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Sample records for case study water

  1. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  2. [Case study of red water phenomenon in drinking water distribution systems caused by water source switch].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; Pan, An-jun; Xu, Yang; Liao, Ping-an; Zhang, Su-xia; Gu, Jun-nong

    2009-12-01

    Red water phenomenon occurred in some communities of a city in China after water source switch in recent days. The origin of this red water problem and mechanism of iron release were investigated in the study. Water quality of local and new water sources was tested and tap water quality in suffered area had been monitored for 3 months since red water occurred. Interior corrosion scales on the pipe which was obtained from the suffered area were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and EDS. Corrosion rates of cast iron under the conditions of two source water were obtained by Annular Reactor. The influence of different source water on iron release was studied by pipe section reactor to simulate the distribution systems. The results indicated that large increase of sulfate concentration by water source shift was regarded as the cause of red water problem. The Larson ratio increased from about 0.4 to 1.7-1.9 and the red water problem happened in the taps of some urban communities just several days after the new water source was applied. The mechanism of iron release was concluded that the stable shell of scales in the pipes had been corrupted by this kind of high-sulfate-concentration source water and it was hard to recover soon spontaneously. The effect of sulfate on iron release of the old cast iron was more significant than its effect on enhancing iron corrosion. The rate of iron release increased with increasing Larson ratio, and the correlation of them was nonlinear on the old cast-iron. The problem remained quite a long time even if the water source re-shifted into the blended one with only small ratio of the new source and the Larson ratio reduced to about 0.6.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  4. Water market transfers in South Africa: Two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, W. L.; Armitage, R. M.

    2004-09-01

    Statistical analyses (discriminant, logit, and principal components) of water transfers in the Lower Orange River showed that water rights were transferred to farmers with the highest return per unit of water applied, those producing table grapes, and with high-potential arable "outer land" without water rights. Only unused water (sleeper right) was transferred, while water saved (through adoption of conservation practices) was retained possibly for security purposes. A second study in the Nkwaleni Valley in northern KwaZulu-Natal found that no water market had emerged despite the scarcity of water in the area. No willing sellers of water rights existed. Demand for institutional change to establish tradable water rights may take more time in the second area since crop profitability in this area is similar for potential buyers and nonbuyers. Transaction costs appear larger than benefits from market transactions. Farmers generally use all their water rights in the second area and retain surplus water rights as security against drought because of unreliable river flow. This study indicates that these irrigation farmers are highly risk averse (downside risk). Government policies that increase the level of risk and reduce security of licenses are estimated to have a significant effect on future investment in irrigation. In an investment model the following variables explain future investment: expected profits, liquidity, risk aversion (Arrow-Pratt), and security of water use rights. The study is seen in the light of the New South African Water Act of 1998. According to this act, the ownership of water in South Africa has changed from private to public. This reform may not impede the development of water markets in South Africa since in the well-developed water markets of the United States, western states claim ownership of water within their boundaries. All states in the western United States allow private rights in the use of water to be established and sold.

  5. Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makungo, R.; Odiyo, J. O.; Tshidzumba, N.

    The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of the Mutshedzi WTP. Electrical conductivity (EC), pН and turbidity were measured in the field using a portable multimeter and a turbidity meter respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography were used to analyse metals and non-metals respectively. The results were compared with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines for domestic use. The turbidity levels partially exceeded the recommended guidelines for domestic water use of 1 NTU. The concentrations of chemical parameters in final water were within the DWA guidelines for domestic water use except for fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable guideline of 1.5 mg/L in August 2009. Mutshedzi WTP had computed compliance for raw and final water analyses ranging from 79% to 93% and 86% to 93% throughout the sampling period, respectively. The results from earlier studies showed that the microbiological quality of final water in Mutshedzi WTP complied with the recommended guidelines, eliminating the slight chance of adverse aesthetic effects and infectious disease transmission associated with the turbidity values between 1 and 5 NTU. The study concluded that Mutshedzi WTP, though moving towards compliance, is still not producing adequate quality of water. Other studies also indicated that the quantity of water produced from Mutshedzi WTP was inadequate. The findings of the study indicate that lack of monitoring of quantity of water supplied to each village, dosage of treatment chemicals, the treatment capacity of the WTP and monitoring the quality of water treated are some of the factors that limit the performance of

  6. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  7. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water and water contamination case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Jiyoung; Clark, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Water systems are inherently vulnerable to physical, chemical and biologic threats that might compromise a systems' ability to reliably deliver safe water. The ability of a water supply to provide water to its customers can be compromised by destroying or disrupting key physical elements of the water system. However, contamination is generally viewed as the most serious potential terrorist threat to water systems. Chemical or biologic agents could spread throughout a distribution system and result in sickness or death among the consumers and for some agents the presence of the contaminant might not be known until emergency rooms report an increase in patients with a particular set of symptoms. Even without serious health impacts, just the knowledge that a water system had been breached could seriously undermine consumer confidence in public water supplies. Therefore, the ability to rapidly detect contamination, especially microbiological contamination, is highly desirable. The authors summarize water contamination case studies and discuss a technique for identifying microbiological contamination based on ATP bioluminescence. This assay allows an estimation of bacterial populations within minutes and can be applied using a local platform. Previous ATP-based methods requires one hour, one liter of water, and has a sensitivity of 100000 cells for detection. The improved method discussed here is 100 times more sensitive, requires one-hundredth of the sample volume, and is over 10 times faster than standard method. This technique has a great deal of potential for application in situations in which a water system has been compromised.

  8. Peace Corps Water/Sanitation Case Studies and Analyses. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study CS-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Diana E., Comp.

    This document provides an overview of Peace Corps water and sanitation activities, five case studies (Thailand, Yemen, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and Togo), programming guidelines, and training information. Each case study includes: (1) background information on the country's geography, population, and economics; (2) information on the country's…

  9. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  10. A case study of a bacterial pathogen in irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents a case study of how exotic strains of Ralstonia solanacearum were disseminated throughout Europe and Florida via waterways used for irrigation. Several studies have demonstrated that aquatic weeds that commonly grow in rivers and ponds are able to harbor the pathogen and allow ...

  11. Landsat and water: case studies of the uses and benefits of landsat imagery in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat program has been collecting and archiving moderate resolution earth imagery since 1972. The number of Landsat users and uses has increased exponentially since the enactment of a free and open data policy in 2008, which made data available free of charge to all users. Benefits from the information Landsat data provides vary from improving environmental quality to protecting public health and safety and informing decision makers such as consumers and producers, government officials and the public at large. Although some studies have been conducted, little is known about the total benefit provided by open access Landsat imagery. This report contains a set of case studies focused on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery. The purpose of these is to shed more light on the benefits accrued from Landsat imagery and to gain a better understanding of the program’s value. The case studies tell a story of how Landsat imagery is used and what its value is to different private and public entities. Most of the case studies focus on the use of Landsat in water resource management, although some other content areas are included.

  12. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  13. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  14. Extraneous fibre traces brought by river water - A case study.

    PubMed

    Lepot, L; Vanden Driessche, T; Lunstroot, K; Barret, A; Gason, F; De Wael, K

    2017-01-01

    The fibre traces on a young victim found underwater were mostly single fibre traces besides small amounts of fibre collectives indistinguishable from his parents clothes (mainly wool). Most of those single fibre traces were blue-grey polyester fibres showing tiny differences among each other. They were unexpected according to known population fibre studies. One year after the victim's discovery experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible contamination with fibres from river water. A small amount of extraneous fibres were collected among which blue and grey-black cotton and man-made (mainly polyester) fibres. All man-made fibres were single fibre traces and small fibre collectives were only observed for cotton. These results confirmed the frequent occurrence of blue and grey-black cotton fibres as background, but also highlighted the possible contamination with single blue and grey-black man-made fibres from river water. No wool was found, strengthening the significance of the wool fibre collectives present on the victim.

  15. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

  16. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Lilik Kartika; Adrianto, Luky; Soewardi, Kadarwan; Atmadipoera, Agus S.; Hilmi, Endang

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of sedimentation on waters area that serves as an advocate for life. It is included in the category to be wary considering these conditions will reduce the quality of life and threaten the life and survival of endemic biota. Observations rate of sedimentation since April 2014 until March 2015 performed at 6 stations that are considered to represent the condition of the lagoon. The observations for rate of sedimentation was conducted twice in a month for one year. Oceanographic parameters was taken by CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) sensor in two seasons, at the height of the rainy season, March 2014 and August 2014. Results showed that the aquatic area more narrow characterized by changes in the outside line of the island visible on the image observation for two decades.

  17. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  18. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    PubMed

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  19. Valuing stormwater, rainwater and wastewater in the soft path for water management: Australian case studies.

    PubMed

    Chanan, A; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, J

    2010-01-01

    A Water Sensitive City is now commonly acknowledged best practice for designing the cities of the future. In Australia, the National Water Initiative has allocated high priority towards offering insight into successful water sensitive urban development projects, to facilitate capacity building within the industry. This paper shares innovative water sensitive projects implemented at Kogarah City Council, in Sydney. Four key projects are discussed, demonstrating how stormwater, rainwater and wastewater can be incorporated into decentralised water systems to offer sustainable water management of the future. The case studies included in the paper highlight Kogarah's journey towards the Soft Path for Water Management.

  20. The Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use: Four Case Studies1

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yushiou; Cohen, Sara; Vogel, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    We assessed impacts on water use achieved by implementation of controlled experiments relating to four water conservation strategies in four towns within the Ipswich watershed in Massachusetts. The strategies included (1) installation of weather-sensitive irrigation controller switches (WSICS) in residences and municipal athletic fields; (2) installation of rainwater harvesting systems in residences; (3) two outreach programs: (a) free home indoor water use audits and water fixture retrofit kits and (b) rebates for low-water-demand toilets and washing machines; and (4) soil amendments to improve soil moisture retention at a municipal athletic field. The goals of this study are to summarize the effectiveness of the four water conservation strategies and to introduce nonparametric statistical methods for evaluating the effectiveness of these conservation strategies in reducing water use. It was found that (1) the municipal WSICS significantly reduced water use; (2) residences with high irrigation demand were more likely than low water users to experience a substantial demand decrease when equipped with the WSICS; (3) rainwater harvesting provided substantial rainwater use, but these volumes were small relative to total domestic water use and relative to the natural fluctuations in domestic water use; (4) both the audits/retrofit and rebate programs resulted in significant water savings; and (5) a modeling approach showed potential water savings from soil amendments in ball fields. PMID:22457572

  1. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  2. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  3. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  4. THE EMPACT BEACHES: A CASE STUDY IN RECREATIONAL WATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various chapters describe sample and experimental design, use of a geometric mean or an arithmetic mean, modeling and forecasting, and risk assessment in relation to monitoring recreational waters for fecal indicators. All of these aspects of monitoring are dependent on the spat...

  5. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  6. Introducing a water quality index for assessing water for irrigation purposes: A case study of the Ghezel Ozan River.

    PubMed

    Misaghi, Farhad; Delgosha, Fatemeh; Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Myers, Baden

    2017-07-01

    Rivers are one of the main water resources for agricultural, drinking, environmental and industrial use. Water quality indices can and have been used to identify threats to water quality along a stream and contribute to better water resources management. There are many water quality indices for the assessment and use of surface water for drinking purposes. However, there is no well-established index for the assessment and direct use of river water for irrigation purposes. The aim of this study was to adopt the framework of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and, with adjustments, apply it in a way which will conform to irrigation water quality requirements. To accomplish this, the NSFWQI parameters for drinking water use were amended to include water quality parameters suitable for irrigation. For each selected parameter, an individual weighting chart was generated according to the FAO 29 guideline. The NSFWQI formula was then used to calculate a final index value, and for each parameter an acceptable range in this value was determined. The new index was then applied to the Ghezel Ozan River in Iran as a case study. A forty five year record of water quality data (1966 to 2010) was collected from four hydrometery stations along the river. Water quality parameters including Na(+), Cl(-), pH, HCO(-)3, EC, SAR and TDS were employed for water quality analysis using the adjusted NSFWQI formula. The results of this case study showed variation in water quality from the upstream to downstream ends of the river. Consistent monitoring of the river water quality and the establishment of a long term management plan were recommended for the protection of this valuable water resource.

  7. Water Resources Management in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources have become an increasingly important topic of discussion in natural resources and environmental management courses. To address the need for more critical thinking in the classroom and to provide an active learning experience for undergraduate students, we present a case study based on water competition and management in the…

  8. A process integration approach to industrial water conservation: a case study for a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Tian, J R; Zhou, P J; Lv, B

    2008-03-01

    A systematic approach to optimizing water network has traditionally been utilized to exam and plan water conservation in industrial processes. In the present case study, water-pinch technology was used to analyze and optimize the water network of a steel plant near China's Zhangjiakou city. A system design was developed and a limiting constraint (Cl(-) concentration) was identified based on investigations of water quality then the minimum freshwater and wastewater targets were determined without considering water losses. The analysis was then extended by calculating the additional input of freshwater required to balance the actual water losses. A nearest-neighbor algorithm (NNA) was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among each of the plant's operations. The results showed that with some reconstruction of the water network, the flow rates of freshwater and wastewater could be decreased by 57.5% and 81.9%, respectively.

  9. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  10. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bayrak, Temel

    2008-01-01

    Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam. PMID:27873819

  11. Electrochemical anomalies of protic ionic liquid - Water systems: A case study using ethylammonium nitrate - Water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Nakama, Kazuya; Hayashi, Ryotaro; Aono, Masami; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Saihara, Koji; Shimizu, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate protic ionic liquid (pIL)-water mixtures in the temperature range of -35-25 °C. The pIL used in this study was ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). At room temperature, the resonant mode of conductivity was observed in the high frequency region. The anomalous conductivity disappeared once solidification occurred at low temperatures. The kinetic pH of the EAN-water system was investigated at a fixed temperature. Rhythmic pH oscillations in the EAN-H2O mixtures were induced at 70 < x < 90 mol% H2O. The electrochemical instabilities in a EAN-water mixture are caused in an intermediate state between pIL and bulk water. From the ab initio calculations, it was observed that the dipole moment of the EAN-water complex shows a discrete jump at around 85 mol% H2O. Water-mediated hydrogen bonding network drastically changes at the crossover concentration.

  12. Case Studies of Water Vapor and Surface Liquid Water from AVIRIS Data Measured Over Denver, CO and Death Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, B.-C.; Kierein-Young, K. S.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Westwater, E. R.; Stankov, B. B.; Birkenheuer, D.

    1991-01-01

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts and equivalent liquid water thicknesses of surface targets are retrieved from spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The retrievals are made using a nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique. Two case studies from AVIRIS data acquired over Denver-Platteville area, Colorado and over Death Valley, California are presented. The column water vapor values derived from AVIRIS data over the Denver-Platteville area are compared with those obtained from radiosondes, ground level upward-looking microwave radiometers, and geostationary satellite measurements. The column water vapor image shows spatial variation patterns related to the passage of a weather front system. The column water vapor amounts derived from AVIRIS data over Death Valley decrease with increasing surface elevation. The derived liquid water image clearly shows surface drainage patterns.

  13. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Water yield is a key ecosystem service in river basins and especially in dry regions around the World. In this study we carry out a modelling analysis of water yields in the Chubut River basin, located in one of the driest districts of Patagonia, Argentina. We focus on the uncertainty around precipitation data, a driver of paramount importance for water yield. The objectives of this study are to: i) explore the spatial and numeric differences among six widely used global precipitation datasets for this region, ii) test them against data from independent ground stations, and iii) explore the effects of precipitation data uncertainty on simulations of water yield. The simulations were performed using the ecosystem services model InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) with each of the six different precipitation datasets as input. Our results show marked differences among datasets for the Chubut watershed region, both in the magnitude of precipitations and their spatial arrangement. Five of the precipitation databases overestimate the precipitation over the basin by 50% or more, particularly over the more humid western range. Meanwhile, the remaining dataset (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - TRMM), based on satellite measurements, adjusts well to the observed rainfall in different stations throughout the watershed and provides a better representation of the precipitation gradient characteristic of the rain shadow of the Andes. The observed differences among datasets in the representation of the rainfall gradient translate into large differences in water yield simulations. Errors in precipitation of +30% (-30%) amplify to water yield errors ranging from 50 to 150% (-45 to -60%) in some sub-basins. These results highlight the importance of assessing uncertainties in main input data when quantifying and mapping ecosystem services with biophysical models and cautions about the undisputed use of global environmental datasets.

  14. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  15. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  16. Water nitrates and CNS birth defects: a population-based case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Sherman, G.J.; Corey, P.N.; Walters, D.; Lo, B.

    1988-03-01

    The relation between maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water and risk of delivering an infant with a central nervous system (CNS) malformation was examined by means of a case-control study in New Brunswick, Canada. All cases of CNS defects for a high and a low prevalence area of New Brunswick, for the years 1973-1983, were included in the study. Controls were selected randomly from the livebirth files for the province, matched on county of maternal residence and date of birth. One hundred and thirty (130) cases were identified and individually matched with two controls each. Individual water samples were collected from the case and control mother's address given on the birth or stillbirth records. The study revealed that the effect of nitrate exposure in water was modified by whether the source of the drinking water was a private well or a public municipal distribution system. Compared to a baseline nitrate level of 0.1 ppm, exposure to nitrate levels of 26 ppm from private well water sources was associated with a moderate, but not statistically significant, increase in risk (risk odds ratio = 2.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-7.29). If the source of drinking water was a municipal distribution system or a private spring, an increase in nitrate exposure was associated with a decrease in risk of delivering a CNS-malformed infant; however, these effect estimates were not statistically significant. The positive increase in risk with nitrate exposure from well water sources requires further study using a larger case series and a larger proportion of exposures to nitrate levels exceeding 5 ppm.

  17. Case study: design, operation, maintenance and water quality management of sustainable storm water ponds for roof runoff.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this case study was to optimise design, operation and maintenance guidelines, and to assess the water treatment potential of a storm water pond system after 15 months of operation. The system was based on a combined silt trap, attenuation pond and vegetated infiltration basin. This combination was used as the basis for construction of a roof water runoff system from a single domestic property. United Kingdom Building Research Establishment and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, and German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste design guidelines were tested. These design guidelines failed because they did not consider local conditions. The infiltration function for the infiltration basin was logarithmic. Algal control techniques were successfully applied, and treatment of rainwater runoff from roofs was found to be largely unnecessary for recycling (e.g., watering plants). However, seasonal and diurnal variations of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen and pH were recorded.

  18. Desktop Techniques for Analyzing Surface-Ground Water Interactions. The Reelfoot Lake Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    a number of water quality problems. These problems are related, at least in part, to activities in the tributary watershed. The Reelfoot Lake...undesirable depth fluctuations and unnecessary losses of water during dry periods. The Reelfoot Lake desktop analysis reveals a number of major data...Tennessee. The conflicts in this case study involve agricultural and recreational interests, as well as a number of state and federal agencies with

  19. Case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado.

    PubMed

    McGeehin, M A; Reif, J S; Becher, J C; Mangione, E J

    1993-10-01

    A population-based case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water disinfection methods was conducted during 1990-1991 in Colorado. Surface water in Colorado has historically been disinfected with chlorine (chlorination) or with a combination of chlorine and ammonia (chloramination). A total of 327 histologically verified bladder cancer cases were frequency matched by age and sex to 261 other-cancer controls. Subjects were interviewed by telephone about residential and water source histories. This information was linked to data from water utility and Colorado Department of Health records to create a drinking water exposure profile. After adjustment for cigarette smoking, tap water and coffee consumption, and medical history factors by logistic regression, years of exposure to chlorinated surface water were significantly associated with risk for bladder cancer (p = 0.0007). The odds ratio for bladder cancer increased for longer durations of exposure to a level of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9) for more than 30 years of exposure to chlorinated surface water compared with no exposure. The increased bladder cancer risk was similar for males and females and for nonsmokers and smokers. Levels of total trihalomethanes, nitrates, and residual chlorine were not associated with bladder cancer risk after controlling for years of exposure to chlorinated water.

  20. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  1. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  2. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  3. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  4. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries—Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi—as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers. PMID:25798068

  5. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere.

  6. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    PubMed

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks.

  7. Controls on Water Use for Thermoelectric Generation: Case Study Texas, U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale U.S. dependence on thermoelectric (steam electric) generation requiring water for cooling underscores the need to understand controls on this water use. The study objective was to quantify water consumption and withdrawal for thermoelectric generation, identifying controls, using Texas as a case study. Water consumption for thermoelectricity in Texas in 2010 totaled ∼0.43 million acre feet (maf; 0.53 km3), accounting for ∼4% of total state water consumption. High water withdrawals (26.2 maf, 32.3 km3) mostly reflect circulation between ponds and power plants, with only two-thirds of this water required for cooling. Controls on water consumption include (1) generator technology/thermal efficiency and (2) cooling system, resulting in statewide consumption intensity for natural gas combined cycle generators with mostly cooling towers (0.19 gal/kWh) being 63% lower than that of traditional coal, nuclear, or natural gas steam turbine generators with mostly cooling ponds (0.52 gal/kWh). The primary control on water withdrawals is cooling system, with ∼2 orders of magnitude lower withdrawals for cooling towers relative to once-through ponds statewide. Increases in natural gas combined cycle plants with cooling towers in response to high production of low-cost natural gas has greatly reduced water demand for thermoelectric cooling since 2000. PMID:23937226

  8. Controls on water use for thermoelectric generation: case study Texas, US.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Duncan, Ian; Mullican, William F; Young, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Large-scale U.S. dependence on thermoelectric (steam electric) generation requiring water for cooling underscores the need to understand controls on this water use. The study objective was to quantify water consumption and withdrawal for thermoelectric generation, identifying controls, using Texas as a case study. Water consumption for thermoelectricity in Texas in 2010 totaled ∼0.43 million acre feet (maf; 0.53 km(3)), accounting for ∼4% of total state water consumption. High water withdrawals (26.2 maf, 32.3 km(3)) mostly reflect circulation between ponds and power plants, with only two-thirds of this water required for cooling. Controls on water consumption include (1) generator technology/thermal efficiency and (2) cooling system, resulting in statewide consumption intensity for natural gas combined cycle generators with mostly cooling towers (0.19 gal/kWh) being 63% lower than that of traditional coal, nuclear, or natural gas steam turbine generators with mostly cooling ponds (0.52 gal/kWh). The primary control on water withdrawals is cooling system, with ∼2 orders of magnitude lower withdrawals for cooling towers relative to once-through ponds statewide. Increases in natural gas combined cycle plants with cooling towers in response to high production of low-cost natural gas has greatly reduced water demand for thermoelectric cooling since 2000.

  9. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  10. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  11. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER FROM LAND APPLICATION OF SWINE WASTE: CASE STUDY AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for land application of CAFO waste may not be sufficient to prevent ground water contamination by nitrate. A case study is presented illustrating the problem for one field site disposing of swine waste. Data are discussed in context with documented land application ...

  12. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  13. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  14. Case Studies of Water Utility Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment [External Review Draft Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a series of case studies describing the approaches taken by four water utilities in the United States to assess their vulnerability to climate change. The report is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of assessment approaches or utilities conducting v...

  15. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  16. Risk of Gastric Cancer by Water Source: Evidence from the Golestan Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eichelberger, Laura; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Abnet, Christian C.; Islami, Farhad; Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the world’s fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study. Methods and Findings 306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05–1.04) for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07–10.16) for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81–10.04) for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61–2.03) for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20–2.69) for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56–3.61). Conclusions Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC. PMID:26023788

  17. The Risk Analysis of Reservoir Water Supply under High Turbidity- Case Study of the Shihmen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Chang, L.; Ko, S.; Ho, C.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the unstable geological condition of the Shihmen reservoir basin, the high turbidity of the outflow of water from the basin to the reservoir during typhoons causes rapid increase of turbidity in reservoir water. Because high water turbidity reduces the capacity of water treatment plants, water shortages could occur more frequently during typhoons and flood seasons. Based on the scenario described above, this study used the Monte Carlo analysis to evaluate shortage of water in the Taoyuan area when the Shihmen reservoir water was under conditions of high turbidity. The risk analysis process consisted of four sub-models: sub-model of rainfall synthesis, sub-model of rainfall runoff, sub-model of prediction of turbidity, and sub-model of management of water allocation under conditions of high turbidity. Two methods of prediction of turbidity, the artificial neural network (ANN) method and the unit characteristic hydrograph method, were developed and compared. The unit characteristic hydrograph method was modified from the unit hydrograph method and represented the relationship of reservoir inflow or outflow to the turbidity of reservoir water according to the function of unit response. Results of comparison of the two-methods indicated that the unit characteristic hydrograph method was more stable than the ANN method and included physical concepts that were easily understandable. Risk analysis showed a 57% possibility of water shortage during typhoons. Risk of water shortage decreased to 34% when tolerance of water shortage increased by 5%. Results of the case study demonstrated the reliability of the proposed procedure for risk assessment and method of prediction of turbidity prediction method. These methods could be extended to other reservoirs that have problems of high turbidity problem to assess risk of water shortage.

  18. Assessing water quality in rivers with fuzzy inference systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Domingo, José L; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, fuzzy-logic-based methods have demonstrated to be appropriated to address uncertainty and subjectivity in environmental problems. In the present study, a methodology based on fuzzy inference systems (FIS) to assess water quality is proposed. A water quality index calculated with fuzzy reasoning has been developed. The relative importance of water quality indicators involved in the fuzzy inference process has been dealt with a multi-attribute decision-aiding method. The potential application of the fuzzy index has been tested with a case study. A data set collected from the Ebro River (Spain) by two different environmental protection agencies has been used. The current findings, managed within a geographic information system, clearly agree with official reports and expert opinions about the pollution problems in the studied area. Therefore, this methodology emerges as a suitable and alternative tool to be used in developing effective water management plans.

  19. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries.

  20. Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere.

  1. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  2. A case study of ethanol water demand during industrial phase in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandes, T.; Scarpare, F. V.; Guarenghi, M.; Pereira, T.; Galdos, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    Thayse A. D. Hernandesb, Fábio V. Scarparea, Marjorie M. Guarenghib, Tássia P. Pereirab, Marcelo V. Galdosa a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, Unicamp, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", CEP 13083-860, Campinas, SP, Brazil In São Paulo State, the water resources have being used by sugarcane industry responsibly, through high reuse rates that may reach 95% during industrial process. The average amount of catchment water stays around 2.0 m3 Mg 1 of industrial sugarcane stalk. However, in some modern mills which use higher technical level of closed water circuit, the standard goal for sugarcane industry, 1.0 m3 Mg 1 can be reached. In some regions where the uptake water for industrial segment is high as in São Paulo State, water use assessment is desired for sustainable ethanol production. Thus, two regions in São Paulo State with two plants each were taken as a case study aiming to assess ethanol water demand during the industrial phase. Araraquara was the first study region where the water demand was classified as in critical condition in 2010 according to the Water and Electrical Energy Department of São Paulo State (DAEE). The industrial activities were responsible for 50% of the water catchment. Araçatuba was the second study region where water demand was classified as being of concern (DAEE) due to high percentage of catchment water for industrial activities, around 90%. Data regarding the amount of millable cane processed, days of the plant operation, ratio of cane used for ethanol production in 2010/2011 season were used for direct water demand estimation considering different water catchment scenarios of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.7 (technological development prediction scenario) m3 Mg-1 of millable cane. For indirect water demand estimation, data regarding installed capacity of each

  3. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  4. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  5. Water and energy linkages for groundwater exploitation: a case study of Gujarat State, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajiv K

    2002-01-01

    Water and energy, two important resources for human development, have inextricable interlinkages between them. Their complementarity, a blessing otherwise, causes a vicious cycle in a complex situation like the present case study of Gujarat State, India. This paper analyses the demand-supply situation of both sectors for a State that is primarily agrarian but also with a high industrial growth rate. Due to inequitable distribution of surface water, recurrent droughts and ever increasing demand trend, groundwater (a major source in the State) has been overexploited in many parts, leading to 'water mining' with worsening water quality. With more than 40% energy consumed for extracting groundwater, this has had a serious impact on the energy balance. The paper discusses the energy requirements to satisfy the water needs and the water requirements for generation of energy. Finally, the feasible options available to meet the crisis, ranging from development of mega projects like Sardar Sarovar and Kalpasar to micro water harvesting structures, water pricing, consumer training etc., are reviewed.

  6. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-12

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  7. Bladder cancer in Massachusetts related to chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Zierler, S.; Feingold, L.; Danley, R.A.; Craun, G.

    1988-03-01

    Consumers of chlorinated drinking water have a small excess of bladder cancer. Risk may have been underestimated because of confounding and misclassification of exposure status. To address these problems, we undertook a case-control study. Detailed residential histories were obtained by telephone interviews with informants of 614 individuals who died of primarily bladder cancer and 1,074 individuals who died of other causes. Their surface water has been disinfected with chlorine or a combination of chlorine and ammonia (cloramine) since 1938. The mortality ratio for bladder cancer among individuals who resided only in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chlorine, relative to individuals who resided only in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chloramine, was 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-2.1), using all controls; when the comparison group was restricted to individuals who died of lymphoma, the mortality odds ratio was 2.7 (95% confidence interval = 1.7-4.3).

  8. Bladder cancer in Massachusetts related to chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zierler, S; Feingold, L; Danley, R A; Craun, G

    1988-01-01

    Consumers of chlorinated drinking water have a small excess of bladder cancer. Risk may have been underestimated because of confounding and misclassification of exposure status. To address these problems, we undertook a case-control study. Detailed residential histories were obtained by telephone interviews with informants of 614 individuals who died of primarily bladder cancer and 1,074 individuals who died of other causes. Their surface water has been disinfected with chlorine or a combination of chlorine and ammonia (cloramine) since 1938. The mortality ratio for bladder cancer among individuals who resided only in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chlorine, relative to individuals who resided only in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chloramine, was 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-2.1), using all controls; when the comparison group was restricted to individuals who died of lymphoma, the mortality odds ratio was 2.7 (95% confidence interval = 1.7-4.3).

