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Sample records for casein micelle structure

  1. Supramolecular structure of the casein micelle.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oommen, B S

    2008-05-01

    The supramolecular structure of colloidal casein micelles in milk was investigated by using a sample preparation protocol based on adsorption of proteins onto a poly-l-lysine and parlodion-coated copper grid, staining of proteins and calcium phosphate by uranyl oxalate, instantaneous freezing, and drying under a high vacuum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy stereo-images were obtained showing the interior structure of casein micelles. On the basis of our interpretation of these images, an interlocked lattice model was developed in which both casein-calcium phosphate aggregates and casein polymer chains act together to maintain casein micelle integrity. The caseins form linear and branched chains (2 to 5 proteins long) interlocked by the casein-stabilized calcium phosphate nanoclusters. This model suggests that stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters by phosphoserine domains of alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, or beta-casein, or their combination, would orient their hydrophobic domains outward, allowing interaction and binding to other casein molecules. Other interactions between the caseins, such as calcium bridging, could also occur and further stabilize the supramolecule. The combination of having an interlocked lattice structure and multiple interactions results in an open, sponge-like colloidal supramolecule that is resistant to spatial changes and disintegration. Hydrophobic interactions between caseins surrounding a calcium phosphate nanocluster would prevent complete dissociation of casein micelles when the calcium phosphate nanoclusters are solubilized. Likewise, calcium bridging and other electrostatic interactions between caseins would prevent dissociation of the casein micelles into casein-calcium phosphate nanocluster aggregates when milk is cooled or urea is added to milk, and hydrophobic interactions are reduced. The appearance of both polymer chains and small aggregate particles during milk synthesis would also be expected based on

  2. pH-dependent structures and properties of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Guo, Rong

    2008-08-01

    The association behavior of casein over a broad pH range has first been investigated by fluorescent technique together with DLS and turbidity measurements. Casein molecules can self-assemble into casein micelles in the pH ranges 2.0 to 3.0, and 5.5 to 12.0. The hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond and electrostatic action are the main interactions in the formation of casein micelles. The results show that the structure of casein micelles is more compact at low pH and looser at high pH. The casein micelle has the most compact structure at pH 5.5, when it has almost no electrostatic repulsion between casein molecules.

  3. Casein micelles and their internal structure.

    PubMed

    de Kruif, Cornelis G; Huppertz, Thom; Urban, Volker S; Petukhov, Andrei V

    2012-01-01

    The internal structure of casein micelles was studied by calculating the small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and static light scattering spectrum (SANS, SAXS, SLS) as a function of the scattering contrast and composition. We predicted experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS spectra self consistently using independently determined parameters for composition size, polydispersity, density and voluminosity. The internal structure of the casein micelles, i.e. how the various components are distributed within the casein micelle, was modeled according to three different models advocated in the literature; i.e. the classical sub-micelle model, the nanocluster model and the dual binding model. In this paper we present the essential features of these models and combine new and old experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS and DLS scattering data with new calculations that predict the spectra. Further evidence on micellar substructure was obtained by internally cross linking the casein micelles using transglutaminase, which led to casein nanogel particles. In contrast to native casein micelles, the nanogel particles were stable in 6M urea and after sequestering the calcium using trisodium citrate. The changed scattering properties were again predicted self consistently. An important result is that the radius of gyration is independent of contrast, indicating that the mass distribution within a casein micelle is homogeneous. Experimental contrast is predicted quite well leading to a match point at a D(2)O volume fraction of 0.41 ratio in SANS. Using SANS and SAXS model calculations it is concluded that only the nanocluster model is capable of accounting for the experimental scattering contrast variation data. All features and trends are predicted self consistently, among which the 'famous' shoulder at a wave vector value Q=0.35 nm(-1) In the nanocluster model, the casein micelle is considered as a (homogeneous) matrix of caseins in which the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) nanoclusters are

  4. Casein micelles and their internal structure

    SciTech Connect

    De Kruif, Cornelis G; Huppertz, Thom; Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    The internal structure of casein micelles was studied by calculating the small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and static light scattering spectrum (SANS, SAXS, SLS) as a function of the scattering contrast and composition. We predicted experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS spectra self consistently using independently determined parameters for composition size, polydispersity, density and voluminosity. The internal structure of the casein micelles, i.e. how the various components are distributed within the casein micelle, was modeled according to three different models advocated in the literature; i.e. the classical sub-micelle model, the nanocluster model and the dual binding model. In this paper we presentmore » the essential features of these models and combine new and old experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS and DLS scattering data with new calculations that predict the spectra. Further evidence on micellar substructure was obtained by internally cross linking the casein micelles using transglutaminase, which led to casein nanogel particles. In contrast to native casein micelles, the nanogel particles were stable in 6 M urea and after sequestering the calcium using trisodium citrate. The changed scattering properties were again predicted self consistently. An important result is that the radius of gyration is independent of contrast, indicating that the mass distribution within a casein micelle is homogeneous. Experimental contrast is predicted quite well leading to a match point at a D{sub 2}O volume fraction of 0.41 ratio in SANS. Using SANS and SAXS model calculations it is concluded that only the nanocluster model is capable of accounting for the experimental scattering contrast variation data. All features and trends are predicted self consistently, among which the 'famous' shoulder at a wave vector value Q = 0.35 nm{sup -1}. In the nanocluster model, the casein micelle is considered as a (homogeneous) matrix of caseins in which the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP

  5. κ-Casein terminates casein micelle build-up by its "soft" secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Krisztina; Váró, György; Szalontai, Balázs

    2012-11-01

    In our previous paper (Nagy et al. in J Biol Chem 285:38811-38817, 2010) by using a multilayered model system, we showed that, from α-casein, aggregates (similar to natural casein micelles) can be built up step by step if Ca-phosphate nanocluster incorporation is ensured between the protein adsorption steps. It remained, however, an open question whether the growth of the aggregates can be terminated, similarly to in nature with casein micelles. Here, we show that, in the presence of Ca-phosphate nanoclusters, upon adsorbing onto earlier α-casein surfaces, the secondary structure of α-casein remains practically unaffected, but κ-casein exhibits considerable changes in its secondary structure as manifested by a shift toward having more β-structures. In the absence of Ca-phosphate, only κ-casein can still adsorb onto the underlying casein surface; this κ-casein also expresses considerable shift toward β-structures. In addition, this κ-casein cover terminates casein aggregation; no further adsorption of either α- or κ-casein can be achieved. These results, while obtained on a model system, may show that the Ca-insensitive κ-casein can, indeed, be the outer layer of the casein micelles, not only because of its "hairy" extrusion into the water phase, but because of its "softer" secondary structure, which can "occlude" the interacting motifs serving casein aggregation. We think that the revealed nature of the molecular interactions, and the growth mechanism found here, might be useful to understand the aggregation process of casein micelles also in vivo.

  6. Rennet-induced coagulation properties of yak casein micelles: A comparison with cow casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Yuan; Wang, Pengjie; Tian, Yanbao; Liang, Qi; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-12-01

    It is essential for yak cheese processing to understand the rennet-induced coagulation properties of gel formation from casein micelles. We have previously discovered that yak milk requires a longer incubation time but forms stronger gels compared with cow milk. In this study, we are aiming to understand the rennet-induced coagulation properties of yak casein micelles comparing with cow casein micelles. Rheological analyses revealed that the gelling times of yak and cow casein micelles were 11.6±0.5 and 8.7±0.4min (P<0.05) respectively, but yak casein gel had a higher elastic modulus G' (6.5±0.2Pa) than cow casein gel (2.5±0.2Pa; P<0.05). This is consistent with the results obtained by micro-rheology. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images (CLSM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopic images (cryo-SEM) showed that yak casein gel was more homogeneous and had smaller pore size than cow casein gels. Yak casein micelles had higher calcium (26.00mM), phosphate (19.90mM) and β-casein (relative 32%) concentrations. In addition, yak casein micelles were larger (Z-average 218.6nm) than cow casein micelles, and contained lower κ-casein (relative 13%). By comparison with cow casein micelles, yak casein micelle composition corresponding to their micellar calcium phosphate and κ-casein content may greatly contribute to the longer coagulation time and denser gel structure. An initial slower caseinomacropeptide (CMP) release rate and the slower rate of aggregation between para-casein micelles contributed to a more homogeneous yak gel network. Higher colloidal calcium phosphate is crucial for yak casein micelle aggregation and gel firmness because sufficient colloidal calcium phosphates can firmly glue sub-micelles and links casein micelles. This study provides valuable information for yak cheese production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of calcium concentration on the structure of casein micelles in thin films.

    PubMed

    Müller-Buschbaum, P; Gebhardt, R; Roth, S V; Metwalli, E; Doster, W

    2007-08-01

    The structure of thin casein films prepared with spin-coating is investigated as a function of the calcium concentration. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy are used to probe the micelle structure. For comparison, the corresponding casein solutions are investigated with dynamic light-scattering experiments. In the thin films with added calcium three types of casein structures, aggregates, micelles, and mini-micelles, are observed in coexistence with atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. With increasing calcium concentration, the size of the aggregates strongly increases, while the size of micelles slightly decreases and the size of the mini-micelles increases. This effect is explained in the framework of the particle-stabilizing properties of the hairy layer of kappa-casein surrounding the casein micelles.

  8. Effect of Calcium Concentration on the Structure of Casein Micelles in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Gebhardt, R.; Roth, S. V.; Metwalli, E.; Doster, W.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of thin casein films prepared with spin-coating is investigated as a function of the calcium concentration. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy are used to probe the micelle structure. For comparison, the corresponding casein solutions are investigated with dynamic light-scattering experiments. In the thin films with added calcium three types of casein structures, aggregates, micelles, and mini-micelles, are observed in coexistence with atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. With increasing calcium concentration, the size of the aggregates strongly increases, while the size of micelles slightly decreases and the size of the mini-micelles increases. This effect is explained in the framework of the particle-stabilizing properties of the hairy layer of κ-casein surrounding the casein micelles. PMID:17496032

  9. AFM imaging of milk casein micelles: evidence for structural rearrangement upon acidification.

    PubMed

    Ouanezar, Mustapha; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Bouchoux, Antoine

    2012-03-20

    Milk casein micelles are natural association colloids that we all encounter in everyday life, yet we still lack an accurate description of their internal structure and the interactions that stabilize it. In this letter, we provide for the first time detailed images of intact casein micelles as obtained through atomic force microscopy under liquid conditions close to physiological. The micelles appear as heterogeneous raspberry-like particles, which is consistent with a hierarchical/spongelike structure made of connected 10-40 nm dense casein regions. Upon in situ acidification to pH 5, the micelles decrease in size and lose their surface heterogeneities, indicating that this structure is highly sensitive to variations in mineral content and caseins net charge.

  10. Glycation Reactions of Casein Micelles.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-13

    After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles.

  11. Structural changes of deposited casein micelles induced by membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R; Steinhauer, T; Meyer, P; Sterr, J; Perlich, J; Kulozik, U

    2012-01-01

    Casein micelles undergo shape changes when subjected to frontal filtration forces. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) allow a quantification of such structural changes on filtration cakes deposited on smooth silicon micro-sieves. A trans-membrane pressure of deltap = 400 mbar across the micro-sieve leads to an immediate film formation after deposition of casein solution. We observe significant changes in the GISAXS pattern depending on how many layers are stacked on top of each other. Compared to a deposit formed by one layer, GISAXS on a deposit formed by three layers of casein micelles leads to less scattering in the vertical and more scattering in the horizontal direction. Simulations show that the experimental results can be interpreted by a structural transformation from an originally spherical micelle shape to an ellipsoidal-deformed shape. The results are supported by AFM measurements showing a reduced lateral size of casein micelles deposited on top of a membrane pore. The observed shape changes could be due to filtration forces acting on densely packed deposits confining the micelles into ellipsoidal shapes.

  12. Invited review: Caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods.

    PubMed

    Holt, C; Carver, J A; Ecroyd, H; Thorn, D C

    2013-10-01

    A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional

  13. Structural characterization of casein micelles: shape changes during film formation.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R; Vendrely, C; Kulozik, U

    2011-11-09

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of size-fractionation by centrifugation on the film structure of casein micelles. Fractionated casein micelles in solution were asymmetrically distributed with a small distribution width as measured by dynamic light scattering. Films prepared from the size-fractionated samples showed a smooth surface in optical microscopy images and a homogeneous microstructure in atomic force micrographs. The nano- and microstructure of casein films was probed by micro-beam grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (μGISAXS). Compared to the solution measurements, the sizes determined in the film were larger and broadly distributed. The measured GISAXS patterns clearly deviate from those simulated for a sphere and suggest a deformation of the casein micelles in the film. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  14. Reformation of casein particles from alkaline-disrupted casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; Vaia, Betsy; Smiddy, Mary A

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the properties of casein particles reformed from alkaline disrupted casein micelles were studied. For this purpose, micelles were disrupted completely by increasing milk pH to 10.0, and subsequently reformed by decreasing milk pH to 6.6. Reformed casein particles were smaller than native micelles and had a slightly lower zeta-potential. Levels of ionic and serum calcium, as well as rennet coagulation time did not differ between milk containing native micelles or reformed casein particles. Ethanol stability and heat stability, >pH 7.0, were lower for reformed casein particles than native micelles. Differences in heat stability, ethanol stability and zeta-potential can be explained in terms of the influence of increased concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in milk containing reformed casein particles. Hence, these results indicate that, if performed in a controlled manner, casein particles with properties closely similar to those of native micelles can be reformed from alkaline disrupted casein micelles.

  15. Structural changes of casein micelles in a calcium gradient film.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Roth, Stephan Volkher; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2008-04-09

    Calcium gradients are prepared by sequentially filling a micropipette with casein solutions of varying calcium concentration and spreading them on glass slides. The casein film is formed by a solution casting process, which results in a macroscopically rough surface. Microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (microGISAXS) is used to investigate the lateral size distribution of three main components in casein films: casein micelles, casein mini-micelles, and micellar calcium phosphate. At length scales within the beam size the film surface is flat and detection of size distribution in a macroscopic casein gradient becomes accessible. The model used to analyze the data is based on a set of three log-normal distributed particle sizes. Increasing calcium concentration causes a decrease in casein micelle diameter while the size of casein mini-micelles increases and micellar calcium phosphate particles remain unchanged.

  16. Structure and rheological behavior of casein micelle suspensions during ultrafiltration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignon, F.; Belina, G.; Narayanan, T.; Paubel, X.; Magnin, A.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.

    2004-10-01

    The stability and mechanism underlying the formation of deposits of casein micelles during ultrafiltration process were investigated by small-angle and ultra small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS and USAXS). The casein micelle dispersions consisted of phospho-caseinate model powders and the measurements probed length scales ranging from 1 to 2000 nm. Rheometric and frontal filtration measurements were combined with SAXS to establish the relationship between the rheological behavior of deposits (shear and/or compression) and the corresponding microstructure. The results revealed two characteristic length scales for the equilibrium structure with radius of gyrations Rg, about 100 and 5.6 nm pertaining to the globular micelles and their non-globular internal structure, respectively. The SAXS measurements further indicated that the increase of temperature from 20 to 70 °C or the decrease of pH from 6.6 to 6 lead to agglomeration of the globular micelles. In situ scattering measurements showed that the decrease of permeation flows is directly related to the deformation and compression of the micelles in the immediate vicinity of the membrane.

  17. Casein polymorphism heterogeneity influences casein micelle size in milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A

    2015-06-01

    Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of casein microgels from cross-linking of casein micelles by genipin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Naaman F Nogueira; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; de Carvalho, Antônio F; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2014-09-02

    Casein micelles are porous colloidal particles, constituted of casein molecules, water, and minerals. The vulnerability of the supramolecular structure of casein micelles face to changes in the environmental conditions restrains their applications in other domains besides food. Thus, redesigning casein micelles is a challenge to create new functionalities for these biosourced particles. The objective of this work was to create stable casein microgels from casein micelles using a natural cross-linker, named genipin. Suspensions of purified casein micelles (25 g L(-1)) were mixed with genipin solutions to have final concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mM genipin. Covalently linked casein microgels were formed via cross-linking of lysyl and arginyl residues of casein molecules. The reacted products exhibited blue color. The cross-linking reaction induced gradual changes on the colloidal properties of the particles. The casein microgels were smaller and more negatively charged and presented smoother surfaces than casein micelles. These results were explained based on the cross-linking of free NH2 present in an external layer of κ-casein. Light scattering and rheological measurements showed that the reaction between genipin and casein molecules was intramicellar, as one single population of particles was observed and the values of viscosity (and, consequently, the volume fraction of the particles) were reduced. Contrary to the casein micelles, the casein microgels were resistant to the presence of dissociating agents, e.g., citrate (calcium chelating) and urea, but swelled as a consequence of internal electrostatic repulsion and the disruption of hydrophobic interactions between protein chains. The casein microgels did not dissociate at the air-solution interface and formed solid-like interfaces rather than a viscoelastic gel. The potential use of casein microgels as adaptable nanocarriers is proposed in the article.

  19. Influence of succinylation on the conformation of yak casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Cui, Na; Fang, Yan; Shi, Ying; Yang, Jitao; Wang, Jiangyu

    2015-07-15

    Succinylation modifies the physicochemical characteristics and improves the functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the effects of succinylation on the conformation of yak casein micelles with seven degree of modification. The results revealed that succinylation contributed to the dissociation of casein micelles. With the increase of succinylated degree, soluble nitrogen and minerals content increased, while casein micelle size and polydispersity index of micelles decreased. Succinylation affected the spatial conformation of yak casein micelles: turn decreased, ß-sheet and α-helix increased, and irregular structure were non-significantly affected. The intrinsic and ANS fluorescence intensity decreased and the maximum emission wavelength shifted red with increasing succinylation. Based on the results, the structure of yak casein micelles was characteristic of the sub-micelle model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of the influence of calcium ion on the structures of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Jie; Wu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Liu, Hong-Na; Ren, Fa-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion on the structural properties of casein micelles in the course of heat treatment were synthetically examined by non-structure-invasive spectrometry. The hydrophobicity, reflected by extrinsic fluorescence (ANS fluorescence), was positively correlated with the concentration of the calcium ion, within the range of 0 to 12 mmol x L(-1). Meanwhile, the turbidity and stability of casein micelles also increased with the growth of calcium concentrations. However, opposite results were observed for hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index. Compared with the calcium ion, the calcium-chelator (citrate) has an opposite effect on the structural characteristics of casein micelles. Within the calcium concentrations range of 0 to 12 mmol x L(-1), the hydrophobicity, stability and turbidity were negatively correlated with the concentration of the calcium ion, nevertheless, opposite results were observed for hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index. All the results indicate that the calcium ion could be used to modify the structures of casein micelles during heat heatment.

  1. Structural ordering of casein micelles on silicon nitride micro-sieves during filtration.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Holzmüller, Wolfgang; Zhong, Qi; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    The paper reports on the structure and formation of casein micelle deposits on silicon nitride micro-sieves during the frontal filtration. The most frequent radius of the fractionated casein micelles we use is R=60 nm as detected by static light scattering (SLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We estimate the size and size distribution of the casein micelles which pass through the micro-sieve during the filtration process. A sharpening of the size distribution at the beginning of the filtration process (t=40s) is followed by a broadening and a shift of the most frequent radii towards smaller sizes at later times (t=840 s). The size distribution of the micelles deposited on the micro-sieve during filtration is bimodal and consists of the largest and smallest micelles. At larger filtration times, we observe a shift of both deposited size classes towards smaller sizes. The atomic force micrographs of the reference sample reveal a tendency of the casein micelles to order in a hexagonal lattice when deposited on the micro-sieves by solution casting. The deposition of two size classes can be explained by a formation of a mixed hexagonal lattice with large micelles building up the basis lattice and smaller sizes filling octahedral and tetrahedral holes of the lattice. The accompanied compression with increasing thickness of the casein layer could result from preferential deposition of smaller sizes in the course of the filtration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural heterogeneity of milk casein micelles: a SANS contrast variation study.

    PubMed

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Ventureira, Jorge; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Garnier-Lambrouin, Fabienne; Qu, Peng; Pasquier, Coralie; Pézennec, Stéphane; Schweins, Ralf; Cabane, Bernard

    2015-01-14

    We examine the internal structure of milk casein micelles using the contrast variation method in Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Experiments were performed with casein dispersions of different origins (i.e., milk powder or fresh milk) and extended to very low q-values (∼9 × 10(-4) Å(-1)), thus making it possible to precisely determine the apparent gyration radius Rg at each contrast. From the variation of I(q → 0) with contrast, we determine the distribution of composition of all the particles in the dispersions. As expected, most of these particles are micelles, made of casein and calcium phosphate, with a narrow distribution in compositions. These micelles always coexist with a very small fraction of fat droplets, with sizes in the range of 20-400 nm. For the dispersions prepared from fresh milk, which were purified under particularly stringent conditions, the number ratio of fat droplets to casein micelles is as low as 1 to 10(6). In that case, we are able to subtract from the total intensity the contribution of the fat droplets and in this way obtain the contribution of the micelles only. We then analyze the variation of this contribution with contrast using the approach pioneered by H. B. Stuhrmann. We model the casein micelle as a core-shell spherical object, in which the local scattering length density is determined by the ratio of calcium phosphate nanoclusters to proteins. We find that models in which the shell has a lower concentration of calcium phosphate than the core give a better agreement than models in which the shell has a higher density than the core.

  3. Celecoxib Encapsulation in β-Casein Micelles: Structure, Interactions, and Conformation.

    PubMed

    Turovsky, Tanya; Khalfin, Rafail; Kababya, Shifi; Schmidt, Asher; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Danino, Dganit

    2015-07-07

    β-Casein is a 24 kDa natural protein that has an open conformation and almost no folded or secondary structure, and thus is classified as an intrinsically unstructured protein. At neutral pH, β-casein has an amphiphilic character. Therefore, in contrast to most unstructured proteins that remain monomeric in solution, β-casein self-assembles into well-defined core-shell micelles. We recently developed these micelles as potential carriers for oral administration of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals, using celecoxib as a model drug. Herein we present deep and precise insight into the physicochemical characteristics of the protein-drug formulation, both in bulk solution and in dry form, emphasizing drug conformation, packing properties and aggregation state. In addition, the formulation is extensively studied in terms of structure and morphology, protein/drug interactions and physical stability. Particularly, NMR measurements indicated strong drug-protein interactions and noncrystalline drug conformation, which is expected to improve drug solubility and bioavailability. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) were combined for nanostructural characterization, proving that drug-protein interactions lead to well-defined spheroidal micelles that become puffier and denser upon drug loading. Dynamice light scattering (DLS), turbidity measurements, and visual observations complemented the analysis for determining formulation structure, interactions, and stability. Additionally, it was shown that the loaded micelles retain their properties through freeze-drying and rehydration, providing long-term physical and chemical stability. Altogether, the formulation seems greatly promising for oral drug delivery.

