaluated in China thus far. This paper estimates the potential yield of recycled indium from waste liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in China during the period from 2015 to 2030. The quantities of indium that will be used to produce LCDs are also predicted. The estimates focus on the following three key LCD waste sources: LCD TVs, desktop computers and portable computers. The results show that the demand for indium will be increasing in the near future. It is expected that 350 tonnes of indium will be needed to produce LCDs in China in 2035. The indium recycled from EOL LCDs, however, is much less than the demand and only accounts for approximately 48% of the indium demand. The sustainable index of indium is always less than 0.5. Therefore, future indium recycling efforts should focus on the development of recycling technology and the improvement of the relevant policy. PMID:26277718

  6. Evaluation of subsidence hazard in mantled karst setting: a case study from Val d'Orléans (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Cartannaz, Charles; Noury, Gildas; Vanoudheusden, Emilie

    2015-04-01

    Soil subsidence/collapse is a major geohazard occurring in karst region. It occurs as suffosion or dropout sinkholes developing in the soft cover. Less frequently it corresponds to a breakdown of karst void ceiling (i.e., collapse sinkhole). This hazard can cause significant engineering challenges. Therefore decision-makers require the elaboration of methodologies for reliable predictions of such hazards (e.g., karst subsidence susceptibility and hazards maps, early-warning monitoring systems). A methodological framework was developed to evaluate relevant conditioning factors favouring subsidence (Perrin et al. submitted) and then to combine these factors to produce karst subsidence susceptibility maps. This approach was applied to a mantled karst area south of Paris (Val d'Orléans). Results show the significant roles of the overburden lithology (presence/absence of low-permeability layer) and of the karst aquifer piezometric surface position within the overburden. In parallel, an experimental site has been setup to improve the understanding of key processes leading to subsidence/collapse and includes piezometers for measurements of water levels and physico-chemical parameters in both the alluvial and karst aquifers as well as surface deformation monitoring. Results should help in designing monitoring systems to anticipate occurrence of subsidence/collapse. Perrin J., Cartannaz C., Noury G., Vanoudheusden E. 2015. A multicriteria approach to karst subsidence hazard mapping supported by Weights-of-Evidence analysis. Submitted to Engineering Geology.

  7. Quantitatively evaluating mistaken clone assignments by RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-Bo; Xu, Chan-Wen; Wang, Miao-Miao; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2008-06-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the errors of clone assignment based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty clones were randomly selected from a 16S rRNA gene library and were categorized into 35 operational taxonomic units (OTU) based on their indistinguishable enzyme restriction patterns of 3 tetrameric restriction enzymes RsaI, BsuRI, and HinfI. All of these clones were then sequenced and were reassigned into 36-53 OTUs using the DOTUR program when sequence similarities of 95%-100% were used. The number of the identically assigned clones ranged from 53 to 61 and the percentage varied from 66.3% to 76.3%. The Shannon-Weaver index for the bacterial community observed by RFLP analysis was 2.75, equal to that estimated by DOTUR at a 97% sequence similarity. Compared with clones assigned with the DOTUR program at a 97% sequence similarity, only 61 clones (76.3%) were correctly assigned by RFLP analysis. Six clones (7.5%) were assigned mistakenly at the phylum level, and the positions of 13 clones (16.2%) were phylogenetically different at a lower taxonomic rank. PMID:18535634

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  9. Rapid Risk Evaluation (ER2) Using MS Excel Spreadsheet: a Case Study of Fredericton (new Brunswick, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, H.; Stefanakis, E.; Nastev, M.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional knowledge of the flood hazard alone (extent and frequency) is not sufficient for informed decision-making. The public safety community needs tools and guidance to adequately undertake flood hazard risk assessment in order to estimate respective damages and social and economic losses. While many complex computer models have been developed for flood risk assessment, they require highly trained personnel to prepare the necessary input (hazard, inventory of the built environment, and vulnerabilities) and analyze model outputs. As such, tools which utilize open-source software or are built within popular desktop software programs are appealing alternatives. The recently developed Rapid Risk Evaluation (ER2) application runs scenario based loss assessment analyses in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. User input is limited to a handful of intuitive drop-down menus utilized to describe the building type, age, occupancy and the expected water level. In anticipation of local depth damage curves and other needed vulnerability parameters, those from the U.S. FEMA's Hazus-Flood software have been imported and temporarily accessed in conjunction with user input to display exposure and estimated economic losses related to the structure and the content of the building. Building types and occupancies representative of those most exposed to flooding in Fredericton (New Brunswick) were introduced and test flood scenarios were run. The algorithm was successfully validated against results from the Hazus-Flood model for the same building types and flood depths.