  9. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  10. Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra

    2011-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO3-) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

  11. Case-control study of colon cancer and drinking water trihalomethanes in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Young, T B; Wolf, D A; Kanarek, M S

    1987-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chronic ingestion of trihalomethanes (THMs), occurring as chlorination byproducts in drinking water, carries a risk of colon cancer. Lifetime residential and water source histories and information on water-drinking habits, diet, sociodemographics, medical and occupation histories, lifestyle and other factors were obtained by questionnaire from a statewide sample of newly-diagnosed colon cancer cases (N = 347), controls with cancer of other sites (N = 639) and general population controls (N = 611). Since no data on past THM levels exists, it was necessary to devise a scheme to generate THM estimates for all Wisconsin water sources. For this, a statistical model based on quantitative THM measures and routinely-recorded data taken at 81 municipal water facilities was used in conjunction with individual residential histories to estimate lifetime and period-specific THM exposure for each case and control. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for age, sex and urban living, for colon cancer and THM exposure. The study results indicate that THM in Wisconsin drinking water does not pose a significant colon cancer risk. Odds ratios for exposure to the middle and highest category of lifetime cumulative THM were 1.05 (95% Cl = 0.66-1.68) and 0.93(95%Cl = 0.55-1.57) respectively, relative to the cancer control group, and 1.10 (95%Cl = 0.68-1.78) and 0.73 (95% Cl = 0.44-1.21) respectively, relative to the general population controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Study of climate change impact in Himalayan Water Resource: a case study of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan region are regarded as water tower of Asia and has also covered high attention due to climate change owing to its glaciers melting. Water from those glaciers-fed basins are mostly utilized for hydropower, irrigation and drinking water supply to around 1.4 billion population downstream. The basin system, particularly in Nepal, is divided into three categories: (i) snow and glaciers fed: Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali and Mahakali basins (ii) from Mahabharat range: Babai, West Rapti, Bagmati, Kamala, Karnali, Mechi and (iii) Streams and rivulets from Chure hills: Surahinala, Badganga, Mohana etc. This study shows majority of flow (~78% of average flow) is from first category, 9% from second and 13% from third category. In the recent decades, especially during the dry season, rivers from third category have low runoff (or even zero)which leads to lack of water for irrigation and drinking water supply by lowering its water table.Interestingly, during monsoon season the whole region is facing high risks of flash floods and landslides due to unpredictable rainfall pattern. Increasing temperature trend (0.08˚Ca-1) and weakening precipitation rate (7.9±1.2 mm a-1) for last four decades shows indirect sign of climate change, though long time series in-situ observations are largely lacking in Nepal Himalaya. Our study supports high impact of climate change on potential generation of hydropower in Nepal which are more pronounced in coming decades.

  13. A new approach to assessing the water footprint of wine: an Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Novelli, Elisa; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-08-15

    Agriculture is the largest freshwater consumer, accounting for 70% of the world's water withdrawal. Water footprints (WFs) are being increasingly used to indicate the impacts of water use by production systems. A new methodology to assess WF of wine was developed in the framework of the V.I.V.A. project (Valutazione Impatto Viticoltura sull'Ambiente), launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2011 to improve the Italian wine sector's sustainability. The new methodology has been developed that enables different vines from the same winery to be compared. This was achieved by calculating the gray water footprint, following Tier III approach proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011). The impact of water use during the life cycle of grape-wine production was assessed for six different wines from the same winery in Sicily, Italy using both the newly developed methodology (V.I.V.A.) and the classical methodology proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). In all cases green water was the largest contributor to WF, but the new methodology also detected differences between vines of the same winery. Furthermore, V.I.V.A. methodology assesses water body contamination by pesticides application whereas the WFN methodology considers just fertilization. This fact ended highlights the highest WF of vineyard 4 calculated by V.I.V.A. if compared with the WF calculated with WFN methodology. Comparing the WF of wine produced with grapes from the six different wines, the factors most greatly influencing the results obtained in this study were: distance from the water body, fertilization rate, amount and eco-toxicological behavior of the active ingredients used.

  14. DC Water and Sewer Authority and lead in drinking water: a case study in environmental health risk management.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L; Moses, Marina S; Goldsmith, David F; Ragain, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, following a change in disinfection agent in anticipation of the Environment Protection Agency Disinfection Byproduct Rule, lead levels began rising in drinking water in Washington, District of Columbia, and in 2002, the DC Water and Sewer Authority was found to have exceeded the Environment Protection Agency lead action level, requiring compliance with a series of measures under the Lead and Copper Rule. In 2004, the issue became a public concern, drawing considerable media attention. The problem was eventually resolved through the application of orthophosphate but while it played out, the utility was forced to respond to a novel public health issue with few risk management options. This case study examines the lessons learned.

  15. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  16. Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

  17. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  18. Case studies of optical ringing for airborne lasers seeing into sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Gary D.; North, Mark H.

    1996-11-01

    Airborne lidars systems have progressed to the point where they are increasingly being used in surveys and bathymetric studies of coastal and littoral zones. Scattered laser pulse light in these turbid regions hurt the performance of lidar system s as photons delayed by multiple scattering simultaneously return with the signal from a distant target. This phenomenon is called 'optical ringing' and is analogous to reverberation in acoustics. A Monte Carlo model was used to examine the effect of water turbidity on the temporal storage of photons in increasing scattering orders for an airborne lidar. The lidars modeled had combinations of both wide and narrow source and receiver fields. The lidar looked at nadir into a flat clam sea with optical properties ranging from clear to turbid water. The amount of optical ringing present in a return was proportional to the size of the pulse-illuminated in water volume. The results showed multiple scattered light surpassing single scattered light returns for all cases of source-receiver field combinations for even the clearest water studied.

  19. Case study of hydrogen water chemistry implementation at the Duane Arnold Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, T.A.; Turley, D.S. ); Steen, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) program implemented at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC). In 1985 various reactor recirculation system piping weld repairs and safe end replacements were performed at the DAEC. These weld repairs and safe-end replacements were required as a result of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In 1986, the utility decided to implement a hydrogen water chemistry program as a means of suppressing IGSCC. The paper includes a discussion of the system design basis, a brief system description, and a discussion of plant system interactions. A description of methodology developed to verify and monitor the effectiveness of the HWC system is also included.

  20. Pressures and Impacts On Water Quality: Case Study of Guadiana River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, F.; Quadrado, F.

    According to Article 5 and Annex II of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is required that Member States identify significant anthropogenic pressures on river basins and also assess the potential impact of these pressures on the water bodies. The following areas have to be identified: point and diffuse sources pollution, the wa- ter abstraction, the water flow regulation, the morphological alterations and land use patterns. This work intends to describe and analyse the application of an integrated methodology for studying the importance of pressures and impacts on water quality. The methodology integrates loads calculation and mathematical models with Geo- graphical Information Systems (GIS). First step is to identify and characterise, point and diffuse sources of pollution, then estimate loads associate to that sources. Using GIS tools it is possible mapping the most problematic zones inside of the basin, con- cerning pressures to water resources. GIS model will be applied in order to estimate loads from diffuse pollution, using watershed characteristics, namely land use and to- pography. The obtained results together with loads from point sources pollution, will be integrated in a water quality model to evaluate the impacts of this pressures on the basin. For a correct basin management, it is necessary to minimise this impacts, with action plans and monitoring programmes, to improve water quality and achieve the environmental objectives. The case study is the Guadiana river, an international basin with a total area of 66 860 km2, having it is headwaters in Spain with a basin of 55 260 km2. The national area has 11 600 km2 and a big dam is being building, Alqueva, cre- ating a reservoir basin with 250 km2 and a storage capacity of 4 150 hm3. Guadiana river has an important role in the south of Portugal, a region with drought problems. Although the poor water quality that reaches the border, the Portuguese basin also has some important pollution sources. These can

  1. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  2. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing in support of the EU water framework directive (WFD): a case study in the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoling; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Hallikainen, Martti

    2007-01-01

    Water quality monitoring using remote sensing has been studied in Finland for many years. But there are still few discussions on water quality monitoring using remote sensing technology in support of water policy and legislation in Finland under the WFD. In this study, we present water quality monitoring using remote sensing in the Gulf of Finland, and focus on the spatial distribution of water quality information from satellite-based observations in support of water policy by a case study of nitrate concentrations in surface waters. In addition, we briefly describe instruments using a system of river basin districts (RBD), highlighting the importance of integrated water resources and river-basin management in the WFD, and discuss the role of water quality monitoring using remote sensing in the implementation of water policy in Finland under the WFD.

  3. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological information comes from a variety of sources, which in some cases might be non-precise. In particular, this is an important issue for the available information on water stages during historical floods. An accurate estimation of the water level profile, together with an elevation model of the riverbed and floodplain areas is fundamental for the hydraulic reconstruction of historical flood events, allowing the back calculation of flood peak discharges, velocity and erosion fields, damages, among others. For the greatest floods during the last 1700 years, Wetter et al. (2011) reconstructed the water levels and historical discharges at different locations in the old city centre from a variety of historical sources (stone marks, official documents, paintings, etc). This work presents a model for the inherent unpreciseness of these historical water levels. This is, with the arithmetics of fuzzy numbers, described by their membership functions, in a similar fashion as the probability density function describes the uncertainty of a random variable. Additional to the in-site collected water stages from floodmarks and other documentary evidence (e.g. preserved in narratives and newspaper flood reports) are prone to be modeled in a fuzzy way. This study presents the use of fuzzy logic to transform historical information from different sources, in this case of flood water stages, into membership functions. This values might then introduced in the mathematical framework of Fuzzy Bayesian Inference to perform the statistical analyses with the rules of fuzzy numbers algebra. The results of this flood frequency analysis, as in the traditional non-fuzzy way, link discharges with exceedance probabilities or return periods. The main difference is, that the modeled discharge quantiles are not precise values, but fuzzy numbers instead, represented by their membership functions explicitly including the unpreciseness of the historical information used. Wetter, O., Pfister, C

  4. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  5. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV).

  6. Ocean Color Retrieval Using LANDSAT-8 Imagery in Coastal Case 2 Waters (case Study Persian and Oman Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2016-06-01

    . Despite the high importance of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea which can have up basin countries, to now few studies have been done in this area. The focus of this article on the northern part of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf, the shores of neighboring Iran (case 2 water). In this paper, by using Landsat 8 satellite imageries, we have discussed chla concentrations and customizing different OC algorithms for this new dataset (Landsat-8 imagery). This satellite was launched in 2013 and its data using two sensors continuously are provided operating one sensor imager land (OLI: Operational Land Imager) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS: Thermal InfraRed Sensor) and are available. This sensors collect image data, respectively, for the nine-band short wavelength in the range of 433-2300 nm and dual-band long wavelength thermal. Seven band of the nine band picked up by the sensor information of OLI to deal with sensors TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) in previous satellite Landsat compatible and two other band, the band of coastal water (433 to 453 nm) and Cirrus band (1360 to 1390 nm), short wave infrared provides to measure water quality and high thin clouds. Since OLI sensor in Landsat satellite 8 compared with other sensors to study OC have been allocated a much better spatial resolution can be more accurate to determine changes in OC. To evaluate the results of the image sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) at the same time satellite images Landsat 8 is used. The statistical parameters used in order to evaluate the performance of different algorithms, including root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2), and on the basis of these parameters we choose the most appropriate algorithm for the area. Extracted results for implementing different OC algorithms clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2=0.71 and RMSE=0.07.

  7. Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Anthonj, Carmen; Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands can be both a blessing and a curse. They are beneficial sources of safe water and nutrition and places from which humans derive their livelihoods. At the same time, wetlands are known to be sources of disease-causing microorganisms and invertebrates that can threaten human health. Safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene (WASH) are crucial preconditions for the prevention of disease transmission. And of special importance for people living in wetlands, depending on and being exposed to them. WASH should be prioritized especially in those wetlands that are subject to intensive use, that have a poor sanitation infrastructure, and which at the same time only provide limited water resources. However, despite this critical importance, WASH in wetlands is not well characterized in literature. This study therefore aimed at providing insights into the water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and behavioural determinants of households in wetlands by presenting the case of a rural wetland in East Africa. The mixed method approach included a broad set of empirical data collected during a household survey (n=400), an observational WASH assessment (n=397) and in-depth interviews (n=20) conducted from January to March 2015 in Ewaso Narok Swamp in Kenya. Different user groups of the wetland were targeted. The study in Ewaso Narok Swamp showed that wetland users' water supply and storage, sanitation and personal hygiene conditions were inadequate for large parts of the community and significantly differed between groups. Whereas the WASH conditions of people working in the service sector were rather positive, for pastoralists, they were correspondingly negative. The WASH behaviour was also perceived to be inadequate influenced by a variety of determining factors. The observational index as applied in this study indicated to be a valuable, rapid and efficient tool for assessing domestic WASH and for detecting differences between different groups in wetlands. Combined

  8. Abandoned metal mines and their impact on receiving waters: A case study from Southwest England.

    PubMed

    Beane, Steven J; Comber, Sean D W; Rieuwerts, John; Long, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Historic mine sites are a major source of contamination to terrestrial and river environments. To demonstrate the importance of determining the significance of point and diffuse metal contamination and the related bioavailability of the metals present from abandoned mines a case study has been carried out. The study provides a quantitative assessment of a historic mine site, Wheal Betsy, southwest England, and its contribution to non-compliance with Water Framework Directive (WFD) Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Surface water and sediment samples showed significant negative environmental impacts even taking account of the bioavailability of the metal present, with lead concentration in the stream sediment up to 76 times higher than the Canadian sediment guidelines 'Probable Effect Level'. Benthic invertebrates showed a decline in species richness adjacent to the mine site with lead and cadmium the main cause. The main mine drainage adit was the single most significant source of metal (typically 50% of metal load from the area, but 88% for Ni) but the mine spoil tips north and south of the adit input added together discharged roughly an equivalent loading of metal with the exception of Ni. The bioavailability of metal in the spoil tips exhibited differing spatial patterns owing to varying ambient soil physico-chemistry. The data collected is essential to provide a clear understanding of the contamination present as well as its mobility and bioavailability, in order to direct the decision making process regarding remediation options and their likely effectiveness.

  9. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites: Best Management Practice Case Study #12 - Laboratory/Medical Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA's ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  10. Integrated water resources management for emergency situations: A case study of Macau.

    PubMed

    Huang, JianYong; Lou, Inchio; Li, YingXia

    2016-12-01

    Integrated urban water management (IUWM) is a useful tool that can be used to alleviate water resource shortages in developing regions like Macau, where 98% of the raw water comes from mainland China. In Macau, scarce water resources deteriorate rapidly in emergency situations, such as accidental chemical spills upstream of the supply reservoir or salty tides. During these times, only the water from the two freshwater reservoirs in Macau can be used. In this study, we developed urban water management optimization models that integrated the raw water supply from the two reservoirs with various proposed governmental policies (wastewater reuse, rainwater collection, and water saving). We then determined how various water resource strategies would influence the urban water supply in Macau in emergency situations. Our results showed that, without imported raw water, the water supply from only the two Macau reservoirs would last for 7.95days. However, when all the government policies were included in the model, the supply could be extended to 13.79days. Out of the three non-conventional water resources, wastewater reuse is the most beneficial for increasing the Macau water supply, and rainwater collection also has great potential.

  11. Forensic applications of stable isotope analysis: case studies of the origins of water in mislabeled beer and contaminated diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Papesch, Wolfgang; Horacek, Micha

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the use of oxygen (18O) isotope analysis of water contained in two different materials--beer and diesel fuel--involved in the resolution of two separate cases. In the first case study, it was possible to demonstrate that a sample of beer labelled as premium brand in fact belonged to a cheap brand. The second case related to the contamination of diesel fuel from a service station. The diesel fuel contained visible amounts of water, which caused vehicles that had been filled up with it to become defective. For insurance purposes, it was necessary to determine the source of water. The delta18O values for the water of nearly all samples of diesel was close to the delta18O of local tap water at the filling station.

  12. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2006-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N) levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. < .3 mg/L), the sum of annual nitrate-N concentrations (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.6 – 1.5 for ≥ 10 vs. 1 to < 10 mg/L), or the number of years exposed to nitrate-N over 1 mg/L (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.5 – 1.5 for ≥ 8 vs. 0 years). Variation in exposure levels was limited, with 99% of women receiving some of their water from supplies with nitrate-N levels in excess of

  13. Case-control study of bladder cancer in Massachusetts among populations receiving chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zierler, S.; Feingold, L.; Danley, R.A.; Craun, G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the occurrence of bladder cancer in relation to exposure to chlorinated drinking water, in general, have found a small excess frequency of bladder cancer among consumers of chlorinated drinking water. Despite near consistent findings of a small positive association, interpretation of the association has been cautious because of the inability to control for potential confounding by unmeasured differences in surface and ground water, as the index frequently used for exposure to levels of chlorination in drinking water compares chlorinated surface water to unchlorinated ground water. The authors undertook a case-control study to collect detailed data on residential history that was obtained from telephone interviews with informants of 614 individuals who died of primary bladder cancer and 1,074 individuals who died of other causes. The study was based in an area where surface water has been disinfected with either chlorine or a combination of chlorine and ammonia (chloramine) since 1938.

  14. Application of CCME Water Quality Index to monitor water quality: a case study of the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Ashok; Halliwell, Doug; Sharma, Tribeni

    2006-02-01

    All six ecosystem initiatives evolved from many years of federal, provincial, First Nation, local government and community attention to the stresses on sensitive habitats and species, air and water quality, and the consequent threats to community livability. This paper assesses water quality aspect for the ecosystem initiatives and employs newly developed Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) which provides a convenient mean of summarizing complex water quality data that can be easily understood by the public, water distributors, planners, managers and policy makers. The CCME WQI incorporates three elements: Scope - the number of water quality parameters (variables) not meeting water quality objectives (F(1)); Frequency - the number of times the objectives are not met (F(2)); and Amplitude. the extent to which the objectives are not met (F(3)). The index produces a number between 0 (worst) to 100 (best) to reflect the water quality. This study evaluates water quality of the Mackenzie - Great Bear sub-basin by employing two modes of objective functions (threshold values): one based on the CCME water quality guidelines and the other based on site-specific values that were determined by the statistical analysis of the historical data base. Results suggest that the water quality of the Mackenzie-Great Bear sub-basin is impacted by high turbidity and total (mostly particulate) trace metals due to high suspended sediment loads during the open water season. Comments are also provided on water quality and human health issues in the Mackenzie basin based on the findings and the usefulness of CCME water quality guidelines and site specific values.

  15. An integrated analysis of agricultural water-use efficiency: A case study in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guofeng; Chen, Jiancheng; Wu, Feng; Li, Zhihui

    The water-use efficiency has direct impacts on the water consumption of agriculture production and is vital to water conservation at both local and regional extent. The agricultural water-use efficiency is a critical indicator that reflects the effective water allocation and water productivity improvement among different agricultural sectors. Taking the Heihe River Basin as the case study area, this study explores the changing trajectories of agricultural water use based on the input-output data of 2003-2012, and estimates the water-use efficiency with Data Envelopment Analysis, Malmquist Total Productivity Index and the decomposition of total factor productivity. Further, the influence of driving factors on the water-use efficiency is analyzed with the Tobit model. The research results indicate that the average agricultural water-use efficiency in different counties is all lower than 1 during 2003-2012, indicating that there is still improvement space in the agricultural water-use efficiency. In addition, there is obvious heterogeneity in the agricultural water-use efficiency among different counties, especially prior to 2009. The research results from the Tobit model indicate that agricultural investment and production, economic growth, industrial restructuring and agricultural plants structural adjustment have significant influence on the agricultural water-use efficiency. The research results can provide significant references for agricultural water-use management in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and other similar regions in Northwest China.

  16. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  17. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  18. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  19. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Semenza, J C; Roberts, L; Henderson, A; Bogan, J; Rubin, C H

    1998-12-01

    Deteriorating water treatment facilities and distribution systems pose a significant public health threat, particularly in republics of the former Soviet Union. Interventions to decrease the disease burden associated with these water systems range from upgrading distribution networks to installing reverse osmosis technology. To provide insight into this decision process, we conducted a randomized intervention study to provide epidemiologic data for water policy decisions in Nukus, Uzbekistan, where drinking water quality is suboptimal. We interviewed residents of 240 households, 120 with and 120 without access to municipal piped water. Residents of 62 households without piped water were trained to chlorinate their drinking water at home in a narrow-necked water container with a spout. All study subjects (1583 individuals) were monitored biweekly for self-reported diarrheal illness over a period of 9.5 weeks. The home chlorination intervention group had the lowest diarrheal rate (28.8/1,000 subjects/month) despite lack of access to piped water in their homes. Compared with the two groups that did not receive the intervention this rate was one-sixth that of the group with no piped water (179.2/1,000 subjects/month) and one-third that of the households with piped water (75.5/1,000 subjects/month). More than 30% of the households with piped water lacked detectable levels of chlorine residues in their drinking water, despite two-stage chlorination of the source water, and were at increased risk of diarrhea. Forty-two percent of these municipal users reported that water pressure had been intermittent within the previous two days. The dramatic reduction in diarrheal rates in the home-chlorination intervention group indicates that a large proportion of diarrheal diseases in Nukus are water-borne. The home-chlorination group had less diarrhea than the group with piped water, implicating the distribution system as a source of disease transmission. Taken together, these

  20. Bacterial contamination in drinking water: a case study in rural areas of northern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Chhimpa, Vikram; Singh, Sushma

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water samples collected form some rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. A total of ten bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella sp, Proteus vulgaris, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis and Micrococcus luteum were identified form drinking water samples. The bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae (coliforms) showed the maximum occurrences in water samples. The total coliforms count, i.e. TTC(m) (m = MPN index/100 ml) in drinking water samples was in the ranges of 25 TTC(m) (village Naiwala)-41 TTC(m) (village Meharwala). The data suggested that the drinking water quality deterioration in rural habitations of this region was due to poor sanitation and unawareness about personal hygienic practices. The occurrences some pathogenic bacteria in drinking water may increase the risks of water-related diseases and health problems in local residents.

  1. Nitrates in municipal drinking water and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an ecological cancer case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) development has been inconclusive. A matched cancer case-control and a nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between mortality attributed to NHL and nitrate exposure from Taiwan's drinking water. All deaths due to NHL in Taiwan residents from 2000 through 2006 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) levels of drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for NHL death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water, as compared to the lowest tertile, were 1.02 (0.87-1.2) and 1.05 (0.89-1.24), respectively. The results of the present study show that there was no statistically significant association between nitrates in drinking water at levels in this investigation and increased risk of death attributed to NHL.

  2. Nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from bladder cancer: an ecological case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and bladder cancer development is controversial. A matched cancer case-control with nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between bladder cancer mortality occurrence and nitrate exposure from Taiwan drinking water. All bladder cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2003 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth,and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios for bladder cancer death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water were 1.76 (1.28-2.42) and 1.96 (1.41-2.72) as compared to the lowest tertile. The results of the present study show that there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from bladder cancer.

  3. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  4. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  5. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  6. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rubao; An, Daizhi; Lu, Wei; Shi, Yun; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Hongjuan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  7. The effect of land use change on water quality: A case study in Ciliwung Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Setiawan, Yudi; Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Effendi, Hefni

    2017-01-01

    Ciliwung is the biggest river in Jakarta. It is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. It flows from Bogor Regency and crosses Bogor City, Depok City, and Jakarta before finally flowing into Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. The water quality in Ciliwung River has degraded. Many factors affect water quality. Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Ciliwung Watershed based on the water quality monitoring data and remote sensing data in 2010 and 2014. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The result can provide scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  8. Long term case study of MIEX pre-treatment in drinking water; understanding NOM removal.

    PubMed

    Drikas, Mary; Dixon, Mike; Morran, Jim

    2011-02-01

    Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) is a key requirement to improve drinking water quality. This study compared the removal of NOM with, and without, the patented magnetic ion exchange process for removal of dissolved organic carbon (MIEX DOC) as a pre-treatment to microfiltration or conventional coagulation treatment over a 2 year period. A range of techniques were used to characterise the NOM of the raw and treated waters. MIEX pre-treatment produced water with lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The processes incorporating MIEX also produced more consistent water quality and were less affected by changes in the concentration and character of the raw water DOC. The very hydrophobic acid fraction (VHA) was the dominant NOM component in the raw water and was best removed by MIEX pre-treatment, regardless of the raw water VHA concentration. MIEX pre-treatment also produced water with lower weight average apparent molecular weight (AMW) and with the greatest reduction in complexity and range of NOM. A strong correlation was found between the VHA content and weight average AMW confirming that the VHA fraction was a major component of the NOM for both the raw water and treated waters.

  9. Heavy metals in water and sediment: a case study of Tembi River.

    PubMed

    Shanbehzadeh, Saeed; Vahid Dastjerdi, Marzieh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Kiyanizadeh, Toba

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metals concentration in water and sediment of upstream and downstream of the entry of the sewage to the Tembi River, Iran. Samples were collected from upstream and downstream and were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the average concentration of the metals in water and sediment on downstream was more than that of upstream. The comparison of the mean concentrations of heavy metals in water of the Tembi River with drinking water standards and those in the water used for agriculture suggests that the mean concentration of Cu and Zn lies within the standard range for drinking water and the mean concentration of Mn, Zn, and Pb lies within the standard range of agricultural water. The highest average concentration on downstream for Pb in water and for Mn in sediment was 1.95 and 820.5 ppm, respectively. Also, the lowest average concentration on upstream was identified for Cd in water and sediment 0.07 and 10 ppm, respectively. With regard to the results, it gets clear that using the water for recreational purposes, washing, and fishing is detrimental to human health and the environment.

  10. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  11. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households

  12. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  13. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    SciTech Connect

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  14. Comparison of Trihalomethanes in Tap Water and Blood: A Case Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Blount, Benjamin C.; Silva, Lalith K.; Jones, Elizabeth; Chan, Ronna L.; Pegram, Rex A.; Singer, Philip C.; Savitz, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have used various measures to characterize trihalomethane (THM) exposures, but the relationship of these indicators to exposure biomarkers remains unclear. Objectives: We examined temporal and spatial variability in baseline blood THM concentrations and assessed the relationship between these concentrations and several exposure indicators (tap water concentration, water-use activities, multiroute exposure metrics). Methods: We measured water-use activity and THM concentrations in blood and residential tap water from 150 postpartum women from three U.S. locations. Results: Blood ΣTHM [sum of chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromo-chloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] concentrations varied by site and season. As expected based on variable tap water concentrations and toxicokinetic properties, the proportion of brominated species (BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) in blood varied by site (site 1, 24%; site 2, 29%; site 3, 57%) but varied less markedly than in tap water (site 1, 35%; site 2, 75%; site 3, 68%). The blood–water ΣTHM Spearman rank correlation coefficient was 0.36, with correlations higher for individual brominated species (BDCM, 0.62; DBCM, 0.53; TBM, 0.54) than for TCM (0.37). Noningestion water activities contributed more to the total exposure metric than did ingestion, but tap water THM concentrations were more predictive of blood THM levels than were metrics that incorporated water use. Conclusions: Spatial and temporal variability in THM concentrations was greater in water than in blood. We found consistent blood–water correlations across season and site for BDCM and DBCM, and multivariate regression results suggest that water THM concentrations may be an adequate surro-gate for baseline blood levels. PMID:22281753

  15. Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkman, Ellen; van der Sanden, Maarten; Rutten, Martine

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, governmental institutes have started to use citizen science as a form of public participation. The Dutch water authorities are among them. They face pressure on the water governance system and a water awareness gap among the general public, and consider citizen science a possible solution. The reasons for practitioners to engage in citizen science, and in particular those of government practitioners, have seldom been studied. This article aims to pinpoint the various viewpoints of practitioners at Dutch regional water authorities on citizen science. A Q-methodological approach was used because it allows for exploration of viewpoints and statistical analysis using a small sample size. Practitioners (33) at eight different water authorities ranked 46 statements from agree to disagree. Three viewpoints were identified with a total explained variance of 67 %. Viewpoint A considers citizen science a potential solution that can serve several purposes, thereby encouraging citizen participation in data collection and analysis. Viewpoint B considers citizen science a method for additional, illustrative data. Viewpoint C views citizen science primarily as a means of education. These viewpoints show water practitioners in the Netherlands are willing to embrace citizen science at water authorities, although there is no support for higher levels of citizen engagement.

  16. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

  17. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  18. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dauphiné, David C; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R; Bates, Michael N; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-08-02

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002-2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55-3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59-4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

  19. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  20. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) ~3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and ~6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  1. Co-occurrence profiles of trace elements in potable water systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Costa, Costas N

    2014-11-01

    Potable water samples (N = 74) from 19 zip code locations in a region of Greece were profiled for 13 trace elements composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The primary objective was to monitor the drinking water quality, while the primary focus was to find novel associations in trace elements occurrence that may further shed light on common links in their occurrence and fate in the pipe scales and corrosion products observed in urban drinking water distribution systems. Except for arsenic at two locations and in six samples, rest of the analyzed elements was below maximum contaminant levels, for which regulatory values are available. Further, we attempted to hierarchically cluster trace elements based on their covariances resulting in two groups; one with arsenic, antimony, zinc, cadmium, and copper and the second with the rest of the elements. The grouping trends were partially explained by elements' similar chemical activities in water, underscoring their potential for co-accumulation and co-mobilization phenomena from pipe scales into finished water. Profiling patterns of trace elements in finished water could be indicative of their load on pipe scales and corrosion products, with a corresponding risk of episodic contaminant release. Speculation was made on the role of disinfectants and disinfection byproducts in mobilizing chemically similar trace elements of human health interest from pipe scales to tap water. It is warranted that further studies may eventually prove useful to water regulators from incorporating the acquired knowledge in the drinking water safety plans.

  2. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  3. Developing Water Resource Security in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained Context - A Case Study in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Samuelsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of drought conditions in regions such as California due to shortfalls in precipitation has brought refreshed attention to the vulnerability of our water supply paradigm to changes in climate patterns. In the face of a changing climate which can exacerbate drought conditions in already dry areas, building resiliency into our water supply infrastructure requires some decoupling of water supply availability from climate behavior through conservation, efficiency, and alternative water supply measures such as desalination and water reuse. The installation of these measures requires varying degrees of direct energy inputs and/or impacts the energy usage of the water supply infrastructure (conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater treatment). These impacts have implications for greenhouse gas emissions from direct fuel usage or impacts on the emissions from the electric grid. At the scale that these measures may need to be deployed to secure water supply availability, especially under climate change impacted hydrology, they can potentially pose obstacles for meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable utilization goals. Therefore, the portfolio of these measures must be such that detrimental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are minimized. This study combines climate data with a water reservoir network model and an electric grid dispatch model for the water-energy system of California to evaluate 1) the different pathways and scale of alternative water resource measures needed to secure water supply availability and 2) the impacts of following these pathways on the ability to meet greenhouse gas and renewable utilization goals. It was discovered that depending on the water supply measure portfolio implemented, impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and renewable utilization can either be beneficial or detrimental, and optimizing the portfolio is more important under climate change conditions due to the scale of measures required.

  4. Spatial assessment of monitoring network in coastal waters: a case study of Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf; AbaHussain, Asma; El-Battay, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spatial analyses of water-quality-monitoring networks in coastal waters are important because pollution sources vary temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to evaluate the spatial distribution of the water-quality-monitoring network of Kuwait Bay using both geostatistical and multivariate techniques. Three years of monthly data collected from six existing monitoring stations covering Kuwait Bay between 2009 and 2011 were employed in conjunction with data collected from 20 field sampling sites. Field sampling locations were selected based on a stratified random sampling scheme oriented by an existing classification map of Kuwait Bay. Two water quality datasets obtained from different networks were compared by cluster analysis applied to the Water Quality Index (WQI) and other water quality parameters, after which the Kriging method was used to generate distribution maps of water quality for spatial assessment. Cluster analysis showed that the current monitoring network does not represent water quality patterns in Kuwait Bay. Specifically, the distribution maps revealed that the existing monitoring network is inadequate for heavily polluted areas such as Sulaibikhat Bay and the northern portion of Kuwait Bay. Accordingly, the monitoring system in Kuwait Bay must be revised or redesigned. The geostatistical approach and cluster analysis employed in this study will be useful for evaluating future proposed modifications to the monitoring stations network in Kuwait Bay.