  4. Association of denatured whey proteins with casein micelles in heated reconstituted skim milk and its effect on casein micelle size.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; Li, Yuming

    2003-02-01

    When skim milk at pH 6.55 was heated (75 to 100 degrees C for up to 60 min), the casein micelle size, as monitored by photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to increase during the initial stages of heating and tended to plateau on prolonged heating. At any particular temperature, the casein micelle size increased with longer holding times, and, at any particular holding time, the casein micelle size increased with increasing temperature. The maximum increase in casein micelle size was about 30-35 nm. The changes in casein micelle size were poorly correlated with the level of whey protein denaturation. However, the changes in casein micelle size were highly correlated with the levels of denatured whey proteins that were associated with the casein micelles. The rate of association of the denatured whey proteins with the casein micelles was considerably slower than the rate of denaturation of the whey proteins. Removal of the whey proteins from the skim milk resulted in only small changes in casein micelle size during heating. Re-addition of beta-lactoglobulin to the whey-protein-depleted milk caused the casein micelle size to increase markedly on heat treatment. The changes in casein micelle size induced by the heat treatment of skim milk may be a consequence of the whey proteins associating with the casein micelles. However, these associated whey proteins would need to occlude a large amount of serum to account for the particle size changes. Separate experiments showed that the viscosity changes of heated milk and the estimated volume fraction changes were consistent with the particle size changes observed. Further studies are needed to determine whether the changes in size are due to the specific association of whey proteins with the micelles or whether a low level of aggregation of the casein micelles accompanies this association behaviour. Preliminary studies indicated lower levels of denatured whey proteins associated with the casein micelles and smaller

  5. Interaction of lactoferrin and lysozyme with casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees

    2011-11-14

    On addition of lactoferrin (LF) to skim milk, the turbidity decreases. The basic protein binds to the caseins in the casein micelles, which is then followed by a (partial) disintegration of the casein micelles. The amount of LF initially binding to casein micelles follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The kinetics of the binding of LF could be described by first-order kinetics and similarly the disintegration kinetics. The disintegration was, however, about 10 times slower than the initial adsorption, which allowed investigating both phenomena. Kinetic data were also obtained from turbidity measurements, and all data could be described with one equation. The disintegration of the casein micelles was further characterized by an activation energy of 52 kJ/mol. The initial increase in hydrodynamic size of the casein micelles could be accounted for by assuming that it would go as the cube root of the mass using the adsorption and disintegration kinetics as determined from gel electrophoresis. The results show that LF binds to casein micelles and that subsequently the casein micelles partly disintegrate. All micelles behave in a similar manner as average particle size decreases. Lysozyme also bound to the casein micelles, and this binding followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. However, lysozyme did not cause the disintegration of the casein micelles.

  6. Rheology and phase behavior of dense casein micelle dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoux, A.; Debbou, B.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.; Famelart, M.-H.; Doublier, J.-L.; Cabane, B.

    2009-10-01

    Casein micelle dispersions have been concentrated through osmotic stress and examined through rheological experiments. In conditions where the casein micelles are separated from each other, i.e., below random-close packing, the dispersions have exactly the flow and dynamic properties of the polydisperse hard-sphere fluid, demonstrating that the micelles interact only through excluded volume effects in this regime. These interactions cause the viscosity and the elastic modulus to increase by three orders of magnitude approaching the concentration of random-close packing estimated at Cmax≈178 g/l. Above Cmax, the dispersions progressively turn into "gels" (i.e., soft solids) as C increases, with elastic moduli G' that are nearly frequency independent. In this second regime, the micelles deform and/or deswell as C increases, and the resistance to deformation results from the formation of bonds between micelles combined with the intrinsic mechanical resistance of the micelles. The variation in G' with C is then very similar to that observed with concentrated emulsions where the resistance to deformation originates from a set of membranes that separate the droplets. As in the case of emulsions, the G' values at high frequency are also nearly identical to the osmotic pressures required to compress the casein dispersions. The rheology of sodium caseinate dispersions in which the caseins are not structured into micelles is also reported. Such dispersions have the behavior of associative polymer solutions at all the concentrations investigated, further confirming the importance of structure in determining the rheological properties of casein micelle systems.

  7. Rheology and phase behavior of dense casein micelle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bouchoux, A; Debbou, B; Gésan-Guiziou, G; Famelart, M-H; Doublier, J-L; Cabane, B

    2009-10-28

    Casein micelle dispersions have been concentrated through osmotic stress and examined through rheological experiments. In conditions where the casein micelles are separated from each other, i.e., below random-close packing, the dispersions have exactly the flow and dynamic properties of the polydisperse hard-sphere fluid, demonstrating that the micelles interact only through excluded volume effects in this regime. These interactions cause the viscosity and the elastic modulus to increase by three orders of magnitude approaching the concentration of random-close packing estimated at C(max) approximately 178 g/l. Above C(max), the dispersions progressively turn into "gels" (i.e., soft solids) as C increases, with elastic moduli G(') that are nearly frequency independent. In this second regime, the micelles deform and/or deswell as C increases, and the resistance to deformation results from the formation of bonds between micelles combined with the intrinsic mechanical resistance of the micelles. The variation in G(') with C is then very similar to that observed with concentrated emulsions where the resistance to deformation originates from a set of membranes that separate the droplets. As in the case of emulsions, the G(') values at high frequency are also nearly identical to the osmotic pressures required to compress the casein dispersions. The rheology of sodium caseinate dispersions in which the caseins are not structured into micelles is also reported. Such dispersions have the behavior of associative polymer solutions at all the concentrations investigated, further confirming the importance of structure in determining the rheological properties of casein micelle systems.

  8. Disulphide bonds in casein micelle from milk.

    PubMed

    Bouguyon, Edwige; Beauvallet, Christian; Huet, Jean-Claude; Chanat, Eric

    2006-05-05

    Mammary epithelial cells synthesised and secreted caseins, the major milk proteins in most mammals, as large aggregates called micelles into the alveolar lumen they surround. We investigated the implication of the highly conserved cysteine(s) of kappa-casein in disulphide bond formation in casein micelles from several species. Dimers were found in all milks studied, confirming previous observation in ruminants. More importantly, the study of interchain disulphide bridges in mouse and rat casein micelles revealed that any casein possessing a cysteine is engaged in disulphide bond interchange; these species express four or five cysteine-containing caseins, respectively. We found that the main rodent caseins form both homo- and heterodimers. Additionally, disulphide bond formation among milk proteins was specific since the interaction of the caseins with cysteine-containing whey proteins was not observed in native casein micelles.

  9. Disruption and reassociation of casein micelles under high pressure: influence of milk serum composition and casein micelle concentration.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; de Kruif, Cornelis G

    2006-08-09

    In this study, factors influencing the disruption and aggregation of casein micelles during high-pressure (HP) treatment at 250 MPa for 40 min were studied in situ in serum protein-free casein micelle suspensions. In control milk, light transmission increased with treatment time for approximately 15 min, after which a progressive partial reversal of the HP-induced increase in light transmission occurred, indicating initial HP-induced disruption of casein micelles, followed by reformation of casein aggregates from micellar fragments. The extent of HP-induced micellar disruption was negatively correlated with the concentration of casein micelles, milk pH, and levels of added ethanol, calcium chloride, or sodium chloride and positively correlated with the level of added sodium phosphate. The reformation of casein aggregates during prolonged HP treatment did not occur when HP-induced disruption of casein micelles was limited (<60%) or very extensive (>95%) and was promoted by a low initial milk pH or added sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, or ethanol. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for HP-induced disruption of casein micelles and subsequent aggregation of micellar fragments is proposed, in which the main element appears to be HP-induced solubilization of micellar calcium phosphate.

  10. Interaction between casein micelles and whey protein/κ-casein complexes during renneting of heat-treated reconstituted skim milk powder and casein micelle/serum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kethireddipalli, Prashanti; Hill, Arthur R; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2011-02-23

    Casein micelles were separated from unheated reconstituted skim milk powder (RSMP) and were resuspended in the serum of RSMP that had been heated, with and without dialysis of this serum against unheated RSMP. Using size-exclusion chromatography, it was found that the soluble complexes of whey protein (WP) with κ-casein in the serum of the heated milk bind progressively to unheated casein micelles during renneting, even prior to the onset of clotting. Similar trends were noted when casein micelles from RSMP heated at pH values of 6.7, 7.1, or 6.3, each with different amounts of WP coating the micelles, were renneted in the presence of soluble WP/κ-casein complexes. No matter what was the initial load of micelle-bound WP complexes, all micelle types were capable of binding additional serum protein complexes during renneting. However, it is not clear that this binding of WP/κ-casein complexes to the micellar surface is a direct cause of the impaired rennet clotting of the RSMP.

  11. Cryo-transmission electron tomography of native casein micelles from bovine milk

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, R.; Dokland, T.; Jurat-Fuentes, J.; Harte, F.

    2013-01-01

    Caseins are the principal protein components in milk and an important ingredient in the food industry. In liquid milk, caseins are found as micelles of casein proteins and colloidal calcium nanoclusters. Casein micelles were isolated from raw skim milk by size exclusion chromatography and suspended in milk protein-free serum produced by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa) of raw skim milk. The micelles were imaged by cryo-electron microscopy and subjected to tomographic reconstruction methods to visualize the 3-dimensional and internal organization of native casein micelles. This provided new insights into the internal architecture of the casein micelle that had not been apparent from prior cryo-transmission electron microscopy studies. This analysis demonstrated the presence of water-filled cavities (~20 to 30 nm in diameter), channels (diameter greater than ~5 nm), and several hundred high-density nanoclusters (6 to 12 nm in diameter) within the interior of the micelles. No spherical protein submicellar structures were observed. PMID:22118067

  12. The structure of the casein micelle of milk and its changes during processing.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Douglas G; Corredig, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the protein in cow's milk is contained in the particles known as casein micelles. This review describes the main structural features of these particles and the different models that have been used to define the interior structures. The reactions of the micelles during processing operations are described in terms of the structural models.

  13. Use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the dissociation and polysaccharide binding of casein micelles and caseins.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Abby K; Singh, Harjinder; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2010-11-24

    Tests were made to determine whether surface plasmon resonance (SPR) could be used as a technique to study the dissociation properties of bovine casein micelles or of sodium caseinate and the interactions between these protein particles and different polysaccharides. Surfaces of bound micelles or caseinate were made, and the changes in refractive index of these layers were used to define changes in the structures of the chemisorbed material. The technique appears to have some potential for studying details of the dissociation of casein micelles and of the binding of different polysaccharides to caseins.

  14. Casein micelle dispersions under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic pressure is dominated by the contribution from small residual peptides that are dissolved in the aqueous phase. ii), A transition range that starts when the casein micelles begin to interact through their kappa-casein brushes and ends when the micelles are forced to get into contact with each other. At the end of this regime, the dispersions behave as coherent solids that do not fully redisperse when osmotic stress is released. iii), A concentrated regime in which compression removes water from within the micelles, and increases the fraction of micelles that are irreversibly linked to each other. In this regime the osmotic pressure profile is a power law of the residual free volume. It is well described by a simple model that considers the micelle to be made of dense regions separated by a continuous phase. The amount of water in the dense regions matches the usual hydration of proteins.

  15. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic pressure is dominated by the contribution from small residual peptides that are dissolved in the aqueous phase. ii), A transition range that starts when the casein micelles begin to interact through their κ-casein brushes and ends when the micelles are forced to get into contact with each other. At the end of this regime, the dispersions behave as coherent solids that do not fully redisperse when osmotic stress is released. iii), A concentrated regime in which compression removes water from within the micelles, and increases the fraction of micelles that are irreversibly linked to each other. In this regime the osmotic pressure profile is a power law of the residual free volume. It is well described by a simple model that considers the micelle to be made of dense regions separated by a continuous phase. The amount of water in the dense regions matches the usual hydration of proteins. PMID:19167314

  16. Cryo-transmission electron tomography of native casein micelles from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Trejo, R; Dokland, T; Jurat-Fuentes, J; Harte, F

    2011-12-01

    Caseins are the principal protein components in milk and an important ingredient in the food industry. In liquid milk, caseins are found as micelles of casein proteins and colloidal calcium nanoclusters. Casein micelles were isolated from raw skim milk by size exclusion chromatography and suspended in milk protein-free serum produced by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa) of raw skim milk. The micelles were imaged by cryo-electron microscopy and subjected to tomographic reconstruction methods to visualize the 3-dimensional and internal organization of native casein micelles. This provided new insights into the internal architecture of the casein micelle that had not been apparent from prior cryo-transmission electron microscopy studies. This analysis demonstrated the presence of water-filled cavities (∼20 to 30 nm in diameter), channels (diameter greater than ∼5 nm), and several hundred high-density nanoclusters (6 to 12 nm in diameter) within the interior of the micelles. No spherical protein submicellar structures were observed. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    PubMed

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.

  18. How to squeeze a sponge: casein micelles under osmotic stress, a SAXS study.

    PubMed

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Pérez, Javier; Cabane, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    By combining the osmotic stress technique with small-angle x-ray scattering measurements, we followed the structural response of the casein micelle to an overall increase in concentration. When the aqueous phase that separates the micelles is extracted, they behave as polydisperse repelling spheres and their internal structure is not affected. When they are compressed, the micelles lose water and shrink to a smaller volume. Our results indicate that this compression is nonaffine, i.e., some parts of the micelle collapse, whereas other parts resist deformation. We suggest that this behavior is consistent with a spongelike casein micelle having a triple hierarchical structure. The lowest level of the structure consists of the CaP nanoclusters that serve as anchors for the casein molecules. The intermediate level consists of 10- to 40-nm hard regions that resist compression and contain the nanoclusters. Those regions are connected and/or partially merged with each other, thus forming a continuous and porous material. The third level of structure is the casein micelle itself, with an average size of 100 nm. In our view, such a structure is consistent with the observation of 10- to 20-nm casein particles in the Golgi vesicles of lactating cells: upon aggregation, those particles would rearrange, fuse, and/or swell to form the spongelike micelle. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How to Squeeze a Sponge: Casein Micelles under Osmotic Stress, a SAXS Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Pérez, Javier; Cabane, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    By combining the osmotic stress technique with small-angle x-ray scattering measurements, we followed the structural response of the casein micelle to an overall increase in concentration. When the aqueous phase that separates the micelles is extracted, they behave as polydisperse repelling spheres and their internal structure is not affected. When they are compressed, the micelles lose water and shrink to a smaller volume. Our results indicate that this compression is nonaffine, i.e., some parts of the micelle collapse, whereas other parts resist deformation. We suggest that this behavior is consistent with a spongelike casein micelle having a triple hierarchical structure. The lowest level of the structure consists of the CaP nanoclusters that serve as anchors for the casein molecules. The intermediate level consists of 10- to 40-nm hard regions that resist compression and contain the nanoclusters. Those regions are connected and/or partially merged with each other, thus forming a continuous and porous material. The third level of structure is the casein micelle itself, with an average size of 100 nm. In our view, such a structure is consistent with the observation of 10- to 20-nm casein particles in the Golgi vesicles of lactating cells: upon aggregation, those particles would rearrange, fuse, and/or swell to form the spongelike micelle. PMID:21112300

  20. Temperature-dependent dynamics of bovine casein micelles in the range 10-40 °C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dylan Z; Weeks, Michael G; Dunstan, David E; Martin, Gregory J O

    2013-12-15

    Milk is a complex colloidal system that responds to changes in temperature imposed during processing. Whilst much has been learned about the effects of temperature on milk, little is known about the dynamic response of casein micelles to changes in temperature. In this study, a comprehensive physico-chemical study of casein micelles in skim milk was performed between 10 and 40 °C. When fully equilibrated, the amount of soluble casein, soluble calcium and the pH of skim milk all decreased as a function of increasing temperature, whilst the hydration and volume fraction of the casein micelles decreased. The effect of temperature on casein micelle size, as determined by dynamic light scattering and differential centrifugation, was less straightforward. Real-time measurements of turbidity and pH were used to investigate the dynamics of the system during warming and cooling of milk in the range 10-40 °C. Changes in pH are indicative of changes to the mineral system and the turbidity is a measure of alterations to the casein micelles. The pH and turbidity showed that alterations to both the casein micelles and the mineral system occurred very rapidly on warming. However, whilst mineral re-equilibration occurred very rapidly on cooling, changes to the casein micelle structure continued after 40 min of measurement, returning to equilibrium after 16 h equilibration. Casein micelle structure and the mineral system of milk were both dependent on temperature in the range 10-40 °C. The dynamic response of the mineral system to changes in temperature appeared almost instantaneous whereas equilibration of casein was considerably slower, particularly upon cooling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs.Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in

  2. Hydration behavior of casein micelles in thin film geometry: a GISANS study?

    PubMed

    Metwalli, E; Moulin, J F; Gebhardt, R; Cubitt, R; Tolkach, A; Kulozik, U; Müller-Buschbaum, P

    2009-04-07

    The water content of casein micelle films in water vapor atmosphere is investigated using time-resolved grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS). Initial dry casein films are prepared with a spin-coating method. At 30 degrees C, the formation of a water-equilibrated casein protein film is reached after 11 min with a total content of 0.36 g of water/g of protein. With increasing water vapor temperature up to 70 degrees C, an increase in the water content is found. With GISANS, lateral structures on the nanometer scale are resolved during the swelling experiment at different temperatures and modeled using two types of spheres: micelles and mini-micelles. Upon water uptake, molecular assemblies in the size range of 15 nm (mini-micelles) are attributed to the formation of a high-contrast D2O outer shell on the small objects that already exist in the protein film. For large objects (>100 nm), the mean size increases at high D2O vapor temperature because of possible aggregation between hydrated micelles. These results are discussed and compared with various proposed models for casein micelle structures.

  3. Topography of the casein micelle surface by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a selection of specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Didier; Johansson, Annette; Marchin, Stephane; Rolet-Repecaud, Odile; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Leonil, Joelle

    2011-08-10

    Several theoretical models of the casein micelle structure have been proposed in the past, but the exact organization of the four individual caseins (α(s1), α(s2), β, and κ) within this supramolecular structure remains unknown. The present study aims at determining the topography of the casein micelle surface by following the interaction between 44 monoclonal antibodies specific for different epitopes of α(s1)-, α(s2)-, β-, and κ-casein and the casein micelle in real time and no labeling using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor. Although the four individual caseins were found to be accessible for antibody binding, data confirmed that the C-terminal extremity of κ-casein was highly accessible and located at the periphery of the structure. When casein micelles were submitted to proteolysis, the C-terminal extremity of κ-casein was rapidly hydrolyzed. Disintegration of the micellar structure resulted in an increased access for antibodies to hydrophobic areas of α(s1)- and α(s2)-casein.

  4. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles.

    PubMed

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60°C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from ß-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35°C. The presence of Mg²(+) ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component b-casein constructs.

  5. Stability of casein micelles in milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    2002-07-01

    Casein micelles in milk are proteinaceous colloidal particles and are essential for the production of flocculated and gelled products such as yogurt, cheese, and ice-cream. The colloidal stability of casein micelles is described here by a calculation of the pair potential, containing the essential contributions of brush repulsion, electrostatic repulsion, and van der Waals attraction. The parameters required are taken from the literature. The results are expressed by the second osmotic virial coefficient and are quite consistent with experimental findings. It appears that the stability is mainly attributable to a steric layer of κ-casein, which can be described as a salted polyelectrolyte brush.

  6. Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Ingham, B; Erlangga, G D; Smialowska, A; Kirby, N M; Wang, C; Matia-Merino, L; Haverkamp, R G; Carr, A J

    2015-04-14

    The interpretation of milk X-ray and neutron scattering data in relation to the internal structure of the casein micelle is an ongoing debate. We performed resonant X-ray scattering measurements on liquid milk and conclusively identified key scattering features, namely those corresponding to the size of and the distance between colloidal calcium phosphate particles. An X-ray scattering feature commonly assigned to the particle size is instead due to protein inhomogeneities.

  7. Apparent voluminosity of casein micelles determined by rheometry.

    PubMed

    Nöbel, Stefan; Weidendorfer, Konrad; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2012-11-15

    The voluminosity of casein micelles was studied by means of static rheometry. In concentrated casein micelle suspensions with fluid-like flow properties to random-close packing, the reduced viscosity was obtained and linked via the Krieger-Dougherty model of volume fraction effect. The temperature dependency of hydration was fitted in a wide temperature (5°C≤θ≤35°C) and mass fraction range (0.01≤w≤0.16). The results of our study suggested that the voluminosity of casein micelles decreased with increasing temperature and asymptotically reached a plateau (θ>30°C) as a consequence of the protein swelling and decreasing water immobilization. The obtained apparent voluminosity of native casein micelles dispersed in UF permeate was 5.0 ml g(-1) at 5°C, 4.1 ml g(-1) at 20°C, and 3.7 ml g(-1) at 35°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of ultrasound on casein micelle integrity.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, J; Martin, G J O; Zisu, B; Kentish, S E; Ashokkumar, M

    2012-12-01

    Samples of fresh skim milk, reconstituted micellar casein, and casein powder were sonicated at 20 kHz to investigate the effect of ultrasonication. For fresh skim milk, the average size of the remaining fat globules was reduced by approximately 10 nm after 60 min of sonication; however, the size of the casein micelles was determined to be unchanged. A small increase in soluble whey protein and a corresponding decrease in viscosity also occurred within the first few minutes of sonication, which could be attributed to the breakup of casein-whey protein aggregates. No measurable changes in free casein content could be detected in ultracentrifuged skim milk samples sonicated for up to 60 min. A small, temporary decrease in pH resulted from sonication; however, no measurable change in soluble calcium concentration was observed. Therefore, casein micelles in fresh skim milk were stable during the exposure to ultrasonication. Similar results were obtained for reconstituted micellar casein, whereas larger viscosity changes were observed as whey protein content was increased. Controlled application of ultrasound can be usefully applied to reverse process-induced protein aggregation without affecting the native state of casein micelles. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein composition of different sized casein micelles in milk after the binding of lactoferrin or lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees

    2013-07-24

    Casein micelles with bound lactoferrin or lysozyme were fractionated into sizes ranging in radius from ∼50 to 100 nm. The κ-casein content decreased markedly and the αS-casein/β-casein content increased slightly as micelle size increased. For lactoferrin, higher levels were bound to smaller micelles. The lactoferrin/κ-casein ratio was constant for all micelle sizes, whereas the lactoferrin/αS-casein and lactoferrin/β-casein ratio decreased with increasing micelle size. This indicates that the lactoferrin was binding to the surface of the casein micelles. For lysozyme, higher levels bound to larger casein micelles. The lysozyme/αS-casein and lysozyme/β-casein ratios were nearly constant, whereas the lysozyme/κ-casein ratio increased with increasing micelle size, indicating that lysozyme bound to αS-casein and β-casein in the micelle core. Lactoferrin is a large protein that cannot enter the casein protein mesh; therefore, it binds to the micelle surface. The smaller lysozyme can enter the protein mesh and therefore binds to the more charged αS-casein and β-casein.