  10. Three Dimensional Modeling of Agricultural Contamination of Groundwater: a Case Study in the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Snow, D. D.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater, impacting future uses of this limited resource. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have been validated based on realistic three dimensional soil lithology, hydrological conditions, and historical changes in groundwater quality. In this work, contamination of groundwater in the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site was simulated based on extensive field data including (1) lithology from 69 wells and 11 test holes; (2) surface soil type, land use, and surface elevations; (3) 5-year groundwater level and flow velocity; (4) daily meteorological monitoring; (5) 5-year seasonal irrigation records; (6) 5-years of spatially intensive contaminant concentration in 40 multilevel monitoring wells; and (7) detailed cultivation records. Using this data, a three-dimensional vadose zone lithological framework was developed using a commercial software tool (RockworksTM). Based on the interpolated lithology, a hydrological model was developed using HYDRUS-3D to simulate water flow and contaminant transport. The model was validated through comparison of simulated atrazine and nitrate concentration with historical data from 40 wells and multilevel samplers. The validated model will be used to predict potential changes in ground water quality due to agricultural contamination under future climate scenarios in the High Plain Aquifer system.

  11. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  12. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  13. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  14. Evaluation of black carbon emission inventories using a Lagrangian dispersion model - a case study over Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, H. S.; Renuka, K.; Kiran, V. Ravi; Jayaraman, A.; Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Beig, G.

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated three emission inventories of black carbon (BC) using Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations and BC observations from a rural site in Southern India (Gadanki; 13.48° N, 79.18° E) from 2008 to 2012. We found that 93 to 95% of the BC load at the observation site originated from emissions in India and the rest from the neighbouring countries and shipping. A substantial fraction (33 to 43%) of the BC was transported from Northern India. Wet deposition is found to play a minor role in reducing BC mass at the site because of its proximity to BC sources during rainy season and relatively short rainy season over western and northern parts of India. Seasonally, the highest BC concentration (approx. 3.3 μg m-3) is observed during winter, followed by spring (approx. 2.8 μg m-3). While the model reproduced well the seasonal cycle, the modelled BC concentrations are significantly lower than observed values, especially in spring. The model bias is correlated to fire radiative power - a proxy of open biomass burning activity. Using potential emission sensitivity maps derived using the model, we suggest that underestimation of BC mass in the model during spring is due to the underestimation of BC fluxes over Southern India (possibly from open-biomass-burning/forest-fires). The overall performance of the model simulations using three different emission inventories (SAFAR-India, ECLIPSE and RETRO) is similar, with ECLIPSE and SAFAR-India performing marginally better as both have about 30% higher emissions for India than RETRO. The ratio of observed to modelled annual mean BC concentration was estimated as 1.5 for SAFAR, 1.7 for ECLIPSE and 2.4 for RETRO.

  15. Evaluation of black carbon emission inventories using a Lagrangian dispersion model - a case study over southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, H. S.; Renuka, K.; Kiran, V. Ravi; Jayaraman, A.; Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Beig, G.

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated three emission inventories of black carbon (BC) using Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations and BC observations from a rural site in southern India (Gadanki; 13.48° N, 79.18° E) from 2008 to 2012. We found that 93 to 95% of the BC load at the observation site originated from emissions in India and the rest from the neighbouring countries and shipping. A substantial fraction (33 to 43%) of the BC was transported from northern India. Wet deposition is found to play a minor role in reducing BC mass at the site because of its proximity to BC sources during rainy season and relatively short rainy season over western and northern parts of India. Seasonally, the highest BC concentration (approx. 3.3 μg m-3) is observed during winter, followed by spring (approx. 2.8 μg m-3). While the model reproduced well the seasonal cycle, the modelled BC concentrations are significantly lower than observed values, especially in spring. The model bias is correlated to fire radiative power - a proxy of open biomass burning activity. Using potential emission sensitivity maps derived using the model, we suggest that underestimation of BC mass in the model during spring is due to the underestimation of BC fluxes over southern India (possibly from open-biomass-burning/forest-fires). The overall performance of the model simulations using three different emission inventories (SAFAR-India, ECLIPSE and RETRO) is similar, with ECLIPSE and SAFAR-India performing marginally better as both have about 30% higher emissions for India than RETRO. The ratio of observed to modelled annual mean BC concentration was estimated as 1.5 for SAFAR, 1.7 for ECLIPSE and 2.4 for RETRO.