  5. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    PubMed

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  6. Benefits of Mars ISRU Regolith Water Processing: A Case Study for the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paz, Aaron; Mueller, Robert

    2016-01-01

    ISRU of Mars resources was baselined in 2009 Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, but only for Oxygen production using atmospheric CO2. The Methane (LCH4) needed for ascent propulsion of the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) would need to be brought from Earth. However: Extracting water from the Martian Regolith enables the production of both Oxygen and Methane from Mars resources: Water resources could also be used for other applications including: Life support, radiation shielding, plant growth, etc. Water extraction was not baselined in DRA5.0 due to perceived difficulties and complexity in processing regolith. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) requested studies to look at the quantitative benefits and trades of using Mars water ISRUPhase 1: Examined architecture scenarios for regolith water retrieval. Completed October 2015. Phase 2: Deep dive of one architecture concept to look at end-to-end system size, mass, power of a LCH4/LO2 ISRU production system

  7. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  8. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Maria J; Jafvert, Chad T; Nies, Loring F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July-October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods.

  9. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  10. Techniques for water demand analysis and forecasting: Puerto Rico, a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Close, E.R.; Lopez, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Commonwealth-of Puerto Rico since 1947 has brought public pressure on Government agencies for rapid development of public water supply and waste treatment facilities. Since 1945 the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority has had the responsibility for planning, developing and operating water supply and waste treatment facilities on a municipal basis. The purpose of this study was to develop operational techniques whereby a planning agency, such as the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, could project the temporal and spatial distribution of .future water demands. This report is part of a 2-year cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Environmental Quality Board of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, for the development of systems analysis techniques for use in water resources planning. While the Commonwealth was assisted in the development of techniques to facilitate ongoing planning, the U.S. Geological Survey attempted to gain insights in order to better interface its data collection efforts with the planning process. The report reviews the institutional structure associated with water resources planning for the Commonwealth. A brief description of alternative water demand forecasting procedures is presented and specific techniques and analyses of Puerto Rico demand data are discussed. Water demand models for a specific area of Puerto Rico are then developed. These models provide a framework for making several sets of water demand forecasts based on alternative economic and demographic assumptions. In the second part of this report, the historical impact of water resources investment on regional economic development is analyzed and related to water demand .forecasting. Conclusions and future data needs are in the last section.

  11. The environmental impact of water markets: an Australian case-study.

    PubMed

    Tisdell, J G

    2001-05-01

    Water markets are developing as part of a Council of Australian Governments initiative to promote an efficient use of Australia's water resources. The consequences of these policies on river health is yet to be fully understood, but recognised as having significant interrelationships which need to be explored. This paper examines the consequences of introducing trade and allocating water for environmental use in the Border Rivers region of Queensland. The results of this study suggest that: (1) trade in water entitlements is likely to increase the differential between extractive demand and historical flow regimes as extractive water-use concentrates on the most profitable crops, and (2) water markets are likely to limit the effectiveness of water policies aimed at restoring natural flow regimes. As a result, trade-offs between environmental needs and income from extractive use will need to be determined. This work is important and timely in water-policy development demonstrating the linkages and trade-offs between ecological and economic objectives.

  12. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    Water Footprint Assessment is a fast-growing field of research, but as yet little attention has been paid to the uncertainties involved. This study investigates the sensitivity of and uncertainty in crop water footprint (in m3 t-1) estimates related to uncertainties in important input variables. The study focuses on the green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) water footprint of producing maize, soybean, rice, and wheat at the scale of the Yellow River basin in the period 1996-2005. A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered. The one-at-a-time method was carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the crop water footprint to fractional changes of seven individual input variables and parameters: precipitation (PR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop coefficient (Kc), crop calendar (planting date with constant growing degree days), soil water content at field capacity (Smax), yield response factor (Ky) and maximum yield (Ym). Uncertainties in crop water footprint estimates related to uncertainties in four key input variables: PR, ET0, Kc, and crop calendar were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the sensitivities and uncertainties differ across crop types. In general, the water footprint of crops is most sensitive to ET0 and Kc, followed by the crop calendar. Blue water footprints were more sensitive to input variability than green water footprints. The smaller the annual blue water footprint is, the higher its sensitivity to changes in PR, ET0, and Kc. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop due to combined uncertainties in climatic inputs (PR and ET0) were about ±20% (at 95% confidence interval). The effect of uncertainties in ET0was dominant compared to that of PR. The uncertainties in the total water footprint of a crop as a result of combined key input

  13. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  14. Framework for Integrated Water, Energy, and Environmental Resources Assessment, Planning, and Management: Lake Victoria Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A.; Yao, H.; Tidwell, A.

    2006-12-01

    This article describes a recent assessment study for Lake Victoria in East Africa. The study includes three interlinked components. The first pertains to Lake Victoria regulation and includes climate and hydrologic forecasting (seasonal, inter-annual, and centennial), and outflow regulation (water resources planning). The second pertains to energy system planning, and the third to environmental and socio-economic impact assessments. These components converge at the operational level where water, energy, and environmental management are harmonized through the use of a decision support system, the Lake Victoria Decision Support Tool. Some of the broad study findings are summarized below: (1)Lake Victoria is entering a new era in which sustainable water resources management is tightly linked to and can only be achieved by proactive energy planning. To meet this new challenge, and maximize the benefit of the decision support system, water and energy sector decisions must be institutionally coordinated. (2)Climate and hydrologic forecasts of sufficient skill are critical for effective water resources and energy planning and management. More specifically, extensive assessments with several GCMs and climate scenarios indicate that Lake Victoria will most likely be adversely impacted by climate change with potentially serious local and regional consequences. Furthermore, seasonal and inter-annual forecasts are very important in meeting medium term water and energy demands and minimizing the costs of thermal energy generation. (3)Wetland ecological and socio-economic benefits are comparable to power sector benefits, underscoring the need for more comprehensive evaluations of non-power water uses and integrative water, energy, and environmental planning and management. (4)Integrated forecast-decision systems are excellent means to bring to bear and make practically available advances in various water-related disciplines for the benefit of managers and policy makers.

  15. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future

  16. A case study of regional catchment water quality modelling to identify pollution control requirements.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, B; Seward, A J; Thompson, L

    2006-01-01

    There are four ecologically important river catchments that contain candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSACs) under the Habitats Directive in the Lake District National Park located in the North of England. These are the rivers Ehen, Kent, Derwent and Eden. For each cSAC, there are defined ecological criteria that include water quality targets to protect the designated species. Stretches of the riverine cSACs in each catchment are failing to meet these and other water quality targets. The Environment Agency commissioned a study of each catchment to provide the underpinning scientific knowledge to allow it to deliver its statutory obligations under the Habitats Directive. SIMCAT river water quality models were produced and used to predict the water quality impacts resulting from a number of water quality planning scenarios aimed at achieving full compliance with the Habitats Directive and other national and EEC water quality targets. The results indicated that further controls on effluent discharges will allow the majority of targets to be met but other sources of pollution will also need to be controlled. The outcome of the study also recognised that water quality improvements alone will not necessarily produce the required improvement to the ecological interest features in each cSAC.

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Surface Water: A Case Study from Michigan, USA to Inform Management of Rural Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dreelin, Erin A.; Ives, Rebecca L.; Molloy, Stephanie; Rose, Joan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1) explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2) examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risks between rural and urban environments; and (3) synthesize available information to gain a better understanding of risk and risk management for rural water supplies. Our results indicate that Cryptosporidium and Giardia were more prevalent in rural versus urban environments based on the number of positive samples. Genotyping showed that both the human and animal types of the parasites are found in rural and urban environments. Rural areas had a higher incidence of disease compared to urban areas based on the total number of disease cases. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were both positively correlated (p < 0.001) with urban area, population size, and population density. Finally, a comprehensive strategy that creates knowledge pathways for data sharing among multiple levels of management may improve decision-making for protecting rural water supplies. PMID:25317981

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water: a case study from Michigan, USA to inform management of rural water systems.

    PubMed

    Dreelin, Erin A; Ives, Rebecca L; Molloy, Stephanie; Rose, Joan B

    2014-10-14

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1) explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2) examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risks between rural and urban environments; and (3) synthesize available information to gain a better understanding of risk and risk management for rural water supplies. Our results indicate that Cryptosporidium and Giardia were more prevalent in rural versus urban environments based on the number of positive samples. Genotyping showed that both the human and animal types of the parasites are found in rural and urban environments. Rural areas had a higher incidence of disease compared to urban areas based on the total number of disease cases. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were both positively correlated (p < 0.001) with urban area, population size, and population density. Finally, a comprehensive strategy that creates knowledge pathways for data sharing among multiple levels of management may improve decision-making for protecting rural water supplies.

  19. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  20. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  1. Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Chien, H Y

    2009-06-01

    The appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), microbial regrowth, disinfection by-products (DBPs), and pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems are among those major safe drinking water issues in many countries. The water distribution system of Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) was selected in this study to evaluate the: (1) fate and transport of AOC, DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs)], and other organic carbon indicators in the selected distribution system, (2) correlations between AOC (or DBPs) and major water quality parameters [e.g. dissolved oxygen (DO), free residual chlorine, and bacteria, and (3) causes and significance of corrosion problems of the water pipes in this system. In this study, seasonal water samples were collected from 13 representative locations in the distribution system for analyses of AOC, DBPs, and other water quality indicators. Results indicate that residual free chlorine concentrations in the distribution system met the drinking water standards (0.2 to 1 mg l(-1)) established by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA). Results show that AOC measurements correlated positively with total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-254 (an organic indicator) values in this system. Moreover, AOC concentrations at some locations were higher than the 50 microg acetate-C l(-1) standard established by Taiwan Water Company. This indicates that the microbial regrowth might be a potential water quality problem in this system. Higher DO measurements (>5.7 mg l(-1)) might cause the aerobic biodegradation of THMs and HAAs in the system, and thus, low THMs (<0.035 mg l(-1)) and HAAs (<0.019 mg l(-1)) concentrations were observed at all sampling locations. Results from the observed negative Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values, higher Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) values, and high Fe3+ concentrations at some pipe-end locations indicate that highly oxidative and corrosive conditions occurred

  2. Benefits and costs of prevention: Case studies of community wellhead protection. Volume 2. Detailed case studies of seven communities. Source water protection business and economics series No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    In 1994, EPA initiated the study of the benefits and costs of wellhead protection (WHP). The purpose of the study was to compare the cost of local wellhead protection to the cost of contamination which could have potentially been avoided as a wellhead protection program is caried out. Additionally, the information in these case studies is intended to assist local decisionmakers assess the value, cost and feasibility of implementing wellhead protection in their communities. While the results reported below for the seven communities are neither exhaustive nor statistically representative of all communities, they do provide an indication and present the potential extent and range of benefits for a prevention program to protect community drinking water sources. EPA also was interested in collecting observations on the study communities` experiences in responding to contamination incidents and in developing and implementing WHPPs.

  3. Case study of complaints on drinking water quality: relationship to copper content?

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Fernando; Araya, Magdalena; Vásquez, Marcela; Lagos, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Méndez, Marco A; Leyton, Bárbara; Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, Victoria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-05-01

    Several families of Talca city, Chile complained to health authorities for what they attributed to consumption of copper (Cu)-contaminated drinking water. We assessed the situation 6-12 mo after the initiation of complaints by characterizing the symptoms reported, the chemistry of drinking water, and the Cu concentration in stagnant drinking water. After completing a census, 1778 households accepted participation and were categorized as follows: category 1, Cu plumbing for tap water and dwellers reporting health complaints (HC); category 2, Cu plumbing for tap water and dwellers reporting no HC; category 3, plastic plumbing for tap water and dwellers reporting no HC. Questionnaires recorded characteristics of households and symptoms presented by each member of the family in the last 3 mo. The Cu concentration in drinking water was measured in a subsample of 80 homes with Cu pipes. In category 1, participants presented significantly more abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or vomiting (gastrointestinal [GI] symptoms) in comparison to category 3 and to categories 2 plus 3. The stagnant Cu concentrations measured in drinking water in all houses studied were below the US Environmental Protection Agency guideline value (<1.3 mg Cu/L). In summary, data obtained by interviews suggested that individuals in some areas of Talca city were suffering more GI symptoms potentially related to Cu excess, but measurement of Cu concentration in stagnant tap waters ruled out the association between Cu exposure and GI symptom reports at the time of this study. The dose-response curves for GI symptoms and Cu exposure now available were crucial in the analyses of results.

  4. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  6. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  7. Variability and uncertainty in water demand and water footprint assessments of fresh algae cultivation based on case studies from five climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Guieysse, Benoit; Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Using case studies from five typical climatic locations, this study revealed that current quantification of water demand (WD) and water footprint (WF) of freshwater algae cultivation in raceway ponds suffer from uncertainty and variability in the methodologies and assumptions used. Of particular concern, the WF metric had an intrinsically poor geographical resolution and could be biased towards high-productivity arid locations because local levels of water stress are not accounted for. Applying current methodologies could therefore cause the selection of locations that are neither economically viable nor environmentally sustainable. An improved methodology should utilize more accurate evaporation models, determine realistic limits for the maximum hydraulic retention times and process water recycling ratios, and apply weighting to the WF to reflect localized water stress or use an alternative metric such as the equivalent years of rainfall required to support a productivity of 1G J m(-2).

  8. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms.

  9. The association between campylobacteriosis, agriculture and drinking water: a case-case study in a region of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Galanis, E; Mak, S; Otterstatter, M; Taylor, M; Zubel, M; Takaro, T K; Kuo, M; Michel, P

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ⩾15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water.

  10. Agronomic aspects and environmental impact of reusing marginal water in irrigation: a case study from Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Mowelhi, N M; Abo Soliman, S M S; Barbary, S M; El-Shahawy, M I

    2006-01-01

    Egypt produces approximately 2.4 million m3 of secondary treated wastewater (TWW) annually, used for irrigation directly or indirectly by blending with agricultural drainage water (BDW). The annual re-use of (BDW) is approximately 4 million m3. The safe and efficient use of marginal water (BDW and TWW) is a core objective of this study which has been operating from 1997 to date. After six growing seasons the main results can be summarized as follows: MAXIMIZING CROP PRODUCTION: TWW can be used for high production of oil crops (canola, soybean sunflower or maize) compared to fresh water, while BDW can be used for high production of tolerant crops (cotton and sugar beet). CROP QUALITY: using marginal water increases the concentration of elements (Pb, B, Ni, Co) in all crops but these elements were under critical levels (there were no toxicity hazards). It is better to use alternative irrigation with fresh water under a drip irrigation system to maximise crop production and minimise the adverse effects of such water in field crops quality. SOIL POLLUTION AND SALINITY BUILD UP: A drip irrigation system under alternative irrigation by fresh with TWW or BDW reduces salinity build up risks and the levels of elements (Pb, B, Ni, Co) in soil compared to re-use marginal water. SOIL PATHOGENS: Using marginal water slightly contaminated the soil with total faecal coliform (TFC), mites, shigella and salmonella. PLANT ANATOMY: No great changes in anatomical disturbance where induced in different structures of plants which were reduced at maturity stage. PRIMARY GUIDELINES FOR RE-USING MARGINAL WATER: From obtained results it can be recommended to use marginal water with salinity content ranged between 1.1 to 3.64dS/m, and elemental contents (Pb 3.0-3.51 ppm), (B 0.05-1.67 ppm), (Co 0.04-0.07 ppm), (Ni 0.08-0.15 ppm) for safe (field, vegetable and medicinal) crops production. REUSE BIO SOLIDS FOR CROP PRODUCTION: Sewage sludge produced from treated wastewater can be safely used

  11. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  12. Discharge of oilfield-produced water in Nueces Bay, Texas: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    D`Unger, C.; Chapman, D.; Carr, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    During oil and gas production, water is often extracted from geological formations along with the hydrocarbons. These {open_quotes}produced waters{close_quotes} have been discharged to Nueces Bay since the turn of the century. These effluents were found to be highly toxic, and sediments in the vicinity of the discharges were also toxic. We developed a map of wells and produced-water discharge sites in the vicinity of Nueces Bay and identified numerous unplugged wells suitable for conversion to produced water disposal wells. An economic analysis of conversion to subterranean injection of produced water indicates that most of the wells currently in production could pay out the cost of conversion to injection in one to three years. The use of one injection well for two or more water-producing wells could yield greater savings. Wells that could not support the cost of injection are small producers, and their loss would not constitute a major loss of jobs or dollars to the area. This study could serve as a useful model for evaluating the economic feasibility of conversion to injection in other areas of Texas and Louisiana. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to ECMWF analysis. The mesoscale model performs significantly better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The improvement provided by the mesoscale model for water vapour comes mainly from (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS (250 m for BRAMS and ~1 km for ECMWF model) and (ii) the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour in the UTLS. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, ECMWF analysis gives good results partly thanks to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that in undersaturated layers, the water vapour profile depends mainly on the dynamics. In saturated/supersaturated layers, microphysical processes play an important role and have to be taken into account on top of the dynamical processes to understand the water vapour profiles. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly dryer than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale

  14. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  15. Sub-pixel mapping of water boundaries using pixel swapping algorithm (case study: Tagliamento River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad; Vitti, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Taking the advantages of remotely sensed data for mapping and monitoring of water boundaries is of particular importance in many different management and conservation activities. Imagery data are classified using automatic techniques to produce maps entering the water bodies' analysis chain in several and different points. Very commonly, medium or coarse spatial resolution imagery is used in studies of large water bodies. Data of this kind is affected by the presence of mixed pixels leading to very outstanding problems, in particular when dealing with boundary pixels. A considerable amount of uncertainty inescapably occurs when conventional hard classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood) are applied on mixed pixels. In this study, Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) is used to estimate the proportion of water in boundary pixels. Firstly by applying an unsupervised clustering, the water body is identified approximately and a buffer area considered ensuring the selection of entire boundary pixels. Then LSMM is applied on this buffer region to estimate the fractional maps. However, resultant output of LSMM does not provide a sub-pixel map corresponding to water abundances. To tackle with this problem, Pixel Swapping (PS) algorithm is used to allocate sub-pixels within mixed pixels in such a way to maximize the spatial proximity of sub-pixels and pixels in the neighborhood. The water area of two segments of Tagliamento River (Italy) are mapped in sub-pixel resolution (10m) using a 30m Landsat image. To evaluate the proficiency of the proposed approach for sub-pixel boundary mapping, the image is also classified using a conventional hard classifier. A high resolution image of the same area is also classified and used as a reference for accuracy assessment. According to the results, sub-pixel map shows in average about 8 percent higher overall accuracy than hard classification and fits very well in the boundaries with the reference map.

  16. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  17. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan

    2010-04-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  18. Evaluation of village piped water: a case study in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Mo-suwan, L

    1993-12-01

    This study was conducted in a district of southern Thailand to evaluate village piped water (VPW) systems with respect to the process of planning and operation. Of 67 villages in the district, 31 were installed with one or more VPW systems using water obtained from artesian wells and distributed through the pipe with neither prior filtering nor chlorination. Seven systems were found to have stopped functioning for more than 6 months. The direct causes of failure were lack of participation from the villagers, mechanical problems and serious conflicts among the leaders. Of the running systems, only 4 were operating with meters for individual households. The charge rates were probably too low to cope with sustainable maintenance costs. The water had rust, unpleasant odors, slightly salty taste and oily surface in 50, 33, 29 and 4% of the systems respectively. Among VPW users, 8% drank water from shallow wells and 77% drank unboiled water. It was concluded that VPW in the study area was not effective for several reason. Prior assessment of management feasibility and proper community education were lacking. The running costs were probable too high, not well recognized and not covered. This led to failure in gaining participation from the villagers, which eventually led to failure or potential failure of the system and waste of capital investment. These pitfalls should be prevented prior to installation of any VPW system in the future.

  19. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  20. Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-11-01

    Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

  1. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

  2. Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option.

  3. Shallow water submarine hydrothermal activity - A case study in the assessment of ocean acidification and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, T.; Nagao, K.; Kusakabe, M.; Wang, B.; Chen, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Most natural Shallow Water submarine Hydrothermal activates (SWH) along coastlines are related to hydrothermal eruptions involving heating of groundwater with the volcanic gas. These SWHs supply nutrients such as phosphorus and micro nutrients like iron to the euphotic zone, contributing to the overall natural fertility and primary productivity of coastal waters. However, SWHs also have a negative effect, dispersing toxic materials such as mercury and arsenic, and affecting the acidification of the surrounding waters. In this study, we evaluate the impact of "iron supply" and "ocean acidification" on the primary production in a coastal marine environment, at a SWH area discovered off Gueshandao Island, northeast Taiwan. In the past three years, expeditions were conducted and observations made around this SWH site. Divers, small boats and a research vessel (R/V OR1, Ocean University National Taiwan) were used to survey successively larger areas around the site. Some of the results obtained are as follows. Hydrothermal vents are located in a hilly terrain rich with hot spring water with gas erupting intermittently. There are two types of vents, roughly divided by color, yellow hot spring water with higher temperature >110 degC ejected from sulfur chimneys of various sizes, and colorless water with lower temperature ~80 degC ejected directly from the crevices of the andesitic bedrock. Natural sulfur solidifying in the mouth of a small chimney was captured by a video camera, and explosions were also observed at intervals of a few minutes. Sediment, sand and particles of sulfur were deposited on the sides to a radius of about 50 m condensing around the chimney. The bottom type changes from sand/particles to outcrop/rock away from the vents. Moreover, gas samples were collected from the vents; the ratios of gas concentrations (N2/Ar) and isotopic composition of noble gas (3He/4He) suggest that these volcanic gases are mantle-derived. Hydrothermal fluid with high p

  4. Radar imaging of shallow water bathymetry: A case study in the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Zhong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on 2-dimensional (2-D) radar imaging of bathymetric features in the shallow water of the Yangtze Estuary using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and model simulations. A validated 2-D shallow water numerical model simulates the barotropic current velocity, and the simulated current fields together with the relevant parameters of radar observations are then invoked in the radar imaging model as the input. The results show that variations in the simulated image intensity are mainly dominated by distinct radar backscatter anomalies caused by wave-current interactions in the vicinity of rapidly changing underwater topographies. The comparison between the simulated and observed SAR images shows a reasonable agreement, demonstrating that our approach may be implemented to monitor changes in the shallow water bathymetry of the Yangtze Estuary in the future.

  5. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  6. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  7. Methodological approach for the optimization of drinking water treatment plants' operation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Crotti, Barbara Marianna; Raboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Critical barriers to safe and secure drinking water may include sources (e.g. groundwater contamination), treatments (e.g. treatment plants not properly operating) and/or contamination within the distribution system (infrastructure not properly maintained). The performance assessment of these systems, based on monitoring, process parameter control and experimental tests, is a viable tool for the process optimization and water quality control. The aim of this study was to define a procedure for evaluating the performance of full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and for defining optimal solutions for plant upgrading in order to optimize operation. The protocol is composed of four main phases (routine and intensive monitoring programmes - Phases 1 and 2; experimental studies - Phase 3; plant upgrade and optimization - Phase 4). The protocol suggested in this study was tested in a full-scale DWTP placed in the North of Italy (Mortara, Pavia). The results outline some critical aspects of the plant operation and permit the identification of feasible solutions for the DWTP upgrading in order to optimize water treatment operation.

  8. Discharge of Oilfield-Produced Water in Nueces Bay, Texas: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Unger, Claude; Chapman, Duane; Carr, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    During oil and gas production, water is often extracted from geological formations along with the hydrocarbons. These “produced waters” have been discharged to Nueces Bay since the turn of the century. These effluents were found to be highly toxic, and sediments in the vicinity of the discharges were also toxic. We developed a map of wells and produced-water discharge sites in the vicinity of Nueces Bay and identified numerous unplugged wells suitable for conversion to produced water disposal wells. An economic analysis of conversion to subterranean injection of produced water indicates that most of the wells currently in production could pay out the cost of conversion to injection in one to three years. The use of one injection well for two or more water-producing wells could yield greater savings. Wells that could not support the cost of injection are small producers, and their loss would not constitute a major loss of jobs or dollars to the area. This study could serve as a useful model for evaluating the economic feasibility of conversion to injection in other areas of Texas and Louisiana.

  9. Discharge of oilfield-produced water in Nueces Bay, Texas: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Unger, Claude; Chapman, Duane C.; Carr, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    During oil and gas production, water is often extracted from geological formations along with the hydrocarbons. These “produced waters” have been discharged to Nueces Bay since the turn of the century. These effluents were found to be highly toxic, and sediments in the vicinity of the discharges were also toxic. We developed a map of wells and produced-water discharge sites in the vicinity of Nueces Bay and identified numerous unplugged wells suitable for conversion to produced water disposal wells. An economic analysis of conversion to subterranean injection of produced water indicates that most of the wells currently in production could pay out the cost of conversion to injection in one to three years. The use of one injection well for two or more water-producing wells could yield greater savings. Wells that could not support the cost of injection are small producers, and their loss would not constitute a major loss of jobs or dollars to the area. This study could serve as a useful model for evaluating the economic feasibility of conversion to injection in other areas of Texas and Louisiana.

  10. Evolution of water chemistry during Marcellus Shale gas development: A case study in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul F; Thomas He, Y

    2015-09-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has been used with horizontal drilling to extract gas and natural gas liquids from source rock such as the Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin. Horizontal drilling and HF generates large volumes of waste water known as flowback. While inorganic ion chemistry has been well characterized, and the general increase in concentration through the flowback is widely recognized, the literature contains little information relative to organic compounds and radionuclides. This study examined the chemical evolution of liquid process and waste streams (including makeup water, HF fluids, and flowback) in four Marcellus Shale gas well sites in north central West Virginia. Concentrations of organic and inorganic constituents and radioactive isotopes were measured to determine changes in waste water chemistry during shale gas development. We found that additives used in fracturing fluid may contribute to some of the constituents (e.g., Fe) found in flowback, but they appear to play a minor role. Time sequence samples collected during flowback indicated increasing concentrations of organic, inorganic and radioactive constituents. Nearly all constituents were found in much higher concentrations in flowback water than in injected HF fluids suggesting that the bulk of constituents originate in the Marcellus Shale formation rather than in the formulation of the injected HF fluids. Liquid wastes such as flowback and produced water, are largely recycled for subsequent fracturing operations. These practices limit environmental exposure to flowback.

  11. An Ecologically-Sustainable Surface Water Withdrawal Framework for Cropland Irrigation: A Case Study in Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Puneet; Gupta, Anand K.; Kalin, Latif

    2010-08-01

    Agricultural production in the state of Alabama, USA, is mostly rain-fed, because of which it is vulnerable to drought during growing season. Since Alabama receives a significant portion of its annual precipitation during winter months, the goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of water withdrawal from streams during winter months for irrigation in the growing season. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate the quantity of water that can be sustainably withdrawn from streams during winter high flow periods. The model was successfully calibrated and validated for surface runoff, base flow, and total stream flow. The stream flows generated by the model at several locations within the watershed were then used to examine how much water can be sustainably withdrawn from streams of various orders (first, second and third). Although there was a considerable year-to-year variability in the amount of water that can be withdrawn, a 16-year average showed that first, second, and third order streams can irrigate about 11.6, 10.3, and 10.6% of their drainage areas, respectively. The percentage of drainage area that can be irrigated was not a function of stream order.

  12. An ecologically-sustainable surface water withdrawal framework for cropland irrigation: a case study in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Puneet; Gupta, Anand K; Kalin, Latif

    2010-08-01

    Agricultural production in the state of Alabama, USA, is mostly rain-fed, because of which it is vulnerable to drought during growing season. Since Alabama receives a significant portion of its annual precipitation during winter months, the goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of water withdrawal from streams during winter months for irrigation in the growing season. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate the quantity of water that can be sustainably withdrawn from streams during winter high flow periods. The model was successfully calibrated and validated for surface runoff, base flow, and total stream flow. The stream flows generated by the model at several locations within the watershed were then used to examine how much water can be sustainably withdrawn from streams of various orders (first, second and third). Although there was a considerable year-to-year variability in the amount of water that can be withdrawn, a 16-year average showed that first, second, and third order streams can irrigate about 11.6, 10.3, and 10.6% of their drainage areas, respectively. The percentage of drainage area that can be irrigated was not a function of stream order.

  13. Developing new scenarios for water allocation negotiations: a case study of the Euphrates River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarkeh, Mohammad Reza; Mianabadi, Ameneh; Mianabadi, Hojjat

    2016-10-01

    Mismanagement and uneven distribution of water may lead to or increase conflict among countries. Allocation of water among trans-boundary river neighbours is a key issue in utilization of shared water resources. The bankruptcy theory is a cooperative Game Theory method which is used when the amount of demand of riparian states is larger than total available water. In this study, we survey the application of seven methods of Classical Bankruptcy Rules (CBRs) including Proportional (CBR-PRO), Adjusted Proportional (CBR-AP), Constrained Equal Awards (CBR-CEA), Constrained Equal Losses (CBR-CEL), Piniles (CBR-Piniles), Minimal Overlap (CBR-MO), Talmud (CBR-Talmud) and four Sequential Sharing Rules (SSRs) including Proportional (SSR-PRO), Constrained Equal Awards (SSR-CEA), Constrained Equal Losses (SSR-CEL) and Talmud (SSR-Talmud) methods in allocation of the Euphrates River among three riparian countries: Turkey, Syria and Iraq. However, there is not a certain documented method to find more equitable allocation rule. Therefore, in this paper, a new method is established for choosing the most appropriate allocating rule which seems to be more equitable than other allocation rules to satisfy the stakeholders. The results reveal that, based on the new propose model, the CBR-AP seems to be more equitable to allocate the Euphrates River water among Turkey, Syria and Iraq.

  14. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5.

  15. Water Footprint of Hydroelectricity: A Case Study of Two Large Canadian Boreal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    20% of Canada's total freshwater is located in the province of Quebec, where 30% of the country's energy is produced from hydropower. Hydroelectric generation uses a considerable amount of water through evaporation from the reservoirs. The blue water footprint is an indicator of the annual freshwater consumption related to hydropower production. Although environmental effects of reservoir impounding have been previously investigated, their impacts on local and regional evapotranspiration are still not well understood due to the lack of long-term observation data. This study aims to assess the blue water footprint of two large hydroelectric systems located in the Canadian boreal forest. To do so, we use hydro-meteorological data from two specially designed climate simulations (a 'no-reservoir' and a 'post-impoundment' simulation) performed by the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Land-surface processes in the CRCM5 are parameterized by the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS V3.6), while surface fluxes over the water bodies are simulated by the 1-D lake model (Flake). A 'no-reservoir' and a 'post-impoundment' simulation are carried by adjusting the water fraction on the reservoir grids. Both simulations cover a 42 years period (1970-2012) at 0.11° horizontal resolution, consisting of 300 x 300 grid points centered on the province of Quebec. The two watersheds under study (200 000 km² total) are located in Northern Quebec (49-54°N), Canada, where more than 42% of the province power generation capacity is installed with eight reservoirs covering a total area of 10 000 km². A first validation of the 'post-impoundment' simulation is performed using micrometeorological ground observations, complemented with available hydro-meteorological data from Environment Canada weather stations. Then, each reservoir water footprint is calculated using the 'post-impoundment' simulation. Finally, the net

  16. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  17. Drinking water mutagenicity and urinary tract cancers: a population-based case-control study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, M; Hakulinen, T; Vartiainen, T; Pukkala, E; Jaakkola, J J; Tuomisto, J

    1998-10-01

    The detection of mutagenic and carcinogenic chlorination by-products in chlorinated drinking water has raised concern in many countries over the potential health effects of long-term exposure to these products. The relation between estimated exposure to historical drinking water mutagenicity and cancer was studied in Finland by using a population-based case-control study comprising 732 bladder cancer cases, 703 kidney cancer cases, and 914 controls. The cases were obtained from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry for the years 1991-1992. The controls, frequency matched by age and sex, were randomly selected from the national population registry. Information on past drinking water sources and confounding factors was acquired through a questionnaire. Historical exposure to drinking water mutagenicity was estimated by using information on past residence, past water source, and historical data on water quality and treatment. Odds ratios were calculated for an increase of 3,000 net revertants per liter (net rev/liter) in average exposure from 1950 to 1987, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking in logistic regression models. A small, statistically significant, exposure-related excess risk was found for kidney cancer for men (odds ratio = 1.49, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.13) for 3,000 net rev/liter exposure level. For women, the association remained nonsignificant, with a lower odds ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 0.69-1.68). For bladder cancer, the odds ratio for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CI 0.92-1.62) for 3,000 net rev/liter exposure. However, a higher odds ratio of 2.59 (95% CI 1.13-5.94) for 3,000 net rev/liter exposure was observed for male nonsmokers.