  10. Effect of microfluidization on casein micelle size of bovine milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    The properties of milk are likely to be dependent on the casein micelle size, and various processing technologies produce particular change in the average size of casein micelles. The main objective of this study was to manipulate casein micelle size by subjecting milk to microfluidizer. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The sample was passed through the microfluidizer at the set pressure of 83, 97, 112 and 126 MPa for one, two, three, four, five and six cycles, except for the 112 MPa. The results showed that microfluidized milk has smaller size by 3% with pressure up to 126 MPa. However, at each pressure, no further reduction was observed after increasing the passed up to 6 cycles. Although the average casein micelle size was similar, elevating pressure resulted in narrower size distribution. In contrast, increasing the number of cycles had little effect on casein micelle distribution. The finding from this study can be applied for future work to characterize the fundamental and functional properties of the treated milk.

  11. Influence of succinylation on physicochemical property of yak casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Yang, Jitao; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Succinylation is a chemical-modification method that affects the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the influence of succinylation on the physicochemical properties of yak casein micelles. The results revealed that surface hydrophobicity indices decreased with succinylation. Additionally, denaturation temperature and denaturation enthalpy decreased with increasing succinylation level, except at 82%. The buffering properties of yak casein micelles were affected by succinylation. It was found that chemical modification contributed to a slight shift of the buffering peak towards a lower pH value and a markedly increase of the maximum buffering values of yak casein micelles at pH 4.5-6.0 and pH < 3. Succinylation increased yak casein micellar hydration and whiteness values. The findings obtained from this study will provide the basic information on the physicochemical properties of native and succinylated yak casein micelles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the environmental factors on the casein micelle structure studied by cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering/ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchin, Stéphane; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Pignon, Frédéric; Léonil, Joëlle

    2007-01-01

    Casein micelles are colloidal protein-calcium-transport complexes whose structure has not been unequivocally elucidated. This study used small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) as well as cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to provide fine structural details on their structure. Cryo-TEM observations of native casein micelles fractionated by differential centrifugation showed that colloidal calcium phosphate appeared as nanoclusters with a diameter of about 2.5nm. They were uniformly distributed in a homogeneous tangled web of caseins and were primarily responsible for the intensity distribution in the SAXS profiles at the highest q vectors corresponding to the internal structure of the casein micelles. A specific demineralization of casein micelles by decreasing the pH from 6.7 to 5.2 resulted in a reduced granular aspect of the micelles observed by cryo-TEM and the existence of a characteristic point of inflection in SAXS profiles. This supports the hypothesis that the smaller substructures detected by SAXS are colloidal calcium phosphate nanoclusters rather than putative submicelles.

  13. Casein maps: Effect of ethanol, pH, temperature, and CaCl2 on the particle size of reconstituted casein micelles

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Although conditions favoring casein micelle aggregation are well known, factors promoting the dissociation of the casein micelle are not fully understood. It was our objective to investigate the ethanol-induced dissociation of micellar casein as affected by temperature and a wide range of pH, along with the concentrations of calcium and casein. Two different concentrations of casein micelles were dispersed in imidazole buffer with 0 to 80% ethanol (vol/vol) and 2 and 10 mM calcium. Apparent micelle size was determined by dynamic light scattering at 5, 30, and 60°C. In the absence of ethanol, casein precipitation occurred at pH 4.6 in imidazole buffer. Ten to forty percent ethanol promoted casein aggregation (>1,000 nm) and higher temperature (30 and 60°C) enhanced this effect. Higher ethanol concentrations at 50 to 80% induced the dissociation (<40 nm) of the casein micelle upon acidification (pH <5) and alkalization (pH >8) in imidazole buffer. In addition, higher concentrations of casein (0.25 mg/mL) and calcium (20 mM) caused the formation of larger aggregates (>1,000 nm) in the presence of ethanol when comparing with the initial lower concentrations of casein (0.1 mg/mL) and calcium (2 mM). Casein micelle dissociation can be achieved near the isoelectric pH by modifying the solvent composition and temperature. PMID:23200467

  14. A 1H-n.m.r. study of casein micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M C; Roberts, G C

    1985-01-01

    The 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of casein micelles consists of a small number of moderately sharp (linewidth approx. 60 Hz) resonances superimposed on the envelope of very broad lines expected for particles of this size. These sharp lines resemble, in chemical shift and relative intensity, the spectrum of the isolated 'macropeptide' released from the micelles by treatment with chymosin. The sharp lines in the casein micelle spectrum are further sharpened by addition of chymosin and broadened markedly by addition of ethanol. These observations are consistent with the proposal that the 'macropeptide' (the C-terminal 64 residues of K-casein) forms flexible 'hairs' on the surface of the micelles. PMID:3924034

  15. Casein maps: effect of ethanol, pH, temperature, and CaCl2 on the particle size of reconstituted casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Although conditions favoring casein micelle aggregation are well known, factors promoting the dissociation of the casein micelle are not fully understood. It was our objective to investigate the ethanol-induced dissociation of micellar casein as affected by temperature and a wide range of pH, along with the concentrations of calcium and casein. Two different concentrations of casein micelles were dispersed in imidazole buffer with 0 to 80% ethanol (vol/vol) and 2 and 10mM calcium. Apparent micelle size was determined by dynamic light scattering at 5, 30, and 60°C. In the absence of ethanol, casein precipitation occurred at pH 4.6 in imidazole buffer. Ten to forty percent ethanol promoted casein aggregation (>1,000 nm) and higher temperature (30 and 60°C) enhanced this effect. Higher ethanol concentrations at 50 to 80% induced the dissociation (<40 nm) of the casein micelle upon acidification (pH <5) and alkalization (pH>8) in imidazole buffer. In addition, higher concentrations of casein (0.25mg/mL) and calcium (20mM) caused the formation of larger aggregates (>1,000 nm) in the presence of ethanol when comparing with the initial lower concentrations of casein (0.1mg/mL) and calcium (2mM). Casein micelle dissociation can be achieved near the isoelectric pH by modifying the solvent composition and temperature. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between tea catechins and casein micelles and their impact on renneting functionality.

    PubMed

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Corredig, Milena

    2014-01-15

    Many studies have shown that tea catechins bind to milk proteins. This research focused on the association of tea polyphenols with casein micelles, and the consequences of the interactions on the renneting behaviour of skim milk. It was hypothesized that epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), the main catechin present in green tea, forms complexes with the casein micelles and that the association modifies the processing functionality of casein micelles. The binding of EGCG to casein micelles was quantified using HPLC. The formation of catechin-casein micelles complexes affected the rennet induced gelation of milk, and the effect was concentration dependent. Both the primary as well as the secondary stage of gelation were affected. These experiments clearly identify the need for a better understanding of the effect of tea polyphenols on the processing functionality of casein micelles, before milk products can be used as an appropriate platform for delivery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaporative concentration of skimmed milk: effect on casein micelle hydration, composition, and size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dylan Z; Dunstan, David E; Martin, Gregory J O

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the effect of evaporative concentration on casein micelle composition is of high importance for milk processing. Alterations to the hydration, composition and size of casein micelles were investigated in skimmed milk evaporated to concentrations of 12-45% total solids content. The size of casein micelles was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the water content and composition determined by analysis of supernatants and pellets obtained by ultracentrifugation. The mass balance and hydration results showed that during the evaporation process, while micelles were dehydrated, water was removed preferentially from the serum. The amount of soluble casein and calcium in the serum decreased as a function of increasing solids content, indicating a shift of these components to the micelles. The formation of a small proportion of micelle aggregates at high concentrations appeared dependent on the time kept at these concentrations. Upon redilution with water, casein micelles were immediately rehydrated and aggregates were broken up in a matter of minutes. Soluble calcium and pH returned to their original state over a number of hours; however, only a small percentage of original soluble casein returned to the serum over the 5h period investigated. These results showed that casein micelles are significantly affected by evaporative concentration and that the alterations are not completely and rapidly reversible. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Alpha casein micelles show not only molecular chaperone-like aggregation inhibition properties but also protein refolding activity from the denatured state.

    PubMed

    Sakono, Masafumi; Motomura, Konomi; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2011-01-07

    Casein micelles are a major component of milk proteins. It is well known that casein micelles show chaperone-like activity such as inhibition of protein aggregation and stabilization of proteins. In this study, it was revealed that casein micelles also possess a high refolding activity for denatured proteins. A buffer containing caseins exhibited higher refolding activity for denatured bovine carbonic anhydrase than buffers including other proteins. In particular, a buffer containing α-casein showed about a twofold higher refolding activity compared with absence of α-casein. Casein properties of surface hydrophobicity, a flexible structure and assembly formation are thought to contribute to this high refolding activity. Our results indicate that casein micelles stabilize milk proteins by both chaperone-like activity and refolding properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unfolding and refolding details of lysozyme in the presence of β-casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Gen; Luo, Jun-Jie; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2011-02-28

    In this work, we selected a small globular protein, lysozyme, to study how it unfolds and refolds in the presence of micelles composed of the unstructured β-casein proteins by using microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. It was found that a partially unfolded structure of lysozyme starts to form when the β-casein/lysozyme molar ratio is above 0.7, and the structure forms exclusively when the β-casein/lysozyme molar ratio is above 1.6. This partially unfolded state of lysozyme loses most of its tertiary structure and after heating, the denatured lysozyme molecules are trapped in the charged coatings of β-casein micelles and cannot refold upon cooling. The thus obtained protein complex can be viewed as a kind of special polyelectrolyte complex micelle. The net charge ratios of the two proteins and the ionic strength of the dispersions can significantly modulate the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the two proteins. Our present work may have implications for the nanoparticle protein engineering therapy in the biomedicine field and may provide a better understanding of the principles governing the protein-protein interactions. Besides, the heating-cooling-reheating procedure employed in this work can also be used to study the unfolding and refolding details of the target protein in other protein-protein, protein-polymer and protein-small solute systems.

  20. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, M.; Mohan, M. S.; Campagna, S. R.; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Harte, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238

  1. High pressure-assisted encapsulation of vitamin D2 in reassembled casein micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Aguirre, O.; Stuetz, W.; Grune, T.; Kessler, A.; Weiss, J.; Hinrichs, J.

    2011-03-01

    For the encapsulation of vitamin D2, native casein micelles and vitamin D2 with or without additional Ca2+-Pi were treated at 600 MPa and 37 °C for 60 min. The pressure release rate was set at 20 or 600 MPa/min. Vitamin D2 was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical properties of the micelles were analysed by photon correlation spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that simultaneous application of Ca2+-Pi and high pressure treatment with a fast release rate significantly increased loading of vitamin D2 per casein by 6.9-fold. The addition of Ca2+-Pi enhanced micelle aggregation and the vitamin was entrapped within the formed aggregates. However, high pressure treatment without Ca2+-Pi with a slow pressure release rate revealed similar results, increasing vitamin D2 per casein by 6.7-fold. The vitamin D2 loading in reassembled casein micelles is supposed to be due to hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic domains of the micelles.

  2. Aggregation-induced emission of 1,8-naphthalimide-casein micelle: investigation by synchronous spectrographic method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Liang, Xuhua; Zhao, Yingyong; Fan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A novel 1,8-naphthalimide probe 1, bearing two acetic-acid moieties was synthesized. The acetic-acid groups, docked into the sub-domains of casein micelle and bound with tryptophan residues, and the 1,8-naphthalimide chromophore adsorbed on the surface of casein micelle, forming a supermolecule, 1-casein micelle, which exhibited the aggregation-induced synchronous emission (AISE) characters. The effect of pH on the intensity of supermolecule was investigated, and the result indicated that the emission enhancement was mainly due to the 1,8-naphthalimide chromophore aggregated onto the casein micelle. Based on AISE, a novel casein quantification method was developed, which exhibited a good linear range of 0.05-10.0 μg ml(-1) and 0.07-9.5 μg ml(-1) with the detection limits of 2.8 and 3.0 ng ml(-1) . The effects of metal ions and pH on the system of 1-casein micelle were investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine casein in milk samples, and the results were in good agreement with the result of the Biuret method. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.

    PubMed

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

    2012-05-09

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 μm⁻²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk.

  4. Influence of race and crossbreeding on casein micelles size.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Denise R; Fonseca, Leorges M; Souza, Fernando N; Ladeira, Cristiane V G; Diniz, Soraia A; Haddad, João Paulo A; Ferreira, Diêgo S; Santoro, Marcelo M; Cerqueira, Mônica M O P

    2015-05-01

    Casein (CN) micelles are colloidal aggregates of protein dispersed in milk, the importance of which in the dairy industry is related to functionality and yield in dairy products. The objective of this work was to investigate the correlation of milk CN micelles diameter from Holstein and Zebu crossbreds with milk composition (protein, fat, lactose, total and nonfat solids and milk urea nitrogen), somatic cell count (SCC), age, lactation stage and production. Average casein micelles diameters of milk samples obtained from 200 cows were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy and multiple regression analysis was used to find relationship between variables. CN micelle diameter, SCC and nonfat solids were different between animals with different Holstein crossbreed ratios, which suggests influence of genetic factors, mammary gland health and milk composition. Overall, results indicate the potential use of CN micelle diameter as a tool to select animals to produce milk more suitable to cheese production. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Role of kappa-casein in the association of denatured whey proteins with casein micelles in heated reconstituted skim milk.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G

    2007-05-02

    Reconstituted skim milk at pH from 6.5 to 7.1 was unheated, preheated (68 degrees C/20 min), or heated at 90 degrees C for 20-30 min. On preheating, the size of the casein micelles decreased by about 5-20 nm, with a greater effect at higher pH. The casein micelle size of the heated milk at pH 6.5 increased by about 30 nm when compared to that of the unheated or preheated milk. As the pH was increased before heating, the particle size gradually decreased so that, at pH 7.1, the size was markedly smaller than that for the unheated milk and slightly smaller than that for the preheated milk. High levels (about 85%) of denatured whey protein associated with the casein micelles at pH 6.5, and this level decreased as the pH increased so that, at pH 7.1, low levels (about 15%) were associated with the micelles. Low levels of alphaS-casein and beta-casein were found in the serum regardless of the heat treatment or the pH of the milk. At pH 6.5, low levels (about 10%) of kappa-casein were also found in the milk serum. In the unheated milk, the level of serum kappa-casein increased slightly with increasing pH; in the heated samples, the level of serum kappa-casein increased markedly and linearly with increasing pH so that, at pH 7.1, about 70% of the kappa-casein was in the serum phase. The results of this study indicate that the pH dependence of the levels of serum phase kappa-casein may be responsible for the change in distribution of the whey proteins between the colloidal and serum phases. This is the first report to demonstrate significant levels of dissociation of kappa-casein from the micelles at pH between 6.5 and 6.7, although this dissociation phenomenon is well known on heating milk at high temperatures at pH above 6.7.

  6. Structure and stabilizing interactions of casein micelles probed by high-pressure light scattering and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Takeda, Naohiro; Kulozik, Ulrich; Doster, Wolfgang

    2011-03-17

    Caseins form heterogeneous micelles composed of three types of disordered protein chains (α, β, κ), which include protein-bound calcium phosphate particles. We probe the stability limits of the micelle by applying hydrostatic pressure. The resulting changes of the size distribution and the average molecular weight are recorded in situ with static and dynamic light scattering. Pressure induces irreversible dissociation of the micelles into monomers above a critical value depending on their size. The critical pressure increases with temperature, pH, and calcium concentration due to the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The pressure transition curves are biphasic, reflecting the equilibrium of two micelle states with different stability, average size, entropy, and calcium bound. The fast process of pressure dissociation is used to probe the slow equilibrium of the two micelle states under various conditions. Binding and release of β-casein from the micelle is suggested as the molecular mechanism of stabilization associated with the two states. In situ FTIR spectroscopy covering the P-O stretching region indicates that bound calcium phosphate particles are released from serine phosphate residues at pressures above 100 MPa. The resulting imbalance of charge triggers the complete decomposition of the micelle. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Binding of vitamin A by casein micelles in commercial skim milk.

    PubMed

    Mohan, M S; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that reassembled micelles formed by caseinates and purified casein fractions (α(s)- and β-casein) bind to hydrophobic compounds, including curcumin, docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. However, limited research has been done on the binding of hydrophobic compounds by unmodified casein micelles in skim milk. In the present study, we investigated the ability of casein micelles in commercial skim milk to associate with vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), a fat-soluble vitamin commonly used to fortify milk. Milk protein fractions from different commercially available skim milk samples subjected to different processing treatments, including pasteurized, ultrapasteurized, organic pasteurized, and organic ultrapasteurized milks, were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography. The fractions within each peak were combined and freeze-dried. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE with silver staining was used to identify the proteins present in each of the fractions. The skim milk samples and fractions were extracted for retinyl palmitate and quantified against a standard using normal phase-HPLC. Retinyl palmitate was found to associate with the fraction of skim milk containing caseins, whereas the other proteins (BSA, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin) did not show any binding. The retinyl palmitate content in the various samples ranged from 1.59 to 2.48 µg of retinyl palmitate per mL of milk. The casein fractions contained between 14 and 40% of total retinyl palmitate in the various milks tested. The variation in the retention of vitamin A by caseins was probably explained by differences in the processing of different milk samples, including thermal treatment, the form of vitamin A emulsion used for fortification, and the point of fortification during processing. Unmodified casein micelles have a strong intrinsic affinity toward the binding of vitamin A used to fortify commercially available skim milks. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association

  9. Binding of vitamin A by casein micelles in commercial skim milk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, M. S.; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Harte, F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that reassembled micelles formed by caseinates and purified casein fractions (αs- and β-casein) bind to hydrophobic compounds, including curcumin, docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. However, limited research has been done on the binding of hydrophobic compounds by unmodified casein micelles in skim milk. In the present study, we investigated the ability of casein micelles in commercial skim milk to associate with vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), a fat-soluble vitamin commonly used to fortify milk. Milk protein fractions from different commercially available skim milk samples subjected to different processing treatments, including pasteurized, ultrapasteurized, organic pasteurized, and organic ultrapasteurized milks, were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography. The fractions within each peak were combined and freeze-dried. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE with silver staining was used to identify the proteins present in each of the fractions. The skim milk samples and fractions were extracted for retinyl palmitate and quantified against a standard using normal phase-HPLC. Retinyl palmitate was found to associate with the fraction of skim milk containing caseins, whereas the other proteins (BSA, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin) did not show any binding. The retinyl palmitate content in the various samples ranged from 1.59 to 2.48 μg of retinyl palmitate per mL of milk. The casein fractions contained between 14 and 40% of total retinyl palmitate in the various milks tested. The variation in the retention of vitamin A by caseins was probably explained by differences in the processing of different milk samples, including thermal treatment, the form of vitamin A emulsion used for fortification, and the point of fortification during processing. Unmodified casein micelles have a strong intrinsic affinity toward the binding of vitamin A used to fortify commercially available skim milks. PMID:23261375

  10. Structural differences between bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein alter micelle self-assembly and influence molecular chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Raynes, J K; Day, L; Augustin, M A; Carver, J A

    2015-04-01

    Within each milk protein there are many individual protein variants and marked alterations to milk functionality can occur depending on the genetic variants of each protein present. Bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein (β-CN) are 2 variants that contribute to differences in the gelation performance of milk. The A(1) and A(2) β-CN variants differ by a single AA, the substitution of histidine for proline at position 67. β-Casein not only participates in formation of the casein micelle but also forms an oligomeric micelle itself and functions as a molecular chaperone to prevent the aggregation of a wide range of proteins, including the other caseins. Micelle assembly of A(1) and A(2) β-CN was investigated using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, whereas protein functionality was assessed using fluorescence techniques and molecular chaperone assays. The A(2) β-CN variant formed smaller micelles than A(1) β-CN, with the monomer-micelle equilibrium of A(2) β-CN being shifted toward the monomer. This shift most likely arose from structural differences between the 2 β-CN variants associated with the adoption of greater polyproline-II helix in A(2) β-CN and most likely led to enhanced chaperone activity of A(2) β-CN compared with A(1) β-CN. The difference in micelle assembly, and hence chaperone activity, may provide explain differences in the functionality of homozygous A(1) and A(2) milk. The results of this study highlight that substitution of even a single AA can significantly alter the properties of an intrinsically unstructured protein such as β-CN and, in this case, may have an effect on the functionality of milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase behavior of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    Dispersions of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide (EPS), obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 EPS, show a phase separation. The phase separation is of the colloidal gas-liquid type. We have determined a phase diagram that describes the separation of skim milk with EPS into a casein-micelle rich phase and an EPS rich phase. We compare the phase diagram with those calculated from theories developed by Vrij, and by Lekkerkerker and co-workers, showing that the experimental phase boundary can be predicted quite well. From dynamic light scattering measurements of the self-diffusion of the casein micelles in the presence of EPS the spinodal could be located and it corresponds with the experimental phase boundary.

  12. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and whey proteins on the disruption of casein micelle isolates.

    PubMed

    Harte, Federico M; Gurram, Subba Rao; Luedecke, Lloyd O; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2007-11-01

    High hydrostatic pressure disruption of casein micelle isolates was studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and transmission electron microscopy. Casein micelles were isolated from skim milk and subjected to combinations of thermal treatment (85 degrees C, 20 min) and high hydrostatic pressure (up to 676 MPa) with and without whey protein added. High hydrostatic pressure promoted extensive disruption of the casein micelles in the 250 to 310 MPa pressure range. At pressures greater than 310 MPa no further disruption was observed. The addition of whey protein to casein micelle isolates protected the micelles from high hydrostatic pressure induced disruption only when the mix was thermally processed before pressure treatment. The more whey protein was added (up to 5 g/l) the more the protection against high hydrostatic pressure induced micelle disruption was observed in thermally treated samples subjected to 310 MPa.