  16. [Evaluation of cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem: a case study in a water conservation area of Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Guo, Zong-xiang; Yang, Huai-yu; Yang, Zheng-yong

    2009-12-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years, which has not only contributed great economic value, but also presented cultural value for human beings. With the development and upgrading of Chinese economy and culture, these values will be highlighted further. To evaluate the cultural service value of pond aquaculture ecosystem would provide a scientific base to the policy-making to avoid or reduce the wrong design-making or avoid the policy-malfunction, and also, to promote the development of aquaculture and related recreational fishing industry, increase the added value of aquaculture and the income of fish-farmers, and promote the economic development of rural area. Based on the survey data from the aquaculture ponds in the water conservation area of Dianshan Lake in Qingpu District of Shanghai and the related statistical data, the cultural service value including recreational value and existence value of the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the area was estimated by means of travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). The total cultural service value of this ecosystem was about 213 million Yuan x a(-1) or 231296. 69 Yuan x hm(-2) x a(-1), being 5. 25 times of the market value of aquaculture products, among which, recreational value was about 189 million Yuan x a(-1), and existence value was about 24 million Yuan x a(-1). It was suggested that in the construction of new rural areas of Shanghai, sufficient attention should be paid on the full play of the cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem.

  17. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  18. An evaluation of alternative methods for constructing phylogenies from whole genome sequence data: a case study with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, James B; Luo, Yan; Davis, Steven; Chen, Yi; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Ottesen, Andrea; Rand, Hugh; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genomics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly being applied to investigate questions within evolutionary and molecular biology, as well as questions concerning public health (e.g., pathogen outbreaks). Given the impact that conclusions derived from such analyses may have, we have evaluated the robustness of clustering individuals based on WGS data to three key factors: (1) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform (HiSeq, MiSeq, IonTorrent, 454, and SOLiD), (2) algorithms used to construct a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) matrix (reference-based and reference-free), and (3) phylogenetic inference method (FastTreeMP, GARLI, and RAxML). We carried out these analyses on 194 whole genome sequences representing 107 unique Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Montevideo strains. Reference-based approaches for identifying SNPs produced trees that were significantly more similar to one another than those produced under the reference-free approach. Topologies inferred using a core matrix (i.e., no missing data) were significantly more discordant than those inferred using a non-core matrix that allows for some missing data. However, allowing for too much missing data likely results in a high false discovery rate of SNPs. When analyzing the same SNP matrix, we observed that the more thorough inference methods implemented in GARLI and RAxML produced more similar topologies than FastTreeMP. Our results also confirm that reproducibility varies among NGS platforms where the MiSeq had the lowest number of pairwise differences among replicate runs. Our investigation into the robustness of clustering patterns illustrates the importance of carefully considering how data from different platforms are combined and analyzed. We found clear differences in the topologies inferred, and certain methods performed significantly better than others for discriminating between the highly clonal organisms investigated here. The methods supported by our

  19. The Climate Change Collection: A Case Study on Digital Library Collection Review and the Integration of Research, Education and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M.

    2005-05-01

    Designed as an pilot project to assess the scientific and pedagogical quality of selected digital resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), the Climate Change Collection is thematic collection of digital resources relating to the topic of global climate change. Developed through the collaborative efforts of an interdisciplinary review team made up of professionals from the fields of climate research, geoscience education, cognitive psychology, and evaluation, the findings of the project suggest that the user needs of the reviewers should be considered in any review process, that there is inherent value in the collaboration of scientists, teachers and related fields in determining the quality of particular resources, and that the process of preparing for and conducting such reviews and annotations is time-consuming and challenging. Drawing from the experience of prior collection development efforts associated with DLESE, including the Community Review System and the Digital Water Education Library, the Climate Change Collection was developed during the Fall of 2004 and Winter of 2005. Through a series of monthly meetings with the review team facilitated by the Principal Investigator acting as Editor for the collection, and assisted by an online workspace known as a SWIKI, the Climate Change Collection was designed as an experiment in streamlined collection development that may help inform future digital library review and collection-building efforts. The initial meetings focused on training the reviewers, setting context for the review process, and discussing the perspectives of the various participants in the review team. Each participant received a stipend for their involvement in the process. A rubric "scorecard" was developed, tested, and fine-tuned by the review team with a focus primarily on scientific accuracy and the potential for effective use in the classroom. Specific concepts relating to aspects of natural climate variability

  20. Melt dispersion granules: formulation and evaluation to improve oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs - a case study with valsartan.