  18. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Nanomaterial <span class=Case Studies Final Report "> This document is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to b...

  19. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  20. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  1. Case Studies of Mixed-phase Winter Orographic Clouds with High Liquid Water Content over Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessendorf, S. A.; Xue, L.; Weeks, C.; Rasmussen, R.; French, J.; Geerts, B.; Holbrook, V. P.; Blestrud, D.; Kunkel, M. L.; Parkinson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wintertime orographic clouds have been shown to contain supercooled liquid water (SLW) as observed by radiometers and simulated by numerical models. The presence of SLW is often an indication that the precipitation process is not efficient, possibly due to a lack of ice nuclei able to be activated into ice crystals. Natural ice nuclei often do not become activated until temperatures are colder than -15 C, however silver iodide has been shown to activate at subfreezing temperatures as warm as -5 C (DeMott 1999, Hoose and Mohler 2012). As such, the precipitation from relatively warm mixed-phase orographic clouds with SLW could potentially be enhanced using silver iodide. Idaho Power Company (IPC) has been operating a cloud seeding program in the Payette River Basin of western Idaho for over 15 years aimed at enhancing the precipitation from winter orographic clouds. During the past 5 years, IPC and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been conducting research aimed at better understanding the cloud physics of the winter orographic clouds in the region and their potential for cloud seeding. From this research, several cases have been identified that have very high amounts of SLW, based on radiometer observations and numerical modeling. In one case, in situ measurements from the University of Wyoming King Air were also collected. This paper will present observations and modeling results of two cases with high SLW and discuss the implications that such cases have on aircraft icing and how seeding them with silver iodide might impact their precipitation production.

  2. Optimal water and waste-load allocations in rivers using a fuzzy transformation technique: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Karimi, Akbar; Azadnia, Ali Asghar

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is developed for integrated allocation of water and waste-loads in river basins utilizing a fuzzy transformation method (FTM). The fuzzy transformation method is used to incorporate the existing uncertainties in model inputs. In the proposed methodology, the FTM, as a simulation model, is utilized in an optimization framework for constructing a fuzzy water and waste-loads allocation model. In addition, economic as well as environmental impacts of water allocation to different water users are considered. For equitable water and waste load allocation, all possible coalition of water users are considered and total benefit of each coalition, which is a fuzzy number, is reallocated to water users who are participating in the coalition. The fuzzy cost savings are reallocated using a fuzzy nucleolus cooperative game and the FTM. As a case study, the Dez River system in south-west of Iran is modeled and analyzed using the methodology developed here. The results show the effectiveness of the methodology in optimal water and waste-loads allocations under uncertainty.

  3. Exposure to well water and pesticides in Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in the Madrid area

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.J.; Mateo, D.; Gimenez-Roldan, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Past exposure to well water and pesticides was assessed in 128 unselected Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 256 age and sex-matched controls. All were residents in a defined urban area of Madrid, Spain. In keeping with other reports, we found that exposure to well water might be a factor associated with the likelihood of developing PD, though only prolonged exposures of 30 years or longer were significantly different between PD and controls (p less than 0.02). In contrast, past exposure to pesticides did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing PD. Prolonged well water drinking antedating the development of PD was not associated with early onset of the disease, nor did such cases progress to greater disability. Future case-control studies addressing prolonged well water consumption as a risk factor in PD should look for differences in the content of substances other than pesticides in the water as determined by the source of water to which patients may have been specifically exposed.

  4. Influences of urban wastewaters on the stream water quality: a case study from Gumushane Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hızır; Bulut, V Numan; Akinci, Görkem

    2013-02-01

    Urban wastewater in Turkey is primarily discharged without treatment to marine environments, streams and rivers, and natural and artificial lakes. Since it has been well established that untreated effluent in multi-use waters can have acute and chronic impacts to both the environment and human health, it is important to evaluate the consequences of organic enrichment relative to the structure and function of aquatic environment. We investigated the impacts of untreated municipal wastewater discharge from the city of Gumushane in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey on the surface water quality of the stream Harsit. Several key water-quality indicators were measured: chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH (4)(+)-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO(2)(-)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)(-)-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total nitrogen (TN), orthophosphate phosphorus (PO(4)(3-)-P), methylene blue active substances (MBAS), water temperature (t), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and electrical conductivity (EC). The monitoring and sampling studies were conducted every 15 days from March 2009 to February 2010 at three longitudinally distributed stations. While t, pH, DO, and EC demonstrated relatively little variability over the course of the study, other parameters showed substantial temporal and spatial variations. The most dramatic differences were noted in COD, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N, TKN, TN, PO(4)(3-) P, and MBAS immediately downstream of the wastewater discharge. Concentration increases of 309 and 418 % for COD, 5,635 and 2,162 % for NH (4)(+)-N, 2,225 and 674 % for NO(2)(-)-N, 283 and 478 % for TKN, 208 and 213 % for PO(4)(3-)-P, and 535 and 1,260 % for MBAS were observed in the summer and autumn, respectively. These changes were associated with greatly diminished seasonal stream flows. Based on NO(2)(-)-N, TKN, PO(4)(3-) P, and MBAS concentrations, it was concluded that Harsit stream water was correctly classified as polluted. The most telling parameter, however

  5. Effect of quality of phreatic aquifer water and water upwelling on constructions. A case study of Ouargla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggaï, Sofiane; Bachi, Oum Elkheir; Saggaï, Ali

    2016-07-01

    In Ouargla's oasis, which is one of urban conglomerations of Algerian Sahara, the exploitation and/or the overexploitation of the deep aquifers of continental intercalary and of complex terminal that contain waters of mediocre quality (salty and hot), and the rejection of waters of drainage, urban residual waters and non-treated industrial waters are responsible, at the same time, of the degradation of the quality of waters of the groundwater and its upwelling. This situation has led to: (i) the deterioration of the environment and (ii) the deterioration of constructions (houses, roads, etc…). The present paper consists in giving in detail the causes of the water upwelling of phreatic aquifers in our regions, the quality of water of this aquifer and the influence of the quality of phreatic aquifer water on environment and constructions in Ouargla city by analyzing water samples of 10 points of this town.

  6. Biocatalysis in water-in-ionic liquid microemulsions: a case study with horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, M; Kamiya, N; Goto, M

    2009-01-20

    In this article we report the first results on the enzymatic activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) microencapsulated in water-in-ionic liquid (w/IL) microemulsions using pyrogallol as the substrate. Toward this goal, the system used in this study was composed of anionic surfactant AOT (sodium bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)sulfosuccinate)/hydrophobic IL [C(8)mim][Tf(2)N] (1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide)/water/1-hexanol. In this system, the catalytic activity of HRP was measured as a function of substrate concentrations, W(0) (molar ratio of water to surfactant), pH, and 1-hexanol content. The curve of the activity-W(0) profile was found to be hyperbolic for the new microemulsion. The apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (k(cat) and K(m)) were estimated and compared to those obtained from a conventional microemulsion. Apparently, it was found that HRP-catalyzed oxidation of pyrogallol by hydrogen peroxide in IL microemulsuions is much more effective than in a conventional AOT/water/isooctane microemulsion. The stability of HRP solubilized in the newly developed w/IL microemulsions was examined, and it was found that HRP retained almost 70% of its initial activity after incubation at 28 degrees C for 30 h.

  7. CCN and IN Effects on Cloud Properties and Precipitation - Case Studies from CalWater 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to modify cloud microphysical processes, which could potentially change the location, intensity, and type of precipitation. Dust aerosols are often observed over California in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia. Although anthropogenic pollution has been postulated to contribute to reduction of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the effects of dust aerosols on the winter clouds and precipitation has not been examined in detail particularly with model simulations. We incorporate recent progress in ice nucleation parameterizations to link dust with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with WRF, to exclusively look into how dust can possibly affect cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cases under different environmental conditions with atmospheric river (AR) and Sierra barrier jet (SBJ) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. It is shown that increasing IN concentrations or adding a dust layer at 4-6 km as IN enhances surface rain and snow due to enhanced production of ice and snow in clouds. However, increasing CCN suppresses surface rain and snow, and significantly redistributes surface precipitation upwind and downwind of the mountains, with important implication to improving our understanding of the impacts of aerosols on orographic precipitation and water supply in the region.

  8. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness. We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings. Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.

  9. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness. We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings. Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home. PMID:26572868

  10. Residential water demand model under block rate pricing: A case study of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-05-01

    In many cities, the inconsistency between water supply and water demand has become a critical problem because of deteriorating water shortage and increasing water demand. Uniform price of residential water cannot promote the efficient water allocation. In China, block water price will be put into practice in the future, but the outcome of such regulation measure is unpredictable without theory support. In this paper, the residential water is classified by the volume of water usage based on economic rules and block water is considered as different kinds of goods. A model based on extended linear expenditure system (ELES) is constructed to simulate the relationship between block water price and water demand, which provide theoretical support for the decision-makers. Finally, the proposed model is used to simulate residential water demand under block rate pricing in Beijing.

  11. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii) to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour

  12. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  13. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  14. Modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water supplies: a case study of eastern part of India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Minashree; Gupta, S K

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at developing a model for predicting the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water supplies. Monitoring of THMs in five major water treatment plants situated in the Eastern part of India revealed high concentration of THMs (231-484 μg l(-1)). Chloroform was predominant, contributing 87-98.9% to total THMs. Seasonal variation in THMs levels dictated that the concentration were higher in autumn than other seasons. Linear regression analysis of data indicated that TOC is the major organic precursors for THMs formation followed by DOC and UV254. Linear and non-linear predictive models were developed using SPSS software version 16.0. Validation results indicated that there is no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of THMs. Linear model performed better than non-linear one in terms of percentage prediction errors. The model developed were site specific and the predictive capabilities in the distribution systems vary with different environmental conditions.

  15. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  16. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting - Case Studies Report (WERF Report INFR6R12a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    America’s decaying water infrastructure presents significant financial and logistical challenges for water utilities. Green infrastructure has been gaining traction as a viable alternative and complement to traditional “grey” infrastructure for water management. Current accounti...

  17. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and kidney cancer in uniquely exposed Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007-2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of <400, 400-1,000, and >1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Odds ratios were not elevated for renal cell cancer. With these new findings, including evidence of dose-response, we believe there is now sufficient evidence in humans that drinking-water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer.

  18. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Kidney Cancer in Uniquely Exposed Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H.; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E.; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007–2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of <400, 400–1,000, and >1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Odds ratios were not elevated for renal cell cancer. With these new findings, including evidence of dose-response, we believe there is now sufficient evidence in humans that drinking-water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer. PMID:23764934

  19. Management of a water distribution network by coupling GIS and hydraulic modeling: a case study of Chetouane in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbaki, Chérifa; Benchaib, Mohamed Mouâd; Benziada, Salim; Mahmoudi, Hacène; Goosen, Mattheus

    2016-04-01

    For more effective management of water distribution network in an arid region, Mapinfo GIS (8.0) software was coupled with a hydraulic model (EPANET 2.0) and applied to a case study region, Chetouane, situated in the north-west of Algeria. The area is characterized not only by water scarcity but also by poor water management practices. The results showed that a combination of GIS and modeling permits network operators to better analyze malfunctions with a resulting more rapid response as well as facilitating in an improved understanding of the work performed on the network. The grouping of GIS and modeling as an operating tool allows managers to diagnosis a network, to study solutions of problems and to predict future situations. The later can assist them in making informed decisions to ensure an acceptable performance level for optimal network operation.

  20. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  1. Optimization of regenerated bone char for fluoride removal in drinking water: a case study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaseva, M E

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents findings of a study on optimization and application of the regenerated bone char media for the defluoridation of drinking water in Tanzania where more than 30% of all water sources have fluoride concentrations above the 1.50 mg/I which is recommended by the World Heath Organization (WHO). In this study, regeneration temperature, regeneration duration, contact time, regenerated bone char dosage and particle size were investigated. Results indicate that the highest fluoride removal and adsorption capacity were 70.64% and 0.75 mg-F/g-bc, respectively, for a sample with bone char material that was regenerated at 500 degrees C. In this study the optimum burning duration was found to be 120 min, which resulted in residual fluoride that varied from a maximum value of 17.43 mg/I for a 2 min contact time to a minimum value of 8.53 mg/I for a contact time of 180 min. This study further indicated that the smallest size of regenerated bone char media (0.5-1.0 mm diameter) had the highest defluoridation capacity, with residual fluoride which varied from 17.82 mg/I at 2 min contact time to 11.26 mg/I at 120 min contact time. In terms of dosage of the regenerated bone char media it was established that the optimum dosage was 25g of bone char media with a grain size of 0.50-1.0 mm. This had a fluoride removal capacity of 0.55 mg-F/g-BC. Column filter experiments indicated that regenerated bone media is capable of removing fluoride from dinking water to meet both WHO and Tanzania recommended values.

  2. Duripan effect on soil water availability: study case in North-Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils with duripan and other hardpans are frequently disregarded for agriculture. However, in North-Central Namibia, farmers cultivate a type of sandy soil with a developing duripan at few decimetres of depth. This soil is particularly valuable for Pearl Millet cultivation during years with limited rainfall. Understanding the water dynamic and the role of the duripan in the soil moisture dynamic will improve livelihood and secure food production in North-Central Namibia, in Southern Angola and other areas in the world where similar soils appear. We recorded soil water content during five months at different depth in one of these sandy soil. The comparison of the recorded data with values calculated with models based on e.g. texture indicate that the duripan plays a very important role as water reservoir. Our results demonstrate that soils with duripans should not be disregarded for agricultural development, especially in context with irregular rainfall patterns. Understanding the role of duripans based on this study will thus help to anticipate and alleviate the effect of climate change in northern Namibia and other semi-arid regions, where similar soils occur.

  3. Water remediation by micelle-clay system: case study for tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Polubesova, Tamara; Zadaka, Dikla; Groisman, Ludmila; Nir, Shlomo

    2006-07-01

    Removal of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics from water by micelles pre-adsorbed on montmorillonite was studied. Micelles of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHDA) were used. Batch experiments demonstrated that the micelle-clay complexes (1% w/w) removed 96-99.9% of antibiotics from their water solutions containing from 5 to 50 mg/L of pharmaceuticals. Column filters (25 cm) made of a mixture of quartz sand and BDMHDA micelle-clay complex at 100:1 w/w ratio removed 94-99.9% of above pharmaceuticals from initial solutions containing 10mg/L and 89% of sulfamethizole from an initial solution containing 10 microg/L of this antibiotic. These filters were also very efficient in the removal of antibiotics in the presence of dissolved soil organic matter removing 89-99% of tetracycline and sulfamethizol from initial solutions containing 10 mg/L of antibiotic in the presence of 8 mg/L of humic acid, or 9 mg/L of fulvic acid. These data indicate that micelle-clay complexes are very efficient for water purification from tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics.

  4. An uncertainty framework to estimate dense water formation rates : case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Robin; Somot, Samuel; Herrmann, Marine; Sevault, Florence; Estournel, Claude; Testor, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Northwestern Mediterranean (NWMed) sea is a key region for the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation as it includes the main deep water formation sites of the Western Mediterranean. The Mediterranean Ocean Observing System for the Environment (MOOSE) has been implemented since 2007 over that region to characterize the space and time variability of the main water masses up to interannual (yearly summer cruises) scale. However, despite a large covering of the NWMed region, the limited number of conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) casts leads to subsampling errors and advocates for an uncertainty assessment of large-scale hydrology estimates. This study aims at estimating the error related to subsampling in time and space. For that purpose, an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed with an eddy-permitting Mediterranean sea model (NEMOMED12) and an eddy-resolving NWMed sea model (SYMPHONIE). A subsampling of the full model fields in time and space allows for an error estimate in terms of large-scale hydrology. The methodology is applied to dense water volume estimates for the period july 2012 - july 2013. Secondly, an optimization framework is proposed to evaluate and improve MOOSE network's performances under a series of scientific constraints. The results will be discussed for an application in MOOSE observing network, as well as the main assumptions, the stakes and limitations of this framework.

  5. Role of drinking water copper in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Hunasgi, Santosh; Colbert, Serryth; Merkx, M A W; Brennan, Peter A

    2014-07-01

    Although oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is thought to be multifactorial in origin, the chewing of areca nut is thought to be the main cause. Alkaloids and tannins in areca nut are responsible for fibrosis, but recent evidence has suggested that copper ions are also an important mediator, and in a small pilot study we recently found that OSMF was significantly associated with a raised concentration of copper in drinking water. We have further investigated this association in a heterogeneous population in Hyderabad-Karnataka, India, a region with a high incidence of the condition. We evaluated 3 groups, each of 100 patients: those with OSMF who chewed gutkha, those who chewed gutkha but did not have OSMF, and healthy controls who did not chew gutkha. The difference between the groups in the mean concentration of copper in water measured by atomic absorption spectrometry was significant (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the groups in mean concentrations of serum copper, salivary copper, and ceruloplasmin (p<0.001). Our results confirm that copper in drinking water contributes to the pathogenesis of OSMF, but ingestion of copper is unlikely to be the sole cause.

  6. Shallow-water wave lensing in coral reefs: a physical and biological case study.

    PubMed

    Veal, Cameron James; Carmi, Maya; Dishon, Gal; Sharon, Yoni; Michael, Kelvin; Tchernov, Dan; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Fine, Maoz

    2010-12-15

    Wave lensing produces the highest level of transient solar irradiances found in nature, ranging in intensity over several orders of magnitude in just a few tens of milliseconds. Shallow coral reefs can be exposed to wave lensing during light-wind, clear-sky conditions, which have been implicated as a secondary cause of mass coral bleaching through light stress. Management strategies to protect small areas of high-value reef from wave-lensed light stress were tested using seawater irrigation sprinklers to negate wave lensing by breaking up the water surface. A series of field and tank experiments investigated the physical and photophysiological response of the shallow-water species Stylophora pistillata and Favites abdita to wave lensing and sprinkler conditions. Results show that the sprinkler treatment only slightly reduces the total downwelling photosynthetically active and ultraviolet irradiance (∼5.0%), whereas it dramatically reduces, by 460%, the irradiance variability caused by wave lensing. Despite this large reduction in variability and modest reduction in downwelling irradiance, there was no detectable difference in photophysiological response of the corals between control and sprinkler treatments under two thermal regimes of ambient (27°C) and heated treatment (31°C). This study suggests that shallow-water coral species are not negatively affected by the strong flashes that occur under wave-lensing conditions.

  7. Metal leaching in drinking water domestic distribution system: an Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metal contamination of tap water in seven public buildings in Brescia (Italy). Two monitoring periods were performed using three different sampling methods (overnight stagnation, 30-min stagnation, and random daytime). The results show that the water parameters exceeding the international standards (Directive 98/83/EC) at the tap were lead (max = 363 μg/L), nickel (max = 184 μg/L), zinc (max = 4900 μg/L), and iron (max = 393 μg/L). Compared to the total number of tap water samples analyzed (122), the values higher than limits of Directive 98/83/EC were 17% for lead, 11% for nickel, 14% for zinc, and 7% for iron. Three buildings exceeded iron standard while five buildings exceeded the standard for nickel, lead, and zinc. Moreover, there is no evident correlation between the leaching of contaminants in the domestic distribution system and the age of the pipes while a significant influence is shown by the sampling methods.

  8. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  9. Application of the environmental Gini coefficient in allocating water governance responsibilities: a case study in Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shenbei; Du, Amin; Bai, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    The equitable allocation of water governance responsibilities is very important yet difficult to achieve, particularly for a basin which involves many stakeholders and policymakers. In this study, the environmental Gini coefficient model was applied to evaluate the inequality of water governance responsibility allocation, and an environmental Gini coefficient optimisation model was built to achieve an optimal adjustment. To illustrate the application of the environmental Gini coefficient, the heavily polluted transboundary Taihu Lake Basin in China, was chosen as a case study. The results show that the original environmental Gini coefficient of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was greater than 0.2, indicating that the allocation of water governance responsibilities in Taihu Lake Basin was unequal. Of seven decision-making units, three were found to be inequality factors and were adjusted to reduce the water pollutant emissions and to increase the water governance inputs. After the adjustment, the environmental Gini coefficient of the COD was less than 0.2 and the reduction rate was 27.63%. The adjustment process provides clear guidance for policymakers to develop appropriate policies and improve the equality of water governance responsibility allocation.

  10. Modeling soil conservation, water conservation and their tradeoffs: a case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Li, Xiaoma; Zhuang, Changwei; Jiang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With the rapid increase in human populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans frequently enhance the production of some services at the expense of the others. Although the need for tradeoffs between conservation and development is urgent, the lack of efficient methods to assess such tradeoffs has impeded progress. Three land use strategy scenarios (development scenario, plan trend scenario and conservation scenario) were created to forecast potential changes in ecosystem services from 2007 to 2050 in Beijing, China. GIS-based techniques were used to map spatial and temporal distribution and changes in ecosystem services for each scenario. The provision of ecosystem services differed spatially, with significant changes being associated with different scenarios. Scenario analysis of water yield (as average annual yield) and soil retention (as retention rate per unit area) for the period 2007 to 2050 indicated that the highest values for these parameters were predicted for the forest habitat under all three scenarios. Annual yield/retention of forest, shrub, and grassland ranked the highest in the conservation scenario. Total water yield and soil retention increased in the conservation scenario and declined dramatically in the other two scenarios, especially the development scenario. The conservation scenario was the optimal land use strategy, resulting in the highest soil retention and water yield. Our study suggests that the evaluation and visualization of ecosystem services can effectively assist in understanding the tradeoffs between conservation and development. Results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, which can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  11. Impacts of urbanisation on urban-rural water cycle: a China case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingna; Singh, Shailesh Kumar; Zhang, Jun-e.; Khu, Soon Thiam

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization, which essentially create more impervious surface, is an inevitable part of modern societal development throughout the world. It produces several changes in the natural hydrological cycle by adding several processes. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization, will allow policy makers to balance development and environment sustainability needs. It also helps underdeveloped countries make strategic decisions in their development process. The objective of this study is to understand and quantify the sensitivity of the urban-rural water cycle to urbanisation. A coupled hydrological model, MODCYCLE, was set up to simulate the effect of changes in landuse on daily streamflow and groundwater and applied to the Tianjin municipality, a rapidly urbanising mega-city on the east coast of China. The model uses landuse, land cover, soil, meteorological and climatic data to represent important parameters in the catchment. The fraction of impervious surface was used as a surrogate to quantify the degree of landuse change. In this work, we analysed the water cycle process under current urbanization situation in Tianjin. A number of different future development scenarios on based on increasing urbanisation intensity is explored. The results show that the expansion of urban areas had a great influence on generation of flow process and on ET, and the surface runoff was most sensitive to urbanisation. The results of these scenarios-based study about future urbanisation on hydrological system will help planners and managers in taking proper decisions regarding sustainable development.

  12. Analysis and predication of urban water security: a case study of Chengdu City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Shi, J.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the sustainable state of the water resources in Chengdu, the pressure-state-response model was adopted to establish the index system of the water security, in which the index weights were calculated by the analytic hierarchy process. The comprehensive values of the urban water security in recent years have been calculated. The results showed that the water security level of Chengdu was grade IV from 2005 to 2013, which indicated a safe state. To ensure the coordinated development among the society, economy and environment, several suggestions were proposed. The water-saving consciousness of the public and the water-saving city could be improved through increasing the water-saving facilities and techniques. The environmental investment could be increased for improving the treatment rate of the municipal and industrial wastewater. The management and warning system could be improved to strengthen the ability of coping with the accidental problems relating to the water environment and water resources.

  13. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  14. Water Resources Risks and the Climate Resilience Toolkit: Tools, Case Studies, and Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, E. K.; Blodgett, D. L.; Booth, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Water Resources Risk topic of the Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) is designed to provide decision support, technical, and educational resources to communities, water resource managers, policy analysts, and water utilities working to increase the resilience of water resources to climate change. We highlight the partnerships (between federal and state agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private partners), tools (e.g., downscaled climate products, historical and real-time water data, and decision support) and success stories that are informing the CRT Water Resources Risks Theme content, and identify remaining needs in available resources for building resilience of water resources to climate change. The following questions will frame the content of the Water Resources Risk CRT: How are human and natural components of the hydrologic cycle changing? How can communities and water managers plan for uncertain future conditions? How will changing water resources impact food production, energy resources, ecosystems, and human health? What water resources data are of high value to society and are they easily accessible? Input on existing tools, resources, or potential partnerships that could be used to further develop content and fill gaps in the Water Resources CRT is welcome. We also invite ideas for water resources 'innovation challenges', in which technology developers work to create tools to that enhance the capacity of communities and managers to increase resilience of water resources at the local and regional scales.

  15. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of a spatially explicit annual water-balance model: case study of the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, P.; Guswa, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for assessment of water provisioning ecosystem services. While simple models with low data and expertise requirements are attractive, their use as decision-aid tools should be supported by uncertainty characterization. We assessed the performance of the InVEST annual water yield model, a popular tool for ecosystem service assessment based on the Budyko hydrological framework. Our study involved the comparison of 10 subcatchments ranging in size and land-use configuration, in the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina. We analyzed the model sensitivity to climate variables and input parameters, and the structural error associated with the use of the Budyko framework, a lumped (catchment-scale) model theory, in a spatially explicit way. Comparison of model predictions with observations and with the lumped model predictions confirmed that the InVEST model is able to represent differences in land uses and therefore in the spatial distribution of water provisioning services. Our results emphasize the effect of climate input errors, especially annual precipitation, and errors in the ecohydrological parameter Z, which are both comparable to the model structure uncertainties. Our case study supports the use of the model for predicting land-use change effect on water provisioning, although its use for identifying areas of high water yield will be influenced by precipitation errors. While some results are context-specific, our study provides general insights and methods to help identify the regions and decision contexts where the model predictions may be used with confidence.

  17. Integrated water and renewable energy management: the Acheloos-Peneios region case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouvinos, Antonios; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tegos, Aristotelis; Rozos, Evangelos; Papalexiou, Simon-Michael; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yiannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Tyralis, Christos; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tzouka, Katerina; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Within the ongoing research project "Combined Renewable Systems for Sustainable Energy Development" (CRESSENDO), we have developed a novel stochastic simulation framework for optimal planning and management of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems, in which hydropower plays the dominant role. The methodology and associated computer tools are tested in two major adjacent river basins in Greece (Acheloos, Peneios) extending over 15 500 km2 (12% of Greek territory). River Acheloos is characterized by very high runoff and holds ~40% of the installed hydropower capacity of Greece. On the other hand, the Thessaly plain drained by Peneios - a key agricultural region for the national economy - usually suffers from water scarcity and systematic environmental degradation. The two basins are interconnected through diversion projects, existing and planned, thus formulating a unique large-scale hydrosystem whose future has been the subject of a great controversy. The study area is viewed as a hypothetically closed, energy-autonomous, system, in order to evaluate the perspectives for sustainable development of its water and energy resources. In this context we seek an efficient configuration of the necessary hydraulic and renewable energy projects through integrated modelling of the water and energy balance. We investigate several scenarios of energy demand for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, assuming that part of the demand is fulfilled via wind and solar energy, while the excess or deficit of energy is regulated through large hydroelectric works that are equipped with pumping storage facilities. The overall goal is to examine under which conditions a fully renewable energy system can be technically and economically viable for such large spatial scale.

  18. Temporal variability in water quality parameters--a case study of drinking water reservoir in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Toor, Gurpal S; Han, Lu; Stanley, Craig D

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in water quality parameters during 1983-2007 in a subtropical drinking water reservoir (area: 7 km(2)) located in Lake Manatee Watershed (area: 338 km(2)) in Florida, USA. Most water quality parameters (color, turbidity, Secchi depth, pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, cations, anions, and lead) were below the Florida potable water standards. Concentrations of copper exceeded the potable water standard of <30 μg l(-1) in about half of the samples. About 75 % of total N in lake was organic N (0.93 mg l(-1)) with the remainder (25 %) as inorganic N (NH3-N: 0.19, NO3-N: 0.17 mg l(-1)), while 86 % of total P was orthophosphate. Mean total N/P was <6:1 indicating N limitation in the lake. Mean monthly concentration of chlorophyll-a was much lower than the EPA water quality threshold of 20 μg l(-1). Concentrations of total N showed significant increase from 1983 to 1994 and a decrease from 1997 to 2007. Total P showed significant increase during 1983-2007. Mean concentrations of total N (n = 215; 1.24 mg l(-1)) were lower, and total P (n = 286; 0.26 mg l(-1)) was much higher than the EPA numeric criteria of 1.27 mg total N l(-1) and 0.05 mg total P l(-1) for Florida's colored lakes, respectively. Seasonal trends were observed for many water quality parameters where concentrations were typically elevated during wet months (June-September). Results suggest that reducing transport of organic N may be one potential option to protect water quality in this drinking water reservoir.

  19. Tropical Cyclone Evolution and Water and Energy Fluxes: A Hurricane Katrina Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a highly destructive force of nature, characterized by extreme precipitation levels and wind speeds and heavy flooding. There are concerns that climate change will cause changes in the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones. Therefore, the quantification of the water and energy fluxes that occur during a tropical cyclone's life cycle are important for anticipating the magnitude of damages that are likely to occur. This study used HURDAT2 storm track information and data from the satellite-derived SeaFlux and TRMM products to determine changes in precipitation, wind, and latent and sensible heat throughout the life cycle of Hurricane Katrina. The variables were examined along and around the storm track, taking averages both at stationary 5x5 degree boxes and within the instantaneous hurricane domain. Analysis focused on contributions of convergence and latent heat to the storm evolution and examined how the total flux was related to the storm intensity. Certain features, such as the eye, were not resolved due to the data resolution, but the data captures the general trend of enhanced flux levels that are due to the storm's presence. Analysis also included examination of the water and energy budgets as related to convergence and the sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  20. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  1. Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

  2. Risk assessment for exemptions from ballast water management--the Baltic Sea case study.

    PubMed

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Leppäkoski, Erkki

    2013-10-15

    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments sets requirements to prevent organism transfers. Vessels on certain routes can be exempted from such requirements based on risk assessment (RA). As the convention nears its entry into force, the interest in exemptions increases. Such RA should be conducted according to the International Maritime Organization G7 Guidelines. We present a RA study for exemptions applied to intra-Baltic shipping considering different RA methods, i.e., environmental matching, species specific method including target species and species biogeographical aspects. As reliable species data in the ports considered are unavailable and following the precautionary principle, no exemptions should be granted. To ensure data reliability, port baseline surveys and regular monitoring programs should be undertaken during the exemption period as new species found influence the RA result. The RA model prepared is considered as of value to other areas worldwide.