  13. The binding of orally dosed hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients to casein micelles in milk.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M; Hristov, A N; Harte, F M

    2017-11-01

    Casein proteins (α S1 -, α S2 -, β- and κ-casein) account for 80% of the total protein content in bovine milk and form casein micelles (average diameter = 130 nm, approximately 10 15 micelles/mL). The affinity of native casein micelles with the 3 hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), meloxicam [351.4 g/mol; log P = 3.43; acid dissociation constant (pK a ) = 4.08], flunixin (296.2 g/mol; log P = 4.1; pK a = 5.82), and thiabendazole (201.2 g/mol; log P = 2.92; pK a = 4.64), was evaluated in bovine milk collected from dosed Holstein cows. Native casein micelles were separated from raw bovine milk by mild techniques such as ultracentrifugation, diafiltration, isoelectric point precipitation (pH 4.6), and size exclusion chromatography. Acetonitrile extraction of hydrophobic API was then done, followed by quantification using HPLC-UV. For the API or metabolites meloxicam, 5-hyroxy flunixin and 5-hydroxy thiabendazole, 31 ± 3.90, 31 ± 1.3, and 28 ± 0.5% of the content in milk was associated with casein micelles, respectively. Less than ∼5.0% of the recovered hydrophobic API were found in the milk fat fraction, and the remaining ∼65% were associated with the whey/serum fraction. A separate in vitro study showed that 66 ± 6.4% of meloxicam, 29 ± 0.58% of flunixin, 34 ± 0.21% of the metabolite 5-hyroxy flunixin, 50 ± 4.5% of thiabendazole, and 33 ± 3.8% of metabolite 5-hydroxy thiabendazole was found partitioned into casein micelles. Our study supports the hypothesis that casein micelles are native carriers for hydrophobic compounds in bovine milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification to the renneting functionality of casein micelles caused by nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ion Titapiccolo, G; Corredig, M; Alexander, M

    2010-02-01

    Nonionic emulsifiers of small molecular weight such as polysorbates are widely used in dairy products. Nevertheless, the mechanism of interaction between these surfactants and milk proteins is not yet fully understood. This work investigated the effect of Tween 20 on casein micelles by studying the renneting behavior of skim milk in the presence of different amounts of surfactant. The presence of Tween accelerated both the first and second phase of renneting in skim milk. The gel obtained showed a higher elastic modulus than that of a skim milk gel, but also showed similar brittleness. By varying the size of the surfactant (Tween 20 or Tween 80) as well as the colloidal state of the proteins in solution, it was possible to demonstrate that the surfactant did not have a direct effect on the activity of the enzyme, but rather had a direct effect on the casein micelles. The effect of surfactant on the gelation point was reduced by increasing surfactant size. The presence of Tween caused an increase in the size of the micelles without affecting their stability. In addition, Tween did not alter the amount of caseins free in the serum phase. These findings can contribute to improving our ability to custom design final structures in rennet-induced gels, though further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism at play when casein micelles are enzymatically cleaved in the presence of nonionic surfactants of small molecular weight. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound effects on the assembly of casein micelles in reconstituted skim milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Juliano, Pablo; Williams, Roderick P W; Niere, Julie; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Reconstituted skim milks (10 % w/w total solids, pH 6·7-8·0) were ultrasonicated (20, 400 or 1600 kHz at a specific energy input of 286 kJ/kg) at a bulk milk temperature of <30 °C. Application of ultrasound to milk at different pH altered the assembly of the casein micelle in milk, with greater effects at higher pH and lower frequency. Low frequency ultrasound caused greater disruption of casein micelles causing release of protein from the micellar to the serum phase than high frequency. The released protein re-associated to form aggregates of smaller size but with surface charge similar to the casein micelles in the original milk. Ultrasound may be used as a physical intervention to alter the size of the micelles and the partitioning of caseins between the micellar and serum phases in milk. The altered protein equilibria induced by ultrasound treatment may have potential for the development of milk with novel functionality.

  16. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of tea catechins associated with casein micelles, using HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Haratifar, S; Meckling, K A; Corredig, M

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols display anticancer activities in many organ sites by using different experimental models in rodents and in cultured cell lines in vitro. The present study tested the ability of casein micelles to deliver biologically active concentrations of polyphenols to HT-29 colon cancer cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, was used as the model molecule, as it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells. In the present work, we hypothesized that due to the binding of caseins with EGCG, casein micelles may be an ideal platform for the delivery of this bioactive molecule and that the binding would not affect the bioaccessibility of EGCG. The cytotoxicity and proliferation behavior of HT-29 colon cancer cells when exposed to free EGCG was compared with that of nanoencapsulated EGCG in casein micelles of skim milk. Epigallocatechin gallate-casein complexes were able to decrease the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells, demonstrating that bioavailability may not be reduced by the nanoencapsulation. As casein micelles may act as protective carriers for EGCG in foods, it was concluded that nanoencapsulation of tea catechins in casein micelles may not diminish their antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells compared with free tea catechins. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nano-preparation of Andrographis paniculata extract by casein micelle for antidiabetic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbianti, Rita; Dewi, Veronica; Imansari, Farisa; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Side effects caused by oral medications for person with diabetic are the background of the development of alternative treatments by traditional medicine, herbs. Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the herbs that is potent to be anti-diabetic agent. The active compound of AP, andrographolide have been examined to have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor. This research aims to encapsulate sambiloto's extract with casein micelle and produce nanoparticles which have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Extract of AP is encapsulated by casein micelle and made into nano size using sonicator. The dominant active compounds in AP extract coated by casein are andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide with encapsulation efficiency of 68.83%, 89.15% and 81.69%, the average diameter of the particles is about 120.57 nm and its loading capacity is 28.85%. AP's extract has antidiabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor with percent inhibition of 95%. The morphology of nanoencapsulated AP's extract analyzed by FE-SEM, were similar with casein micelle.

  19. Dissolution and reconstitution of casein micelle containing dairy powders by high shear using ultrasonic and physical methods.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Martin, Gregory J O; Kentish, Sandra E; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-09-01

    The effect of shear on the solubilization of a range of dairy powders was investigated. The rate of solubilization of low solubility milk protein concentrate and micellar casein powders was examined during ultrasonication, high pressure homogenization and high-shear rotor-stator mixing and compared to low-shear overhead stirring. The high shear techniques were able to greatly accelerate the solubilization of these powders by physically breaking apart the powder agglomerates and accelerating the release of individual casein micelles into solution. This was achieved without affecting the structure of the solubilized proteins. The effect of high shear on the re-establishment of the mineral balance between the casein micelles and the serum was examined by monitoring the pH of the reconstituted skim milk powder after prior exposure to ultrasonication. Only minor differences in the re-equilibration of the pH were observed after sonication for up to 3 min, suggesting that the localized high shear forces exerted by sonication did not significantly affect the mass transfer of minerals from within the casein micelles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat-induced gelation of casein micelles in aqueous suspensions at different pH.

    PubMed

    Thomar, Peggy; Nicolai, Taco

    2016-10-01

    Heat-induced gelation of casein micelles in aqueous solution was investigated between pH 5.2 and pH 6.7 over a wide range of protein concentrations (C=25-160gL(-1)). For C≥40gL(-1) the casein micelles rapidly formed a self-supporting gel above a critical temperature (Tc). At C=160gL(-1), Tc decreased from 90°C at pH 6.5 to 30°C at pH 5.4 and increased with decreasing protein concentration. Oscillatory shear measurements during heating showed that the elastic modulus (Gel) of the gels increased strongly with increasing protein concentration, but was insensitive to the pH and the heating temperature except close to Tc where Gel decreased sharply with decreasing temperature. The microstructure of the gels was observed by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Heat-induced gelation of casein micelles was compared with that of sodium caseinate solutions free of calcium phosphate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of sodium azide addition and aging storage on casein micelle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    Casein micelles affected most of milk properties, therefore the use sodium azide as milk preservation is not expected to alter milk properties during storage, including the casein micelle size. The aim of this study was to analyse casein micelle size after the addition of sodium azide during storage. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The addition of 0.02-0.10% Na-azide do not lead to any noticeable differences in average casein size at the same day and show similar trend after 14 day-storage. At concentration of 0.02% sodium azide (Na-azide), the size of pasteurised milk did not change up to 12 days, while the size of raw skim milk slightly increased by ageing time at day 5. The treated concentration did not affect the size distribution, except for milk with 0.02% Na-azide which had narrower distribution compared to other treated and control milk. The finding from this study suggests that the role of Na-azide in this experiments during storage at 4°C is only for preventing the microbial growth.

  2. The impact of the concentration of casein micelles and whey protein-stabilized fat globules on the rennet-induced gelation of milk.

    PubMed

    Gaygadzhiev, Zafir; Corredig, Milena; Alexander, Marcela

    2009-02-01

    The rennet-induced aggregation of skim milk recombined with whey protein-stabilized emulsion droplets was studied using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DSW) and small deformation rheology. The effect of different volume fractions of casein micelles and fat globules was investigated by observing changes in turbidity (1/l*), apparent radius, elastic modulus and mean square displacement (MSD), in addition to confocal imaging of the gels. Skim milk containing different concentration of casein micelles showed comparable light-scattering profiles; a higher volume fraction of caseins led to the development of more elastic gels. By following the development of 1/l* in recombined milks, it was possible to describe the behaviour of the fat globules during the initial stages of rennet coagulation. Increasing the volume fraction of fat globules showed a significant increase in gel elasticity, caused by flocculation of the oil droplets. The presence of flocculated oil globules within the gel structure was confirmed by confocal microscopy observations. Moreover, a lower degree of kappa-casein hydrolysis was needed to initiate casein micelles aggregation in milk containing whey protein-stabilized oil droplets compared to skim milk. This study for the first time clearly describes the impact of a mixture of casein micelles and whey protein-stabilized fat globules on the pre-gelation stages of rennet coagulation, and further highlights the importance of the flocculation state of the emulsion droplets in affecting the structure formation of the gel.

  3. Direct measurements of interfacial interactions between pectin and kappa-casein and implications for the stabilisation of calcium-free casein micelle mimics.

    PubMed

    Cucheval, A; Al-Ghobashy, M A; Hemar, Y; Otter, D; Williams, M A K

    2009-10-15

    Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) it has been shown that the fine structure of the anionic polysaccharide pectin strongly influences its interfacial interaction with a kappa-casein layer coated onto a gold surface (via a dextran linker) in the pH range 3.5-6.8, with the highest SPR signal being observed for pectin with the lowest charge density tested (a degree of methylesterification (DM) around 90%). Furthermore, the Brownian motions of kappa-casein coated polystyrene beads (used to provide calcium-free 'model casein micelles') were studied in pectin solutions using Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) and microscopy, and were compared with measurements made on naked beads. At every pH value studied (with the exception of 3.5), bridging of the protein-covered probe particles was observed for pectins of both DM 28 and DM 78. However, no aggregated complexes were found in these model casein micelle systems when pectin of an unusually high DM was used (90%). It was hypothesised that having a limited number of binding regions of spatially limited extent maximises the number of chains binding to the protein layer (as found with the SPR measurement), encourages the formation of loops and trains, and additionally limits the potential for destabilisation via bridging.

  4. Effect of solvent and temperature on the size distribution of casein micelles measured by dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Beliciu, C M; Moraru, C I

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of the solvent on the accuracy of casein micelle particle size determination by dynamic light scattering (DLS) at different temperatures and to establish a clear protocol for these measurements. Dynamic light scattering analyses were performed at 6, 20, and 50 degrees C using a 90Plus Nanoparticle Size Analyzer (Brookhaven Instruments, Holtsville, NY). Raw and pasteurized skim milk were used as sources of casein micelles. Simulated milk ultrafiltrate, ultrafiltered water, and permeate obtained by ultrafiltration of skim milk using a 10-kDa cutoff membrane were used as solvents. The pH, ionic concentration, refractive index, and viscosity of all solvents were determined. The solvents were evaluated by DLS to ensure that they did not have a significant influence on the results of the particle size measurements. Experimental protocols were developed for accurate measurement of particle sizes in all solvents and experimental conditions. All measurements had good reproducibility, with coefficients of variation below 5%. Both the solvent and the temperature had a significant effect on the measured effective diameter of the casein micelles. When ultrafiltered permeate was used as a solvent, the particle size and polydispersity of casein micelles decreased as temperature increased. The effective diameter of casein micelles from raw skim milk diluted with ultrafiltered permeate was 176.4 +/- 5.3 nm at 6 degrees C, 177.4 +/- 1.9 nm at 20 degrees C, and 137.3 +/- 2.7 nm at 50 degrees C. This trend was justified by the increased strength of hydrophobic bonds with increasing temperature. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the most suitable solvent for the DLS analyses of casein micelles was casein-depleted ultrafiltered permeate. Dilution with water led to micelle dissociation, which significantly affected the DLS measurements, especially at 6 and 20 degrees C. Simulated milk ultrafiltrate seemed to give

  5. Simulation of the shape and size of casein micelles in a film state.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2014-04-01

    Size fractionated casein micelles (CMs) form homogeneous films in which they are densely packed. The lateral size of CMs in films can be well resolved by surface-sensitive methods, but the estimation of their heights is still a challenge. We show that height information can be obtained from scattering patterns of GISAXS experiments on highly ordered casein films. We use an elastic scattering approach within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to simulate for the first time the two-dimensional intensity distribution of a GISAXS experiment of the CM near their critical angle. The model which fits the GISAXS data best considers an ellipsoidal form factor for the CM and an arrangement on a hexagonal lattice. Our results indicate that during film formation the spherical solution structure of CMs becomes compressed in the direction perpendicular to the film surface. In the film state, the micelles assume an oblate ellipsoidal shape with an aspect ratio of 1.9. Hence, their surface and contact area to the surrounding increases. As a result, the density of κ-casein on the micellar surface decreases, which could influence the functional properties of coatings and films.

  6. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju

    2013-08-01

    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30-70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials.

  7. Phase behaviour of casein micelles and barley beta-glucan polymer molecules in dietary fibre-enriched dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Repin, Nikolay; Scanlon, Martin G; Fulcher, R Gary

    2012-07-01

    Enrichment of colloidal dairy systems with dietary fibre frequently causes quality defects because of phase separation. We investigate phase separation in skimmed milk enriched with Glucagel (a commercial product made from barley that is predominantly comprised of the polysaccharide β-glucan). The driving force for phase separation was depletion flocculation of casein micelles in the presence of molecules of the polysaccharide. Depending on the volume fraction of casein micelles and the concentration of Glucagel, the stable system phase separated either as a transient gel or as a sedimented system. The rate at which phase separation progressed also depended on the volume fraction of casein micelles and the concentration of Glucagel. To confirm the role of depletion flocculation in the phase separation process, enzymatic reduction in the molecular weight of β-glucan was shown to limit the range of attraction between micelles and allow the stable phase to exist at a higher β-glucan concentration for any given volume fraction of casein micelles. These phase diagrams will be useful to dairy product manufacturers striving to improve the nutrient profile of their products while avoiding product quality impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interfacial properties, thin film stability and foam stability of casein micelle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Sala, Guido; Meinders, Marcel B J; van Valenberg, Hein J F; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2017-01-01

    Foam stability of casein micelle dispersions (CMDs) strongly depends on aggregate size. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, the role of interfacial and thin film properties was investigated. CMDs were prepared at 4°C and 20°C, designated as CMD 4°C and CMD 20°C . At equal protein concentrations, foam stability of CMD 4 °C (with casein micelle aggregates) was markedly higher than CMD 20°C (without aggregates). Although the elastic modulus of CMD 4°C was twice as that of CMD 20°C at 0.005Hz, the protein adsorbed amount was slightly higher for CMD 20°C than for CMD 4°C , which indicated a slight difference in interfacial composition of the air/water interface. Non-linear surface dilatational rheology showed minor differences between mechanical properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by two CMDs. These differences in interfacial properties could not explain the large difference in foam stability between two CMDs. Thin film analysis showed that films made with CMD 20°C drained to a more homogeneous film compared to films stabilized by CMD 4°C . Large casein micelle aggregates trapped in the thin film of CMD 4°C made the film more heterogeneous. The rupture time of thin films was significantly longer for CMD 4°C (>1h) than for CMD 20°C (<600s) at equal protein concentration. After homogenization, which broke down the aggregates, the thin films of CMD 4°C became much more homogeneous, and both the rupture time of thin films and foam stability decreased significantly. In conclusion, the increased stability of foam prepared with CMD 4°C appears to be the result of entrapment of casein micelle aggregates in the liquid films of the foam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenization on the interaction between bovine casein micelles and ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Corzo-Martínez, M; Mohan, M; Dunlap, J; Harte, F

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a milk-based powder formulation appropriate for pediatric delivery of ritonavir (RIT). Ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) at 0.1, 300 and 500 MPa was used to process a dispersion of pasteurized skim milk (SM) and ritonavir. Loading efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC-UV; characterization of RIT:SM systems was carried out by apparent average hydrodynamic diameter and rheological measurements as well as different analytical techniques including Trp fluorescence, UV spectroscopy, DSC, FTIR and SEM; and delivery capacity of casein micelles was determined by in vitro experiments promoting ritonavir release. Ritonavir interacted efficiently with milk proteins, especially, casein micelles, regardless of the processing pressure; however, results suggest that, at 0.1 MPa, ritonavir interacts with caseins at the micellar surface, whilst, at 300 and 500 MPa, ritonavir is integrated to the protein matrix during UHPH treatment. Likewise, in vitro experiments showed that ritonavir release from micellar casein systems is pH dependent; with a high retention of ritonavir during simulated gastric digestion and a rapid delivery under conditions simulating the small intestine environment. Skim milk powder, especially, casein micelles are potentially suitable and efficient carrier systems to develop novel milk-based and low-ethanol powder formulations of ritonavir appropriate for pediatric applications.

  10. Coacervates of lactotransferrin and β- or κ-casein: structure determined using SAXS.

    PubMed

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Pedersen, JanSkov; Huppertz, Thom; Anema, Skelte G

    2013-08-20

    Lactotransferrin (LF) is a large globular protein in milk with immune-regulatory and bactericidal properties. At pH 6.5, LF (M = 78 kDa) carries a net (calculated) charge of +21. β-Casein (BCN) and κ-casein (KCN) are part of the casein micelle complex in milk. Both BCN and KCN are amphiphillic proteins with a molar mass of 24 and 19 kDa and carry net charges of -14 and -4, respectively. Both BCN and KCN form soap-like micelles, with 40 and 65 monomers, respectively. The net negative charges are located in the corona of the micelles. On mixing LF with the caseins, coacervates are formed. We analyzed the structure of these coarcervates using SAXS. It was found that LF binds to the corona of the micellar structures, at the charge neutrality point. BCN/LF and KCN/LF ratios at the charge neutrality point were found to be ~1.2 and ~5, respectively. We think that the findings are relevant for the protection mechanism of globular proteins in bodily fluids where unstructured proteins are abundant (saliva). The complexes will prevent docking of enzymes on specific charged groups on the globular protein.

  11. EFFECT OF ULTRA-HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BOVINE CASEIN MICELLES AND RITONAVIR

    PubMed Central

    Corzo-Martínez, M.; Mohan, M.; Dunlap, J.; Harte, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a milk-based powder formulation appropriate for pediatric delivery of ritonavir (RIT). Methods Ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) at 0.1, 300 and 500 MPa was used to process a dispersion of pasteurized skim milk (SM) and ritonavir. Loading efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC-UV; characterization of RIT:SM systems was carried out by apparent average hydrodynamic diameter and rheological measurements as well as different analytical techniques including Trp fluorescence, UV spectroscopy, DSC, FTIR and SEM; and delivery capacity of casein micelles was determined by in vitro experiments promoting ritonavir release. Results Ritonavir interacted efficiently with milk proteins, especially, casein micelles, regardless of the processing pressure; however, results suggest that, at 0.1 MPa, ritonavir interacts with caseins at the micellar surface, whilst, at 300 and 500 MPa, ritonavir is integrated to the protein matrix during UHPH treatment. Likewise, in vitro experiments showed that ritonavir release from micellar casein systems is pH dependent; with a high retention of ritonavir during simulated gastric digestion and a rapid delivery under conditions simulating the small intestine environment. Conclusions Skim milk powder, especially, casein micelles are potentially suitable and efficient carrier systems to develop novel milk-based and low-ethanol powder formulations of ritonavir appropriate for pediatric applications. PMID:25270571

  12. Casein micelle dissociation in skim milk during high-pressure treatment: effects of pressure, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Orlien, V; Boserup, L; Olsen, K

    2010-01-01

    The effect of pH (from 5.5 to 7.5) and temperature (from 5 to 40 degrees C) on the turbidity of reconstituted skim milk powder was investigated at ambient pressure and in situ under pressure (up to 500MPa) by measurement of light scattering. High-pressure treatment reduced the turbidity of milk for all combinations of pH and temperature due to micelle dissociation. The turbidity profiles had a characteristic sigmoidal shape in which almost no effect on turbidity was observed at low pressures (100MPa), followed by a stronger pressure dependency over a pressure range of 150MPa during which turbidity decreased extremely. From the turbidity profiles, the threshold pressure for disruption of micelle integrity was determined and ranged from 150MPa at low pH to 350-400MPa at high pH. The threshold pressure diagram clearly showed a relationship between the barostability of casein micelles and pH, whereas almost no effect of temperature was shown. This remarkable pH effect was a consequence of pressure-induced changes in the electrostatic interactions between colloidal calcium phosphate and the caseins responsible for maintaining micellar structure and was explained by a shift in the calcium phosphate balance in the micelle-serum system. Accordingly, a mechanism for high pressure-induced disruption of micelle integrity is suggested in which the state of calcium plays a crucial role in the micelle dissociation process. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of pH on dissociation of casein micelles in yak skim milk.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zhang, G D; Yang, J T; Sun, D; Wen, P C; Zhang, W B

    2018-04-01

    The dissociation of yak casein (CN) micelles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, particle size, fluorescence properties, and soluble mineral and CN molecule content at pH 4.6 to 8.2. The results showed that the size of CN micelles remained constant with decreasing pH from 8.2 to 5.8 but sharply increased at pH ≤5.4. Casein micelles began to aggregate at pH 5.4, and the serum magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese levels had their minimum values at this pH level. During acidification, colloidal calcium phosphate dramatically disassociated from yak CN micelles, but the soluble CN monomer content decreased slightly. During alkalization, the soluble calcium and phosphorus content decreased below pH 6.8 but increased with pH increases from 6.8 to 8.2. However, the soluble CN content increased markedly during alkalization. The emission wavelength of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt fluorescence decreased during both acidification and alkalization from pH 6.6, whereas the opposite was found for intrinsic fluorescence. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoscale observation of the natural structure of milk-fat globules and casein micelles in the liquid condition using a scanning electron assisted dielectric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko; Okada, Tomoko

    2017-09-30

    Recently, aqueous nanoparticles have been used in drug-delivery systems for new type medicines. In particular, milk-casein micelles have been used as drug nanocarriers for targeting cancer cells. Therefore, nanostructure observation of particles and micelles in their native liquid condition is indispensable for analysing their function and mechanisms. However, traditional optical and scanning electron microscopy have difficulty observing the nanostructures of aqueous micelles. Recently, we developed a novel imaging technique called scanning electron-assisted dielectric microscopy (SE-ADM) that enables observation of various biological specimens in water with very little radiation damage and high-contrast imaging without staining or fixation at an 8-nm spatial resolution. In this study, for the first time, we show that the SE-ADM system is capable of high-resolution observation of whole-milk specimens in their natural state. Moreover, we successfully observe the casein micelles and milk-fat globules in an intact liquid condition. Our SE-ADM system can be applied to various biological particles and micelles in a native liquid state. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and characterization of a novel drug nanocarrier for oral delivery, based on self-assembled β-casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Michal; Mandelbaum, Amitai; Portnaya, Irina; Perlstein, Hadas; Even-Chen, Simcha; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Danino, Dganit

    2012-06-10

    β-casein is an amphiphilic protein that self-organizes into well-defined core-shell micelles. We developed these micelles as efficient nanocarriers for oral drug delivery. Our model drug is celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory hydrophobic drug utilized for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, now also evaluated as a potent anticancer drug. This system is unique as it enables encapsulation loads >100-fold higher than other β-casein/drug formulations, and does not require additives as do other formulations that have high loadings. This is combined with the ability to lyophilize the formulation without a cryoprotectant, long-term physical and chemical stability of the resulting powder, and fully reversible reconstitution of the structures by rehydration. The dry dosage form, in which >95% of the drug is encapsulated, meets the daily dose. Cryo-TEM and DLS prove that drug encapsulation results in micelle swelling, and X-ray diffraction shows that the encapsulated drug is amorphous. Altogether, our novel dosage form is highly advantageous for oral administration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epitope characterization of a supramolecular protein assembly with a collection of monoclonal antibodies: the case of casein micelle.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Annette; Lugand, Damien; Rolet-Répécaud, Odile; Mollé, Daniel; Delage, Marie-Madeleine; Peltre, Gabriel; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Léonil, Joëlle; Dupont, Didier

    2009-03-01

    In milk, kappa-, beta-, alphas(1)- and alphas(2)-casein (CN) are associated into a supramolecular assembly, the micelle. In this work, CN micelles contained in fresh skim milk were used to produce over 100 monoclonal antibodies. The specificity of these probes was determined using libraries of synthetic peptides and peptides fractionated from tryptic hydrolysis of purified CNs. Although kappa-CN and alphas(2)-CN are minor proteins in the micelle (ratio 1:1:4:4 for kappa, alphas(2), alphas(1), beta) a proportionally high number of clones were produced towards these two proteins (32 for each), compared to 9 and 29 for alphas(1)-CN and beta-CN, respectively. Most of the beta-CN and kappa-CN epitopes were identified, while about 50% of alphas(1)-CN and alphas(2)-CN antibodies were suspected to react to conformational linear or discontinuous epitopes, since no peptide binding could be identified. Antibody binding to the phosphoserine rich regions of the three calcium sensitive CNs was weak or non-existing, suggesting them to be hidden in the micelle structure together with alphas(1)-CN. The C-terminal glycomacropeptide of kappa-CN and the C-terminal moiety of beta-CN were well exposed generating the majority of the antibodies specific for these two proteins. The two major antigenic sites of alphas(2) were alphas(2)-CN (f96-114) and (f16-35). Cross-reaction between alphas(2)-CN specific antibodies with alphas(1)-CN illustrated the tangled structure between the two proteins. Immuno-dominant epitopes identified in the present study totally differ from those known for the purified caseins suggesting they were specific for the micelle supramolecular structure.