    PubMed

    Chella, Naveen; Tadikonda, Ramarao

    2015-06-01

    Solid dispersion (SD) technique is a promising strategy to improve the solubility and dissolution of BCS class II drugs. However, only few products are marketed till today based on SD technology due to poor flow properties and stability. The present work was intended to solve these problems by using combination approach, melt dispersion and surface adsorption technologies. The main aim of the present work is to improve the absorption in the stomach (at lower pH) where the absorption window exists for the drug by improving the dissolution, resulting in the enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, weakly acidic drug with pH dependant solubility, i.e. valsartan. Melt dispersion granules were prepared in different ratios using different carriers (Gelucire 50/13, PEG 8000 and Pluronic F-68) and lactose as an adsorbent. Similarly, physical mixtures were also prepared at corresponding ratios. The prepared dispersion granules and physical mixtures were characterized by FTIR, DSC and in vitro dissolution studies. DSC studies revealed reduction in the crystallinity with a possibility of presence of amorphous character of drug in the dispersion granules. From dissolution studies, valsartan Gelucire dispersion (GSD4; 1:4 ratio) showed complete drug release in 30 min against the plain drug which showed only 11.31% of drug release in 30 min. Pharmacokinetic studies of optimized formulation in male Wistar rats showed 2.65-fold higher bioavailability and 1.47-fold higher Cmax compared to pure drug. The melt dispersion technology has the potential to improve dissolution and the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. PMID:24796274

  1. [The role of ecological studies to evaluate the impact of an enviromental factor on health: a case study on the results of the SENTIERI project].

    PubMed

    Donato, Francesco; Raffetti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A case-study regarding the results of the SENTIERI project on the Brescia-Caffaro NPCS (National Priority Contaminated Site) is reported. This area has been polluted mainly by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which have been classified recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as human carcinogens (group 1), with sufficient evidence for melanoma and limited for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and breast cancer. The 3rd report of the SENTIERI project (2014) has shown an excess of cancer incidence with respect to the expected, on the basis of the incidence rates from the pool of Centre-North Italy cancer registries, but a mortality similar to that expected according to the regional rates, for melanoma, NHL and breast cancer. Furthermore, a higher than expected incidence has been found for various cancers which are not associated a priori with PCB exposure. The Brescia Local Health Authority has also carried out an analysis of cancer incidence, which has shown an incidence in the area similar to other ones in North Italy and a cluster of cases centered on Brescia town for melanoma only. A possible explanation of these discrepancies is the use of different reference populations for the comparisons (Region and pool of Centre-North Italy cancer registries), besides possible confounding bias. We discuss here the most critical aspects of modern ecological studies, their potential information content and interpretation limits.

  2. Evaluating social marketing: lessons from ShowCase.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Alex; Reynolds, Lucy

    2009-11-01

    In April 2009, the National Social Marketing Centre launched its new case study resource, ShowCase: a collection of 40 best practice social marketing programmes, predominantly from the UK. The process of collecting and researching these case studies has provided a unique opportunity to look at the current state of 'evaluation' within the field of social marketing. This paper shares some of the observations made during the review, exploring common challenges faced when evaluating social marketing. It also provides recommendations for improving this process to guide future social marketing delivery.

  3. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  4. Case Studies in Wilderness Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Melissa; Tarter, Shana Lee

    Five case studies explore issues in wilderness medicine, with emphasis on evacuation decision making. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips involving college or high school students. In each case, the situation and facts of the case are outlined, including the patient's medical history and vital signs, and at…

  5. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  6. Coral transplantation as an aid to reef rehabilitation: evaluation of a case study in the Maldive Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.; Edwards, A. J.