  3. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  4. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  5. Integrated water resources management and water users' associations in the arid region of northwest China: a case study of farmers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Jun; Xiong, You-Cai; Li, Yong-Jin; Wang, Jian-Xin; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Hai-Yang; Li, Lan-Lan

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is a critical policy issue in the arid regions of northwest China. The local government has widely adopted integrated water resources management (IWRM), but lacks support from farmers and farm communities. We undertook a case study in the Minqin oasis of northwest China to examine farmers' responses to IWRM and understand why farmer water users' associations (WUAs) are not functioning effectively at the community level. Results of quantitative and qualitative surveys of 392 farmers in 27 administrative villages showed that over 70% of farmers disapprove of the IWRM market-based reforms. In particular, the failure of farmer WUAs can be attributed to overlapping organizational structures between the WUAs and the villagers' committees; mismatches between the organizational scale of the WUAs and practical irrigation management by the farmers themselves; marginalization of rural women in water decision-making processes; and the inflexibility of IWRM implementation. An important policy implication from this study is that rebuilding farmer WUAs is key to overcoming the difficulties of IWRM. The current water governance structure, which is dominated by administrative systems, must be thoroughly reviewed to break the vicious cycle of tension and distrust between farmers and the government.

  6. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  7. Economic feasibility study for improving drinking water quality: a case study of arsenic contamination in rural Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Perez Carrera, Alejo; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Economic studies are essential in evaluating the potential external investment support and/or internal tariffs available to improve drinking water quality. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a useful tool to assess the economic feasibility of such interventions, i.e. to take some form of action to improve the drinking water quality. CBA should involve the market and non-market effects associated with the intervention. An economic framework was proposed in this study, which estimated the health avoided costs and the environmental benefits for the net present value of reducing the pollutant concentrations in drinking water. We conducted an empirical application to assess the economic feasibility of removing arsenic from water in a rural area of Argentina. Four small-scale methods were evaluated in our study. The results indicated that the inclusion of non-market benefits was integral to supporting investment projects. In addition, the application of the proposed framework will provide water authorities with more complete information for the decision-making process.

  8. A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and

  9. The pros and cons of trading water: A case study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-11-01

    Water is a commodity, and water rights can be freely traded in an open market. Proponents of the free market approach argue that it leads to the most efficient allocation of water resources, as it would for any other commodity. However, unlike some commodities, water is critical for human life, for many human activities, and as an environmental resource. When such an essential commodity becomes scarce, as frequently happens in Australia, which is prone to sudden and dramatic droughts, severe problems can occur quickly. In Australia's Murray Darling Basin, the country's largest agricultural region, the government had historically controlled the distribution of water rights. However, under these controls, a selected few controlled a large share of the water. To resolve this problem of overallocation, a free market approach was put in place in the early 1990s.

  10. A methodology to determine pesticides pollution sources in water catchments: study case (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Limbourg, Q; Noel, S; Huyghebaert, B; Capette, L; Hallet, V

    2009-01-01

    In the Walloon Region (Belgium), a Committee of Investigation was created in 2007 to investigate and determine the potential pesticides pollution sources in drinkable water catchments. This Committee, constituted by a multidisciplinary team of experts i.e agronomists, soil scientists, phyto-chemists, hydrogeologists, is coordinated by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and funded by the Société Publique de Gestion des Eaux (SPGE). The diagnosis method is inspired of the AQUAPLAINE method (Arvalis, France), and is composed of four steps: 1/preparing the diagnosis using existing data, 2/diagnosis using data bank completed by field observations, 3/meeting and discussion with the pesticide users, 4/final diagnosis and remediation proposal. In a rural district of Walloon Region, a water producer who possesses two catchments ("Les marroniers" (P1) and "Puits N2" (P2)) has problems with pesticides. The pollution started in 1998 with atrazine and bromacile detected in the two catchments. In 2004, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, metabolite of dichlobenil, was also detected in the catchments. At present, all these pesticides are still found in the catchment P1 and only the 2,6 dichlorobenzamide is found in the other catchment. These active ingredients are not used in agriculture expect atrazine. Indeed, the main user of these products is the public sector. An investigation was realised to locate the main sites which are treated with these pesticides in this commune. The conclusion of this study is that the local authority used dichlobenil, bromacile and atrazine to weed the public areas. In more, the filling and the cleaning areas of sprayer, used for the treatment, are located near the catchments.

  11. Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

    2012-12-01

    The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

  12. Removal of arsenate from water by adsorbents: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sunbaek; Pena, Maria E; Patel, Manish; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory and field filtration experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of As(V) removal for five types of adsorbent media. The media included activated alumina (AA), modified activated alumina (MAA), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), granular ferric oxide (GFO), and granular titanium dioxide (TiO₂). In laboratory batch and column experiments, the synthetic challenge water was used to evaluate the effectiveness for five adsorbents. The results of the batch experiments showed that the As(V) adsorption decreased as follows at pH 6.5: TiO₂ > GFO > GFH > MAA > AA. At pH 8.5, however, As(V) removal decreased in the following order: GFO = TiO₂ > GFH > MAA > AA. In column experiments, at pH 6.5, the adsorbed As(V) for adsorbents followed the order: TiO₂ > GFO > GFH, whereas at pH 8.5 the order became: GFO = TiO₂ > GFH when the challenge water containing 50 μg/L of As(V) was used. Field filtration experiments were carried out in parallel at a wellhead in New Jersey. Before the effluent arsenic concentration increased to 10 μg/L, approximately 58,000 and 41,500 bed volumes of groundwater containing an average of 47 μg/L of As(V) were treated by the filter system packed with GFO and TiO₂, respectively. The As(V) adsorption decreased in the following sequence: GFO > TiO₂ > GFH > MAA > AA. Filtration results demonstrated that GFO and TiO₂ adsorbents could be used as media in small community filtration systems for As(V) removal.

  13. Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.

    PubMed

    Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

    2011-01-01

    The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 μmhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+₄+ NO-₃-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture.

  14. Water stress, energy security and adaptation under changing climate: case study of Zeravshan river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujanazarov, T.; Namura, R.; Touge, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toderich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Zeravshan a transboundary river in Central Asia is a snow-glacier fed river originating in Tajikistan that use only 4% of its resources, further flows to Uzbekistan who fully utilize river resources for irrigation. Such disparity in river usage causes Tajikistan to consider heavy investments in hydropower dams that will increase social and political tension between counterparts. Traditional irrigation under arid climate causes high rates of water losses in infiltration and evapotranspiration leading to land. Water stress analysis and water resources distribution under climate change and possible adaptation measures were investigated. The framework includes model to analyze available water resources and assessment of the basin efficiency including dam operation and irrigation demand, based on it adaptation measures were suggested. Comparison of the increasing irrigation efficiency in downstream to the 10% rate can decrease water requirements on early stages, however there are still large deficiency of the water resources in the peak irrigation season. Dam operation to benefit irrigation has positive impact while can't compensate the needs of energy in winter months. Cooperation of the both sides are required to address such changes in river flow as interest lies on opposite side. Increasing irrigation efficiency through using return marginal waters and salt tolerant crops under water stress were suggested. The plants were tested on several sites in the downstream of the river using mineralized return waters. The results suggest that using such plants can provide additional outcome for the local community while decreasing demand of the water resources and improving soil conditions. Combination of dam operation for energy production and increasing irrigation efficiency additionally by using return waters can provide a beneficial scenario for the region under future climate change. However, it will require strong political will to address energy swap to achieve nexus

  15. Automated ground-water monitoring with robowell-Case studies and potential applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual-sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/.

  16. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2015-02-01

    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  17. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  18. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: case study in northern coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-03-01

    To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations.

  19. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    PubMed

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant.

  20. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    water where it is a scarce resource. Linkage of water & Energy to the land has been established through irrigated agriculture which has seen an increasing trend in the case study area. A detail scenario planning for regional water-energy demand and supply in conjunction with different climate change and economic growth scenarios are considered. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, environmental etc.). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial transformation and the management of uncertainty by means of comparisons at a qualitative level in terms of the decision maker preferences. Result shows that such an integrated ("nexus") approach is likely to build resilience and reduces vulnerability to the combination of pressures acting upon the Mediterranean region's water systems, including climate-related shocks.

  1. EPA Method 544: A Case Study in USEPA Drinking Water Method Develpment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of chemicals and microbes that the Agency will consider for future regulation. One of the key pieces of info...

  2. Assessing Extension Program Impact: Case Study of a Water Quality Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Montana State University conducted a voluntary, private well water test program (n=3400) to direct public attention to water quality education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents to an impact assessment questionnaire indicated that the program was moderately to very effective. Other results involved user awareness and understanding, and…

  3. An Integrated Interdisciplinary Faculty-Student Learning Community Focused on Water Issues: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willermet, Cathy; Drake, Eron; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Chhetri, Pratik; Upadhaya, Samik

    2014-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power," brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  4. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  5. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  6. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  7. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  8. Evaluation of coastal waters receiving fish processing waste: Lota Bay as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Ramón; Rudolph, Anny; Contreras, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Liquid wastes from the fish meal and oil processing industries produce serious environmental impacts in coastal embayments on the coasts of Chile and Peru. This article presents an analysis of an environmental monitoring program at Lota Bay, a shallow coastal indentation in central Chile (37 degrees S) exposed to industrial fishing activity. The study of the environmental impact produced by waste effluents permitted making an evaluation of the bay's capacity for seasonal recovery from this impact. Seasonal cruises were carried out during 1994 and in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Variables analyzed included salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonium concentration and surface oil and grease. The hydrographic regime of Lota Bay follows a seasonal pattern, where, typical of most SE pacific embayments, waters from subsuperficial oxygen minimum zones moved into the bay. The percentages of dissolved oxygen were critical in the area of organic waste discharge. The impact of wastewater is related to the type and status of the fishery, including: (i) overloads of plant production lines, (ii) maintenance and cleaning of installations, and (iii) degree of shipboard fishing conservation. Major alterations were observed in summer, when the highest discharge of organic load occurred. In winter, an improvement in the re-aeration conditions reduced the impact. Remedial measures implemented beginning in 1997 arose from the monitoring program and had to be separated into two recovery factors including (a) internal management of plants and (b) treatment of plant effluents.

  9. Water Management Models in Practice: A Case Study of the Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashry, M. T.; Alford, D. L.

    1984-04-01

    The stated purpose of this volume is the development and evaluation of operating policies for the Aswan High Dam and their relation to the development of water resources policy in Egypt. That objective is admirably fulfilled through discussions of water use in Egypt and the operation objectives of the High Dam, the behavior of the physical system and simulation of the reservoir, a realtime management model of the dam, management of water shortages and trade-offs between major uses, and coordinated operation of the dam with new upstream as well as downstream developments.The High Dam has been a source of controversy, particularly with regard to its environmental impacts. Its adverse effects include changes in the water table and attendant salt buildup in irrigated areas, excessive growth of aquatic plants below the dam, shoreline erosion, and increases in water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The dam was intended to offset rapid population growth by increasing food supplies through the transformation of irrigated land in southern Egypt from seasonal to perennial cultivation and by providing water for the reclamation of desert land. Unfortunately, such benefits have been outstripped by the rapidly growing population, and water shortages will be experienced by the end of the century.

  10. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  11. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    PubMed

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  12. Effect of environmental flow management on river water quality: a case study at Yeongsan River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Ki, Seo Jin; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a management scheme to control river water quality using additional water discharges from upstream dams, which results in an increase environmental flow (EF) followed by an enhancement of water quality in a target river. To suggest a creditable management plan among a suite of ideal scenarios, the monthly averaged water quality monitoring data from 2001 to 2006 at the Yeongsan (YS) River, Korea were investigated with respect to seasonal variation and spatial distribution. From the analysis, it was found that while biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) level in the YS River was extremely high during the dry/drought season (April, May, and June; AMJ), the level was subsequently decreased during the monsoon season (July, August, and September; JAS) due mainly to the dilution effect of rainfall. To improve the water quality in AMJ, we here suggested a scenario of increasing EF using surplus water discharges from upstream dams, which was examined by one dimensional riverine water quality model, QUAL2E model. Simulation result showed that additional discharge from the upstream dams could lead, on average, to a 36% of water quality improvement in mainstream with respect to BOD(5). Model coefficients were validated by comparing the six year monitoring data to minimize a sum of squares error, and showed a good agreement with the observed data. Overall, the methodology developed in this paper appears to be quite clear and straightforward, and thus, can be applied to a wide range of the flow managements or water quality controls in a stream with artificial structures.

  13. Cancer risk from asbestos in drinking water. Summary of a case-control study in western Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Polissar, L.; Severson, R.K.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-11-01

    A case-controlled, interview-based study of the risk of developing cancer from asbestos in drinking water was conducted. Cases and controls were selected from the Everett, Washington, area which has used the Sultan River as source of drinking water since 1918. Sultan River tapwater has concentrations of chrysotile asbestos around 200 million fibers/liter. Through a population based tumor registry, 382 individuals with cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, digestive system, bladder, or kidneys, diagnosed between 1977 and 1980, were identified. Data on asbestos exposure were collected based on residence and workplace history, and on individual water consumption. Logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk. Summarizing the findings for imbibed asbestos, very few elevated risks of statistical significance were found. Considering the relative risk for each of the sites and for each of the four asbestos exposure variables, no instance was found in which the risk was elevated for both males and females. The only statistically significant elevated risks occurred for male pharynx and male stomach. 20 references.

  14. Water for Agriculture in a Vulnerable Delta: A Case Study of Indian Sundarban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Sundarban lies in the south-western part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and supports a 4.43 million strong population. The agrarian economy of Sundarban is dominated by rainfed subsistence rice farming. Unavailability of upstream fresh water, high salinity of river water of up to 32ppt, soil salinity ranging between 2dSm-1 to 19dSm-1, small land holdings of per capita 840 sq. metre and inadequate irrigation facilities are serious constraints for agricultural production in Sundarban. This paper assesses Cropping Intensity, Irrigation Intensity and Man-Cropland Ratio from Agriculture Census (2010-11) data and estimates the seasonal water demand for agriculture in different blocks of Sundarban. The research exposes the ever increasing population pressure on agriculture with an average Man Cropland Ratio of 1745 person/sq.km. In 2010-2011, the average cropping intensity was 129.97% and the irrigation intensity was 20.40%. The highest cropping and irrigation intensity have been observed in the inland blocks where shallow ground water is available for agriculture on the contrary, the lowest values have been observed in the southern blocks, due to existence of saline shallow ground water. The annual water demand for agriculture in Sundarban has been estimated as 2784 mcm. Available water from 70000 freshwater tanks and around 8000 numbers of shallow tube wells are not sufficient to meet the agricultural water demand. Existing irrigation sources and rainfall of 343 mcm fall far short of the water demand of 382 mcm during peak dry Season. Unavailability of fresh water restricts the food production, which endangers the food security of 87.5% of the people in Sundarban. To ensure the food security in changing climatic condition, expansion of irrigation network and harnessing of new water sources are essential. Large scale rainwater harvesting, rejuvenation and re-connection of disconnected river channels, artificial recharge within shallow aquifer to bring down its

  15. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  16. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.

  17. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics of ground water at Makrana, Nagaur, Rajasthan (India): a case study.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Pandey, A K; Sharma, K C

    2006-10-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the subsurface water quality at eighteen different sites at Makrana, Nagaur, Rajasthan (India) keeping in view its utilization for portability and domestic use. Various physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, free CO2, TDS, hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides, electric conductivity, calcium, total dissolved solids, magnesium, phosphate, nitrate and sulphate were examined through the water analysis. The results were compared with the standard values prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization(WHO). The results indicate that the water of tube wells and hand pumps of the city as well as nearby industrial areas has higher concentrations for all physico-chemical parameters. Therefore, proper disposal of marble slurry after treatment, and recycling of wastewater along with periodical monitoring of sub-surface water are very important as a part of management strategies for the Makrana area. Such aspects have been discussed in this paper.

  19. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  20. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  1. Integrated GRASS GIS based techniques to identify thermal anomalies on water surface. Taranto case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarelli, Carmine; Matarrese, Raffaella; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, thermal images collected by airborne systems have made the detection of thermal anomalies possible. These images are an important tool to monitor natural inflows and legal or illegal dumping in coastal waters. By the way, the potential of these kinds of data is not well exploited by the Authorities who supervises the territory. The main reason is the processing of remote sensing data that requires very specialized operators and softwares which are usually expensive and complex. In this study, we adopt a simple methodology that uses GRASS, a free open-source GIS software, which has allowed us to map surface water thermal anomalies and, consequently, to identify and locate coastal inflows, as well as manmade or natural watershed drains or submarine springs (in italian citri) in the Taranto Sea (South of Italy). Taranto sea represents a coastal marine ecosystem that has been gradually modified by mankind. One of its inlet, the Mar Piccolo, is a part of the National Priority List site identified by the National Program of Environmental Remediation and Restoration because of the size and high presence of industrial activities, past and present, that have had and continue to seriously compromise the health status of the population and the environment. In order to detect thermal anomalies, two flights have been performed respectively on March 3rd and on April 7th, 2013. A total of 13 TABI images have been acquired to map the whole Mar Piccolo with 1m of spatial resolution. TABI-320 is an airborne thermal camera by ITRES, with a continuous spectral range between 8 and 12 microns. On July 15th, 2013, an in-situ survey was carried out along the banks to retrieve clear visible points of natural or artificial inflows, detecting up to 72 of discharges. GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), is a free and open source Geographic Information System (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing

  2. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  3. Understanding community receptivity to water re-use: Ku-ring-gai Council case study.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Davies, P

    2007-01-01

    This social research project investigated community receptivity to using rainwater and greywater as alternative domestic water sources. It was focused in the Ku-ring-gai local government area in northern Sydney, and involved a household questionnaire followed by community leader interviews and resident focus groups. Trends, such as a prolonged drought and increasing population, compound the current crisis and concern facing Sydney's available water supply. Substitution of domestic potable water has been promoted as part of the solution. The research results revealed that community receptivity was highest for external uses, such as watering gardens and flushing toilets, and progressively decreased with increasing personal contact. Receptivity to greywater reuse fell more rapidly with the community believing there was a higher health risk associated with its use. Gender and cultural background were revealed as significant variables and give insight into the design of strategies to target these demographic groups. This evidence provides a reliable stocktake of current receptivity revealing that the community has good awareness and positive association with water reuse for many household activities. This now needs to be harnessed through programs targeted at developing skills, resources and motivation for new water reuse practices and technologies across diverse social groupings.

  4. Ground water chlorinated ethenes in tree trunks: Case studies, influence of recharge, and potential degradation mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Clinton, B.D.; Vose, J.M.; Casey, C.C.; Harvey, G.J.; Bradley, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected in cores of trees growing above TCE-contaminated ground at three sites: the Carswell Golf Course in Texas, Air Force Plant PJKS in Colorado, and Naval Weapons Station Charleston in South Carolina. This was true even when the depth to water was 7.9 m or when the contaminated aquifer was confined beneath ???3 m of clay. Additional ground water contaminants detected in the tree cores were cis-1,2-dichloroethene at two sites and tetrachloroethene at one site. Thus, tree coring can be a rapid and effective means of locating shallow subsurface chlorinated ethenes and possibly identifying zones of active TCE dechlorination. Tree cores collected over time were useful in identifying the onset of ground water contamination. Several factors affecting chlorinated ethene concentrations in tree cores were identified in this investigation. The factors include ground water chlorinated ethene concentrations and depth to ground water contamination. In addition, differing TCE concentrations around the trunk of some trees appear to be related to the roots deriving water from differing areas. Opportunistic uptake of infiltrating rainfall can dilute prerain TCE concentrations in the trunk. TCE concentrations in core headspace may differ among some tree species. In some trees, infestation of bacteria in decaying heartwood may provide a TCE dechlorination mechanism within the trunk.

  5. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  6. Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1.

  7. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  8. Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Armon, A; Gutner, S; Rosenberg, A; Scolnicov, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, e.g. by means of a SCADA system and sensors measuring flow, pressure, and other data. We discuss how an algorithmic statistical solution analyses this wealth of raw data, flexibly using many types of input and picking out and reporting significant events and failures in the network. Of particular interest to most water utilities is the early detection capability for invisible leaks, also a means for preventing large visible bursts. The system also detects sensor and SCADA failures, various water quality issues, DMA boundary breaches, unrecorded or unintended network changes (like a valve or pump state change), and other events, including types unforeseen during system design. We discuss results from use at HaGihon, showing clear operational value.

  9. High Resolution Integrated Hydrologic Modeling for Water Resource Management: Tahoe Basin Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Niswonger, R. G.; Huntington, J. L.; Gardner, M.; Morton, C.; Maples, S.; Reeves, D. M.; Pohll, G.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources in the high altitude, snow-dominated Tahoe basin are susceptible to long-term climate change and extreme climatic events due to large inter-annual climate variations. Lake Tahoe and its contributing watersheds exhibit high climatic (precipitation, temperature) and hydrologic (streamflow, evaporation) variation that exert significant control over regional water supply on annual and sub-annual timescales. To adequately quantify these controls, a high resolution (300m) physically based integrated surface and groundwater model, GSFLOW, of the Tahoe basin has been developed to identify key hydrologic mechanisms that explain recent changes in water resources of the region. The model is parameterized using geographical datasets and maintains a balance between (a) accurate representation of spatial (e.g., geology, streams, and topography) and hydrologic (groundwater, stream, lake, and wetland flows and storages) features, and (b) computational efficiency, which is a necessity for exploring critical vulnerabilities of water-supplies in the region. The calibrated model reproduces multiple observations of streamflow, snow water equivalent, satellite derived snow covered area, lake stage, and groundwater head. Climate input uncertainty was significantly decreased in the model through incorporating additional precipitation station data and helped improve model simulations of observed fluxes more than adjusting model parameters alone. The model simulates fluxes at the outlet of the watershed, but is also consistent at simulating streamflow at internal nodes. This integrated modeling framework helped assess both surface and groundwater resources in a coupled manner in the Tahoe basin.

  10. Water Management Planning: A Case Study at Blue Grass Army Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-04-03

    Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management, mandates an aggressive policy for reducing potable water consumption at federal facilities. Implementation guid¬ance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set a requirement for each federal agency to “reduce potable water usage by implementing life cycle, cost-effective water efficiency programs that include a water management plan, and not less than four Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Best Manage¬ment Practices (BMPs).” The objective of this plan is to gain full compliance with Executive Order 13123 and associated DOE implementation guidance on behalf of Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD), Richmond, Kentucky. In accordance with this plan, BGAD must: • Incorporate the plan as a component of the Installation energy conservation plan • Investigate the water savings potential and life-cycle cost effectiveness of the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and retrofit/replacement options associated with the ten FEMP BMPs • Put into practice all applicable O&M options • Identify retrofit/replacement options appropriate for implementation (based upon calculation of the simple payback periods) • Establish a schedule for implementation of applicable and cost-effective retrofit/replacement options.

  11. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  12. Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor from synthetic aperture radar interferometry: case studies in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liang; Liu, Min; Guo, Lixin; He, Xiufeng; Gao, Guoping

    2016-10-01

    The estimation of atmospheric water vapor with high resolution is important for operational weather forecasting, climate monitoring, atmospheric research, and numerous other applications. The 40 m×40 m and 30 m×30 m differential precipitable water vapor (ΔPWV) maps are generated with C- and L-band synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) images over Shanghai, China, respectively. The ΔPWV maps are accessed via comparisons with the spatiotemporally synchronized PWV measurements from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis at the finest resolution and global positioning system observations, respectively. Results reveal that the ΔPWV maps can be estimated from both C- and L-band InSAR images with an accuracy of better than 2.0 mm, which, therefore, demonstrates the ability of InSAR observations at both C- and L-band to detect the water vapor distribution with high spatial resolution.

  13. Water network perturbation in ligand binding: adenosine A(2A) antagonists as a case study.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Andrea; Tehan, Ben G; Bodnarchuk, Michael S; Essex, Jonathan W; Mason, Jonathan S

    2013-07-22

    Recent efforts in the computational evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of water molecules have resulted in the development of promising new in silico methods to evaluate the role of water in ligand binding. These methods include WaterMap, SZMAP, GRID/CRY probe, and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations. They allow the prediction of the position and relative free energy of the water molecule in the protein active site and the analysis of the perturbation of an explicit water network (WNP) as a consequence of ligand binding. We have for the first time extended these approaches toward the prediction of kinetics for small molecules and of relative free energy of binding with a focus on the perturbation of the water network and application to large diverse data sets. Our results support a qualitative correlation between the residence time of 12 related triazine adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists and the number and position of high energy trapped solvent molecules. From a quantitative viewpoint, we successfully applied these computational techniques as an implicit solvent alternative, in linear combination with a molecular mechanics force field, to predict the relative ligand free energy of binding (WNP-MMSA). The applicability of this linear method, based on the thermodynamics additivity principle, did not extend to 375 diverse A(2A) receptor antagonists. However, a fast but effective method could be enabled by replacing the linear approach with a machine learning technique using probabilistic classification trees, which classified the binding affinity correctly for 90% of the ligands in the training set and 67% in the test set.

  14. Cost Allocation of Multiagency Water Resource Projects: Game Theoretic Approaches and Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Davos, Climis A.

    1995-05-01

    Water resource projects are often jointly carried out by a number of communities and agencies. Participation in a joint project depends on how costs are allocated among the participants and how cost shares compare with the cost of independent projects. Cooperative N-person game theory offers approaches which yield cost allocations that satisfy rationality conditions favoring participation. A new solution concept, the normalized nucleolus, is discussed and applied to a water reuse project in southern California. Results obtained with the normalized nucleolus are compared with those derived with more traditional solution concepts, namely, the nucleolus and the Shapley value.

  15. A case study of natural variability of water vapor content in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, E.; Keernik, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water vapor is the most essential component of the Earth's atmosphere. It is contributing about 60 % of the natural greenhouse effect, being the resource for precipitation in the lower troposphere and playing a critical role in many chemical reactions. Therefore, its quantity must be known precisely to understand, associate and forecast meteorological processes. On the other hand, temporal as well as spatial variability of water vapor occur such a fine scales, that resolving it adequately presuppose observing systems with high sampling resolution in space and time. Regular radiosondes with 12 h or 24 h sampling interval are not sufficient for detecting fast changes neither in the humidity profiles nor in the water vapor total content. During three days (10th-12th August 2010) total of 24 radiosoundings with interval 3 h were made in Toravere, Estonia (58°15' N, 26°27' E), using GRAW DFM-06 radiosondes. Column-integrated water vapor content, known as precipitable water, varied during the campaign from 24 mm to 36 mm. The temporal variation of specific humidity was surprisingly uniform, up to 2 g/kg within any layer in the profile below 6 km. It is noteworthy, as the average values varied even one magnitude - from 12 g/kg at the ground level to 1 g/kg at 6000 m. These changes in the humidity content in the whole profile can be explained only with exchanges of the air masses. In addition to the radiosondes data, NCEP-CFSR vertical profile data of specific humidity and temperature for the Baltic Sea region (here defined as region 52° - 68° N, 12° - 32° E) was used with temporal and spatial resolution of 6 h and 0.5 degrees, respectively. For the overlapping period, NCEP-CFSR followed the measured profiles reasonably well, giving us some justice to use this model for the whole period and region. The region average of precipitable water was 22.8 mm, though local extreme values varied through the summer even one magnitude - from 4.5 mm to 51 mm. The average

  16. REMEDIATION STRATEGIES FOR GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH METALS: CHROMIUM AND ARSENIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This departmental seminar will explore current research activities at EPA's Ground Water and Ecosystem Restoration Division. In particular, aspects of the geochemistry of chromium and arsenic will be discussed as will be mechanisms of contaminant uptake in context to ground-wate...

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating coastal water quality: case study on coast of Black Sea, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezehegn, S. G.; Steef, Peters; Hommersom, Annelies; Nils, De Reus; Culcea, Oana; Krommendijk, Bram

    2014-10-01

    The North-Western part of the Black Sea is highly affected by eutrophication due to nutrient and sediment load inflow from the Danube River, which is the second largest delta in Europe. To get a general spatial picture of the water quality of the Romanian coast, it is not only time consuming, but also hard to measure with traditional in situ sampling. To solve these issues, methods have been developed to use close range spectral measurements for accurate and cheap assessments in real-time for the concentrations of Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter and water transparency. This paper presents the applicability of a state-of-the-art hand-held hyper-spectral sensor and a simple water transparency indicator for monitoring water quality. The fieldwork was conducted during the summer of 2013 on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. The same techniques are used to calculate these parameters from satellite images (MODIS). The validation results and potential applications of the instruments will be discussed.

  18. Secondary transmission of cryptosporidiosis associated with well water consumption: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Natania Carol Cavalcante; Bezerra, Camila Loredana Pereira Alves Madeira; Almeida, Jéssica Jacinto Salviano de; Fernandes, Tatiane Uetti Gomes; Luz, Kleber Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a very prominent disease in the field of public health, and usually causes diarrhea. We describe two immunocompetent patients who presented with chronic diarrhea that was ultimately found to be caused by continuous exposure to well water contaminated with the microbial cysts (oocysts) of the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. We describe the patients' histories and possible explanations for their prolonged symptoms.

  19. EPA Region 7 and Four States Water Quality Standards Review Process Kaizen Event Case Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In June, 2007, participants from EPA headquarters, EPA Region 7, and the four States in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, and NE) conducted a Lean business kaizen event on the EPA–State process for developing and revising water quality standards (WQS).

  20. Site characterization to support risk assessment of contaminated ground-water- some case studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the USA, “risk assessment" generally refers to an evaluation of the impact of a known concentration of a hazardous material in ground water on human health or environmental quality. This presentation is different. It deals with the impact of a spill or release of hazardous m...