  17. Acid gelation properties of heated skim milk as a result of enzymatically induced changes in the micelle/serum distribution of the whey protein/kappa-casein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Renan, Marie; Chatriot, Marc; Gamerre, Valérie; Famelart, Marie-Hélène

    2007-12-26

    Changes in the acid gelation properties of skim milk as a result of variations in the micelle/serum distribution of the heat-induced whey protein/kappa-casein aggregates, induced by the combination of heat treatment and limited renneting, were investigated. No dramatic change in the zeta potential or the isoelectric point of the casein micelles was suggested, whether the aggregates were all attached to the casein micelle or not. Fluorescence intensity measurement using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) showed that the heat-induced aggregates were highly hydrophobic. Dynamic oscillation viscosimetry showed that acid gelation using glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) started at a higher pH value in prerenneted milk. However, no change in the gelation profile of skim milk could be related to the proportion of aggregates bound to the surface of the casein micelles. The results support the idea of an early interaction between the serum aggregates and the casein micelles on acidification.

  18. Enhanced bioethanol production from pretreated corn stover via multi-positive effect of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2013-05-01

    Casein polypeptides containing substructures of αs1-casein, β-casein, k-casein, αs2-casein were used as a lignin-blocker at above critical micelles concentration to improve the bioethanol production of dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX pretreated corn stover (CS). Application of 0.5 g/g glucan of casein was found to effectively increase the glucose yield of CS pretreated with dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX by 31.9%, 17.0%, 22.7%, 29.5%, and 17.4%, respectively with no positive impact on Avicel. Consequently 96 h simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of these hydrolysates reduced the fermentation period by up to 48 h and increased the theoretical yield of ethanol by 8.48-33.7% compared to control. Application of casein during saccharification reduced the enzyme utilization by 33.0%. Recycling of hydrolysate from casein-treated CS for a 2nd round hydrolysis resulted in average glucose yield of 36.4% compared to 29.0% control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of vitamins A and D3 loading in re-assembled casein micelles and effect of loading on stability of vitamin D3 during storage.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Anisa; Chan, Benny; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to apply response surface methodology to optimize fat-soluble vitamin loading in re-assembled casein micelles, and to evaluate vitamin D stability of dry formulations during ambient or accelerated storage and in fortified fluid skim milk stored under refrigeration. Optimal loading of vitamin A (1.46-1.48mg/100mgcasein) was found at 9.7mM phosphate, 5.5mM citrate and 30.0mM calcium, while optimal loading of vitamin D (1.38-1.46mg/100mg casein) was found at 4.9mM phosphate, 4.0mM citrate and 26.1mM calcium. In general, more vitamin D was retained in vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles than control powders during storage, while vitamin D loss was not different for vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles and control fortified milks after 21days of refrigerated storage with light exposure. In conclusion, re-assembled casein micelles with high loading efficiency show promise for improving vitamin D stability during dry storage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which are cysteine-containing casein was dimeric in the endoplasmic reticulum. Saponin permeabilisation of microsomal membranes in physico-chemical conditions believed to conserve casein interactions demonstrated that rat immature β-casein is weakly aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum. In striking contrast, a large proportion of immature αS1-casein was recovered in permeabilised microsomes when incubated in conservative conditions. Furthermore, a substantial amount of αS1-casein remained associated with microsomal or post-ER membranes after saponin permeabilisation in non-conservative conditions or carbonate extraction at pH11, all in the presence of DTT. Finally, we show that protein dimerisation via disulfide bond is involved in the interaction of αS1-casein with membranes. Conclusions These experiments reveal for the first time the existence of a membrane-associated form of αS1-casein in the endoplasmic reticulum and in more distal compartments of the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Our data suggest that αS1-casein, which is required for efficient export of the other caseins from the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a key role in early steps of casein micelle biogenesis and casein transport in the secretory pathway. PMID:20704729

  1. Characterization of casein and alpha lactalbumin of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) milk.

    PubMed

    Madende, M; Osthoff, G; Patterton, H-G; Patterton, H E; Martin, P; Opperman, D J

    2015-12-01

    The current research reports partial characterization of the caseins and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) of the African elephant with proposed unique structure-function properties. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the structure of the casein micelles. Crystallographic structure elucidation of caseins and casein micelles is not possible. Consequently, several models have been developed in an effort to describe the casein micelle, specifically of cow milk. Here we report the characterization of African elephant milk caseins. The κ-caseins and β-caseins were investigated, and their relative ratio was found to be approximately 1:8.5, whereas α-caseins were not detected. The gene sequence of β-casein in the NCBI database was revisited, and a different sequence in the N-terminal region is proposed. Amino acid sequence alignment and hydropathy plots showed that the κ-casein of African elephant milk is similar to that of other mammals, whereas the β-casein is similar to the human protein, and displayed a section of unique AA composition and additional hydrophilic regions compared with bovine caseins. Elephant milk is destabilized by 62% alcohol, and it is speculated that the β-casein characteristics may allow maintenance of the colloidal nature of the casein micelle, a role that was previously only associated with κ-casein. The oligosaccharide content of milk was reported to be low in dairy animals but high in some other species such as humans and elephants. In the milk of the African elephant, lactose and oligosaccharides both occur at high levels. These levels are typically related to the content of α-LA in the mammary gland and thus point to a specialized carbohydrate synthesis, where the whey protein α-LA plays a role. We report the characterization of African elephant α-LA. Homology modeling of the α-LA showed that it is structurally similar to crystal structures of other mammalian species, which in turn may be an indication that its functional

  2. Effect of soluble calcium on the renneting properties of casein micelles as measured by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandra, S; Ho, M; Alexander, M; Corredig, M

    2012-01-01

    Addition of calcium chloride to milk has positive effects on cheese-making because it decreases coagulation time, creates firmer gels, and increases curd yield. Although addition of calcium chloride is a widely used industrial practice, the effect of soluble calcium on the preliminary stages of gelation is not fully understood. In addition, it is not known whether the manner of addition and equilibration of the soluble calcium would affect the rennetability of the casein micelles. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the details of the coagulation behavior of casein micelles in the presence of additional calcium, and to elucidate whether the manner in which this cation is added (directly as calcium chloride or by gradual exchange through dialysis) affects the functionality of the micelles. Calcium was added as CaCl(2) (1 mM final added concentration) directly to skim milk or indirectly using dialysis against 50 volumes of milk. Additional soluble calcium did not affect the primary phase of the renneting reaction, as demonstrated by the analysis of the casein macropeptide (CMP) released in solution; however, it shortened the coagulation time of the micelles and increased the firmness of the gel. The turbidity parameter of samples with or without calcium showed that similar amounts of CMP were needed for particle interactions to commence. However, the amount of CMP released at the point of gelation, as indicated by rheology, was lesser for samples with added calcium, which can be attributed to a greater extent of calcium bridging on the surface or between micelles. The results also showed that the manner in which calcium was presented to the micelles did not influence the mechanism of gelation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixed micellization between natural and synthetic block copolymers: β-casein and Lutrol F-127.

    PubMed

    Portnaya, Irina; Khalfin, Rafail; Kesselman, Ellina; Ramon, Ory; Cogan, Uri; Danino, Dganit

    2011-02-28

    Amphiphilic block copolymers and mixtures of amphiphiles find broad applications in numerous technologies, including pharma, food, cosmetic and detergency. Here we report on the interactions between a biological charged diblock copolymer, β-casein, and a synthetic uncharged triblock copolymer, Lutrol F-127 (EO(101)PO(56)EO(101)), on their mixed micellization characteristics and the micelles' structure and morphology. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments indicate that mixed micelles form when Lutrol is added to monomeric as well as to assembled β-casein. The main driving force for the mixed micellization is the hydrophobic interactions. Above β-casein CMC, strong perturbations caused by penetration of the hydrophobic oxypropylene sections of Lutrol into the protein micellar core lead to disintegration of the micelles and reformation of mixed Lutrol/β-casein micelles. The negative enthalpy of micelle formation (ΔH) and cooperativity increase with raising β-casein concentration in solution. ζ-potential measurements show that Lutrol interacts with the protein micelles to form mixed micelles even below its critical micellization temperature (CMT). They further indicate that Lutrol effectively masks the protein charges, probably by forming a coating layer of the ethyleneoxide rich chains. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) indicate relatively small changes in the oblate micellar shape, but do show swelling along the small axis of β-casein micelles in the presence of Lutrol, thereby confirming the formation of mixed micelles.

  4. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonic monitoring of yoghurt formation by using AT-cut quartz: lighting of casein micelles interactions process during the acidification.

    PubMed

    Ould-Ehssein, C; Serfaty, S; Griesmar, P; Le Huérou, J-Y; Caplain, E; Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Gindre, M

    2006-12-22

    The behavior of weak gels during their formation singularly attracts attention of dairy products factories. In our study we investigate acidified pre-heated milk gels formation that are fairly often used to product yoghurts. The gel formation requires a tight control of the first step of micelles modification process and the kinetics reaction parameters. The most current rheological parameters used to achieve the monitoring are the storage G' and the loss G'' shear moduli and the gelation time. The study of these parameters is commonly performed at very low frequencies (1 Hz). Our technique uses a 6 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal immersed in an acidified milk solution kept at a constant temperature. This method is singularly effective to ensure a complete and a reliable follow-up of the viscoelastic parameters of casein gels. A suitable new model enables a complete follow-up of the micelles evolution from the viscoelastic properties. The experimental results of the G' and G'' moduli versus temperature and versus glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) added to milk are analyzed. In order to understand the micelles modifications, an analysis of the viscoelastic evolution try to explain the validity of the various models of micelles modification. In addition a new accurate kinetics characteristic time is proposed. This time corresponds to the moment for which the elastic effect of material becomes significant. From the kinetics study of casein gels at various temperatures, the Arrhenius relationship and a modified Flory-Stockmayer relationship give us access to the activation energy. By using the proposed technique and the suitable models developed, the structure thus quality of dairy products may be better controlled.

  6. Importance of casein micelle size and milk composition for milk gelation.

    PubMed

    Glantz, M; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E; Lindmark Månsson, H; Stålhammar, H; Paulsson, M

    2010-04-01

    The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their zeta-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would

  7. Milk composition and lactation of beta-casein-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Clarke, A R; Hooper, M L; Horne, D S; Law, A J; Leaver, J; Springbett, A; Stevenson, E; Simons, J P

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein is a major protein component of milk and, in conjunction with the other caseins, it is assembled into micelles. The casein micelles determine many of the physical characteristics of milk, which are important for stability during storage and for milk-processing properties. There is evidence that suggests that beta-casein may also possess other, nonnutritional functions. To address the function of beta-casein, the mouse beta-casein gene was disrupted by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Homozygous beta-casein mutant mice are viable and fertile; females can lactate and successfully rear young. beta-Casein was expressed at a reduced level in heterozygotes and was completely absent from the milk of homozygous mutant mice. Despite the deficiency of beta-casein, casein micelles were assembled in heterozygous and homozygous mutants, albeit with reduced diameters. The absence of beta-casein expression was reflected in a reduced total protein concentration in milk, although this was partially compensated for by an increased concentration of other proteins. The growth of pups feeding on the milk of homozygous mutants was reduced relative to those feeding on the milk of wild-type mice. Various genetic manipulations of caseins have been proposed for the qualitative improvement of cow's milk composition. The results presented here demonstrate that beta-casein has no essential function and that the casein micelle is remarkably tolerant of changes in composition. Images PMID:8016126

  8. Structural changes induced by high-pressure processing in micellar casein and milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I

    2017-09-01

    Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  9. The evolution of milk casein genes from tooth genes before the origin of mammals.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Lafont, Anne-Gaelle; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2011-07-01

    Caseins are among cardinal proteins that evolved in the lineage leading to mammals. In milk, caseins and calcium phosphate (CaP) form a huge complex called casein micelle. By forming the micelle, milk maintains high CaP concentrations, which help altricial mammalian neonates to grow bone and teeth. Two types of caseins are known. Ca-sensitive caseins (α(s)- and β-caseins) bind Ca but precipitate at high Ca concentrations, whereas Ca-insensitive casein (κ-casein) does not usually interact with Ca but instead stabilizes the micelle. Thus, it is thought that these two types of caseins are both necessary for stable micelle formation. Both types of caseins show high substitution rates, which make it difficult to elucidate the evolution of caseins. Yet, recent studies have revealed that all casein genes belong to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) gene family that arose by gene duplication. In the present study, we investigated exon-intron structures and phylogenetic distributions of casein and other SCPP genes, particularly the odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) gene, the SCPP-Pro-Gln-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1) gene, and the follicular dendritic cell secreted peptide (FDCSP) gene. The results suggest that contemporary Ca-sensitive casein genes arose from a putative common ancestor, which we refer to as CSN1/2. The six putative exons comprising CSN1/2 are all found in SCPPPQ1, although ODAM also shares four of these exons. By contrast, the five exons of the Ca-insensitive casein gene are all reminiscent of FDCSP. The phylogenetic distribution of these genes suggests that both SCPPPQ1 and FDCSP arose from ODAM. We thus argue that all casein genes evolved from ODAM via two different pathways; Ca-sensitive casein genes likely originated directly from SCPPPQ1, whereas the Ca-insensitive casein genes directly differentiated from FDCSP. Further, expression of ODAM, SCPPPQ1, and FDCSP was detected in dental tissues, supporting the idea that both types of caseins

  10. Interactions in micellar solutions of β-casein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, E.; Calmettes, P.

    1997-02-01

    β-casein is a protein which forms micelles in aqueous solvents. The magnitude and the range of the weight-average interactions between the diverse solute particles are infrared from small-angle neutron scattering measurements made on various β-casein solutions. Well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), these interactions are repulsive. They weaken with decreasing protein concentration, and finally become strongly attractive near the CMC. Although indispensable for micelle formation this fact has never been reported so far.

  11. κ-Casein-deficient mice fail to lactate

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, P. Chandra; Goel, Sandeep; Rani, S. Deepa Selvi; Sarathi, D. Partha; Alex, Jomini Liza; Singh, Shashi; Kumar, Satish

    2006-01-01

    Acquisition of milk production capabilities by an ancestor of mammals is at the root of mammalian evolution. Milk casein micelles are a primary source of amino acids and calcium phosphate to neonates. To understand the role of κ-casein in lactation, we have created and characterized a null mouse strain (Csnk−/−) lacking this gene. The mutant κ-casein allele did not affect the expression of other milk proteins in Csnk−/− females. However, these females did not suckle their pups and failed to lactate because of destabilization of the micelles in the lumina of the mammary gland. Thus, κ-casein is essential for lactation and, consequently, for the successful completion of the process of reproduction in mammals. In view of the extreme structural conservation of the casein locus, as well as the phenotype of Csnk−/− females, we propose that the organization of a functional κ-casein gene would have been one of the critical events in the evolution of mammals. Further, κ-casein variants are known to affect the industrial properties of milk in dairy animals. Given the expenses and the time scale of such experiments in livestock species, it is desirable to model the intended genetic modifications in mice first. The mouse strain that we have created would be a useful model to study the effect of κ-casein variants on the properties of milk and/or milk products. PMID:16698927

  12. On-line casein micelle disruption for downstream purification of recombinant human myelin basic protein produced in the milk of transgenic cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Williams, Martin A K; Brophy, Brigid; Laible, Götz; Harding, David R K

    2009-06-01

    Downstream purification of a model recombinant protein (human myelin basic protein) from milk of transgenic cows is described. The recombinant protein was expressed as a His tagged fusion protein in the milk of transgenic cows and was found associated with the casein micellar phase. While difficulties in obtaining good recoveries were found when employing conventional micelle disruption procedures, direct capture using the cation exchanger SP Sepharose Big Beads was found successful in the extraction of the recombinant protein. Early breakthrough suggested a slow release of the recombinant protein from the micelles and dictated micelle disruption in order to obtain good yields. A new approach for deconstruction of the calcium core of the casein micelles, employing the interaction between the micellar calcium and the active sites of the cation exchanger resin was developed. Milk samples were loaded to the column in aliquots with a column washing step after each aliquot. This sequential loading approach successfully liberated the recombinant protein from the micelles and was found superior to the conventional sample loading approach. It increased the recovery by more than 25%, reduced fouling due to milk components and improved the column hydrodynamic properties as compared to the conventional sample loading approach. Hardware and software modifications to the chromatography system were necessary in order to keep the whole process automated. A second purification step using a Ni2+ affinity column was used to isolate the recombinant protein at purity more than 90% and a recovery percentage of 78%.

  13. Proteomic analysis and cross species comparison of casein fractions from the milk of dairy animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaxia; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Dongwei; Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Yunxia; Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Huiling; Cheng, Guanglong

    2017-01-01

    Casein micelles contribute to the physicochemical properties of milk and may also influence its functionality. At present, however, there is an incomplete understanding of the casein micelle associated proteins and its diversity among the milk obtained from different species. Therefore, milk samples were collected from seven dairy animals groups, casein fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation and their constituent proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 193 distinct proteins were identified among all the casein micelle preparations. Protein interaction analysis indicated that caseins could interact with major whey proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, and then whey proteins interacted with other proteins. Pathway analysis found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway is shared among the studied animals. Additionally, galactose metabolism pathway is also found to be commonly involved for proteins derived from camel and horse milk. According to the similarity of casein micelle proteomes, two major sample clusters were classified into ruminant animals (Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats) and non-ruminants (camels and horses). Our results provide new insights into the protein profile associated with casein micelles and the functionality of the casein micelle from the studied animals. PMID:28240229

  14. Aggregation and structural changes of α(S1)-, β- and κ-caseins induced by homocysteinylation.

    PubMed

    Stroylova, Yulia Y; Zimny, Jaroslaw; Yousefi, Reza; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Muronetz, Vladimir I; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels are resulting in N-homocysteinylation of lysyl residues in proteins and they correlate with a number of human pathologies. However, the role of homocysteinylation of lysyl residues is still poorly known. In order to study the features of homocysteinylation of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUP) bovine caseins were used as a model. α(S1)-, β- and κ-caseins, showing different aggregations and micelle formation, were modified with homocysteine-thiolactone and their physico-chemical properties were studied. Efficiency of homocysteine incorporation was estimated to be about 1.5, 2.1 and 1.3 homocysteyl residues per one β-, α(S1)-, and κ-casein molecule, respectively. Use of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescent markers such as Trp, thioflavin T and ANS, reveal structural changes of casein structures after homocysteinylation reflected by an increase in beta-sheet content, which in some cases may be characteristic of amyloid-like transformations. CD spectra also show an increase in beta-sheet content of homocysteinylated caseins. Casein homocysteinylation leads in all cases to aggregation. The sizes of aggregates and aggregation rates were dependent on homocysteine thiolactone concentration and temperature. DLS and microscopic studies have revealed the formation of large aggregates of about 1-3μm. Homocysteinylation of α(S1)- and β-caseins results in formation of regular spheres. Homocysteinylated κ-casein forms thin unbranched fibrils about 400-800nm long. In case of κ-casein amyloidogenic effect of homocysteinylation was confirmed by Congo red spectra. Taken together, data indicate that N-homocysteinylation provokes significant changes in properties of native caseins. A comparison of amyloidogenic transformation of 3 different casein types, belonging to the IUP protein family, shows that the efficiency of amyloidogenic transformation upon homocysteinylation depends on micellization capacity, additional disulphide bonds and

  15. Involvement of vesicle coat material in casein secretion and surface regeneration

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the apical zone of lactating rat mammary epithelial cells was studied with emphasis on vesicle coat structures. Typical 40-60 nm ID "coated vesicles" were abundant, frequently associated with the internal filamentous plasma membrane coat or in direct continuity with secretory vesicles (SV) or plasma membrane proper. Bristle coats partially or totally covered membranes of secretory vesicles identified by their casein micelle content. This coat survived SV isolation. Exocytotic fusion of SV membranes and release of the casein micelles was observed. Frequently, regularly arranged bristle coat structures were identified in those regions of the plasma membrane that were involved in exocytotic processes. Both coated and uncoated surfaces of the casein-containing vesicles, as well as typical "coated vesicles", were frequently associated with microtubules and/or microfilaments. We suggest that coat materials of vesicles are related or identical to components of the internal coat of the surface membrane and that new plasma membrane and associated internal coat is produced concomitantly by fusion and integration of bristle coat moieties. Postexocytotic association of secreted casein micelles with the cell surface, mediated by finely filamentous extensions, provided a marker for the integrated vesicle membrane. An arrangement of SV with the inner surface of the plasma membrane is described which is characterized by regularly spaced, heabily stained membrane to membrane cross-bridges (pre-exocytotic attachment plaques). Such membrane-interconnecting elements may represent a form of coat structure important to recognition and interaction of membrane surfaces. PMID:1254641