    1995-11-01

    As part of a study of reef rehabilitation, whole coral colonies (primarily Acropora, Pocillopora, Porites, Favia and Favites) were transplanted and cemented in place onto three approximately 20 m2 areas of Armorflex concrete mats on a 0.8-1.5 m deep reef-flat in the Maldives which had been severely degraded by coral mining. Growth, in situ mortality, and losses from mats due to wave action of a total of 530 transplants were monitored over 28 months. Natural recruitment of corals to both the transplanted Armorflex areas and concrete mats without transplants was also studied. Overall survivorship of corals 28 months after transplantation was 51%. Most losses of transplants due to wave action occurred during the first 7 months when 25% were lost, with only a further 5% of colonies being lost subsequently. Within 16 months most colonies had accreted naturally to the concrete mats. Thirty-two percent of transplants which remained attached died with Acropora hyacinthus and Pocillopora verrucosa having the highest mortality rates (approx. 50% mortality over two years) and Porites lobata and P. lutea the lowest (2.8 and 8.1% mortality respectively over two years). Growth rates were very variable with a quarter to a third of transplants showing negative growth during each inter-survey period. Acropora hyacinthus, A. cytherea and A. divaricata transplants had the highest growth rates (colony mean linear radial extension 4.15-5.81 cm y-1), followed by Pocillopora verrucosa (mean 2.51 cm y-1). Faviids and poritids had lowest growth rates. Favia and Favites showed the poorest response to transplantation whilst Acropora divaricata, which combined a high growth rate with relatively low mortality, appeared particularly amenable to transplantation. Natural recruitment did not differ significantly between concrete mats with and without transplanted corals. `Visible' recruits were first recorded 10 months after emplacement of the mats and were predominantly Acropora and Pocillopora

  7. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  8. Evaluation of procedural learning transfer from a virtual environment to a real situation: a case study on tank maintenance training.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Franck; Hoareau, Charlotte; Tisseau, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality opens new opportunities for operator training in complex tasks. It lowers costs and has fewer constraints than traditional training. The ultimate goal of virtual training is to transfer knowledge gained in a virtual environment to an actual real-world setting. This study tested whether a maintenance procedure could be learnt equally well by virtual-environment and conventional training. Forty-two adults were divided into three equally sized groups: virtual training (GVT® [generic virtual training]), conventional training (using a real tank suspension and preparation station) and control (no training). Participants then performed the procedure individually in the real environment. Both training types (conventional and virtual) produced similar levels of performance when the procedure was carried out in real conditions. Performance level for the two trained groups was better in terms of success and time taken to complete the task, time spent consulting job instructions and number of times the instructor provided guidance.

  9. Evaluation of lindane diffusion along the southeastern Adriatic coastal strip (Mediterranean Sea): a case study in an Albanian industrial area.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mauro; Betti, Mattia; Grati, Fabio; Marconi, Valerio; Mastrogiacomo, Anna Rita; Polidori, Piero; Sanxhaku, Mitat

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact at sea of a pesticide factory located 7 km north of Durres (Albania) by investigating a lowland area under the sea situated 0.7 km from the shoreline. The main product of this factory was lindane. Production ceased in 1991 during the Albanian civil war, and a large amount of industrial waste was dispersed over the ground surrounding the factory, resulting in a high level of lindane pollution. A water-scoop channels the ground water accumulated around the disused factory directly into the sea. The concentrations of lindane in sediments collected along the coasts of the region ranged from 0.60 to 22.55 ng g(-1). The average concentration in the muscles of fish did not exceed the limits specified by European Commission legislation, whereas the concentration in the liver did exceed these limits; consequently, liver is not recommended for consumption.

  10. Performance evaluation of an experimental 100kW Kalyanpur solar photovoltaic power plant -- a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, I.; Iqbal, A.; Asghar, M.S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The operational structures, functions and performance of a 100 kW (peak) grid interactive experimental solar photovoltaic power plant are being reported. The interconnection schemes of the modules forming arrays supplying power to the load are discussed. The fourth unit of the plant which is isolated and independently supplies power to the power grid has been studied. Several improvements in the performance has been suggested particularly in load management, power controller, voltage regulator and tracking for optimum utilization of the plant. It is found that the system utility can be highly improved by making the plant totally grid-interactive instead of using it as partially stand alone system. By load management multi role of the plant is suggested. In addition to its normal function the plant can work as storage and peak power plant.

  11. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission factor from urea during rice cropping season: A case study in Korean paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil Won; Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gun Yeob; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization with urea can lead to a loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) that was fixed during the industrial production process. The extent of atmospheric CO2 removal from urea manufacturing was estimated by the Industrial Processes and Product Use sector (IPPU sector). On its basis, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has proposed a value of 0.2 Mg C per Mg urea (available in 2006 revised IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories), which is the mass fractions of C in urea, as the CO2 emission coefficient from urea for the agricultural sector. Notably, due to the possibility of bicarbonate leaching to waters, all C in urea might not get released as CO2 to the atmosphere. Hence, in order to provide an accurate value of the CO2 emission coefficient from applied urea in the rice ecosystem, the CO2 emission factors were characterized under different levels of 13C-urea applied paddy field in the current study. The total CO2 fluxes and rice grain yields increased significantly with increasing urea application (110-130 kg N ha-1) and thereafter, decreased. However, with increasing 13C-urea application, a significant and proportional increase of the 13CO2sbnd C emissions from 13C-urea was also observed. From the relationships between urea application levels and 13CO2sbnd C fluxes from 13C-urea, the CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea was estimated to range between 0.0143 and 0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea. Thus, the CO2sbnd C emission factor of this study is less than that of the value proposed by IPCC. Therefore, for the first time, we propose to revise the current IPCC guideline value of CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea as 0.0143-0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea for Korean paddy soils.