  1. Water Sustainability & Conservation in an Exhaust Cooling Discharge System Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    Oil/Water Separator (OWS) • Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone • Direct Sanitary Discharge • Diffused Air Flotation (DAF) • OWS & Clay Towers – discharge to...fuels 17 June 2010 817 June 2010 9 Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone • Removes hydrophobic particles from aqueous solutions • Vehicle wash racks & engine test

  2. Biodesalination: A Case Study for Applications of Photosynthetic Bacteria in Water Treatment1[C

    PubMed Central

    Amezaga, Jaime M.; Amtmann, Anna; Biggs, Catherine A.; Bond, Tom; Gandy, Catherine J.; Honsbein, Annegret; Karunakaran, Esther; Lawton, Linda; Madsen, Mary Ann; Minas, Konstantinos; Templeton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of freshwater is a serious problem in many regions worldwide, and is expected to become even more urgent over the next decades as a result of increased demand for food production and adverse effects of climate change. Vast water resources in the oceans can only be tapped into if sustainable, energy-efficient technologies for desalination are developed. Energization of desalination by sunlight through photosynthetic organisms offers a potential opportunity to exploit biological processes for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures in particular can generate a large biomass in brackish and seawater, thereby forming a low-salt reservoir within the saline water. The latter could be used as an ion exchanger through manipulation of transport proteins in the cell membrane. In this article, we use the example of biodesalination as a vehicle to review the availability of tools and methods for the exploitation of cyanobacteria in water biotechnology. Issues discussed relate to strain selection, environmental factors, genetic manipulation, ion transport, cell-water separation, process design, safety, and public acceptance. PMID:24610748

  3. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  4. The hydrogeological role of an aquitard in preventing drinkable water well contamination: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ponzini, G.; Crosta, G.; Giudici, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Groundwater pollution has become a worrisome phenomenon, mainly for aquifers underlying industrialized areas. In order to evaluate the risk of pollution, a model of the aquifer is needed. Herewith, we describe a quasi-tridimensional model, which we applied to a multilayered aquifer where a phreatic aquifer was coupled to a confined one by means of an aquitard. This hydrogeological scheme is often met in practice and, therefore, models a number of situations. Moreover, aquitards play and important role in the management of natural resources of this kind. The model we adopted contains some approximations: the flow within the aquifers is assumed to be horizontal, whereas leakage is assumed vertical. The effect of some wells drilled in these aquifers is also taken into account. In order to evaluate the leakage fluxes that correspond to different exploitation conditions, we numerically solve a system of quasilinear and time-dependent partial differential equations. This model has been calibrated by the hydrogeological data from a water supply station of the Milan Water Works, where water is polluted by some halocarbons. Our simulations account for several experimental facts, both from the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical viewpoints. Maxima of computed downward leakage rates are found to correspond with measured pollutant concentration maxima. Other results show how the aquitard can help in minimizing the contamination of drinkable water.

  5. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  6. Can Species Traits Predict the Susceptibility of Riverine Fish to Water Resource Development? An Australian Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Sternberg, David

    2015-06-01

    Water resource developments alter riverine environments by disrupting longitudinal connectivity, transforming lotic habitats, and modifying in-stream hydraulic conditions. Effective management of anthropogenic disturbances therefore requires an understanding of the range of potential ecosystem effects and the inherent traits symptomatic of elevated vulnerability to disturbance. Using 42 riverine fish native to South Eastern Australia as a case study, we quantified six morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits to classify species into groups reflecting potential differences in their response to ecosystem changes as a result of water resource development. Classification analysis identified five strategies based on fish life-history dispersal requirements, climbing potential, and habitat preference. These strategies in turn highlight the potential species at risk from the separate impacts of water resource development and inform management decisions to mitigate those risks. Swimming ability did not contribute to distinguishing species into functional groups, likely due to methodological inconsistencies in quantifying swimming performance that may ultimately hinder the ability of fish passage facilities to function within the physical capabilities of species at risk of habitat fragmentation. This study improves our ability to predict the performance of groups of species at risk from the multiple environmental changes imposed by humans and goes beyond broad-scale dispersal requirements as a predictor of individual species response.

  7. Assessment of stakeholder perceptions in water infrastructure projects using system-of-systems and binary probit analyses: a case study.

    PubMed

    Faust, Kasey; Abraham, Dulcy M; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2013-10-15

    Globally, water management is evolving toward integrating participatory processes for decision-making to increase the sustainability of the decision outcome. Information about the perceptions and concerns of stakeholders needs to be readily available to those involved in the decision-making process early in the planning stage to assist in developing viable alternatives that may be implementable with limited public opposition and engender general consensus among stakeholders. The current literature does not identify an appropriate means to incorporate stakeholder views early in the preliminary planning stages without requiring relatively large time commitments or the physical presence of the key stakeholders for meetings and discussions. This study develops and demonstrates a decision-support framework that incorporates the system-of-systems school of thought with binary probit analysis to aid in efficient participatory processes by providing insight regarding the stakeholders' demographics and select behavioral characteristics in a decision-making process. The methodology first frames the water system as a system-of-systems, an approach that inherently pinpoints the necessity for diverse stakeholder involvement and maps the stakeholders in the system's hierarchy. Then, binary probit analyses are used to quantify the effect of stakeholder characteristics on the likelihood that (1) they perceive or do not perceive a need for new capital-intensive water infrastructure, and (2) they support or oppose new capital-intensive water infrastructure. A water system decision in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta serves as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. Data regarding stakeholder beliefs and perceptions were collected via a web-based survey deployed throughout Southern and Central California The study results indicate that individuals between 18 and 25 years, persons living solely with their spouse, persons associated with environmental stakeholder groups, and

  8. Uncertainties in risk assessment for the determination of drinking water pollutant concentrations: Cryptosporidium case study.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, L; Macgill, S M; Kay, D; Casemore, D

    2001-02-01

    There is a growing acknowledgement of the need to recognise uncertainties in the estimation of waterborne risks. In this paper, the strength of the science available to characterise Cryptosporidium risks in drinking water is investigated, in particular the determination of oocyst concentrations at various points in the chain of water supply. A recently developed scientific quality audit framework is used as a tool to guide this investigation. The framework systematically reveals the relatively greater strength of the science for the "upstream" elements (estimation of concentrations in environmental reservoirs) than for the "downstream" elements (concentrations in distribution). It is the downstream elements that have greater bearing on human health and public policy issues. It is noted that the adoption of new monitoring Regulations is likely to prompt action to strengthen knowledge of these downstream elements in the future.

  9. Modeling the Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Net-Zero Water Management: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D; Fallon, Howard J

      While municipal direct potable water reuse (DPR) has been recommended for consideration by the U.S. National Research Council, it is unclear how to size new closed-loop DPR plants, termed "net-zero water (NZW) plants", to minimize cost and energy demand assuming upgradient water distribution. Based on a recent model optimizing the economics of plant scale for generalized conditions, the authors evaluated the feasibility and optimal scale of NZW plants for treatment capacity expansion in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Local data on population distribution and topography were input to compare projected costs for NZW vs the current plan. Total cost was minimized at a scale of 49 NZW plants for the service population of 671,823. Total unit cost for NZW systems, which mineralize chemical oxygen demand to below normal detection limits, is projected at ~$10.83 / 1000 gal, approximately 13% above the current plan and less than rates reported for several significant U.S. cities.

  10. Ethanolamine properties and use for feedwater pH control: A pressurized water reactor case study

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, D.L.; Polidoroff, C.T.; Cortese, S.; Cushner, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Ethanolamine (ETA) as a feedwater pH control additive has been recently used to minimize corrosion of secondary water components in the nuclear power industry pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The use of ETA is compared with ammonia. Relative volatility effects on various parts of the system are analyzed and chemistry changes are presented. Materials of construction and the use of existing plant equipment for ETA service are discussed. Properties of ETA as well as safety, storage and handling issues are compared with ammonia. Health d aquatic toxicity are reviewed. warnings, safety, handling guidelines, biodegradability an Diablo Canyon Power Plant used ammonia for pH control from 1985 until a change over to ETA in 1993/1994. Full flow condensate polishers that are required to protect the plant from saltwater cooling incursions limit the amount of pH additive. Iron levels in the secondary water systems are compared before and after changing to ETA and replacement of corrosion-susceptible piping. Iron reduction benefits are assessed along with other effects on the feedwater nozzles, low pressure turbine, polisher resin capacity and polisher regeneration system.

  11. Culture-independent techniques applied to food industry water surveillance--a case study.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Jessica Varela; Schwartz, Thomas; Obst, Ursula

    2010-07-31

    Culture-independent techniques were used for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water at potentially critical control points along the production lines at a German dairy company and a Spanish dry cured ham company. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to describe bacterial population shifts indicating biological instability in the drinking water samples. Autochthonous bacteria were identified by sequencing the excised DGGE DNA bands. More specifically, real-time PCR was applied to detect a number of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to the detection limits of the real-time PCR method, a specific protocol was established in order to meet the technical detection requirements and to avoid unwanted polymerase inhibitions. Autochthonous bacterial populations were found to be highly stable at most of the sampling points. Only one sampling point exhibited population shifts at the German dairy company. Enterococci and P.aeruginosa were detected in some water samples from these companies by molecular biology detection methods, but not by conventional culturing methods. Some opportunistic bacteria as Enterobacter sp., Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas sp. and non-pathogenic Bacillus, were also detected after DNA sequencing of DGGE bands.

  12. The role of water and sediment connectivity in integrated flood management: a case study on the island of Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetten, Victor; van Westen, Cees; Ettema, Janneke; van den Bout, Bastian

    2016-04-01

    Disaster Risk Management combines the effects of natural hazards in time and space, with elements at risk, such as ourselves, infrastructure or other elements that have a value in our society. The risk in this case is defined as the sum of potential consequences of one or more hazards and can be expressed as potential damages. Generally, we attempt to reduce risk by better risk management, such as increase of resilience, protection and spatial planning. Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes and tropical storms with a frequency of 1 to 2 every 10 years, with devastating consequences in terms of flash floods and landslides. The islands basically consist of a central (volcanic) mountain range, with medium and small sized catchments radiating outward towards the ocean. The coastal zone is inhabited, while the ring road network is essential for functioning of the island. An example of a case study is given for the island of Saint Lucia. Recorded rainfall intensities during tropical storms of 12 rainfall stations surpass 200 mm/h, causing immediate flash floods. Very often however, sediment is a forgotten variable in flash flood management: protection and mitigation measures as well as spatial planning all focus on the hydrology, the extent and depth of flood water, and sometimes of flood velocities. With recent developments, the opensource model LISEM includes hydrology and runoff, flooding, and erosion, transport and deposition both in runoff, channel flow and flood waters. We will discuss the practical solutions we implemented in connecting slopes, river channels and floodplains in terms of water and sediment, and the strength and weaknesses we have encountered so far. Catchment analysis shows two main effects: on the one hand in almost all cases upstream flooding serves as a temporary water storage that prevents further damage downstream, while on the other hand, erosion upstream often blocks bridges and decreases channel storage downstream, which increases the

  13. Global change and rampant land and water resource development a case study in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J.; Kienzle, S.; Schindler, D.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews the impacts of global and regional change on the land and water resources in Alberta, Canada. Alberta contains most of Canada's fossil fuel energy resources, including: extensive conventional crude oil and natural gas fields; widespread coal deposits over the southern half of the province with potential for mining and coal bed methane extraction (CBM); and the Athabasca oil sands a crude oil supply of at least several hundred billion barrels entangled in extensive sand deposits lying along the Athabasca River. The province is also a focal point for intensive agriculture in the form of irrigation that has led to over allocated rivers in the south, and a booming economy associated with rapid population growth and associated urban sprawl in support of rapid resource development. All this development is occurring in a region where global climate change is expected to have substantial impacts on land and water in the next few decades. This work outlines the potential impacts of a range of human activities associated with some of the most intensive and extensive resource development plans in North America focused on one region - Alberta. Oil sands investments alone in the next few decades are forecast to exceed one hundred billion dollars! There are plans to double and triple primary and secondary agricultural production; expand coal mining in support of conventional coal fired power plants; and establish CBM well networks over much of the southern half of the province, including extensive development of CBM on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, the principal source of water for most of the semi-arid Canadian plains. The development pace and direction will likely result in widespread environmental contamination of regional and global consequence.

  14. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  15. Influence of global temperature change on the geochemical processes in the Plitvice Lakes waters - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironić, Andreja; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Vurnek, Maja; Kapelj, Sanja

    2016-04-01

    One of the major reasons for the global air temperature increase, recorded as the highest in the last decade, is considered to be the increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, in calculation of the global carbon budget a certain unknown carbon sink is identified, and karst relief is considered to be an important candidate for it, as well as being a source of carbon. Aquatic systems on karst enable carbon exchange between karst and atmosphere, often through groundwater geochemical carbonate rock dissolution (carbon sink) and in form of secondary calcium carbonate precipitation (carbon source). Protected area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, settled in the karst area of Croatia, was chosen as a case study of karst geochemical processes. The Lakes are also specific for its tufa precipitation in form of tufa barriers. Physical and chemical data of water collected on 8 locations (2 springs and 6 lakes) in the last 30 years were studied. The data records were not systematic for all 30 years, so first the seasonal periodicity of all data was assessed and temporal change was investigated in each calendar month, and then the change was studied by comparing two distinct periods: 1981-1986 and 2010-2014. On all selected locations we observed temporal increase of air and water temperature, Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations, calcite saturation index (SIcalc) and of calcite dissolution ionic ratio (IRcalc,) and a decrease in Mg/Ca ratio, though the intensity of this changes differ locally. No statistically significant change was observed for pH and CO2(aq) and Mg2+ concentrations. Discharge rates did not show significant change in the last 30 years; however there is a change in their seasonal distribution and more extreme values were recorded in recent period. Comparison of mean monthly air and water temperature for two periods implies more influence of groundwater inflow at all locations in recent period, which is probably a result of seasonal change in water

  16. A water-damaged home and health of occupants: a case study.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Jack Dwayne; Gray, Michael R; Kilburn, Kaye H; Dennis, Donald P; Yu, Archie

    2012-01-01

    A family of five and pet dog who rented a water-damaged home and developed multiple health problems. The home was analyzed for species of mold and bacteria. The diagnostics included MRI for chronic sinusitis with ENT and sinus surgery, and neurological testing for neurocognitive deficits. Bulk samples from the home, tissue from the sinuses, urine, nasal secretions, placenta, umbilical cord, and breast milk were tested for the presence of trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and Ochratoxin A. The family had the following diagnosed conditions: chronic sinusitis, neurological deficits, coughing with wheeze, nose bleeds, and fatigue among other symptoms. An infant was born with a total body flare, developed multiple Cafe-au-Lait pigmented skin spots and diagnoses with NF1 at age 2. The mycotoxins were detected in bulk samples, urine and nasal secretions, breast milk, placenta, and umbilical cord. Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Acinetobacter, Penicillium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were cultured from nasal secretions (father and daughter). RT-PCR revealed A. fumigatus DNA in sinus tissues of the daughter. The dog had 72 skin lesions (sebaceous glands and lipomas) from which trichothecenes and ochratoxin A. were detected. The health of the family is discussed in relation to the most recent published literature regarding microbial contamination and toxic by-products present in water-damaged buildings.

  17. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    PubMed

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed.

  18. In situ tests for water quality assessment: a case study in Pampean rivers.

    PubMed

    Graça, Manuel A S; Rodrígues-Capítulo, Alberto; Ocón, Carolina; Gómez, Nora

    2002-09-01

    Two invertebrate species (Hyalella curvispina and Palaemonetes argentinus) and one macrophyte (Egeria densa) from a naturally high nutrient content system (Pampean rivers of La Plata, Argentina) were evaluated for their potential use in situ assays aiming to assess changes in water quality. Invertebrates were individually placed in cylindrical chambers in polluted sections of rivers and in reference upstream sites. Mortality after 48 h was high in polluted and reduced in control sites. Mortality was also higher in situ assays than in laboratory static tests. Standard sections of the macrophyte were also deployed at the reference and control sites. Growth (7 days) in terms of mass increment (but not in length) was consistently reduced in polluted sites. Results of benthic invertebrate and periphitic algae surveys were consistent with the in situ tests: pollution resulted in a decrease in the number of taxa, taxa replacement and in changes in the value of the biotic indices Indice Biótico PAMPeano and Indice de Diatomeas Pampeano, indicating deterioration of water quality. In situ assays have a high potential as environmental tools in integrated approaches of bioassessment programs.

  19. Technical Note: Surface water velocity observations from a camera: a case study on the Tiber River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, F.; Olivieri, G.; Petroselli, A.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. LSPIV (large scale particle imaging velocimetry) is a promising approach to tackle these issues. Such technique consists of developing surface water velocity maps analyzing video frame sequences recorded with a camera. In this technical brief, we implement a novel LSPIV experimental apparatus to observe a flood event in the Tiber river at a cross-section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We illustrate results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings confirm the potential of the proposed LSPIV implementation in aiding research in natural flow monitoring.

  20. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  1. Environmental studies on river water quality with reference to suitability for agricultural purposes: Mahanadi river estuarine system, India--a case study.

    PubMed

    Sundaray, Sanjay Kumar; Nayak, Binod Bihari; Bhatta, Dinabandhu

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of surface water (pH, specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) in the Mahanadi river estuarine system, India was used to assess the quality of water for agricultural purposes. The samples were studied for 31 different stations during six different seasons in the years 2001-2003. Chemical data were used for mathematical calculations (SAR, Na%, RSC, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelly's index, magnesium hazard, osmotic pressure and salt index) for better understanding the suitability river water quality for agricultural purposes. The river water is free from nitrate-nitrogen hazard and has much less osmotic pressure and RSC values. Further there is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium in the study area. The results revealed that waters of some polluted stations like Sambalpur down (D/s of Sambalpur town) and Kathjodi (Cuttack) down (D/s of Cuttack town) are unsuitable up to some extent, where as it is quite unsuitable in case of estuarine samples during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The results were verified by USSL and Wilcox diagrams, which show all the fresh water zone samples (low-medium salinity with low sodium) of the study area are in the 'Excellent to good' category and are suitable to irrigate all soils for semi-tolerant and tolerant as well as sensitive crops.

  2. The effects of water rock interaction and the human activities on the occurrence of hexavalent chromium in waters. The case study of the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria; Stamatis, George; Gartzos, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, particularly of the toxic hexavalent chromium, are recorded in surface and ground waters in many areas, and constitute one of the most severe environmental problems nowadays. The natural genesis of chromium is associated with the geological environment (peridotites and serpentintites). Chromium is structured in many minerals, mainly in spinel (e.g. chromite), in silicate minerals such as phyllosilicate serpentine minerals, chlorite, talc and chain-silicate minerals of pyroxene and amphibole group. Chromium is found in two forms in soils, waters and rocks, the hexavalent and the trivalent one. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the area; however, in most cases, Cr(III) is the dominating variant. The natural oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium can be achieved by manganese oxides, H2O2, O2 gas and oxy-hydroxides of trivalent iron. Anthropogenic factors may also cause the process of chromium's oxidation. In the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium were recently measured in spring- and drill- waters. In this work, we study the effect of the geological environment and of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality with emphasis on chromium. A detailed geochemical, petrological and mineralogical study of rocks and soils was carried out by means of optical microscopy, XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS. Ground and surface water samples were physically characterized and hydrochemically studied by means of ICP and AAF. Combined result evaluation indicates a natural source for the trivalent chromium in waters, attributed to the alteration of Cr-bearing minerals of the ultramafic rocks. However the oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium results from anthropogenic activities, mainly from intensive agricultural activities and the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides causing nitrate pollution in groundwater. It has been shown

  3. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; Norman, Steven P.; Cohen, Erika C.; Liu, Yongqiang; Ward, Eric J.; McNulty, Steven G.

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watersheds characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.

  4. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; ...

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watershedsmore » characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.« less

  5. Mathematic modeling of complex aquifer: Evian Natural Mineral Water case study considering lumped and distributed models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriot, abel; Blavoux, bernard; Travi, yves; Lachassagne, patrick; Beon, olivier; Dewandel, benoit; Ladouche, bernard

    2013-04-01

    The Evian Natural Mineral Water (NMW) aquifer is a highly heterogeneous Quaternary glacial deposits complex composed of three main units, from bottom to top: - The "Inferior Complex" mainly composed of basal and impermeable till lying on the Alpine rocks. It outcrops only at the higher altitudes but is known in depth through drilled holes. - The "Gavot Plateau Complex" is an interstratified complex of mainly basal and lateral till up to 400 m thick. It outcrops at heights above approximately 850 m a.m.s.l. and up to 1200 m a.m.s.l. over a 30 km² area. It is the main recharge area known for the hydromineral system. - The "Terminal Complex" from which the Evian NMW is emerging at 410 m a.m.s.l. It is composed of sand and gravel Kame terraces that allow water to flow from the deep "Gavot Plateau Complex" permeable layers to the "Terminal Complex". A thick and impermeable terminal till caps and seals the system. Aquifer is then confined at its downstream area. Because of heterogeneity and complexity of this hydrosystem, distributed modeling tools are difficult to implement at the whole system scale: important hypothesis would have to be made about geometry, hydraulic properties, boundary conditions for example and extrapolation would lead with no doubt to unacceptable errors. Consequently a modeling strategy is being developed and leads also to improve the conceptual model of the hydrosystem. Lumped models mainly based on tritium time series allow the whole hydrosystem to be modeled combining in series: an exponential model (superficial aquifers of the "Gavot Plateau Complex"), a dispersive model (Gavot Plateau interstratified complex) and a piston flow model (sand and gravel from the Kame terraces) respectively 8, 60 and 2.5 years of mean transit time. These models provide insight on the governing parameters for the whole mineral aquifer. They help improving the current conceptual model and are to be improved with other environmental tracers such as CFC, SF6. A

  6. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated

  7. An empirical method that separates irreversible stem radial growth from bark water content changes in trees: theory and case studies.

    PubMed

    Mencuccini, Maurizio; Salmon, Yann; Mitchell, Patrick; Hölttä, Teemu; Choat, Brendan; Meir, Patrick; O'Grady, Anthony; Tissue, David; Zweifel, Roman; Sevanto, Sanna; Pfautsch, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species. Experimental manipulations, namely a field irrigation experiment on Scots pine and a stem girdling experiment on red forest gum trees, were used to validate the theory. Time courses of stem radial growth following irrigation and stem girdling were consistent with a-priori predictions. Patterns of stem radial growth varied across case studies, with growth occurring during the day and/or night, consistent with the available literature. Importantly, our approach provides a valuable alternative to existing methods, as it can be approximated by a simple empirical interpolation routine that derives irreversible radial growth using standard regression techniques. Our novel method provides an improved understanding of the relative source-sink carbon dynamics of tree stems at a sub-daily time scale.

  8. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  9. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  10. Ecogeochemistry potential in deep time biodiversity illustrated using a modern deep-water case study

    PubMed Central

    Trueman, Clive N.; Shores, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record provides the only direct evidence of temporal trends in biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. Studies of biodiversity using the fossil record are, however, largely limited to discussions of taxonomic and/or morphological diversity. Behavioural and physiological traits that are likely to be under strong selection are largely obscured from the body fossil record. Similar problems exist in modern ecosystems where animals are difficult to access. In this review, we illustrate some of the common conceptual and methodological ground shared between those studying behavioural ecology in deep time and in inaccessible modern ecosystems. We discuss emerging ecogeochemical methods used to explore population connectivity and genetic drift, life-history traits and field metabolic rate and discuss some of the additional problems associated with applying these methods in deep time. PMID:26977063

  11. Ecogeochemistry potential in deep time biodiversity illustrated using a modern deep-water case study.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Clive N; Chung, Ming-Tsung; Shores, Diana

    2016-04-05

    The fossil record provides the only direct evidence of temporal trends in biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. Studies of biodiversity using the fossil record are, however, largely limited to discussions of taxonomic and/or morphological diversity. Behavioural and physiological traits that are likely to be under strong selection are largely obscured from the body fossil record. Similar problems exist in modern ecosystems where animals are difficult to access. In this review, we illustrate some of the common conceptual and methodological ground shared between those studying behavioural ecology in deep time and in inaccessible modern ecosystems. We discuss emerging ecogeochemical methods used to explore population connectivity and genetic drift, life-history traits and field metabolic rate and discuss some of the additional problems associated with applying these methods in deep time.

  12. Psychological skills training of an elite wheelchair water-skiing athlete: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    de Bressy de Guast, Virginie; Golby, Jim; Van Wersch, Anna; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a complete psychological skills training (PST) program with a wheelchair athlete and examines the program effectiveness using a mixed-method approach. After initial testing, the athlete followed a two-month program of self-confidence building, motivational, visualization/relaxation, and injury management techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the impacts on performance and psychological abilities. The triangulated results suggest that the PST program was perceived as effective by the athlete in terms of his sporting performances and mental skills. The characteristics and implications of a PST program with this wheelchair athlete are discussed, as well as the study limitations and the perspectives for future research.

  13. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  14. Case Study: Competition Nutrition Intakes During the Open Water Swimming Grand Prix Races in Elite Female Swimmer.

    PubMed

    Kumstát, Michal; Rybárová, Silvie; Thomas, Andy; Novotný, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.

  15. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  16. [Pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills and drinking-water production. Case study of the Sebou river in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L

    2002-01-01

    The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area.

  17. Whiting events in SW Florida coastal waters: a case study using MODIS medium-resolution data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Jacqueline; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Whitings, floating patches of calcium carbonate mud, have been found in both shallow carbonate banks and freshwater environments around the world. Although these events have been studied for many decades, much of their characteristics remain unknown. Recent sightings of whitings near Ten Thousand Islands, Florida suggest a phenomenon that has not previously been documented in this area. Using medium-resolution (250-m) data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from December 2010 to November 2013, we documented whiting events and their spatial and temporal patterns in this region. Classification rules were first established, and then applied to all 474 cloud-free and sun glint-free MODIS images. Whiting occurrences were found between 25°46′N and 25°20′N and less than 40 km from the southwest Florida coastline. Over the 3-year period, whiting occurrence peaked in spring and autumn and reached a minimum during the winter and summer months. Further field and laboratory research are needed to explain driving force(s) behind these events.

  18. Influence of alkalinity, hardness and dissolved solids on drinking water taste: A case study of consumer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lee, Wei-Li; Han, Jia-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Two surveys of consumer satisfaction with drinking water conducted by Taiwan Water Supply Corp. are presented in this study. The study results show that although a lot of money was invested to modify traditional treatment processes, over 60% of local residents still avoided drinking tap water. Over half of the respondents felt that sample TT (from the traditional treatment process) was not a good drinking water, whether in the first or second survey, whereas almost 60% of respondents felt that samples PA, PB, CCL and CT (from advanced treatment processes) were good to drink. For all drinking water samples, respondent satisfaction with a sample primarily depended on it having no unpleasant flavors. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration plans to revise the drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS in the near future. The new standards require a lower TH concentration (from currently 400mg/L (as CaCO(3)) to 150mg/L (as CaCO(3))), and a lower TDS maximum admissible concentration from the current guideline of 600 to 250mg/L. Therefore, this study also evaluated the impacts on drinking water tastes caused by variations in TH and TDS concentrations, and assessed the need to issue more strict drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS. The research results showed that most respondents could not tell the difference in water taste among water samples with different TDS, TH and alkalinity. Furthermore, hardness was found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and complying with more strict standards would lead most water facilities to invest billions of dollars to upgrade their treatment processes. Consequently, in terms of drinking water tastes alone, this study suggested that Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration should conduct more thorough reviews of the scientific literature that provides the rationale for setting standards and reconsider if it is necessary to revise drinking water quality standards for TH and

  19. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  20. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  1. Water Footprint Assessment to support water resources management in the regulatory context: a case study in the Thames River Basin, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Mathews, R. E.; Frapporti, G.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The economy and environment of the Hertfordshire and North London Area (H&NL Area) within Thames River Basin rely on the limited water resources in the region, especially groundwater. The water resources in the area are managed, amongst other mechanisms, through water abstraction licences and discharge permits. Current management practice is not responsive or flexible enough to address future pressures. To support improving current water management in the area, a Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) study was conducted. This is a pioneering work in the field of WFA applied in a regulatory context. The study deals with a high level of complexity in a number of aspects: 1) high spatial and temporal resolution (sub-catchment level and monthly time scale); 2) multiple water use sectors (industry, domestic and agriculture); 3) different sources of water for human use (surface and groundwater); 4) different types of human pressure on water resources (consumption and pollution); 5) integrated assessment of water use sustainability (water scarcity and water pollution level); and 6) projected water footprint (WF) with water demand and climate change scenarios. The green, blue and grey WF on surface water, the blue and grey WF on groundwater of the 35 sub-catchments within the H&NL Area have been estimated for the domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors on a monthly basis. Blue water scarcity (BWS) and water pollution level (WPL) were evaluated to assess the sustainability of the blue and grey WF respectively, distinguishing between ground and surface water. A "wet" and "dry" climate change scenario for 2060 was used to project the WF components and BWS. This study identifies sub-catchments in the area facing moderate to severe BWS and/or WPLs and illustrates the relation between the two. The results demonstrate that WFA and in particular BWS and WPLs can and should form a basis for regulatory reform for water resources management. Levels of BWS in sub-catchments can

  2. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  3. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. Design of on-line river water quality monitoring systems using the entropy theory: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Nokhandan, Amir Khajehzadeh; Kerachian, Reza; Maksimovic, Cedo

    2009-08-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network is considered as the main component of water quality management including selection of the water quality variables, location of sampling stations and determination of sampling frequencies. In this study, an entropy-based approach is presented for design of an on-line water quality monitoring network for the Karoon River, which is the largest and the most important river in Iran. In the proposed algorithm of design, the number and location of sampling sites and sampling frequencies are determined by minimizing the redundant information, which is quantified using the entropy theory. A water quality simulation model is also used to generate the time series of the concentration of water quality variables at some potential sites along the river. As several water quality variables are usually considered in the design of water quality monitoring networks, the pair-wise comparison is used to combine the spatial and temporal frequencies calculated for each water quality variable. After selecting the sampling frequencies, different components of a comprehensive monitoring system such as data acquisition, transmission and processing are designed for the study area, and technical characteristics of the on-line and off-line monitoring equipment are presented. Finally, the assessment for the human resources needs, as well as training and quality assurance programs are presented considering the existing resources in the study area. The results show that the proposed approach can be effectively used for the optimal design of the river monitoring systems.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  7. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    SciTech Connect

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  8. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  9. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on Water Quality: A Case Study in The Chaohu Lake Basin

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Haiming; Wu, Feng; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. There have been some researches on this relationship from the perspective of the spatial configuration of land use in recent years. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Chaohu Lake Basin based on the water quality monitoring data and RS data from 2000 to 2008, with the small watershed as the basic unit of analysis. The results indicated that there was significant negative correlation between forest land and grassland and the water pollution, and the built-up area had negative impacts on the water quality, while the influence of the cultivated land on the water quality was very complex. Besides, the impacts of the landscape diversity on the indicators of water quality within the watershed were also analyzed, the result of which indicated there was a significant negative relationship between them. The results can provide important scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource. PMID:23970833

  11. Change in drinking water quality from source to point-of-use and storage: a case study from Guwahati, India.

    PubMed

    Khadse, Gajanan Kisan; Kalita, Moromi D; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2012-09-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied and maintained at Guwahati, the study was conducted on the status of water supply in city through surveillance of drinking water quality for consecutive 7 days at various treatment stages, distribution network and consumer ends. The performance of five water treatment plants (WTPs), viz. Panbazar WTP, Satpukhuri WTP, Kamakhya WTP, PHED WTP and Hegrabari WTP were assessed for summer, piost-post-monsoon and winter seasons. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/L in the treated water. During post-monsoon, winter, and summer seasons the thermotolerent TC and FC counts ranged between Nil to 168 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 84 CFU/100 ml; Nil to 3356 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 152 CFU/100 ml; and Nil to 960 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 108 CFU/100 ml respectively. There was variation in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends, which may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicate that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physico-chemical characteristics.