  16. Casein Aggregates Built Step-by-Step on Charged Polyelectrolyte Film Surfaces Are Calcium Phosphate-cemented*

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Krisztina; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Groma, Géza; Szalontai, Balázs; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The possible mechanism of casein aggregation and micelle buildup was studied in a new approach by letting α-casein adsorb from low concentration (0.1 mg·ml−1) solutions onto the charged surfaces of polyelectrolyte films. It was found that α-casein could adsorb onto both positively and negatively charged surfaces. However, only when its negative phosphoseryl clusters remained free, i.e. when it adsorbed onto a negative surface, could calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoclusters bind to the casein molecules. Once the CaP clusters were in place, step-by-step building of multilayered casein architectures became possible. The presence of CaP was essential; neither Ca2+ nor phosphate could alone facilitate casein aggregation. Thus, it seems that CaP is the organizing motive in the casein micelle formation. Atomic force microscopy revealed that even a single adsorbed casein layer was composed of very small (in the range of tens of nanometers) spherical forms. The stiffness of the adsorbed casein layer largely increased in the presence of CaP. On this basis, we can imagine that casein micelles emerge according to the following scheme. The amphipathic casein monomers aggregate into oligomers via hydrophobic interactions even in the absence of CaP. Full scale, CaP-carrying micelles could materialize by interlocking these casein oligomers with CaP nanoclusters. Such a mechanism would not contradict former experimental results and could offer a synthesis between the submicelle and the block copolymer models of casein micelles. PMID:20921229

  17. Milk Lacking α-Casein Leads to Permanent Reduction in Body Size in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Huber, Reinhard C.; Lillico, Simon G.; Carlisle, Ailsa; Robinson, Claire J.; Neil, Claire; Petrie, Linda; Sorensen, Dorte B.; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate. We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight. PMID:21789179

  18. Spray-dried casein-based micelles as a vehicle for solubilization and controlled delivery of flutamide: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Helmy, Maged W; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

    2013-08-01

    Novel casein (CAS)-based micelles loaded with the poorly soluble anti-cancer drug, flutamide (FLT), were successfully developed in a powdered form via spray-drying technique. Genipin (GNP) was used to crosslink CAS micelles as demonstrated by color variation of the micelles. Drug solubilization was enhanced by incorporation within the hydrophobic micellar core which was confirmed by solubility study and UV spectra. Spherical core-shell micelles were obtained with a particle size below 100 nm and zeta potential around -30 mV. At low drug loading, FLT was totally incorporated within micellar core as revealed by thermal analysis. However, at higher loading, excess non-incorporated drug at micelle surface caused a significant reduction in the surface charge density. Turbidity measurements demonstrated the high physical stability of micelles for 2 weeks dependent on GNP-crosslinking degree. In a dry powdered form, the micelles were stable for 6 months with no significant changes in drug content or particle size. A sustained drug release from CAS micelles up to 5 days was observed. After i.v. administration into rats, CAS micelles exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation of FLT compared to drug solution. Furthermore, a more prolonged drug systemic circulation was observed for GNP-crosslinked micelles. Overall, this study reports the application of spray-dried natural protein-based micelles for i.v. delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs such as FLT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating cold gelation properties of recombined highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate and cream for use in cheese making.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Vollmer, A H

    2016-07-01

    Highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC), a potential ingredient for cheese making, contains ~20% casein with ~70% of serum proteins removed by microfiltration and diafiltration of skim milk, followed by vacuum evaporation. Our objective was to investigate cold gelation properties of recombined concentrated milk (RCM) by mixing thawed frozen HC-MCC and cream under different casein levels, pH, and protein-to-fat ratios, and with addition of sodium citrate or calcium. The HC-MCC was recombined with cream using low shear at 50°C for 30 min, and rheological measurements were conducted. Cold-gelling temperature [the temperature at which storage modulus (G')=loss modulus (G″)] was linearly correlated with casein levels from 8.6 to 11.5% (R(2)=0.71), pH from 6.6 to 7.0 (R(2)=0.96), and addition of sodium citrate from 0 to 0.36mmol/g of casein (R(2)=0.80). At pH 7.0, gelation occurred at 12, 26, and 38°C with 9, 10, and 11% casein, respectively. At pH 6.6, 6.8, and 7.0, RCM with 12% casein gelled at a mean temperature of 12, 26, and 37°C, respectively. Adding calcium chloride at 0.17mmol/g of casein significantly increased cold-gelling temperature from 18 to ≥50°C, whereas no significant change was observed at levels up to 0.12mmol/g of casein. Different protein to fat ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 did not significantly influence gelling temperature. In transmission electron micrographs of RCM with 12% casein, casein micelles were nonspherical and partially dissociated into small protein strands. Upon addition of calcium chloride at 0.21mmol/g of casein, casein micelles were more spherical and retained colloidal structure with the presence of aggregated casein micelles. These gelation processes of RCM with or without addition of trisodium citrate were both reversible. We propose that cold gelation of RCM occurs when protein strands that have been partially released from the casein micelles entangle, restrict their mobility, and form a fine

  20. Impact of cationic surfactant on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Vinceković, Marko; Curlin, Marija; Jurašin, Darija

    2014-08-27

    The impact of a cationic surfactant, dodecylammonium chloride (DDACl), on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) has been investigated by light scattering, zeta potential, and rheological measurements as well as by microscopy (transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy). In SC dilute solutions concentration-dependent self-assembly proceeds through the formation of spherical associates and their aggregation into elongated structures composed of connected spheres. DDACl interacts with SC via its hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, inducing changes in SC self-assembled structures. These changes strongly depend on the surfactant aggregation states (monomeric or micellar) as well as concentration ratio of both components, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of nano- to microdimensions. DDACl monomers interact with SC self-assembled entities in a different way compared to their micelles. Surfactant monomers form soluble complexes (similar to surfactant mixed micelles) at lower SC concentration but insoluble gelatinous complexes at higher SC concentration. At surfactant micellar concentration soluble complexes with casein chains wrapped around surfactant micelles are formed. This study suggests that the use of proper cationic surfactant concentration will allow modification and control of structural changes of SC self-assembled entities.

  1. Interactions in Micellar Solutions of β-Casein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, E.; Calmettes, P.

    1997-01-01

    β-casein is a flexible amphiphilic milk protein which forms spherical micelles in very dilute solution. The magnitude of the weight-average interactions between the solute particles has been inferred from small-angle neutron scattering experiments. At relatively high protein concentrations the interactions between micelles are repulsive, whatever the temperature. At lower concentration these interactions vanish and become more and more attractive when the critical micelle concentration is approached. Although indispensable for micelle formation, this fact seems to have not been previously reported.

  2. Properties of an αs-casein-rich casein fraction: influence of dialysis on surface properties, miscibility, and micelle formation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anne; Menéndez-Aguirre, Orquidéa; Hinrichs, Jörg; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the surface tension, miscibility, and particle size distribution of a solution containing an αs-casein (CN)-rich CN fraction (54 wt % αs-CN, 32 wt % β-CN, and 15 wt % κ-CN) were determined at pH 6.6. The nondialyzed CN fraction was compared with a dialyzed one. In the nondialyzed sample, every charge on the protein was compensated by 0.3 charges coming from counterions, whereas in the dialyzed sample, only 0.2 charges could be assigned to each charge on the protein. This relation was determined by calculating the charges at the proteins, taking the measured mineral content into account. The surface tension was measured as a function of the protein concentration by the du Noüy ring method at room temperature. Results indicated alterations in the surface properties after reduction of counterions. The equilibrium surface tension above the critical micelle concentration increased from 40.1×10(-3) to 45×10(-3) N/m, the critical micelle concentration increased from 0.9×10(-4) to 2×10(-3) mol/L, and the minimal area occupied per molecule at the surface increased from 2.4×10(-18) to 4.6×10(-18) m(2). Cloud points were determined by measuring the absorbance of CN solutions as a function of the temperature. The cloud points were found to be concentration dependent and had a minimum at 0.2 wt % at 34°C for nondialyzed CN and at 0.25 wt % at 28°C for dialyzed CN, again demonstrating the influence of counterion reduction. Below the cloud point, a micellar phase was found to exist. The hydrodynamic diameter of the micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering in both auto- and cross-correlation mode. However, no influence of reduction in counterions could be observed, possibly due to the fact that dynamic light scattering is not a suitable method for this type of system. The presence of self-assembled structures was verified by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The observed differences between dialyzed and nondialyzed samples were

  3. pH treatment as an effective tool to select the functional and structural properties of yak milk caseins.

    PubMed

    Liu, H N; Zhang, C; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Wang, P J; Zhu, Y B; Ren, F Z

    2013-09-01

    Qula is made from yak milk after defatting, acidifying, and drying. Yak milk caseins are purified from Qula by dissolving in alkali solution. The effects of different pH treatments on the functional and structural properties of yak milk caseins were investigated. Over a broad range of pH (from 6.0 to 12.0), functional properties of yak milk caseins, including solubility, emulsifying activities, and thermal characteristics, and the structural properties, including 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonate fluorescence, turbidity and particle diameter, were evaluated. The results showed that the yak milk casein yield increased as the pH increased from 6.0 to 12.0. The solubility dramatically increased as the pH increased from 6.0 to 8.0, and decreased as the pH increased from 9.0 to 12.0. The changes in emulsifying activity were not significant. Caseins were remarkably heat stable at pH 9.0. The turbidity of the casein solution decreased rapidly as the pH increased from 6.0 to 12.0, and the results suggested that reassembled casein micelles were more compact at low pH than high pH. At pH values higher than 8.0, the yield of yak milk caseins reached more than 80%. The highest solubility was at pH 8.0, the best emulsification was at pH 10.0 and the greatest thermal stability was at pH 9.0. According to the functional characteristics of yak milk caseins, alkali conditions (pH 8.0-10.0) should be selected for optimum production. These results suggested that pH-dependent treatment could be used to modify the properties of yak milk caseins by appropriate selection of the pH level. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Competing processes of micellization and fibrillization in native and reduced casein proteins.

    PubMed

    Portnaya, Irina; Avni, Sharon; Kesselman, Ellina; Boyarski, Yoav; Sukenik, Shahar; Harries, Daniel; Dan, Nily; Cogan, Uri; Danino, Dganit

    2016-08-10

    Kappa-casein (κCN) and beta-casein (βCN) are disordered proteins present in mammalian milk. In vitro, βCN self-assembles into core-shell micelles. κCN self assembles into similar micelles, as well as into amyloid-like fibrils. Recent studies indicate that fibrillization can be suppressed by mixing βCN and κCN, but the mechanism of fibril inhibition has not been identified. Examining the interactions of native and reduced kappa-caseins (N-κCN and R-κCN) with βCN, we expose a competition between two different self-assembly processes: micellization and fibrillization. Quite surprisingly, however, we find significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the self-assembly between the native and reduced κCN forms. Specifically, thermodynamic analysis reveals exothermic demicellization for βCN and its mixtures with R-κCN, as opposed to endothermic demicellization of N-κCN and its mixtures with βCN at the same temperature. Furthermore, with time, R-κCN/βCN mixtures undergo phase separation into pure βCN micelles and R-κCN fibrils, while in the N-κCN/βCN mixtures fibril formation is considerably delayed and mixed micelles persist for longer periods of time. Fibrils formed in N-κCN/βCN mixtures are shorter and more flexible than those formed in R-κCN/βCN systems. Interestingly, in the N-κCN/βCN mixtures, the sugar moieties of N-κCN oligomers seem to organize on the mixed micelles surface in a manner similar to the organization of κCN in milk casein micelles.

  5. Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.

    PubMed

    Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of intrinsic properties of dense caseinate dispersions for structure formation.

    PubMed

    Manski, Julita M; van Riemsdijk, Lieke E; van der Goot, Atze J; Boom, Remko M

    2007-11-01

    Rheological measurements of dense calcium caseinate and sodium caseinate dispersions (> or =15%) provided insight into the factors determining shear-induced structure formation in caseinates. Calcium caseinate at a sufficiently high concentration (30%) was shown to form highly anisotropic structures during shearing and concurrent enzymatic cross-linking. In contrast, sodium caseinate formed isotropic structures using similar processing conditions. The main difference between the two types of caseinates is the counterion present, and as a consequence, the size of structural elements and their interactions. The rheological behavior of calcium caseinate and sodium caseinate reflected these differences, yielding non-monotonic and shear thinning flow behavior for calcium caseinate whereas sodium caseinate behaved only slightly shear thinning. It appears that the intrinsic properties of the dense caseinate dispersions, which are reflected in their rheological behavior, affect the structure formation that was found after applying shear. Therefore, rheological measurements are useful to obtain an indication of the structure formation potential of caseinate dispersions.

  7. Re-assembled casein micelles improve in vitro bioavailability of vitamin D in a Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yifat; Levi, Moran; Lesmes, Uri; Margier, Marielle; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Livney, Yoav D

    2017-06-01

    The pandemic of vitamin D (VD) deficiency, and the global rise in obesity stimulate a need for staple low-fat foods and beverages enriched with VD. In light of consumer demand for a clean label, the use of natural endogenous food ingredients as delivery vehicles is of great interest. To this end, re-assembled casein micelles (rCM) have been shown to help retain VD during processing and shelf life and provide high bioavailability in low-fat milk and non-fat yoghurt. This follow-up study focused on the performance of VD-loaded rCM after drying and reconstitution, considering VD retention during simulated digestion, and the subsequent in vitro bioavailability of the vitamin. rCM conferred great protection to VD 3 during simulated digestion with a significant increase in vitamin retention for 1 h under gastric conditions. This observation is believed to arise from the vitamin-casein binding and the system's natural gelation (curd formation) near the casein isoelectric point that seclude the vitamin from environmental stressors and couple its release with digestive proteolysis of the rCM matrix. Vitamin absorption by Caco-2 cells from digested rCM was not significantly different from the absorption of the digested free VD. However, thanks to the highly protective effect of the rCM, against VD gastric degradation, the overall effect of the rCM was a 4-fold higher bioavailability, compared to the free VD.

  8. A combined spectroscopic, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation study on the interaction of quercetin with β-casein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Parastar, Hadi

    2013-10-05

    The interaction of quercetin with β-casein nanoparticle micelle was studied at various temperatures in order to do a complete thermodynamic and molecular analysis on the binding process. The results of fluorescence studies showed the possibility of fluorescence energy transfer between excited tryptophan and quercetin. The determined values of critical transfers distance and the mean distance of ligand from Trp-143 residues in β-casein micelle represents a non-radiative energy transfer mechanism for quenching and the existence of a significant interaction between this flavonoid and β-casein nanoparticle. The equilibrium binding of quercetin with β-casein micelle at different temperatures was studied by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The chemometric analysis (principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methods) on spectrophotometric data revealed the existence of two components in solution (quercetin and β-casein-quercetin complex) and resolved their pure concentration and spectral profiles. This information let us to calculate the equilibrium binding constant at various temperatures and the relevant thermodynamic parameters of interaction (enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy) with low uncertainty. The negative values of entropy and enthalpy changes represent the predominate role of hydrogen binding and van der Waals interactions in the binding process. Docking calculations showed the probable binding site of quercetin is located in the hydrophobic core of β-casein where the quercetin molecule is lined by hydrophobic residues and make five hydrogen bonds and several van der Waals contacts with them. Moreover, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation results suggested that this flavonoid can interact with β-casein, without affecting the secondary structure of β-casein. Simulations, molecular docking and experimental data reciprocally supported each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  10. Disorder in milk proteins: caseins, intrinsically disordered colloids.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins.

  11. Structure and gelation properties of casein micelles doped with curcumin under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Khanji, Aya N; Michaux, Florentin; Jasniewski, Jordane; Petit, Jeremy; Lahimer, Emna; Cherif, Mohamed; Salameh, Dominique; Rizk, Toufic; Banon, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the ability of micellar casein (MC) to interact with curcumin during acidification and to produce acid gel was investigated. Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of curcumin variation and fluorescence quenching of caseins upon binding with curcumin molecules were evidenced. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 35 °C enhanced MC-curcumin interactions as reflected by the increase in the binding constant from 0.6 ± 0.3 × 10(4) to 6.6 ± 0.6 × 10(4) M(-1). From changes in entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy, hydrophobic interactions were proposed as major binding forces. Static fluorescence MC quenching was demonstrated for the MC-curcumin complex during acidification. From pH 7.4 to pH 5.0, the binding site numbers varied in the range from 1.25 ± 0.05 to 1.49 ± 0.05 and the binding constant kb varied from 3.9 ± 0.4 × 10(4) to 7.5 ± 0.7 × 10(4) M(-1). Small angle X-ray scattering profiles demonstrated that the MC internal structure was unchanged upon curcumin binding. The ζ-potential value of curcumin-doped MC indicated that curcumin did not modify the global charge of MC particles. Acid gelation studied by oscillation rheology and static multiple light scattering at 20 and 35 °C led to a similar behavior for native and curcumin-doped MC suspensions. For the first time, it was demonstrated that the colloidal and functional properties of MC were unchanged when doped with curcumin during acidification.

  12. A novel method for separation of caseins from milk by phosphates precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chon-Ho; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Milk protein of farm animals is difficult to isolate because of the presence of casein micelles, which are hard to separate from whey by using centrifugation or filtration. Insoluble casein micelles also create an obstacle for purification instruments to operate efficiently. The conventional method, to precipitate caseins by lowering pH to 4.6 and then recover the whey fraction for further purification using chromatography techniques, is not applicable to proteins having an isoelectric point similar to caseins. In addition, the acid condition used for casein removal usually leads to significantly poor yields and reduced biological activities. In this study, a novel method of precipitating caseins under neutral or weak acidic conditions is presented. The method employs a phosphate salt and a freeze-thaw procedure to obtain a casein-free whey protein fraction. This fraction contains more than 90% yield with little loss of bioactivity of the target protein, and is readily available for further chromatographic purification. This method was successfully applied to purify recombinant human factor IX and recombinant hirudin from the milk of transgenic pigs in the presented study. It is an efficient pretreatment approach prior to chromatographic purification of milk protein from farm animals and particularly of great value to collect those recombinants secreted from transgenic livestock.

  13. Comparative analysis on the structural features of the 5' flanking region of κ-casein genes from six different species

    PubMed Central

    Gerencsér, Ákos; Barta, Endre; Boa, Simon; Kastanis, Petros; Bösze, Zsuzsanna; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2002-01-01

    κ-casein plays an essential role in the formation, stabilisation and aggregation of milk micelles. Control of κ-casein expression reflects this essential role, although an understanding of the mechanisms involved lags behind that of the other milk protein genes. We determined the 5'-flanking sequences for the murine, rabbit and human κ-casein genes and compared them to the published ruminant sequences. The most conserved region was not the proximal promoter region but an approximately 400 bp long region centred 800 bp upstream of the TATA box. This region contained two highly conserved MGF/STAT5 sites with common spacing relative to each other. In this region, six conserved short stretches of similarity were also found which did not correspond to known transcription factor consensus sites. On the contrary to ruminant and human 5' regulatory sequences, the rabbit and murine 5'-flanking regions did not harbour any kind of repetitive elements. We generated a phylogenetic tree of the six species based on multiple alignment of the κ-casein sequences. This study identified conserved candidate transcriptional regulatory elements within the κ-casein gene promoter. PMID:11929628

  14. The Membrane-Associated Form of αs1-Casein Interacts with Cholesterol-Rich Detergent-Resistant Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that αs1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that αs1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of αs1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  15. The membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    PubMed

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1)-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1)-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  16. The Effect of Milk Constituents and Crowding Agents on Amyloid Fibril Formation by κ-Casein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihua; Dehle, Francis C; Liu, Yanqin; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Ecroyd, Heath; Thorn, David C; Carver, John A

    2016-02-17

    When not incorporated into the casein micelle, κ-casein, a major milk protein, rapidly forms amyloid fibrils at physiological pH and temperature. In this study, the effects of milk components (calcium, lactose, lipids, and heparan sulfate) and crowding agents on reduced and carboxymethylated (RCM) κ-casein fibril formation was investigated using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, thioflavin T binding assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Longer-chain phosphatidylcholine lipids, which form the lining of milk ducts and milk fat globules, enhanced RCM κ-casein fibril formation irrespective of whether the lipids were in a monomeric or micellar state, whereas shorter-chain phospholipids and triglycerides had little effect. Heparan sulfate, a component of the milk fat globule membrane and catalyst of amyloid deposition in extracellular tissue, had little effect on the kinetics of RCM κ-casein fibril formation. Major nutritional components such as calcium and lactose also had no significant effect. Macromolecular crowding enhances protein-protein interactions, but in contrast to other fibril-forming species, the extent of RCM κ-casein fibril formation was reduced by the presence of a variety of crowding agents. These data are consistent with a mechanism of κ-casein fibril formation in which the rate-determining step is dissociation from the oligomer to give the highly amyloidogenic monomer. We conclude that the interaction of κ-casein with membrane-associated phospholipids along its secretory pathway may contribute to the development of amyloid deposits in mammary tissue. However, the formation of spherical oligomers such as casein micelles is favored over amyloid fibrils in the crowded environment of milk, within which the occurrence of amyloid fibrils is low.

  17. Crystal structure of casein kinase-1, a phosphate-directed protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, R M; Carmel, G; Sweet, R M; Kuret, J; Cheng, X

    1995-01-01

    The structure of a truncated variant of casein kinase-1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been determined in complex with MgATP at 2.0 A resolution. The model resembles the 'closed', ATP-bound conformations of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with clear differences in the structure of surface loops that impart unique features to casein kinase-1. The structure is of unphosphorylated, active conformation of casein kinase-1 and the peptide-binding site is fully accessible to substrate. Images PMID:7889932

  18. Influence of mixtures of calcium-chelating salts on the physicochemical properties of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Kaliappan, S; Lucey, J A

    2011-09-01

    Calcium-chelating salts (CCS), such as phosphates and citrates, are often added to milk systems to modify physical properties like heat stability. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of binary CCS mixtures on the properties of casein (CN) micelles including the distribution of Ca between the soluble and CN-bound states. Six binary CCS mixtures were prepared from 4 different types of CCS [i.e., trisodium citrate (TSC), disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), and sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP)] by combining 2 CCS at a time in 5 different proportions (8.3:91.7, 29.2:70.8, 50:50, 70.8:29.2, and 91.7:8.3). Different concentrations of these mixtures (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% wt/wt) were added to milk protein concentrate solutions (5% wt/wt) at pH 5.8. The ability of CCS to disperse CN particles and its interaction with Ca were assessed from turbidity measurements, acid-base titration behavior, and the quantity of CN-bound Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Turbidity and the buffering peak at pH ∼5.0 during acid titration decreased with an increasing concentration of CCS. This was due to the chelation of Ca and the dispersion of CN micelles. The presence of TSC in mixtures decreased the amount of CN-bound Ca and Pi; however, the presence of TSPP in mixtures increased CN-bound Ca and Pi. When DSP was present at high proportions in mixtures of CCS, the CN-bound Ca and Pi slightly increased. When SHMP was used in mixtures of CCS, CN-bound Ca and Pi increased with the use of a low proportion of SHMP but decreased when SHMP was used at high proportions in the mixture. Combinations of DSP-TSPP used in the proportions 29.2:70.8, 50:50, and 70.8:29.2 resulted in the gelation of milk protein concentrates when the total CCS concentration was ≥0.3%. These results indicated that the type of CCS present in a mixture modified CN properties by various mechanisms, including chelation of Ca, dispersion of CN micelles, and formation of new

  19. Influence of sodium chloride on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated casein micelle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Corredig, M

    2016-08-01

    The research investigated the influence of NaCl on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated milk. Milk was concentrated to 1×, 3×, and 5× using ultrafiltration. Rennet gelation was followed by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy. Soluble protein, total and diffusible calcium and phosphate, size, and zeta potential were also measured as a function of concentration history. In the presence of 300mM NaCl, colloidal calcium phosphate solubilized and pH and the negative charge on the surface of casein micelles decreased. Increasing the volume fraction caused the formation of stiffer gels for both samples with or without NaCl. The addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the bulk viscosity of the milk concentrated 5× and a decrease in turbidity. The concentration had no effect on the gelation time of control samples, nor on the kinetics of caseinomacropeptide release. On the other hand, rennet gelation was retarded by the addition of NaCl, and the gels showed lower elastic moduli compared with those obtained with control milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reassociation of dissociated caseins upon acidification of heated pH-adjusted skim milk.