  12. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks. PMID:26734816

  13. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks.

  14. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  15. MODIS 250M burnt area detection algorithm: A case study applied, optimized and evaluated over continental Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bernardo; Benali, Akli; Pereira, Jose Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The dependence on satellites to derive burnt area (BA) maps is unquestionable. High resolution inventories normally result from change detection algorithms applied to pre and post fire season high resolution imagery. But these have no temporal discrimination within the occurring season. Limited to the larger fire scars, coarser resolution imagery based on reflectance or thermal information can help to map the individual fire progression. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m imagery bands, freely available, can be used to provide quick areal estimates and provide the needed temporal discrimination with four times the standard spatial resolution BA products. The scope of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal accuracy of burnt area maps derived by the MODIS 250m resolution Burnt Area algorithm (M250BA) presented by Mota et al., (2013) on an Mediterranean landscape. The algorithm is an improved adaptation of one of the burnt area algorithms developed within the scope of the Fire_CCI project and was applied to an area covering continental Portugal for the period of 2001-2013. The algorithm comprises a temporal analysis based on change point detections and a spatial analysis based on Markov random fields. We explored the benefits of applying standard optimization techniques to the algorithm and achieved significant performance improvements.. Temporal and spatial accuracy assessments were performed by comparing the results with spatial and temporal distribution of active fire maps and with high resolution burnt area maps, derived by the MCD14ML thermal anomalies dataset and by Landsat BA classifications, respectively. Accuracy results highlight the potential applications for this BA algorithm and the advantages of using 250m spatial resolution images for BA detection. The study also extends the current national burnt area atlas since 2010. Due to the open-access data policy, the algorithm can be easily parameterised and applied to any

  16. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  17. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  18. Comparative Accuracy Evaluation of Fine-Scale Global and Local Digital Surface Models: The Tshwane Case Study I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breytenbach, A.

    2016-10-01

    Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite and data detected from the Tandem-X InSAR satellite configuration were fundamental in the construction of seamless DSM products at different postings, namely 2 m, 4 m and 12 m. The three DSMs were sampled against independent control points originating from validated airborne LiDAR data. The reference surfaces were derived from the same dense point cloud at grid resolutions corresponding to those of the samples. The absolute and relative positional accuracies were computed using well-known DEM error metrics and accuracy statistics. Overall vertical accuracies were also assessed and compared across seven slope classes and nine primary land cover classes. Although all three DSMs displayed significantly more vertical errors where solid waterbodies, dense natural and/or alien woody vegetation and, in a lesser degree, urban residential areas with significant canopy cover were encountered, all three surpassed their expected positional accuracies overall.

  19. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  20. Evaluation of sampling resolution in coral stable isotope records: A case study using records from New Caledonia and Tarawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terrence M.; Taylor, Frederick W.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Link, Suzanne M.

    1996-10-01

    We have generated a 40-year-long, monthly stable isotope record from a Porites lutea coral collected offshore of Amedee, New Caledonia (22°S, 167°E) to investigate the relation between sampling resolution in coral isotope studies and retrieval of sea-surface environmental information. We interpret the high correlation between our oxygen isotope record and a twenty-year long sea-surface temperature record at the monthly timescale (r=0.88) to indicate that our coral isotope record is an accurate monitor of environmental conditions offshore of Amedee. The character of the signal and the percent variance explained in the record at the annual band, at the quasi-biennial oscillation band ((QBO) 2.0-2.4 years), and at the El Nino-Southern Oscillation band ((ENSO) 3-8 years) changes little in response to a reduction in sampling density from monthly to bimonthly to quarterly. Similar results have been obtained in a reanalysis of a coral isotope record from Tarawa, Kiribati. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the information obtained from high-density sampling can also be retrieved from lower-density sampling. In particular, bimonthly sampling yields virtually no drop-off in variance explained, and quarterly sampling is satisfactory for resolving interannual and decadal-scale trends in time series. The proposed sampling approach may enable a more rapid filling in of numerous spatial holes in coral sampling sites needed for reconstruction of long-term decadal-scale variations in climate.