  12. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  13. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  14. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  15. Estimation of high resolution shallow water bathymetry via two-media-photogrammetry - a case study at the Pielach River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Michael; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Ressl, Camillo; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    partial texture degradation because of water turbidity are dealt with. Additional emphasis is placed on the effects of sun glint, overhanging vegetation, and similar obstacles restricting identification of homologous points in submerged areas. One of the most critical parts is the extraction of the water surface which is needed for refraction correction. This can hardly be done in a reliable manner using aerial photography, especially in case of vegetation obscuring the water-land boundary. Hence, the comparably accurate water surface determined based on ALB data is used in order not to introduce errors hindering the evaluation of the refraction correction procedure itself. Finally, the photogrammetric determined water depths are compared to those of the active ALB system in terms of accuracy and completeness.

  16. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: a case study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Miechel, Clayton; O'Halloran, Kelly; Muthukaruppan, Muthu; Listowski, Adnrzej

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n=478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ(2)=527.40, df=3; p=0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r=0.43, p=0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ(2)=52.73, df=6; p=0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured.

  17. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  18. Assessing The Ecosystem Service Freshwater Production From An Integrated Water Resources Management Perspective. Case Study: The Tormes Water Resources System (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2014-05-01

    The Ecosystem Services are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life. A strongly related concept is the Integrated Water Resources Management. It is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. From these definitions, it is clear that in order to cover so many water management and ecosystems related aspects the use of integrative models is increasingly necessary. In this study, we propose to link a hydrologic model and a water allocation model in order to assess the Freshwater Production as an Ecosystem Service in anthropised river basins. First, the hydrological model allows determining the volume of water generated by each sub-catchment; that is, the biophysical quantification of the service. This result shows the relevance of each sub-catchment as a source of freshwater and how this could change if the land uses are modified. On the other hand, the water management model allocates the available water resources among the different water uses. Then, it is possible to provide an economic value to the water resources through the use of demand curves, or other economic concepts. With this second model, we are able to obtain the economical quantification of the Ecosystem Service. Besides, the influence of water management and infrastructures on the service provision can be analysed. The methodology is applied to the Tormes Water Resources System, in Spain. The software used are EVALHID and SIMGES, for hydrological and management aspects, respectively. Both models are included in the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL for water resources planning and management. A scenario approach is presented to illustrate the potential of the methodology, including the current

  19. Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin.

    PubMed

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Karlberg, Louise; Daggupati, Prasad; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Wiberg, David; Rockström, Johan

    2016-01-15

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local- to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was ~4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water

  20. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain.

  1. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  2. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  3. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  4. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers. PMID:27028871

  5. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; ...

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify themore » primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.« less

  6. Can product water footprints indicate the hydrological impact of primary production? - A case study of New Zealand kiwifruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deurer, M.; Green, S. R.; Clothier, B. E.; Mowat, A.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryWater footprints have been discussed as indicators for the influence of primary products on water scarcity and water quality. We assessed the impact of New Zealand kiwifruit on the scarcity and quality of freshwater resources and evaluated how the green-, blue- and grey-water footprints represented this impact. Water scarcity relates to the freshwater stored in soil and groundwater over a yearly timeframe. We found a negligible net change in soil water, as the freshwater in the soil is replenished every year by rain. The dynamics of freshwater in soil is indicated by the green-water footprint. Kiwifruit production has no impact on freshwater scarcity in soils, and we suggest, therefore, discarding the green-water footprint in this and similar studies. The groundwater recharge below kiwifruit orchards showed a large regional variation. A net depletion of groundwater resources occurs only in two kiwifruit growing regions, and only when the orchards are over-irrigated. The blue-water footprint indicates the status of the freshwater resources stored in the groundwater. We compared two different concepts. Our hydrologically based concept (Approach 1) quantifies the net change in the resources, whereas the Water Footprint Network (Approach 2) only accounts for the consumption. The blue-water footprint calculated by Approach 1 could explain 97% and by Approach 2 only 63% of the regional variation of net groundwater recharge below kiwifruit orchards. The values of the blue-water footprints are, on a regional average, about -500 L and 100 L per tray of kiwifruit with Approaches 1 and 2, respectively. According to Approach 1, a tray of kiwifruit delivers a net groundwater recharge of 500 L per tray, whereas according to Approach 2 the production of a tray of kiwifruit consumes 100 L of groundwater. Only Approach 1 contains all the hydrological processes making up the water balance that relates to groundwater. We assessed the impact of regional kiwifruit production on

  7. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  8. The impact of climate change on water provision under a low flow regime: a case study of the ecosystems services in the Francoli river basin.

    PubMed

    Marquès, Montse; Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Sharp, Richard; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and with high probability to face acute water scarcity problem in the coming years. Francolí River basin (NE Spain), located in this vulnerable region is selected as a case study to evaluate the impact of climate change on the delivery of water considering the IPCC scenarios A2 and B1 for the time spans 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. InVEST model is applied in a low flow river as a new case study, which reported successful results after its model validation. The studied hydrological ecosystem services will be highly impacted by climate change at Francolí River basin. Water yield is expected to be reduced between 11.5 and 44% while total drinking water provisioning will decrease between 13 and 50% having adverse consequences on the water quality of the river. Focusing at regional scale, Prades Mountains and Brugent Tributary provide most of the provision of water and also considered highly vulnerable areas to climate change. However, the most vulnerable part is the northern area which has the lowest provision of water. Francolí River basin is likely to experience desertification at this area drying Anguera and Vallverd tributaries.

  9. Influences of Climate Change on Water Resources Availability of Costal Basins in Southeast China: a Case Study in Jinjiang Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan; Li, Zhanjie; Sun, Wenchao

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources availability in a costal basin in southeast China, Jinjiang Basin, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. After calibration and validation for model parameters, the result of streamflow simulation proves that this BTOPMC hydrological model is applicable to this basin. Then the projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in 2050s. The evaluation of water resources available was carried out based on the simulation of streamflow in the downstream Shilong hydrologic station. Result shows that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend. While in the rest period runoff show a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the perspective of water resource availability, it is indicated that the water resources may not be sufficient to meet the irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer. The results of this study may benefit for making reasonable water resource management policy in the Jinjiang Basin. To make the policy in a more quantitive manner, an analysis about the amount of water needed for the whole basin is needed to decide how much extra water should be stored in the summer season.

  10. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  11. CLOSED-LOOP TREATMENT OF ELECTROLYTIC AND ELECTROLESS NICKEL RINSE WATER BY POINT-OF-USE ION EXCHANGE: A CASE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Closed-Loop Treatment of Electrolytic and Electroless Nickel Rinse Water by Point-Of-Use Ion Exchange: A Case Study.

    Dave Szlag1, Joe Leonhardt2, Albert Foster1, Mike Goss1 and Paul Bolger1.
    1 U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. M. L. King D...

  12. Distribution of sediment measurements in Lake Michigan as a case study: Implications for estimating sediment and water interactions in eutrophication and bioaccumulation models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Michigan, the sixth largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area, was utilized as a water body for assessment within a case study. Field data collected at 116 sampling sites throughout the lake in an intensive monitoring effort were utilized for evaluation of the di...

  13. Subsidence and water intrusion for shallow longwall mine planning in the Illinois coal basin: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A coal property in southern Illinois is being studied as a shallow longwall coal mine at depths averaging 250 ft and as shallow as 180 ft. The shallowness results in a super-critical panel width (depth much less than width) with 850-ft panels. The fractures associated with full-extraction coal mining wall likely reach the surface and act as pathways for water migration. The shallow subsidence phenomena result in a more gentle lowering of overlying strata in large blocks with ``tearing`` at the margins of the panels developing continuous potential water pathways. Strain zone predictions indicate fracturing of strata from the mining horizon to the surface. Bed separations caused by subsidence in the strata and below a sandstone aquifer could result in ponding of waters that could be suddenly released into the mine at rates several times the normal steady-state inflow. Timing mining under streams for dry seasons will also minimize water intrusion potentials. Silting-up of pathways and resettlement of strata will eventually reduce water flows in an area. Recognizing areas of mining with panel edges intersecting water sources and pathways can allow pre-planning for water handling.

  14. The impact of poor governance on water and sediment quality: a case study in the Pitimbu River, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Adamowski, J.; Gaskin, S.; Saraiva, A.

    2014-09-01

    Applying a collaborative approach under a power-sharing institutional structure, coupled with a shift in paradigms, sustainable water resources management often requires political-institutional reform to achieve its goals. Most of Brazil's river basins are subject to rapid urbanization; however, basin stakeholders generally lack sufficient institutional capacity to address the attending water resource issues. Subject to urbanisation, the Pitimbu River basin supplies potable water to approximately 280 000 people in Brazil's Natal region. This study investigated how current institutional models influence both water management and fluvial contamination by metals. Sediment samples collected at eight sites along the river revealed elevated levels of Pb, Fe, Al, Ni and Zn, whose sources were linked to industries, vehicles, as well as agricultural and construction wastes. Aluminium enrichment of surface waters was mainly linked to inadequate sanitation infrastructure. In light of this, the region's poor institutional capacity must be addressed through institutional reform, including a new management structure open to public collective water management planning. In so doing, Brazil's water policies should acknowledge capacity building as a critical element of institutional reform.

  15. Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).

    PubMed

    Ayub, Khairul Rahmah; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Abdullah, Rozi; Ramli, Rosmaliza

    2010-01-01

    The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009.

  16. An integrative case study approach between game theory and Pareto frontier concepts for the transboundary water resources allocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    SummaryIn the context of transboundary issues, this paper introduces a composite water resources allocation approach that integrates both game theory and Pareto frontier concepts over the case of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The proposed approach searches for an acceptable and viable solution set over the Pareto Frontier Surface via game theory based rationality constraints. For this purpose, the used base model is the Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model, which is a linear programming model maximizing net economic benefits while optimally allocating scarce water resources in the basin. Results indicate that game theory based strategies and associated constraints provide a determinative backbone for an efficient and effective use of generated Pareto Frontier Surfaces. Additionally, estimated marginal values imply that the upstream countries have upper hand positions regarding their geographic and climatic contexts. After all the generation schemes, it appears that Turkey is the critical partner for inclusion into any form of coalition in the Euphrates and Tigris River Basin.

  17. Construction of a novel water quality index and quality indicator for reservoir water quality evaluation: A case study in the Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, T. C.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Oliveira, T. F.; Silveira, A. M.; Silva, H. A. N.; Tavares, M. R. M.; Saraiva, A. C. F.

    2015-03-01

    A novel Quality Indicator (QI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were constructed in the present study for the evaluation of the water quality of a Hydroelectric Plant reservoir in the Amazon area, Brazil, taking into account the specific characteristics of the Amazon area. Factor analyses were applied in order to select the relevant parameters to be included in the construction of both indices. Quality curves for each selected parameter were then created and the constructed QI and WQI were then applied to investigate the water quality at the reservoir. The hydrological cycle was shown by the indices to directly affect reservoir water quality, and the WQI was further useful in identifying anthropogenic impacts in the area, since water sampling stations suffering different anthropogenic impacts were categorized differently, with poorer water quality, than stations near the dam and the environmental preservation area, which suffer significantly less anthropogenic impacts, and were categorized as presenting better water quality. The constructed indices are thus helpful in investigating environmental conditions in areas that show well-defined hydrological cycles, in addition to being valuable tools in the detection of anthropogenic impacts. The statistical techniques applied in the construction of these indices may also be used to construct other indices in different geographical areas, taking into account the specificities for each area.

  18. Operational NIR-red Algorithms for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Coastal Waters - The Azov Sea Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Saprygin, V.; Bowles, J. H.; Povazhnyi, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present here results that strongly support the use of MERIS-based NIR-red algorithms as standard tools for estimating chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive waters. The study was carried out as one of the steps in testing the potential of the universal applicability of previously developed NIR-red algorithms, which were originally calibrated using a limited set of MERIS imagery and in situ data from the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay, Russia, and data that were synthetically generated using a radiative transfer model. We used an extensive set of MERIS imagery and in situ data collected over a period of three years in the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay for this validation task. We found that the NIR-red algorithms gave consistently highly accurate estimates of chl-a concentration, with the root mean square error as low as 5.92 mg m-3 for the two-band algorithm and 5.91 mg m-3 for the three-band algorithm for the dataset with chl-a concentrations ranging from 1.09 mg m-3 to 107.82 mg m-3. This obviates the need for case-specific reparameterization of the algorithms, as long as the specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in the water does not change drastically, and presents a strong case for the use of NIR-red algorithms as standard algorithms that can be routinely applied for near-real-time quantitative monitoring of chl-a concentration in the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay, and potentially elsewhere, which will be a real boon to ecologists, natural resource managers and environmental decision-makers. We also present a temporal series of chl-a maps generated using the NIR-red algorithms from images acquired by the space-borne hyperspectral sensor HICO over the Taganrog Bay. The fine spatial resolution (96 m) of HICO images allows for a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution pattern of chl-a, and the fine spectral resolution (5.7 nm) offers a great potential for phytoplankton species discrimination. With the recent demise of MERIS

  19. User preferences and water use savings owing to washbasin taps retrofit: a case study of the DECivil building of the University of Aveiro.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Inês; Sousa, Vítor; Adeyeye, Kemi; Silva-Afonso, Armando

    2017-04-04

    During the last decades, achieving water efficiency in buildings has increasingly become an important challenge in the scope of sustainability. Water consumption is directly related to individual conduct. Despite the various technological improvements in fixtures and appliances, their performance will be influenced by human preferences and behavior. As a result, the potential for effective water consumption saving is influenced by behavior change as well as water-efficient fixtures and appliances. This work evaluates the impact of user preferences and behavior change on the water-efficient performance of tap aerators in a case study building: the Department of Civil Engineering building of the University of Aveiro, Portugal. Four aerators with different discharge reductions and types were installed in the toilet's washbasins and the user's preferences and behavior change measured through direct and online questionnaires. It was observed that the effective water consumption reduction (15 to 49%) was less than the discharge reduction (30 to 70%), confirming that user factors influence water savings. Water use reductions in the tested range (2.0 to 6.7 l/min) also varied according to gender, with male users using less water than their female counterparts. It was noted that an awareness of sustainability values prevailed amongst the users when confronted with the choice between comfort and water efficiency, although differences were observed in the user preferences regarding the various aerators. When confronted with the information that the lower discharge aerator would contribute to a reduction of about 70% on the water discharge, 25% of the users agreed with its use, even if it resulted in a certain degree of dissatisfaction. In comparison, only 8% of the users completely disagreed with its installation. On average, the water consumption reduction was 46% smaller than the discharge reduction achievable with the aerator alone. This further confirms the user factors

  20. Future Proofing Water Policy and Catchment Management for a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Competing Demands and Water Scarcity in the River Thames and Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Crossman, J.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The River Thames Catchment is the major water supply system in Southern England and supplies all of London's water supply from either the River Lee (a tributary of the Thames) or the main river abstraction site at Teddington (see Figure 1) or from groundwater sources in London. There has been a measurable change in rainfall patterns over the past 250 years with reducing summer rainfall and, hence flows, over the past 40 years. In 1976, following 3 dry winters, the London Reservoirs were more or less empty and the river flow direction was reversed to ensure a supply of water for London. Recent climate change studies in the Thames catchments suggest an increasing threat to water supply and also damage to river water quality and ecology. In addition to a changing climate, population levels in London have risen in recent years and the catchment is increasingly vulnerable to land use change. Since the 1920s changes in land use have increased the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the catchment and this trend is predicted to be exacerbated as climate change reduces freshwater dilution. Also land use is predicted to change as agriculture becomes more intensive as farmers react to higher grain and food prices. At the same time rising water temperatures has exposed the river to the potential for toxic algal blooms, such as cyanobacteria. This doom and gloom story is being managed however using a range of policy instruments, led by central government and public and private organisations such as Thames Water and the Environment Agency. Measures such as new reservoirs, a water transfer scheme from Wales and water metering to reduce demand are all being actively pursued, as are land management measures to control diffuse pollution. In order to assess the effects of climate change on the Thames catchment a major modelling study has been undertaken. The Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) has been set up for the Thames to model flow, nitrogen, phosphorus and ecology. Climate

  1. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area.

  2. How effective is river restoration in re-establishing groundwater-surface water interactions? - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, A.-M.; Weber, C.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether river restoration was successful in re-establishing groundwater-surface water interactions in a degraded urban stream. Restoration measures included morphological changes to the river bed, such as the installation of gravel islands and spur dykes, as well as the planting of site-specific riparian vegetation. Standard distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and novel active and passive DTS approaches were employed to study groundwater-surface water interactions in two reference streams and an experimental reach of an urban stream before and after its restoration. Radon-222 analyses were utilized to validate the losing stream conditions of the urban stream in the experimental reach. Our results indicated that river restoration at the study site was indeed successful in increasing groundwater-surface water interactions. Increased surface water downwelling occurred locally at the tip of a gravel island created during river restoration. Hence, the installation of in-stream structures increased the vertical connectivity and thus groundwater-surface water interactions. With the methods presented in this publication, it would be possible to routinely investigate the success of river restorations in re-establishing vertical connectivity, thereby gaining insight into the effectiveness of specific restoration measures. This, in turn, would enable the optimization of future river restoration projects, rendering them more cost-effective and successful.

  3. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  4. Statistical evaluation of the vulnerability of ground-water wells, a case study of data from the Strasbourg polygone pumping field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamet, P.; Vincent, F.; Sampson, P.D.

    1997-05-01

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how statistical methods can help to understand the relationships between ground-water wells and pollutant sources in alluvial systems. The observation of a time series of chloride concentrations in a specific well in Strasbourg, France, influenced by the infiltration of chlorinated water from the Rhine river, made it possible to derive a two-predictor model of the water quality in the well. This model combines a linear dependence upon a time-lagged chloride concentration in the river, reflecting the steady-state water balance in the well, and a nonlinear dependence upon average lagged water output pumped from the well. This simple model explains 86% of the variance in well chloride concentration measured weekly over a two year period.

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Support and Modeling for the Boiling Water Reactor Station Black Out Case Study Using RELAP and RAVEN

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Thomas Riley; John Schroeder; Cristian Rabiti; Aldrea Alfonsi; Joe Nielsen; Dan Maljovec; Bie Wang; Valerio Pascucci

    2013-09-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated. In order to evaluate the impact of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the impact of power uprate on the safety of a boiled water reactor system. The case study considered is a loss of off-site power followed by the loss of diesel generators, i.e., a station black out (SBO) event. Analysis is performed by using a thermo-hydraulic code, i.e. RELAP-5, and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at INL, i.e. RAVEN. Starting from the event tree models contained in SAPHIRE, we built the input file for RELAP-5 that models in great detail system dynamics under SBO conditions. We also interfaced RAVEN with RELAP-5 so that it would be possible to run multiple RELAP-5 simulation runs by changing specific keywords of the input file. We both employed classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. We also employed advanced data analysis and visualization tools that helped us to correlate simulation outcome such as maximum core temperature with a set of input uncertain parameters. Results obtained gave a detailed overview of the issues associated to power uprate for a SBO accident scenario. We were able to quantify how timing of safety related events were impacted by a higher reactor core power. Such insights can provide useful material to the decision makers to perform risk-infomed safety margins management.

  6. Water Framework Directive catchment planning: a case study apportioning loads and assessing environmental benefits of programme of measures.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Bob; Kelly, Sarah; Green, Hannah; Squibbs, Graham; Mitchell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Complying with proposed Water Framework Directive (WFD) water quality standards for 'good ecological status' in England and Wales potentially requires a range of Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to control point and diffuse sources of pollution. There is an urgent need to define the benefits and costs of a range of potential PoMs. Water quality modelling can be used to understand where the greatest impact in a catchment can be achieved through 'end of pipe' and diffuse source reductions. This information can be used to guide cost-effective investment by private water companies and those with responsibilities for agricultural, industrial and urban diffuse inputs. In the UK, river water quality modelling with the Environment Agency SIMCAT model is regarded as the best current approach to support decision making for river water quality management and planning. The paper describes how a SIMCAT model has been used to conduct a trial WFD integrated catchment planning study for the River Ribble catchment in the North West of England. The model has been used to assess over 80 catchment planning scenarios. The results are being used support a national assessment of the cost-effectiveness of proposed PoMs.

  7. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  8. Spatially distributed modelling of surface water-groundwater exchanges during overbank flood events - a case study at the Garonne River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Brito, David; Sun, Xiaoling; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Exchanges between surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) are of considerable importance to floodplain ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Flood events in particular are important for riparian water budget and element exchanges and processing. However SW-GW exchanges present complex spatial and temporal patterns and modelling can provide useful knowledge about the processes involved at the scale of the reach and its adjacent floodplain. This study used a physically-based, spatially-distributed modelling approach for studying SW-GW exchanges. The modelling in this study is based on the MOHID Land model, combining the modelling of surface water flow in 2D with the Saint-Venant equation and the modelling of unsaturated groundwater flow in 3D with the Richards' equation. Overbank flow during floods was also integrated, as well as water exchanges between the two domains across the entire floodplain. Conservative transport simulations were also performed to study and validate the simulation of the mixing between surface water and groundwater. The model was applied to the well-monitored study site of Monbéqui (6.6 km²) in the Garonne floodplain (south-west France) for a five-month period and was able to represent the hydrology of the study area. Infiltration (SW to GW) and exfiltration (SW to GW) were characterised over the five-month period. Results showed that infiltration and exfiltration exhibited strong spatiotemporal variations, and infiltration from overbank flow accounted for 88% of the total simulated infiltration, corresponding to large flood periods. The results confirmed that overbank flood events played a determinant role in floodplain water budget and SW-GW exchanges compared to smaller (below bankfull) flood events. The impact of floods on water budget appeared to be similar for flood events exceeding a threshold corresponding to the five-year return period event due to the study area's topography. Simulation of overbank flow during flood events was an

  9. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  10. The contribution of informal water development in improving livelihood in Swaziland: A case study of Mdonjane community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyatsi, A. M.; Mwendera, E. J.

    A study was undertaken to determine the technologies used by households to abstract and convey water for irrigation and domestic uses, as well as the contribution of the water in improving their livelihood. The Mdonjane area, where the study was carried is situated in the rural upper middleveld of Swaziland, below steep hills that have several springs with streams draining to the Usuthu River. The study involved conducting a field survey to determine the water use activities within the area as well as water abstraction and conveyance methods. A questionnaire was developed and administered to homesteads to ascertain information on their utilisation of water and the contribution of irrigation to their livelihood. A total of 210 homesteads were identified within the community, and interviews were conducted to all the homesteads. The results showed that treated domestic water was not available to all the homesteads. About 32% of the homesteads used pipes to convey water for domestic purposes from streams and springs located at altitudes higher than the homesteads. Thirty one percent and 16 percent of the homesteads obtained water for domestic purposes directly from springs and streams, respectively. A total of 101 homesteads (48%) practised irrigated agriculture. Over 74% of homesteads that irrigated some crops did so on land holdings less than a quarter of a hectare. The dominant crops irrigated were spinach (96 homesteads), cabbages (69 homesteads), beetroots (60 homesteads) and tomatoes (36 homesteads). The majority of the homesteads (53 homesteads) sold their agricultural produce within the farms, with 15 homesteads selling theirs on market stalls situated along the main road. The results also showed that irrigation contributed to poverty alleviation by generating income and provision of food to households. About 25% of the homesteads (52 homesteads) obtained more than 50% of their household food production from irrigation, with nine percent (18 homesteads) getting

  11. A Case Study of School Principals in the United States and Japan: Metaphors of Fire and Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    In the United States in recent years there has been extensive concern about school reform and keen interest in Japanese business-management practices. This paper presents findings of a case study that examined the role and responsibilities of two middle school principals, one in Japan and one in the United States. The study is based on Krug's…

  12. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  13. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: Case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A study was conducted in Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje districts in Malawi to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells. An in situ membrane filtration test kit (Paqualab 50) was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from 21 covered/protected and five open/unprotected shallow wells at four different times in a year to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of microbiological analysis show that the drinking water quality is very poor, i.e. grossly polluted with faecal matter. Total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) values in the wet season (February and April, 2006) were much higher than those in the dry season (August and October, 2005). In terms of total coliform, the results show that approximately 80% of the shallow wells tested in the dry season and 100% of the wells in the wet season did not meet the drinking water quality temporary guidelines, set by the Ministry of Water Development - MoWD (2003) [Ministry of Water Development - MoWD, 2003. Government of Malawi, Devolution of functions of assemblies, Guidelines and standards], of a maximum of 50 TC/100 ml for untreated water. Approximately 50% of the wells failed to meet the faecal coliform drinking water guideline of 50 FC/100 ml in the dry season while this figure had increased to 94% of the wells failing to meet the standard in the wet season. Covered wells were not as grossly contaminated as open wells but all of the wells tested failed the MoWD standards in at least one sample. Chemical analyses results were within the drinking water guideline and variations during seasons were insignificant. pH values were within the guidelines in the dry season except for Mulanje district where on average 45% of the wells had pH values below the lower limit of 6.0. In the wet season 50% of the samples had pH values below 6.0. Turbidity

  14. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  15. Assessment of endocrine disruptors - DDTs and DEHP (plasticizer) in source water: a case study from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, Santhi Armugam; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors in source water is of great concern because of their suspected adverse effects on humans, even when present at very low levels. As the main source of potable water supply, rivers in Malaysia are highly susceptible to contamination by various endocrine disruptors originating from anthropogenic activities. In this study, the contamination levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rivers of Selangor were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from sites representing source water for 18 drinking water treatment plants in Selangor between July 2008 and July 2009. DDT and its metabolites were detected in only 14% of the 192 samples analysed at levels ranging from 0.6 to 14.6 ng/L. Meanwhile DEHP was detected in 96.8% of the samples at levels ranging from below quantitation level (18 ng/L) to 970 ng/L. The detected levels of DDTs and DEHP were lower than the WHO and Malaysian Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Data obtained from this study should also serve as a reference point for future surveillance on these endocrine disruptors.

  16. Participatory Planning for the improvement of water management in uncertain conditions: Case study of the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Slimani, Imane; Joyce, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Due to its geographical location and to the natural features of its climate, Morocco is known as a drought prone and water scarce country. However, the country now faces, in the current context of Climate Change, an increasing and alarming water scarcity due to the combined effects of a strong decline of precipitations and a growing pressure on water resources induced by the economic development and demographic growth. Aware of this pressing issue, Morocco implemented a national water strategy based on the decentralization of water management at the river basin level and the establishment of Integrated Water Resources Management master plans for each basin. Unfortunately, these plans often underestimate the impact of uncertainty and this may lead to inefficient and unsustainable water management strategies. In this context, the aim of this study is to develop an innovative approach for robust decision making in uncertain conditions by coupling the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) model and the "XLRM" robust decision making framework to support the evaluation of management options and promote long-term sustainable integrated water management strategies at the basin level. The Souss-Massa basin, located in the south-western part of the country was retained as a case study because of its strategic importance but also because it now faces, as a consequence of the irrational use of water resources during the last decades significant water resources management challenges mainly due to the overexploitation of ground water resources, the increased of water demand due to the irrigation development, the urban and industrial growth and the expansion of tourism. Thus, in this study, a three step methodology was developed. First, the WEAP model were developed and calibrated for the Souss-Massa basin. In a second step, a XLRM participatory workshop gathering the basin main stakeholders were organized in order to identify the EXogenous factors (key uncertainties

  17. Sustainable Improvement of Urban River Network Water Quality and Flood Control Capacity by a Hydrodynamic Control Approach-Case Study of Changshu City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chen; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Long; Fan, Ziwu

    2017-01-01

    Water environment of urban rivers suffers degradation with the impacts of urban expansion, especially in Yangtze River Delta. The water area in cites decreased sharply, and some rivers were cut off because of estate development, which brings the problems of urban flooding, flow stagnation and water deterioration. The approach aims to enhance flood control capability and improve the urban river water quality by planning gate-pump stations surrounding the cities and optimizing the locations and functions of the pumps, sluice gates, weirs in the urban river network. These gate-pump stations together with the sluice gates and weirs guarantee the ability to control the water level in the rivers and creating hydraulic gradient artificially according to mathematical model. Therefore the flow velocity increases, which increases the rate of water exchange, the DO concentration and water body self-purification ability. By site survey and prototype measurement, the river problems are evaluated and basic data are collected. The hydrodynamic model of the river network is established and calibrated to simulate the scenarios. The schemes of water quality improvement, including optimizing layout of the water distribution projects, improvement of the flow discharge in the river network and planning the drainage capacity are decided by comprehensive Analysis. Finally the paper introduces the case study of the approach in Changshu City, where the approach is successfully implemented.

  18. Turbulent Humidity Fluctuations in the Convective Boundary Layer: Case Studies Using Water Vapour Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Behrendt, Andreas; Späth, Florian; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent humidity fluctuations in the convective boundary layer (CBL) under clear-sky conditions were investigated by deriving moments up to fourth-order. High-resolution humidity measurements were collected with a water vapour differential absorption lidar system during the HD(CP)}2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). Two cases, both representing a well-developed CBL around local noon, are discussed. While the first case (from the intensive observation period (IOP) 5 on 20 April 2013) compares well with what is considered typical CBL behaviour, the second case (from IOP 6 on 24 April 2013) shows a number of non-typical characteristics. Both cases show similar capping inversions and wind shear across the CBL top. However, a major difference between both cases is the advection of a humid layer above the CBL top during IOP 6. While the variance profile of IOP 5 shows a maximum at the interfacial layer, two variance peaks are observed near the CBL top for IOP 6. A marked difference can also be seen in the third-order moment and skewness profiles: while both are negative (positive) below (above) the CBL top for IOP 5, the structure is more complex for IOP 6. Kurtosis is about three for IOP 5, whereas for IOP 6, the distribution is slightly platykurtic. We believe that the entrainment of an elevated moist layer into the CBL is responsible for the unusual findings for IOP 6, which suggests that it is important to consider the structure of residual humidity layers entrained into the CBL.

  19. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  20. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: case study of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muangthong, Somphinith; Shrestha, Sangam

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for the assessment of spatial and temporal variations of a large complex water quality data set of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, generated for more than 10 years (1996-2012) by monitoring of 16 parameters at different sites. According to the water quality characteristics, hierarchical CA grouped 13 sampling sites of the Nampong River into two clusters, i.e., upper stream (US) and lower stream (LS) sites, and five sampling sites of the Songkhram River into three clusters, i.e., upper stream (US), middle stream (MS) and lower stream (LS) sites. PCA/FA applied to the data sets thus obtained five latent factors explaining 69.80 and 69.32 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS and US areas, respectively, in the Nampong River and six latent factors explaining 80.80, 73.95, and 73.78 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS, MS, and US areas, respectively, in the Songkhram River. This study highlights the usefulness of multivariate statistical assessment of complex databases in the identification of pollution sources to better comprehend the spatial and temporal variations for effective river water quality management.