    PubMed

    Anema, Skelte G; Li, Yuming

    2015-05-01

    Milk was heated at different pH (pH 6.5-7.1) and temperatures (20-120 °C/10 min). This resulted in different levels of casein and denatured whey proteins to be distributed between the colloidal and serum phases. The milks were subsequently acidified and the distribution of protein between colloidal and serum was monitored at different pH. On acidification to pH 5.4, the serum phase caseins and denatured whey proteins partially reassociated with the caseins, although a complex behaviour was observed at ∼ pH 5.4 where additional casein dissociation occurred in some samples. At pH below 5.4 the caseins and denatured whey proteins rapidly aggregated. No separate aggregation of κ-casein/denatured whey protein complexes or κ-casein depleted micelles was observed. The earlier gelation of milks heated at higher pH was likely to be due to the destabilisation of the entire milk protein system rather than a preferential aggregation of the serum phase proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Surface Passivation on Gliding Motility Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-03

    alpha and beta, is structurally very different. It is a glycoprotein and is thought to stabilize the casein micelle [20,44,45] by sterically hindering...the aggregation of too many casein sub- micelles . It did not support motility in a very consistent manner as can be seen from Figure 1C&D. As was the...between alpha and whole casein was not due to impurities but rather that it was due to how kinesin was supported by the casein micelles or, how casein

  2. Gradient structure-induced temperature responsiveness in styrene/methyl methacrylate gradient copolymers micelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2014-02-01

    In this work, micelles are formed by gradient copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate in acetone-water mixture and their temperature responsiveness is investigated in a narrow range near room temperature. Three different kinds of structural transitions could be induced by temperature: unimers to micelle transition, shrinkage/stretching of micelles, and morphological transition from spherical micelles to vesicles. In addition, a model analysis on the interface of gradient copolymer micelle is made to better understand these phenomena. It is found that both position and composition of the interface could alter in response to the change in temperature. According to the experiments and model analysis, it is proposed that temperature responsiveness might be an intrinsic and universal property of gradient copolymer micelles, which only originates from the gradient structure. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Structural changes in block copolymer micelles induced by cosolvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Elizabeth G.; Smart, Thomas P.; Jackson, Andrew J.

    2012-11-26

    We investigated the influence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) addition on the structure of poly(1,2-butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) [PB-PEO] micelles in aqueous solution. Our studies showed that while the micelles remained starlike, the micelle core-corona interfacial tension and micelle size decreased upon THF addition. The detailed effects of the reduction in interfacial tension were probed using contrast variations in small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. At low THF contents (high interfacial tensions), the SANS data were fit to a micelle form factor that incorporated a radial density distribution of corona chains to account for the starlike micelle profile. However, at higher THF contents (lowmore » interfacial tensions), the presence of free chains in solution affected the scattering at high q and required the implementation of a linear combination of micelle and Gaussian coil form factors. These SANS data fits indicated that the reduction in interfacial tension led to broadening of the core-corona interface, which increased the PB chain solvent accessibility at intermediate THF solvent fractions. We also noted that the micelle cores swelled with increasing THF addition, suggesting that previous assumptions of the micelle core solvent content in cosolvent mixtures may not be accurate. Control over the size, corona thickness, and extent of solvent accessible PB in these micelles can be a powerful tool in the development of targeting delivery vehicles.« less

  4. Structural changes in block copolymer micelles induced by cosolvent mixtures†

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Elizabeth G.; Smart, Thomas P.; Jackson, Andrew J.; Sullivan, Millicent O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) addition on the structure of poly(1,2-butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) [PB-PEO] micelles in aqueous solution. Our studies showed that while the micelles remained starlike, the micelle core-corona interfacial tension and micelle size decreased upon THF addition. The detailed effects of the reduction in interfacial tension were probed using contrast variations in small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. At low THF contents (high interfacial tensions), the SANS data were fit to a micelle form factor that incorporated a radial density distribution of corona chains to account for the starlike micelle profile. However, at higher THF contents (low interfacial tensions), the presence of free chains in solution affected the scattering at high q and required the implementation of a linear combination of micelle and Gaussian coil form factors. These SANS data fits indicated that the reduction in interfacial tension led to broadening of the core-corona interface, which increased the PB chain solvent accessibility at intermediate THF solvent fractions. We also noted that the micelle cores swelled with increasing THF addition, suggesting that previous assumptions of the micelle core solvent content in cosolvent mixtures may not be accurate. Control over the size, corona thickness, and extent of solvent accessible PB in these micelles can be a powerful tool in the development of targeting delivery vehicles. PMID:24282441

  5. Encapsulation of eugenol from clove oil using casein micelle for solid preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanto, Andri; Putri, Yeshinta Risky Priasmara; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Liquid preparation of eugenol in clove oil form is one of eugenol preparation form that is easiest to get it nowadays in many level of purity. The problem is the liquid preparation of chemical is often not easy to handle than the solid one. In this study, we observe the effectivity of cow milk casein in case of encapsulating eugenol from clove oil for creating the solid preparation of eugenol in nanoscale size. The result is 63.86% eugenol from clove oil can be encapsulated by the casein. The average particle diameter is about 377.5 nm, with loading capacity until 67.2%.

  6. Structure, chaperone-like activity and allergenicity profile of bovine caseins upon peroxynitrite modification: New evidences underlying mastitis pathomechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Tanaz; Tavaf, Zohreh; Oryan, Ahmad; Shokouhi, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Mastitis, an inflammatory reaction frequently develops in response to intra-mammary bacterial infection‌‌, may induce the generation of peroxynitrite (PON)‌ which is a highly potent reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Caseins as the intrinsically unfolded proteins seem feasible substrates to react with PON. Therefore, in the current study, structural and functional aspects of both β-casein (β-CN) and whole casein fraction (WCF) were evaluated after PON modification, using a variety of techniques. Modification of the bovine caseins with PON results in an important enhancement in the carbonyl, nitrotryptophan, nitrotyrosine and dityrosine content of these proteins‌. The results of fluorescence and far UV-CD assessments suggested significant structural alteration of caseins upon PON-modification. The chaperone-like activity of β-casein was significantly altered after PON modification. The results of scanning electron microscopy suggest that bovine caseins display unique morphological features after treatment with PON. Also, the PON-modified caseins preserved their allergenicity profile and displayed partial resistance against digestion by the pancreatic proteases. Ascorbic acid, an important antioxidant component of milk, was also capable to significantly prevent the PON-induced structural damages in bovine milk caseins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PON may have significant role in the structural and functional alteration of milk caseins. Also, the PON-induced structural damaging effects of caseins might be effectively prevented by a sufficient level of milk antioxidant components particularly by ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New insights about flocculation process in sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan; Herrera, María Lidia; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Pinto-de-Oliveira, Cristiano Luis; Linares-Torriani, Iris

    2016-11-01

    Flocculation process was studied in emulsions formulated with 10wt.% sunflower oil, 2, 5 or 7.5wt.% NaCas, and with or without addition of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30wt.%). Two different processing conditions were used to prepare emulsions: ultraturrax homogenization or further homogenization by ultrasound. Emulsions with droplets with diameters above (coarse) or below (fine) 1μm were obtained. Emulsions were analyzed for droplet size distribution by static light scattering (SLS), stability by Turbiscan, and structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data were fitted by a theoretical model that considered a system composed of poly dispersed spheres with repulsive interaction and presence of aggregates. Flocculation behavior was caused by the self-assembly properties of NaCas, but the process was more closely related to interfacial protein content than micelles concentration in the aqueous phase. The results indicated that casein aggregation was strongly affected by disaccharide addition, hydrophobic interaction of the emulsion droplets, and interactions among interfacial protein molecules. The structural changes detected in the protein micelles in different environments allowed understanding the macroscopic physical behavior observed in concentrated NaCas emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Structure, Chaperone-Like Activity and Allergenicity of Reduced Glycated Adduct of Bovine β-casein.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Reza; Ferdowsi, Leila; Tavaf, Zohreh; Sadeghian, Tanaz; Tamaddon, Ali M; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Pourpak, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Milk has a potent reducing environment with an important quantity of sugar levels. In the current study β-casein was glycated in the presence of D-glucose and sodium cyanoborohydride as a reducing agent. Then, the reduced glucitol adduct of β-casein was used for the structural and functional analyses using different spectroscopic techniques. The results of fluorescence and far ultraviolet circular dichroism assessments suggest important structural alteration upon non-enzymatic glycation of β-casein. In addition, the chaperone activity, micellization properties and antioxidant activity of this protein were altered upon glucose modification. Also, as a result of reduced glycation, the allergenicity profile of this protein remained largely unchanged. Additional to its energetic and nutritional values, β-casein has important functional properties. The native structure of this protein is important to perform accurately its biological functions. Non-enzymatic glycation under reducing state was capable to alter both structural and functional aspects of β-casein. Due to effective reducing environment and significant quantity of reducing sugar of human milk, similar structural and functional alterations are most likely to occur upon reducing glycation of β-casein in vivo. Also, these changes might be even intensified during chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic mothers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols.

  10. Solution structure of detergent micelles at conditions relevant to membrane protein crystallization.

    SciTech Connect

    Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Tiede, D.

    1999-07-02

    In this study small angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the formation of micelles in aqueous solutions of the detergents DMG and SPC as a function of detergent concentration and ionic strength of the solvent. The effects on the micelle structure of the additives glycerol and PEG, alone as well as in combination typical for actual membrane protein crystallization, were also explored. This research suggests that the micelles are cigar-like in form at the concentrations studied. The size of the micelles was observed to increase with increasing ionic strength but decrease with the addition of glycerol or PEG.

  11. Structure of block copolymer micelles in the presence of co-solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Megan; Wang, Shu; Le, Kim Mai; Piemonte, Rachele; Madsen, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles in water are under broad exploration for drug delivery applications due to their high loading capacity and targeted drug delivery. We aim to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that underlie the self-assembly of diblock copolymer micelle systems. The present work focuses on diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide) (a hydrophilic polymer) and polycaprolactone (a hydrophobic polymer), which spontaneously self-assemble into spherical micelles in water. Addition of a common good solvent (a co-solvent) for both of the constituting blocks, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), reduces the interfacial tension at the core-corona interface. We are currently investigating the effect of this phenomenon on the micelle structural properties, using scattering experiments and nuclear magnetic resonance. We have characterized the hydrodynamic radius, core radius, corona thickness, aggregation number, degree of swelling of the micelle core with the co-solvent, and unimer (free chain) concentration, as a function of the co-solvent concentration. Fundamental knowledge from these studies will inform design of drug delivery systems by allowing us to tailor micelle properties for optimal cargo loading.

  12. Influencing the structure of block copolymer micelles with small molecule additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Megan; Singh, Avantika; Cooksey, Tyler; Kidd, Bryce; Piemonte, Rachele; Wang, Shu; Mai Le, Kim; Madsen, Louis

    Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles in water are under broad exploration for drug delivery applications due to their high loading capacity and targeted drug delivery. We aim to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that underlie the self-assembly of diblock copolymer micelle systems. The present work focuses on diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide) (a hydrophilic polymer) and polycaprolactone (a hydrophobic polymer), which spontaneously self-assemble into spherical micelles in water. Addition of a common good solvent (a co-solvent) for both of the constituting blocks, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), reduces the interfacial tension at the core-corona interface. We are currently investigating the effect of this phenomenon on the micelle structural properties, using small-angle scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. We have characterized the hydrodynamic radius, core radius, corona thickness, aggregation number, degree of swelling of the micelle core with the co-solvent, and unimer (free chain) concentration, as a function of the co-solvent concentration. Fundamental knowledge from these studies will inform design of drug delivery systems by allowing us to tailor micelle properties for optimal cargo loading.

  13. Structure and oil responsiveness of viscoelastic fluids based on mixed anionic/cationic wormlike surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaev, A. V.; Makarov, A. V.; Aleshina, A. L.; Rogachev, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Philippova, O. E.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a combination of small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering and rheometry was applied in order to investigate the structure and oil responsiveness of anionic/cationic wormlike surfactant micelles formed in a mixture of potassium oleate and n-octyltrimethylammonium bromide (C8TAB). A new facile method of calculating the structure factor of charged interacting wormlike micelles was proposed. It was shown that the mean distance between the micelles decreases upon the increase of the amount of cationic co-surfactant and lowering of the net micellar charge. It was demonstrated that highly viscous fluids containing mixed anionic/cationic wormlike micelles are highly responsive to oil due to its solubilization inside the micellar cores, which leads to the disruption of micelles and formation of microemulsion droplets. Experimental data suggest that solubilization of oil proceeds differently in the case of mixed anionic/cationic micelles in the absence of salt, and anionic micelles of the same surfactant in the presence of KCl.

  14. Structure and dynamics of ionic micelles: MD simulation and neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Aoun, B; Sharma, V K; Pellegrini, E; Mitra, S; Johnson, M; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2015-04-16

    Fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic micelle, and three cationic (CnTAB; n = 12, 14, 16) micelles, investigating the effects of size, the form of the headgroup, and chain length. They have been used to analyze neutron scattering data. MD simulations confirm the dynamical model of global motion of the whole micelle, segmental motion (headgroup and alkyl chain), and fast torsional motion associated with the surfactants that is used to analyze the experimental data. It is found that the solvent surrounding the headgroups results in their significant mobility, which exceeds that of the tails on the nanosecond time scale. The middle of the chain is found to be least mobile, consolidating the micellar configuration. This dynamical feature is similar for all the ionic micelles investigated and therefore independent of headgroup form and charge and chain length. Diffusion constants for global and segmental motion of the different micelles are consistent with experimentally obtained values as well as known structural features. This work provides a more realistic model of micelle dynamics and offers new insight into the strongly fluctuating surface of micelles which is important in understanding micelle dispersion and related functionality, like drug delivery.

  15. Structural and shear characteristics of adsorbed sodium caseinate and monoglyceride mixed monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Cejudo Fernández, Marta; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Niño, Ma Rosario

    2007-09-01

    The structural and shear characteristics of mixed monolayers formed by an adsorbed Na-caseinate film and a spread monoglyceride (monopalmitin or monoolein) on the previously adsorbed protein film have been analyzed. Measurements of the surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherm and surface shear viscosity (eta(s)) were obtained at 20 degrees C and at pH 7 in a modified Wilhelmy-type film balance. The structural and shear characteristics of the mixed films depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. At surface pressures lower than the equilibrium surface pressure of Na-caseinate (at picaseinate and monoglyceride coexist at the interface, with a structural polymorphism or a liquid expanded structure due to the presence of monopalmitin or monoolein in the mixture, respectively. At higher surface pressures, collapsed Na-caseinate residues may be displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules. For a Na-caseinate-monopalmitin mixed film the eta(s) value varies greatly with the surface pressure (or surface density) of the mixed monolayer at the interface. In general, the greater the surface pressure, the greater are the values of eta(s). However, the values of eta(s) for a Na-caseinate-monoolein mixed monolayer are very low and practically do not depend on the surface pressure. The collapsed Na-caseinate residues displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules at pi>pi(e)(CS) have important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films.

  16. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  17. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tuning Structural Properties of Biocompatible Block Copolymer Micelles by Varying Solvent Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooksey, Tyler; Singh, Avantika; Mai Le, Kim; Wang, Shu; Kelley, Elizabeth; He, Lilin; Vajjala Kesava, Sameer; Gomez, Enrique; Kidd, Bryce; Madsen, Louis; Robertson, Megan

    The self-assembly of block copolymers into micelles when introduced to selective solvents enables a wide array of applications, ranging from drug delivery to personal care products to nanoreactors. In order to probe the assembly and dynamics of micellar systems, the structural properties and solvent uptake of biocompatible poly(ethylene oxide-b- ɛ-caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) diblock copolymers in deuterated water (D2O) / tetrahydrofuran (THFd8) mixtures were investigated using small-angle neutron scattering in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance. PEO-PCL block copolymers, of varying molecular weight yet constant block ratio, formed spherical micelles through a wide range of solvent compositions. Varying the composition from 10 to 60 % by volume THFd8\\ in D2O / THFd8 mixtures was a means of varying the core-corona interfacial tension in the micelle system. An increase in THFd8 content in the bulk solvent increased the solvent uptake within the micelle core, which was comparable for the two series, irrespective of the polymer molecular weight. Differences in the behaviors of the micelle size parameters as the solvent composition varied originated from the differing trends in aggregation number for the two micelle series. Incorporation of the known unimer content determined from NMR allowed refinement of extracted micelle parameters.

  19. Increased gene dosage for β- and κ-casein in transgenic cattle improves milk composition through complex effects

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Götz; Smolenski, Grant; Wheeler, Thomas; Brophy, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    We have previously generated transgenic cattle with additional copies of bovine β- and κ casein genes. An initial characterisation of milk produced with a hormonally induced lactation from these transgenic cows showed an altered milk composition with elevated β-casein levels and twofold increased κ-casein content. Here we report the first in-depth characterisation of the composition of the enriched casein milk that was produced through a natural lactation. We have analyzed milk from the high expressing transgenic line TG3 for milk composition at early, peak, mid and late lactation. The introduction of additional β- and κ-casein genes resulted in the expected expression of the transgene derived proteins and an associated reduction in the size of the casein micelles. Expression of the transgenes was associated with complex changes in the expression levels of other milk proteins. Two other major milk components were affected, namely fat and micronutrients. In addition, the sialic acid content of the milk was increased. In contrast, the level of lactose remained unchanged. This novel milk with its substantially altered composition will provide insights into the regulatory processes synchronizing the synthesis and assembly of milk components, as well as production of potentially healthier milk with improved dairy processing characteristics. PMID:27876865

  20. Structure formation in binary mixtures of surfactants: vesicle opening-up to bicelles and octopus-like micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    Micelle formation in binary mixtures of surfactants is studied using a coarse-grained molecular simulation. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle, the bicelle, is typically formed. It is found that cup-shaped vesicles and bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and critical micelle concentration. The obtained octopus shape of micelles agree with those observed in the cryo-TEM images reported in [S. Jain and F. S. Bates, Macromol. 37, 1511 (2004).]. Two types of connection structures between the worm-like micelles and the bicelles are revealed.

  1. Susceptibility of the individual caseins in reconstituted skim milk to cross-linking by transglutaminase: influence of temperature, pH and mineral equilibria.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; Huppertz, Thom; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-11-01

    The susceptibility of total casein and the individual caseins in reconstituted skim milk to transglutaminase (TGase)-induced cross-linking was studied as a function of incubation temperature (5-40 °C), pH (5·0-7·0) and mineral addition. Within the ranges studied, the level of total casein cross-linked increased with increasing temperature, pH and concentration of added trisodium citrate, whereas adding calcium chloride had the opposite effect. These effects can be largely related to the effects of these parameters on TGase activity. In addition, the parameters were also found to influence the susceptibility of κ-casein, and to a lesser extent β-casein, to cross-linking, whereas the susceptibility of αs1-casein was not affected. The susceptibility of κ-casein to cross-linking increased with increasing temperature and calcium chloride addition, but decreased with increasing pH and citrate content, whereas the susceptibility of β-casein to TGase-induced cross-linking decreased with increasing temperature, but was not affected by other parameters. These findings highlight the fact that selection of environmental conditions during cross-linking can be applied to tailor the surface, and hence possibly colloidal stability, of casein micelles in TGase-treated milk.

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a yak (Bos grunniens) κ-casein cDNA from lactating mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Bai, W L; Yin, R H; Dou, Q L; Jiang, W Q; Zhao, S J; Ma, Z J; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H

    2011-04-01

    κ-Casein is one of the major proteins in the milk of mammals. It plays an important role in determining the size and specific function of milk micelles. We have previously identified and characterized a genetic variant of yak κ-casein by evaluating genomic DNA. Here, we isolate and characterize a yak κ-casein cDNA harboring the full-length open reading frame (ORF) from lactating mammary gland. Total RNA was extracted from mammary tissue of lactating female yak, and the κ-casein cDNA were synthesized by RT-PCR technique, then cloned and sequenced. The obtained cDNA of 660-bp contained an ORF sufficient to encode the entire amino acid sequence of κ-casein precursor protein consisting of 190 amino acids with a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Yak κ-casein has a predicted molecular mass of 19,006.588 Da with a calculated isoelectric point of 7.245. Compared with the corresponding sequences in GenBank of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, Arabian camel, horse, and rabbit, yak κ-casein sequence had identity of 64.76-98.78% in cDNA, and identity of 44.79-98.42% and similarity of 53.65-98.42% in deduced amino acids, revealing a high homology with the other livestock species. Based on κ-casein cDNA sequences, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that yak κ-casein had a close relationship with that of cattle. This work might be useful in the genetic engineering researches for yak κ-casein.