  1. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  2. Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chung, Chung-En

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008–2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL. PMID:21695032

  3. Remote sensing application for Sardinella lemuru assessment: a case study of the south waters of Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambah, Abu B.; Miura, Fusanori; Kadarisman, Hanggar P.; Sartimbul, Aida

    2012-10-01

    The assessment of lemuru fish (Sardinella lemuru) using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has provided preliminary information on the habitat of lemuru fish at the South waters of Malang Regency, Indonesia. Lemuru fish catch data, mangrove mapping, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a concentration derived from MODIS/Aqua images have been used in this study. The average of SST during the study was 26.1 °C, the highest average was on December and August was the lowest. The average of chlorophyll-a concentration was 0.55 mg/m3, July was the highest and the lowest concentration of chlorophyll-a was on March. Most of the lemuru fish migrated to the west part of Malang waters during northwest monsoon (December-February), and moved toward eastern part during transitional (March-April-May). In contrast, on the southeast monsoon (June-August), lemuru spread across Malang waters. Habitat suitability of lemuru around coastal waters of Malang Regency related to their migration has different criteria for each month depend on the oceanographic factors and primary productivity. Based on the levels of habitat suitability, lemuru predicted to spawn on June. Sumbermanjing area was the most suitable area (72.39%). Lemuru moved away from Malang waters during transitional until the beginning of northwest monsoon. Primary productivity in coastal waters around Sumbermanjing increased in the southeast monsoon. It represented by January (0.7 mg/m3) in the northwest monsoon and increased reaches 3 mg/m3 in the southeast monsoon on July. It was followed by the increasing of lemuru catch.

  4. Prediction of Water Quality Parameters Using Statistical Methods: A Case Study in a Specially Protected Area, Ankara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alp, E.; Yücel, Ö.; Özcan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has been making many legal arrangements for sustainable water management during the harmonization process with the European Union. In order to make cost effective and efficient decisions, monitoring network in Turkey has been expanding. However, due to time and budget constraints, desired number of monitoring campaigns can not be carried. Hence, in this study, independent parameters that can be measured easily and quickly are used to estimate water quality parameters in Lake Mogan and Eymir using linear regression. Nonpoint sources are one of the major pollutant components in Eymir and Mogan lakes. In this paper, a correlation between easily measurable parameters, DO, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, precipitation and dependent variables, TN, TP, COD, Chl-a, TSS, Total Coliform is investigated. Simple regression analysis is performed for each season in Eymir and Mogan lakes by using SPSS Statistical program using the water quality data collected between 2006-2012. Regression analysis demonstrated significant linear relationship between measured and simulated concentrations for TN (R2=0.86), TP (R2=0.85), TSS (R2=0.91), Chl-a (R2=0.94), COD (R2=0.99), T. Coliform (R2=0.97) which are the best results in each season for Eymir and Mogan Lakes. The overall results of this study shows that by using easily measurable parameters even in ungauged situation the water quality of lakes can be predicted. Moreover, the outputs obtained from the regression equations can be used as an input for water quality models such as phosphorus budget model which is used to calculate the required reduction in the external phosphorus load to Lake Mogan to meet the water quality standards.

  5. Case study research.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  6. Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China: A case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Ndungu, Anne Wairimu; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics have been considered as an emerging pollutant in the aquatic environment. However, research about microplastic pollution in inland freshwaters of China is insufficient. The present study investigated the levels of microplastics in surface water of 20 urban lakes and urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 1660.0±639.1 to 8925±1591n/m(3) for the studied waters, with the highest concentration found in Bei Lake. Microplastic abundance in lakes varied markedly in space, and negatively correlated with the distance from the city center (p<0.001), which confirmed the important role of anthropogenic factors in microplastic distribution. Urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River were found to have relatively lower levels of microplastics than most of the studied lakes. The major type of microplastics among the studied waters was colored plastic, with fiber being the most frequent shape. More than 80% of microplastics in number had a size of <2mm. Polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene were the dominant polymer-types of microplastics analyzed. This study provided important reference for better understanding microplastic levels in inland freshwaters.

  7. Using seasonal forecasts in a drought forecasting system for water management: case-study of the Arzal dam in Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochemore, Louise; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles; Penasso, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The Arzal dam is located at the outlet of the Vilaine River basin (10,000 km2) in Brittany, France. It controls a reservoir (50 hm3) managed for multiple water uses: drinking water, flood control, irrigation, sailing and fish by-passing. Its location in the estuary creates a physical divide between upstream freshwater and downstream saline water. The reservoir thus plays an essential role in the regional water management system. Its operational management during the summer season poses several challenges, mainly related to the quantification of future water inflows and the risks of having restricted water availability for its different uses. Indeed, the occurrence of severe drought periods between May and October may increase the risk of salt intrusion and drinking water contamination due to lock operations. Therefore it is important to provide decision-makers with reliable low-flow forecasts and risk-based visualization tools, which will support their choice of the best strategy for allocation of water among different users and stakeholders. This study focuses on an integrated hydro-meteorological forecasting system developed to forecast low flows upstream the Arzal dam and based on a lumped hydrological model. Medium-range meteorological forecasts from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (51 scenarios up to 9 days ahead) are combined with seasonal meteorological forecasts also from ECMWF to provide extended streamflow forecasts for the summer period. The performance of the forecasts obtained by this method is compared with the performance of two benchmarks: (i) flow forecasts obtained using an ensemble of past observed precipitation series as precipitation scenarios, i.e. without any use of forecasts from meteorological models and (ii) flow forecasts obtained using the seasonal forecasts only, i.e. without medium-term information. First, the performance of ensemble forecasts is evaluated and compared by means of probabilistic scores. Then, a risk

  8. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  9. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile.

    PubMed

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  10. Using multi-component hydrochemical pattern for water balance calculations of intricate water resources in semi-arid regions - a case study in Wadi Al Arab, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Geyer, Stefan; Subah, Ali; Guttman, Yossi

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater harvesting in the semi-arid Wadi al Arab, located in the NW most corner of the Kingdom of Jordan, is supposed to be sustainable. However, since implementation of intense well fields, which take water from the Cretaceous A7/B2 aquifer, springs along the wadi course dried out and groundwater table dropped locally tremendous. To overcome the uncertainties in qualitatively and quantitatively characterising that water resource, a multi-component hydrochemical study was carried out within the SMART-project, which was also used to provide reliable boundary conditions to build up a transient numerical flow model. Wadi Al Arab represents a multi-aquifer system, with unknown interactions between the Cenozoic and Cretaceous aquifers. The exact identification and qualitatively characterization of the different groundwater bodies, the definition of their flow regimes and the recharge rate is a necessary step to calculate a reliable water balance and a rational policy of water management. Inter-aquifer flow prevents the benchmark treatment of the groundwater bodies and its detection by classical methods is an almost impossible task. In order to overcome these difficulties, the main known components of the multi-aquifer system were analysed for REY (REE+ Yttrium) abundance, major elements and for stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δD). The different waters in the area were than classified considering these parameters. This enabled identifying their respective replenishment areas and to elucidate the mixing processes controlled by structural features. This study shows that REY patterns are a powerful tool to decipher the lithology of the catchment area and the intricate patterns of flow paths of the aquifer systems. These information allow the correct definition of boundary conditions for a successful hydraulic modelling.

  11. Cave Water Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

  12. Thallium-rich rust scales in drinkable water distribution systems: A case study from northern Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Cristian; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lepore, Giovanni O; d'Acapito, Francesco; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Following the detection of a severe thallium contamination of the drinkable water from the public distribution system of Valdicastello Carducci-Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy), and the identification of the source of contamination in the Molini di Sant'Anna spring (average Tl content≈15μgL(-1)), the replacement of the contaminated water with a virtually Tl-free one (Tl<0.10μgL(-1)) caused an increase in Tl concentration in the drinkable water. This suggested that the pipeline interior had become a secondary source of Tl contamination, promoting its mineralogical and geochemical study. Rust scales samples taken from several pipeline segments, as well as leaching products obtained from these samples, were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence chemical analyses, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Thallium-rich rust scales (up to 5.3wt% Tl) have been found only in pipeline samples taken downstream the water treatment plant, whereas the sample taken upstream contains much less Tl (~90μgg(-1)). The Tl-rich nature of such scales is related to the occurrence of nano- and micro-spherules of Tl2O3 and less abundant nanocrystalline μm-sized encrustations of TlCl. Leaching experiments on Tl-rich rust scales indicate that a fraction of the available Tl is easily dissolved in tap water; X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that monovalent thallium occurs in water equilibrated with the rust scales, probably related to the dissolution of TlCl encrustations. Therefore, Tl dissolved as Tl(+) only in the water from the Molini di Sant'Anna spring was partially removed through oxidative precipitation of Tl2O3 and precipitation of TlCl. This highlights the critical role played by the addition of chlorine-based oxidants in water treatment plants that could favour the deposition of Tl-rich coatings within the pipelines, giving rise to unexpected secondary sources of

  13. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Molelekwa, Gomotsegang F; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area) is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July) was 2 cfu/100 ml and was <1 cfu/100 ml (undetected) following UF, which complied with the WHO and South African National Standards and Guidelines of <1 cfu/100 ml. During the wet/rainy season (February) total coliform was unacceptably high (>2419.2 cfu/100 ml) before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml) which is within the WHO recommended level of <10 cfu/100 ml. Additionally, during the wet/rainy season E. coli and enterococci were unacceptably high (40.4 cfu/100 ml and 73.3 cfu/100 ml, respectively) before UF but were completely removed following UF, which are within the WHO and SANS recommended limit. The values for electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity were constantly within the WHO recommended limits of 300 µS/cm corrected at 25°C and <5 NTU, respectively, before and after UF, during dry season and wet season. This suggests that there is no need for pre-treatment of the water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  14. Preliminary Studies on Membrane Filtration for the Production of Potable Water: A Case of Tshaanda Rural Village in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Molelekwa, Gomotsegang F.; Mukhola, Murembiwa S.; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area) is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July) was 2 cfu/100 ml and was <1 cfu/100 ml (undetected) following UF, which complied with the WHO and South African National Standards and Guidelines of <1 cfu/100 ml. During the wet/rainy season (February) total coliform was unacceptably high (>2419.2 cfu/100 ml) before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml) which is within the WHO recommended level of <10 cfu/100 ml. Additionally, during the wet/rainy season E. coli and enterococci were unacceptably high (40.4 cfu/100 ml and 73.3 cfu/100 ml, respectively) before UF but were completely removed following UF, which are within the WHO and SANS recommended limit. The values for electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity were constantly within the WHO recommended limits of 300 µS/cm corrected at 25°C and <5 NTU, respectively, before and after UF, during dry season and wet season. This suggests that there is no need for pre-treatment of the water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF. PMID

  15. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  16. The case study of drillbit and borehole frozen water of the subglacial Lake Vostok, East Antarctica for microbial content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, Sergey; Doronin, Maxim; Dominique, Marie; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Lukin, Valery; Karlov, Denis; Demchenko, Leonid; Khilchenko, Margarita

    The objective was to estimate microbial content and diversity in the subglacial Lake Vostok (buried beneath 4-km thick East Antarctic ice sheet) by studying the uppermost water layer which entered the borehole upon lake entry (February 5, 2012) and then shortly frozen within. The samples of so-called drillbit water frozen on a drill bit upon lake enter (RAE57) along with re-drilled so-called borehole-frozen water (RAE58) were provided for the study with the ultimate goal to discover the life in this extreme icy environment. The comprehensive analyses (constrained by Ancient DNA research criteria) of the first lake water samples - drillbit- (one sample) and borehole-frozen (3 different depths 5G-2N-3425, 3429 et 3450m), are nearly got finished. If the drillbit water sample was heavily polluted with drill fluid (at ratio 1:1), re-drilled borehole-frozen samples were proved to be rather clean but still strongly smelling kerosene and containing numerous micro-droplets of drill fluid making the ice non-transparent. The cell concentrations measured by flow cytofluorometry showed 167 cells per ml in the drillbit water sample while in borehole-frozen samples ranged from 5.5 (full-cylinder 3429m deep frozen water ice core) to 38 cells per ml (freeze-centre of 3450m deep moon-shape ice core). DNA analyses came up with total 44 bacterial phylotypes discovered by sequencing of different regions (v3-v5, v4-v8, v4-v6 et full-gene) of 16S rRNA genes. Amongst them all but two were considered to be contaminants (were present in our contaminant library, including drill fluid findings). The 1st remaining phylotype successfully passing all contamination criteria proved to be hitherto-unknown type of bacterium (group of clones, 3 allelic variants) showing less than 86% similarity with known taxa. Its phylogenetic assignment to bacterial divisions or lineages was also unsuccessful despite of the RDP has classified it belonging to OD1 uncultured Candidate Division. The 2nd phylotype was

  17. Proximity of residence to bodies of water and risk for west nile virus infection: a case-control study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Zangeneh, Ana; Khuwaja, Salma A; Martinez, Diana; Rossmann, Susan N; Cardenas, Victor; Murray, Kristy O

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

  18. A case-control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: the relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water.

    PubMed

    Costas, Kevin; Knorr, Robert S; Condon, Suzanne K

    2002-12-02

    A 1981 Massachusetts Department of Public Health study confirmed a childhood leukemia cluster in Woburn, Massachusetts. Our follow-up investigation attempts to identify factors potentially responsible for the cluster. Woburn has a 130-year industrial history that resulted in significant local deposition of tannery and chemical manufacturing waste. In 1979, two of the city's eight municipal drinking water wells were closed when tests identified contamination with solvents including trichloroethylene. By 1986, 21 childhood leukemia cases had been observed (5.52 expected during the seventeen year period) and the case-control investigation discussed herein was begun. Nineteen cases and 37 matched controls comprised the study population. A water distribution model provided contaminated public water exposure estimates for subject residences. Results identified a non-significant association between potential for exposure to contaminated water during maternal pregnancy and leukemia diagnosis, (odds ratio = 8.33, 95% CI 0.73-94.67). However, a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05) was identified for this exposure period. In contrast, the child's potential for exposure from birth to diagnosis showed no association with leukemia risk. Wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation of association magnitudes. Since 1986, expected incidence has been observed in Woburn including 8 consecutive years with no new childhood leukemia diagnoses.

  19. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  20. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  1. The backscattering characteristics of wetland vegetation and water-level changes detection using multi-mode SAR: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meimei; Li, Zhen; Tian, Bangsen; Zhou, Jianmin; Tang, Panpan

    2016-03-01

    A full understanding of the backscattering characteristics of wetlands is necessary for the analysis of the hydrological conditions. In this study, a temporal set of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, acquired at different frequencies, polarizations and incidence angles over the coastal wetlands of the Liaohe River Delta, China, were used to characterize seasonal variations in radar backscattering coefficient for reed marshes and rice fields. The combination of SAR backscattering intensity and an optical-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for long time series can provide additional insight into vegetation structural and its hydrological states. After identifying the factors that induce the backscattering and scattering mechanism changes, detailed analysis of L-band ALOS PALSAR interferometric SAR (InSAR) imagery was conducted to study water-level changes under different environmental conditions. In addition, ENVISAT altimetry was used to validate the accuracy of the water-level changes estimated using the InSAR technique-this is an effective tool instead of sparsely distributed gauge stations for the validation. Our study demonstrates that L-band SAR data with horizontal polarization is particularly suitable for the extraction of water-level changes in the study area; however, vertically-polarized C-band data may also be useful where the density of herbaceous vegetation is low at the initial stage. It is also shown that integrated analysis of the backscattering mechanism and interferometric characteristics using multi-mode SAR can considerably enhance the reliability of the water-level retrieval scheme and better capture the spatial distribution of hydrological patterns.

  2. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  3. A universal calibrated model for the evaluation of surface water and groundwater quality: Model development and a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxue; Yin, Xin'an; Li, Zuoyong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2015-11-01

    Water quality evaluation is an important issue in environmental management. Various methods have been used to evaluate the quality of surface water and groundwater. However, all previous studies have used different evaluation models for surface water and groundwater, and the models must be recalibrated due to changes in monitoring indicators in each evaluation. Water quality managers would benefit from a universal and effective model based on a simple expression that would be suitable for all cases of surface water and groundwater, and which could therefore serve as a standard method for a region or country. To meet this requirement, we attempted to develop a universal calibrated model based on the radial basis function neural network. In the new model, the units and values of the evaluation indicators for surface water and groundwater are normalized simultaneously to make the data directly comparable. The model's training inputs comprise the normalized value in each of a water quality indicator's grades (e.g., the nitrate contents defined in a regulatory standard for grades I to V) for all evaluation indicators. The central vector of the Gaussian function is used as the average of the evaluation indicators' normalized standard values for the five grades. The final calibrated model is expressed as an equation rather than in a programming language, and is therefore easier to use. We used the model in a Chinese case study, and found that the model was feasible (it compared well with the results of other models) and simple to use for the evaluation of surface water and groundwater quality.

  4. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  5. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Vugia, Duc J; Nadle, Joelle; Rothrock, Gretchen A; Colford, John M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne). There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26) and controls (n = 62) were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults) sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]). Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other. PMID:12689343

  6. Heavy metals relationship with water and size-fractionated sediments in rivers using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) case study, rivers of south western Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh, Ali; Saeedi, Mohsen; Lak, Raziyeh

    2016-11-01

    Some pollutants can qualitatively affect aquatic freshwater such as rivers, and heavy metals are one of the most important pollutants in aquatic fresh waters. Heavy metals can be found in the form of components dissolved in these waters or in compounds with suspended particles and surface sediments. It can be said that heavy metals are in equilibrium between water and sediment. In this study, the amount of heavy metals is determined in water and different sizes of sediment. To obtain the relationship between heavy metals in water and size-fractionated sediments, a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized in rivers of the southwestern Caspian Sea. In this research, a case study was carried out on 18 sampling stations in nine rivers. In the first step, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cd) were determined in water and size-fractionated sediment samples. Water sampling sites were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) utilizing squared Euclidean distance with Ward's method. In addition, for interpreting the obtained results and the relationships between the concentration of heavy metals in the tested river water and sample sediments, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized. The rivers were grouped into two classes (those having no pollution and those having low pollution) based on the HCA results obtained for river water samples. CCA results found numerous relationships between rivers in Iran's Guilan province and their size-fractionated sediments samples. The heavy metals of sediments with 0.038 to 0.125 mm size in diameter are slightly correlated with those of water samples.

  7. Ecological network analysis of an urban water metabolic system: model development, and a case study for Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Fath, Brian D

    2010-09-15

    Using ecological network analysis, we analyzed the network structure and ecological relationships in an urban water metabolic system. We developed an ecological network model for the system, and used Beijing as an example of analysis based on the model. We used network throughflow analysis to determine the flows among components, and measured both indirect and direct flows. Using a network utility matrix, we determined the relationships and degrees of mutualism among six compartments--1) local environment, 2) rainwater collection, 3) industry, 4) agriculture, 5) domestic sector, and 6) wastewater recycling--which represent producer, consumer, and reducer trophic levels. The capacity of producers to provide water for Beijing decreased from 2003 to 2007, and consumer demand for water decreased due to decreasing industrial and agricultural demand; the recycling capacity of reducers also improved, decreasing the discharge pressure on the environment. The ecological relationships associated with the local environment or the wastewater recycling sector changed little from 2003 to 2007. From 2003 to 2005, the main changes in the ecological relationships among components of Beijing's water metabolic system mostly occurred between the local environment, the industrial and agricultural sectors, and the domestic sector, but by 2006 and 2007, the major change was between the local environment, the agricultural sector, and the industrial sector. The other ecological relationships did not change during the study period. Although Beijing's mutualism indices remained generally stable, the ecological relationships among compartments changed greatly. Our analysis revealed ways to further optimize this system and the relationships among compartments, thereby optimizing future urban water resources development.

  8. Prediction and assessment of drought effects on surface water quality using artificial neural networks: case study of Zayandehrud River, Iran.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Hamid R; Malek Ahmadi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    Although drought impacts on water quantity are widely recognized, the impacts on water quality are less known. The Zayandehrud River basin in the west-central part of Iran plateau witnessed an increased contamination during the recent droughts and low flows. The river has been receiving wastewater and effluents from the villages, a number of small and large industries, and irrigation drainage systems along its course. What makes the situation even worse is the drought period the river basin has been going through over the last decade. Therefore, a river quality management model is required to include the adverse effects of industrial development in the region and the destructive effects of droughts which affect the river's water quality and its surrounding environment. Developing such a model naturally presupposes investigations into pollution effects in terms of both quality and quantity to be used in such management tools as mathematical models to predict the water quality of the river and to prevent pollution escalation in the environment. The present study aims to investigate electrical conductivity of the Zayandehrud River as a water quality parameter and to evaluate the effect of this parameter under drought conditions. For this purpose, artificial neural networks are used as a modeling tool to derive the relationship between electrical conductivity and the hydrological parameters of the Zayandehrud River. The models used in this research include multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function. Finally, these two models are compared in terms of their performance using the time series of electrical conductivity at eight monitoring-hydrometric stations during drought periods between the years 1997-2012. Results show that artificial neural networks can be used for modeling the relationship between electrical conductivity and hydrological parameters under drought conditions. It is further shown that radial basis function works better for the upstream stretches

  9. The role of environmental variables on the efficiency of water and sewerage companies: a case study of Chile.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Lafuente, Matilde

    2015-07-01

    This paper evaluates the efficiency of water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) by introducing the lack of service quality as undesirable outputs. It also investigates whether the production frontier of WaSCs is overall constant returns to scale (CRS) or variable returns to scale (VRS) by using two different data envelopment analysis models. In a second-stage analysis, we study the influence of exogenous and endogenous variables on WaSC performance by applying non-parametric hypothesis tests. In a pioneering approach, the analysis covers 18 WaSCs from Chile, representing about 90% of the Chilean urban population. The results evidence that the technology of the sample studied is characterized overall by CRS. Peak water demand, the percentage of external workers, and the percentage of unbilled water are the factors affecting the efficiency of WaSCs. From a policy perspective, the integration of undesirable outputs into the assessment of WaSC performance is crucial not to penalize companies that provide high service quality to customers.

  10. Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA.

  11. Eco-environmental vulnerability assessment for large drinking water resource: a case study of Qiandao Lake Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qing; Li, Jun; Deng, Jinsong; Lin, Yi; Ma, Ligang; Wu, Chaofan; Wang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The Qiandao Lake Area (QLA) is of great significance in terms of drinking water supply in East Coast China as well as a nationally renowned tourist attraction. A series of laws and regulations regarding the QLA environment have been enacted and implemented throughout the past decade with the aim of negating the harmful effects associated with expanding urbanization and industrialization. In this research, an assessment framework was developed to analyze the eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA from 1990-2010 by integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and geographical information systems (GIS) in an attempt to gain insights into the status quo of the QLA so as to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the related policies. After processing and analyzing the temporal and spatial variation of eco-environmental vulnerability and major environmental issues in the QLA, we found that the state of eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA was acceptable, though a moderate deterioration was detected during the study period. Furthermore, analysis of the combination of vulnerability and water quality indicated that the water quality showed signs of declination, though the overall status remained satisfactory. It was hence concluded that the collective protection and treatment actions were effective over the study period, whereas immediately stricter measures would be required for protecting the drinking water quality from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Finally, the spatial variation of the eco-environmental vulnerability assessment also implied that specifically more targeted measures should be adopted in respective regions for long-term sustainable development of the QLA.

  12. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000-2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing water

  13. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley

    PubMed Central

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000–2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing

  14. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p < 0.001), DIC (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.0001) using data set collected in 2011. Independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding, yielding high correlation for salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001), salinity vs DIC (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.0001), highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  15. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U

    2003-12-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  16. Estimation of Agricultural Water Consumption from Meteorological and Yield Data: A Case Study of Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zaijian; Shen, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater resources for irrigated grain production in Hebei province threatens national grain food security. The objective of this study was to quantify agricultural water consumption (AWC) and irrigation water consumption in this region. A methodology to estimate AWC was developed based on Penman-Monteith method using meteorological station data (1984–2008) and existing actual ET (2002–2008) data which estimated from MODIS satellite data through a remote sensing ET model. The validation of the model using the experimental plots (50 m2) data observed from the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, showed the average deviation of the model was −3.7% for non-rainfed plots. The total AWC and irrigation water (mainly groundwater) consumption for Hebei province from 1984–2008 were then estimated as 864 km3 and 139 km3, respectively. In addition, we found the AWC has significantly increased during the past 25 years except for a few counties located in mountainous regions. Estimations of net groundwater consumption for grain food production within the plain area of Hebei province in the past 25 years accounted for 113 km3 which could cause average groundwater decrease of 7.4 m over the plain. The integration of meteorological and satellite data allows us to extend estimation of actual ET beyond the record available from satellite data, and the approach could be applicable in other regions globally where similar data are available. PMID:23516537

  17. Retrieval of lake water temperature based on LandSat TM imagery: A case study in East Lake of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bo; Kang, Ling; Yang, Shengmei

    2013-10-01

    Lake water temperature is one of the most important parameters determining ecological conditions in lake water. With the recent development of satellite remote sensing, remotely sensed data instead of traditional sampling measurement can be used to retrieve the lake surface temperature. The East Lake located in the Wuhan city was selected as research region in this paper. The mono window algorithm has been applied to retrieve the lake water temperature of East lake basin with Landsat TM data. Through three groups of field survey data, the outcome shows that the retrieval results using the mono window model are quite approximate to the same period of the experimental region historical temperature data. So, it is feasible to utilize the remote sensing method to obtain the lake temperature. Meanwhile, the retrieval results also demonstrate that the East Lake surface temperatures from different years have the similar distribution regularity. Generally speaking, the temperature of the lake center is higher than the surrounding area. The west of lake is mostly higher than the east mainly due to the vegetation density and urbanization distribution condition. This conclusion is important to the further study on monitoring the East Lake temperature particularly in large scale.

  18. Evaluation of a Full-Scale Water-Based Scrubber for Removing Siloxanes from Digester Gas: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-05-01

    Siloxanes are becoming more prominent in digester gas at water resource recovery facilities because of their wide use in personal care products. This study evaluates a full-scale water-based scrubber operating in a water resource recovery facility (Miami, FL). The digester gas is used for energy generation due to its high methane content. During energy generation, siloxanes are converted to silicates and Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), which leave deposits on engine components. Trimethylsilanol (TMSOH), Octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were detected in the digester gas. D4 and D5 were present at the highest concentrations, 5000 and 1800 μg/ m3, respectively. Sampling results have indicated that scrubbers employed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at the facility do not provide effective removal of siloxanes due to their high Henry's Constant. Post scrubber treatment is needed to remove siloxanes from the digester gas prior to combustion.

  19. Analysis of radon in shallow-well water: a case study at Phichit subdistrict in Songkhla province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charoensri, A.; Siriboonprapob, S.; Sastri, N.

    2015-05-01

    Radon levels were measured in shallow-well water samples collected from Phichit subdistrict in Songkhla province, Thailand. A total of 35 water samples from shallow-wells were collected and measured for the radon concentration. The measurements were performed using a RAD7 portable radon detector. The radon concentrations varied from 0.18 ± 0.07 to 98.1 ± 5.92 Bq/L with a mean value of 16.76 ± 2.33 Bq/L. These recorded values were compared with the safe limit values recommended for drinking water by various health and environmental protection agencies. Thirty-four percent of the recorded values were within the safe limit of 11 Bq/L recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The annual effective dose from ingestion and inhalation of radon was also evaluated. The estimated total effective dose varied from 0.48 to 262.91 μSv/year. The total effective dose in most of the samples (∼90%) in this study was within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Council.

  20. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  1. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies James F. Lynch MS #12...N00014-14-1-0040 http://acoustics.whoi.edu/sw06/ LONG TERM GOALS The long term goals of our shallow water acoustics work are to: 1) understand the...nature of low frequency (10-1500 Hz) acoustic propagation, scattering and noise in shallow water when strong oceanic variability is present in the

  2. Assessment of impacts of land use changes on surface water using L-THIA model (case study: Zayandehrud river basin).

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Solgi, E; Salmanmahiny, A

    2016-12-01

    Land use changes in a basin are the most important factors affecting its hydrology and water quality. A hydrological model is an effective tool in assessing the effects of land use change on surface water. In this study, the effects of land use changes in the Zayandehrud basin are estimated using long-term hydrologic impact assessment model. This model is applicable using long-term data on climate, soil hydrological groups, and land use maps. The study covered three land uses across 18 years (from 1997 to 2015), and we used data on 30 years of precipitation (from 1985 to 2015) in the model. The results of modeling revealed that the average runoff volume increased from around 5,765,034 m(3) in 1997 to 8,894,525 m(3) in 2015. The results also showed an increase in runoff depth. Land use changes over the study period showed an increase of residential areas, bare land, and agricultural lands and a decrease of pasture and forests. The results can be used to make decisions and monitor changes in land use to control the depth and volume of runoff. Using output maps helps in delimitation of the areas that have high runoff average and in implementation of the management plans for controlling the amount of runoff in these areas. Appropriate land use design can decrease impacts of land use changes including hydrologic effects.

  3. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5-1030.6t·yr(-1); Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3-31.0t·yr(-1); and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480-1918.0t·yr(-1). The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources

  4. Application of MODIS Products to Infer Possible Relationships Between Basin Land Cover and Coastal Waters Turbidity Using the Magdalena River, Colombia, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrinan, Max Jacobo Moreno; Cordova, Africa Flores; Olivares, Francisco Delgado; Irwin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Basin development and consequent change in basin land cover have been often associated with an increased turbidity in coastal waters because of sediment yield and nutrients loading. The later leads to phytoplankton abundance further exacerbating water turbidity. This subsequently affects biological and physical processes in coastal estuaries by interfering with sun light penetration to coral reefs and sea grass, and even affecting public health. Therefore, consistent estimation of land cover changes and turbidity trend lines is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Ground solely methods to estimate land cover change would be unpractical and traditional methods of monitoring in situ water turbidity can be very expensive and time consuming. Accurate monitoring on the status and trends of basin land cover as well as the water quality of the receiving water bodies are required for analysis of relationships between the two variables. Use of remote sensing (RS) technology provides a great benefit for both fields of study, facilitating monitoring of changes in a timely and cost effective manner and covering wide areas with long term measurements. In this study, the Magdalena River basin and fixed geographical locations in the estuarine waters of its delta are used as a case to study the temporal trend lines of both, land cover change and the reflectance of the water turbidity using satellite technology. Land cover data from a combined product between sensors Terra and Aqua (MCD12Q1) from MODIS will be adapted to the conditions in the Magdalena basin to estimate changes in land cover since year 2000 to 2009. Surface reflectance data from a MODIS, Terra (MOD09GQ), band 1, will be used in lieu of in situ water turbidity for the time period between 2000 and present. Results will be compared with available existing data.

  5. A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Drinking-Water Nitrate and Congenital Anomalies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Develop Individual-Level Exposure Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Caitlin E.; Guernsey, Judith R.; Allen, Alexander C.; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Allen, Victoria M.; Gordon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5–5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05–5.66) and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92–5.52) was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration. PMID:24503976

  6. A population-based case-control study of drinking-water nitrate and congenital anomalies using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop individual-level exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Holtby, Caitlin E; Guernsey, Judith R; Allen, Alexander C; Vanleeuwen, John A; Allen, Victoria M; Gordon, Robert J

    2014-02-05

    Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5-5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05-5.66) and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92-5.52) was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration.

  7. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equi