  3. Solubilization of rehydrated frozen highly concentrated micellar casein for use in liquid food applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Metzger, L E; Kommineni, A; Vollmer, A H

    2015-09-01

    Highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC), a potential ingredient of protein-fortified food, is a gel at cold temperature. It contains ~17 to 21% casein, with most serum proteins and lactose removed by microfiltration and diafiltration, and it is then further concentrated using vacuum evaporation. The HC-MCC can be stored frozen, and our objective was to determine the conditions needed to obtain complete solubility of thawed HC-MCC in water and to understand its gelation upon cooling. Dispersibility (ability to pass through a 250-µm mesh sieve), suspendability (percentage of protein not sedimented at 80 × g within 5min), and solubility (percentage of protein not sedimented at 20,000 × g within 5min) were measured at 4, 12, or 20°C after various mixing conditions. Gelation upon cooling from 50 to 5°C was monitored based on storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli. The gelled HC-MCC was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. Thawed HC-MCC was added to water to reach a protein concentration of 3% and mixed using high shear (7,500rpm) for 1min or low shear (800rpm) for 30min at 4, 12, 20, or 50°C and at pH 6.4 to 7.2. The HC-MCC completely dispersed at 50°C, or at ≤20°C followed by overnight storage at 4°C. Suspendability at 50°C was ~90% whereas mixing at ≤20°C followed by overnight storage resulted in only ~57% suspendability. Solubility followed a similar trend with ~83% at 50°C and only ~29% at ≤20°C. Mixing HC-MCC with 60mM trisodium citrate increased dispersibility to 99% and suspendability and solubility to 81% at 20°C. Cold-gelling temperature, defined as the temperature at which G'=G'' when cooling from 50 to 5°C, was positively correlated with protein level in HC-MCC. Gelation occurred at 38, 28, and 7°C with 23, 20, and 17% of protein, respectively. Gelation was reversible upon heating, although after a second cooling cycle the HC-MCC gel had lower G'. In micrographs of gelled HC-MCC, the casein micelles were

  4. The structure of the antimicrobial active center of lactoferricin B bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Schibli, D J; Hwang, P M; Vogel, H J

    1999-03-12

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released from bovine lactoferrin upon pepsin digestion. The antimicrobial center of LfcinB consists of six residues (RRWQWR-NH2), and it possesses similar bactericidal activity to LfcinB. The structure of the six-residue peptide bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics refinement. The peptide adopts a well defined amphipathic structure when bound to SDS micelles with the Trp sidechains separated from the Arg residues. Additional evidence demonstrates that the peptide is oriented in the micelle such that the Trp residues are more deeply buried in the micelle than the Arg and Gln residues.

  5. Controllable self-assembly of sodium caseinate with a zwitterionic vitamin-derived bolaamphiphile.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hui; Sun, Yu-Long; Yang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2013-11-06

    The control of self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) including the formation of mixed layers, microspheres, or nanoparticles is highly relevant to the microstructure of food and the design of promising drug delivery systems. In this paper, we designed a structure-switchable zwitterionic bolaamphiphile, 1,12-diaminododecanediorotate (DDO), from orotic acid, which has special binding sites and can guide the self-assembly of SC. Complexation between SC and DDO was investigated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectra measurements. Monomeric DDO was bound to the negatively charged sites on the SC micelle and made the structure of SC more compact with decreased electrostatic repulsion between the head groups. Vesicular DDO led to reassociation of vesicles with enlarged size via preferable hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the aggregation between SC and DDO was found to be temperature-dependent and reversible. This research provides an effective way to control the reversible self-assembly of SC by the zwitterionic vitamin-derived bolaamphiphile.

  6. Comparison of the orogenic displacement of sodium caseinate with the caseins from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Woodward, N C; Gunning, A P; Mackie, A R; Wilde, P J; Morris, V J

    2009-06-16

    Displacement of sodium caseinate from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 60 was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interfacial structure was sampled by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto freshly cleaved mica substrates. Protein displacement occurred through an orogenic mechanism: it involved the nucleation and growth of surfactant domains within the protein network, followed by failure of the protein network. The surface pressure at which failure of the protein network occurred was essentially independent of the type of surfactant. The major component of sodium caseinate is beta-casein, and previous studies at the air-water interface have shown that beta-casein networks are weak, failing at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. The other components of sodium caseinate are alpha(s)- and kappa-caseins. Studies of the displacement of alpha(s)-caseins from air-water interfaces show that these proteins also form weak networks that fail at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. However, kappa-casein was found to form strong networks that resisted displacement and failed at surface pressures comparable to those observed for sodium caseinate. The AFM images of the displacement suggest that, despite kappa-casein being a minor component, it dominates the failure of sodium caseinate networks: alpha(s)-casein and beta-casein are preferentially desorbed at lower surface pressures, allowing the residual kappa-casein to control the breakdown of the sodium caseinate network at higher surface pressures.

  7. Structure and dynamics of the conserved protein GPI anchor core inserted into detergent micelles.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Franck; Lopez-Prados, Javier; Groves, Patrick; Perez, Serge; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2006-10-01

    A suitable approach which combines nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to study the structure and the dynamics of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor Manalphal-2Manalpha1-6Manalphal -4GlcNalpha1-6myo-inositol-1-OPO(3)-sn-1,2-dimyristoylglycerol (1) incorporated into dodecylphosphatidylcholine (DPC) micelles. The results have been compared to those previously obtained for the products obtainable from (1) after phospholipase cleavage, in aqueous solution. Relaxation and diffusion NMR experiments were used to establish the formation of stable aggregates and the insertion of (1) into the micelles. MD calculations were performed including explicit water, sodium and chloride ions and using the Particle Mesh Ewald approach for the evaluation of the electrostatic energy term. The MD predicted three dimensional structure and dynamics were substantiated by nuclear overhauser effect (NOE) measurements and relaxation data. The pseudopentasaccharide structure, which was not affected by incorporation of (1) into the micelle, showed a complex dynamic behaviour with a faster relative motion at the terminal mannopyranose unit and decreased mobility close to the micelle. This motion may be better described as an oscillation relative to the membrane rather than a folding event.

  8. Further studies on the quaternary structure of yeast casein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, R; Lopaczyński, W; Gałasiński, W; Grankowski, N; Gasior, E

    1986-01-01

    Casein kinase type II were isolated by the same procedure, from rat liver, human placenta, Querin carcinoma and yeast, and characterized. The mammalian enzymes were composed of three subunits alpha, alpha' and beta, whereas yeast kinase was composed of two subunits alpha and alpha'. It was shown that the catalytic activity, substrate and phosphate donor specificity, sensitivity to heparin and spermine were the same for all the kinases tested. The results give additional support to the suggestion [1] that the beta subunit is not required for optimal activity and specificity of yeast casein kinase II. The quaternary structure of the yeast enzyme of a molecular weight of approximately 150 000 is proposed as alpha2 alpha'2.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the conformation and dynamics of beta-casein at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    ter Beek, L C; Ketelaars, M; McCain, D C; Smulders, P E; Walstra, P; Hemminga, M A

    1996-01-01

    A (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study has been carried out on beta-casein adsorbed at the interface of a tetradecane/water emulsion. (13)C NMR spectra show signals from the carbonyl, carboxyl, aromatic, and C alpha carbons in beta-casein, well resolved from solvent resonances. Only a small fraction of all carbon atoms in beta-casein contribute to detectable signals; intensity measurements show that the observable spectrum is derived from about 30 to 40 amino acid residues.(31)P NMR spectra show signals from the five phosphoserines on the hydrophilic N-terminal part of the protein. Analysis of T(1) relaxation times of these nuclei, using the model free approach for the spectral density function and the line shape of the alpha-carbon region, indicates that a large part of the protein is in a random coil conformation with restricted motion and a relatively long internal correlation time. The NMR results show that the conformation and dynamics of the N-terminal part of beta-casein are not strongly altered at the oil/water interface, as compared to beta-casein in micelle-like aggregates in aqueous solution. PMID:9172765

  10. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modeling of drug-loaded polymeric micelles via genetic function approximation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wensheng; Zhang, Canyang; Lin, Wenjing; Chen, Quan; Guo, Xindong; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled nano-micelles of amphiphilic polymers represent a novel anticancer drug delivery system. However, their full clinical utilization remains challenging because the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between the polymer structure and the efficacy of micelles as a drug carrier is poorly understood. Here, we developed a series of QSPR models to account for the drug loading capacity of polymeric micelles using the genetic function approximation (GFA) algorithm. These models were further evaluated by internal and external validation and a Y-randomization test in terms of stability and generalization, yielding an optimization model that is applicable to an expanded materials regime. As confirmed by experimental data, the relationship between microstructure and drug loading capacity can be well-simulated, suggesting that our models are readily applicable to the quantitative evaluation of the drug-loading capacity of polymeric micelles. Our work may offer a pathway to the design of formulation experiments.

  11. The influence of polarity of additive molecules on micelle structures of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) in the fabrication of nano-porous templates.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kee Sze; Koh, Ai Peng; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2010-11-01

    Block copolymers are useful for in situ synthesis of nanoparticles as well as producing nanoporous templates. As such, the effects of precursors on the block copolymer micelle structure is important. In this study, we investigate the effects of polarity of molecules introduced into block copolymer micelle cores on the micelle structure. The molecular dipole moment of the additive molecules has been evaluated and their effects on the block copolymer micelles investigated using light scattering spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The molecule with the largest dipole moment resulted in spherical structures with a polydispersity of less than 0.06 in a fully translational diffusion system. Surprisingly, the less polar additive molecules produced elongated micelles and the aspect ratio increases with decreasing polarity. The change in structure from spherical to elongated structure was attributed to P4VP chain extension, where compounds with polarity most similar to P4VP induce the most chain extension. The second virial coefficients of the solutions with elongated micelles are lower than that for spherical micelle systems by up to one order in magnitude, indicating a strong tendency for micelles to coalesce. On rinsing the spin-cast films, pores were obtained from spherical micelles and ridges from elongated micelles, suggesting a viable alternative for morphology modification using mild conditions where external annealing treatments to the film are not preferred. The knowledge of polarity effects of additive molecules on micelle structure has wider implications for supramolecular block copolymer systems where, depending on the application requirements, changes to the shape of the micelle structure can be induced or avoided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) Modeling of Drug-Loaded Polymeric Micelles via Genetic Function Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wenjing; Chen, Quan; Guo, Xindong; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled nano-micelles of amphiphilic polymers represent a novel anticancer drug delivery system. However, their full clinical utilization remains challenging because the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between the polymer structure and the efficacy of micelles as a drug carrier is poorly understood. Here, we developed a series of QSPR models to account for the drug loading capacity of polymeric micelles using the genetic function approximation (GFA) algorithm. These models were further evaluated by internal and external validation and a Y-randomization test in terms of stability and generalization, yielding an optimization model that is applicable to an expanded materials regime. As confirmed by experimental data, the relationship between microstructure and drug loading capacity can be well-simulated, suggesting that our models are readily applicable to the quantitative evaluation of the drug-loading capacity of polymeric micelles. Our work may offer a pathway to the design of formulation experiments. PMID:25780923

  13. Ability of a beta-casein phosphopeptide to modulate the precipitation of calcium phosphate by forming amorphous dicalcium phosphate nanoclusters.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, C; Wahlgren, N M; Drakenberg, T

    1996-01-01

    The ability of casein in the form of colloidal-sized casein micelles to modulate the phase separation of calcium phosphate during milk secretion is adapted to produce nanometre-sized particles of calcium phosphate stabilized by a casein phosphopeptide (nanoclusters). The nanoclusters were prepared from an undersaturated solution of salts and the peptide by raising the pH homogeneously from about 5.5 to 6.7 with urea plus urease. Chemical analysis and IR spectroscopy showed that they comprise an amorphous dicalcium phosophate bound to the phosphopeptide. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy of the cluster solutions showed that the small ions and free peptide in the solution were in a state of dynamic exchange with the nanoclusters. The peptide is linked to the calcium phosphate through its sequence of phosphorylated residues, but, in a proportion of adsorbed conformational states, the termini retain the conformational freedom of the unbound peptide. The ability of casein to form nanoclusters in milk suggests a more general mechanism for avoiding pathological calcification and regulating calcium flow in tissues and biological fluids exposed to or containing high concentrations of calcium. PMID:8615755

  14. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    PubMed

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

    2013-05-01

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 μg mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

  16. The chaperone action of bovine milk αS1- and αS2-caseins and their associated form αS-casein.

    PubMed

    Treweek, Teresa M; Thorn, David C; Price, William E; Carver, John A

    2011-06-01

    α(S)-Casein, the major milk protein, comprises α(S1)- and α(S2)-casein and acts as a molecular chaperone, stabilizing an array of stressed target proteins against precipitation. Here, we report that α(S)-casein acts in a similar manner to the unrelated small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) and clusterin in that it does not preserve the activity of stressed target enzymes. However, in contrast to sHsps and clusterin, α-casein does not bind target proteins in a state that facilitates refolding by Hsp70. α(S)-Casein was also separated into α- and α-casein, and the chaperone abilities of each of these proteins were assessed with amorphously aggregating and fibril-forming target proteins. Under reduction stress, all α-casein species exhibited similar chaperone ability, whereas under heat stress, α-casein was a poorer chaperone. Conversely, α(S2)-casein was less effective at preventing fibril formation by modified κ-casein, whereas α- and α(S1)-casein were comparably potent inhibitors. In the presence of added salt and heat stress, α(S1)-, α- and α(S)-casein were all significantly less effective. We conclude that α(S1)- and α-casein stabilise each other to facilitate optimal chaperone activity of α(S)-casein. This work highlights the interdependency of casein proteins for their structural stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of calcium caseinate in association with lecithin for masking the bitterness of acetaminophen--comparative study with sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Hoang Thi, Thanh Huong; Lemdani, Mohamed; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2013-11-18

    Owing to a variety of structural and functional properties, milk proteins are steadily studied for food and pharmaceutical applications. In the present study, calcium caseinate in association with lecithin was firstly investigated in order to encapsulate the acetaminophen through spray-drying for taste-masking purpose for pediatric medicines. A 2(4)-full factorial design revealed that the spray flow, the calcium caseinate amount and the lecithin amount had significant effects on the release of drug during the first 2 min. Indeed, increasing the spray flow and/or the calcium caseinate amount led to increase the released amount, whereas increasing the lecithin amount decreased the released amount. The "interaction" between the calcium caseinate amount and the lecithin amount was also shown to be statistically significant. The second objective was to compare the efficiency of two caseinate-based formulations, i.e. sodium caseinate and calcium caseinate, on the taste-masking effect. The characteristics of spray-dried powders determined by SEM and DSC were shown to depend on the caseinate/lecithin proportion rather than the type of caseinate. Interestingly, calcium caseinate-based formulations were found to lower the released amount of drug during the early time to a higher extent than sodium caseinate-based formulations, which indicates better taste-masking efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of lipids with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Bekale, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2014-09-01

    We report the molecular interaction and the binding sites of cholesterol (CHOL), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), dioctadecyldimethyl-ammoniumbromide (DDAB), and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) with milk α- and β-caseins in aquous solution at physiological conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to determine the binding sites of lipid-protein complexes and the effect of lipid interaction on the stability and conformation of α- and β-caseins. Structural analysis showed that lipids bind casein via mainly hydrophobic contact with association constants of KCHOL-α-casein=1.0 (±0.1)×10(4) M(-1), KDOPE-α-casein=5.0 (±0.07)×10(3) M(-1), KDDAB-α-casein=2.0 (±0.06)×10(4) M(-1), KDOTAP-α-casein=1.5 (±0.6)×10(4) M(-1), KCHOL-β-casein=1.0 (±0.3)×10(4) M(-1), KDOPE-β-casein=1.5 (±0.06)×10(3) M(-1), KDDAB-β-casein=1.7 (±0.3)×10(4) M(-1) and KDOTAP-β-casein=2.1 (±0.5)×10(4) M(-1). The average number of binding sites occupied by lipid molecules on protein (n) were from 0.7 to 1.1. Docking showed different binding sites for α- and β-caseins toward lipid complexation with the free binding energies from -10 to -13 kcal/mol. Casein conformation was altered by lipid interaction with a reduction of α-helix and β-sheet and an increase of random coil and turn structure suggesting a partial protein unfolding. Cascasein; CHOLcholesterol; DOTAP1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane; DDABdioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide; DOPEdioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine; FTIRFourier transform infrared spectroscopy; CDcircular dichroism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anticancer activity of cow, sheep, goat, mare, donkey and camel milks and their caseins and whey proteins and in silico comparison of the caseins.

    PubMed

    Shariatikia, Malihe; Behbahani, Mandana; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate anticancer activity of cow, goat, sheep, mare, donkey and camel milks and their casein and whey proteins against MCF7 cell line. The structure-based properties of the casein proteins were also investigated, using bioinformatics tools to find explanation for their antitumor activities. The effect of different milks and their casein and whey proteins on MCF7 proliferation was measured using MTT assay at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml). The results showed that mare, donkey, cow and camel milks and their casein and whey proteins have potent cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells in a dose dependent manner while sheep and goat milks and their proteins did not reveal any cytotoxic activity. The in silico results demonstrated that mare, donkey and camel caseins had highest positive and negative charges. The secondary structure prediction indicated that mare and donkey caseins had the maximum percentage of α helix and camel casein had the highest percentage of extended strand. This study suggests that there is a striking correlation between anti-cancer activity of milk caseins and their physicochemical properties such as alpha helix structure and positive and negative charges. In conclusion, the results indicated that mare, camel and donkey milks might be good candidates against breast cancer cells.

  20. Sensitizing capacity and allergenicity of enzymatically cross-linked sodium caseinate in comparison to sodium caseinate in a mouse model for cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Gros-van Hest, Marjan; Westerbeek, Hans; Garssen, Johan

    2013-03-27

    A transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate was designed for use in dairy products to increase the viscosity of food matrices. The difference in structure of cross-linked caseinate might have implications for the risk of developing cow's milk allergy. The sensitizing capacity and the allergenicity (the potency to induce an allergic effector response) of cross-linked sodium caseinate was investigated using a mouse model for cow's milk allergy. Mice were orally sensitized with cross-linked caseinate or caseinate using cholera toxin as adjuvant. Anaphylactic shock reactions, change in body temperature, acute allergic skin response, caseinate-, cross-linked caseinate-IgE and mMCP-1 concentrations were determined after challenge with cross-linked caseinate or caseinate. Sensitization with cross-linked caseinate did not result in anaphylactic shock symptoms, drop in body temperature or release of serum mMCP-1. A tendency toward decreased casein-specific IgE levels was observed. The allergenicity did not differ between both products. These results indicate that in already caseinate-sensitized mice, cross-linked caseinate did not provoke more pronounced allergenic reactions compared to sodium caseinate. On top of that, reduced sensitization to cross-linked caseinate was observed. Cross-linked caseinate might therefore be an interesting new dietary concept for humans at risk for food allergy although more mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed for validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron binding to caseins in the presence of orthophosphate.

    PubMed

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Edwards, P J B; Das, S; Singh, H

    2016-01-01

    As adding >5mM ferric chloride to sodium caseinate solutions results in protein precipitation, the effects of orthophosphate (0-64 mM) addition to sodium caseinate solution (2% w/v protein) on iron-induced aggregation of the caseins were studied at pH 6.8. Up to 20mM ferric chloride could be added to sodium caseinate solution containing 32 mM orthophosphate without any protein precipitation. The addition of iron to sodium caseinate solution containing orthophosphate reduced the diffusible phosphorus content in a concentration-dependent manner. Added iron appeared to interact simultaneously with phosphoserine on the caseins and inorganic phosphorus. The relative sizes of the casein aggregates were governed by the concentration of orthophosphate and the aggregates consisted of all casein fractions, even at the lowest level of ferric chloride addition (5mM). It is hypothesised that the addition of iron to caseins in the presence of orthophosphate results in the formation of colloidal structures involving casein-iron-orthophosphate interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caseoperoxidase, Mixed β-Casein-SDS-Hemin-Imidazole Complex: A Nano Artificial Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi-Movahedi, Zainab; Gharibi, Hussein; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Akbarzadeh, Mohammad; Esmaili, Mansoore; Atri, Maliheh S.; Sefidbakht, Yahya; Bohlooli, Mousa; Nazari, Khodadad; Javadian, Soheila; Hong, Jun; Saboury, Ali A.; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel peroxidase-like artificial enzyme, named “caseoperoxidase”, was biomimetically designed using a nano artificial amino acid apo-protein hydrophobic pocket. This four-component nano artificial enzyme containing heme-imidazole-β-casein-SDS exhibited high activity growth and kcat performance towards the native horseradish peroxidase (HRP) demonstrated by the steady state kinetics using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The hydrophobicity and secondary structure of the caseoperoxidase were studied by ANS fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Camel β-casein (Cβ-casein), with a flexible structure and exalted hydrophobicity, was selected as an appropriate apo-protein for the heme active site using a homology modeling method. Heme docking into the newly obtained Cβ-casein structure indicated one heme was mainly incorporated with Cβ-casein. The presence of a main electrostatic site for the active site in the Cβ-casein was also confirmed by experimental methods through Wyman binding potential and isothermal titration calorimetry. The existence of Cβ-casein protein in this biocatalyst lowered the suicide inactivation, and indicated that the obtained structure has a good protective role for the heme active-site. Additional further experiments confirmed the retention of caseoperoxidase structure and function as an artificial enzyme. PMID:25562503

  3. Polymeric micelles for ocular drug delivery: From structural frameworks to recent preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Abhirup; Bisht, Rohit; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Mitra, Ashim K

    2017-02-28

    Effective intraocular drug delivery poses a major challenge due to the presence of various elimination mechanisms and physiological barriers that result in low ocular bioavailability after topical application. Over the past decades, polymeric micelles have emerged as one of the most promising drug delivery platforms for the management of ocular diseases affecting the anterior (dry eye syndrome) and posterior (age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma) segments of the eye. Promising preclinical efficacy results from both in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies have led to their steady progression through clinical trials. The mucoadhesive nature of these polymeric micelles results in enhanced contact with the ocular surface while their small size allows better tissue penetration. Most importantly, being highly water soluble, these polymeric micelles generate clear aqueous solutions which allows easy application in the form of eye drops without any vision interference. Enhanced stability, larger cargo capacity, non-toxicity, ease of surface modification and controlled drug release are additional advantages with polymeric micelles. Finally, simple and cost effective fabrication techniques render their industrial acceptance relatively high. This review summarizes structural frameworks, methods of preparation, physicochemical properties, patented inventions and recent advances of these micelles as effective carriers for ocular drug delivery highlighting their performance in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The efficacy of nimodipine drug delivery using mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuling; Yu, Xiaohong; Yang, Linlin; Song, Fenglan; Chen, Gang; Lv, Zhufen; Li, Tiao; Chen, De; Zhu, Wanhua; Yu, Anan; Zhang, Yongming; Yang, Fan

    2014-10-15

    In order to develop and compare mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles, with the intention to develop a highly efficient formulation for nimodipine (NIM), NIM-loaded micelles and mixed micelles were made and their pharmacokinetics were studied. Single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments were designed to optimize the final preparation process, characterizations and drug release behaviors were studied. Pharmacokinetics of NIM micelles, NIM mixed micelles were researched and were compared to NIM solution. Micelles and mixed micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation method, with relatively high drug loading efficiency and within nano-particle size range. The CMC value of mPEG-PLA was lower than that of mPEG-PLA/TPGS. The results of FTIR and TEM confirmed the spherical core-shell structure of micelles as well as mixed micelles, and the encapsulation of NIM inside the cores. In vitro release showed that micelles and mixed micelles had sustained release effect in the forms of passive diffusion and dissolution process, respectively. Following intraperitoneal administration (5mg/kg), micelles and mixed micelles were absorbed faster than solution, and with larger MRT(0-t), smaller CLz and larger AUC(0-t) as compared to that of solution, which showed micelles and mixed micelles had higher retention, slower elimination and higher bioavailability. This experiment also showed that mixed micelles released NIM more stably than micelles. By evaluate the bioequivalence, NIM micelles and NIM mixed micelles were testified non-bioequivalent to NIM solution. Micelles and mixed micelles could sustain the NIM concentrations more efficiently in plasma as compared to solution. Mixed micelles were the best ones since they had high loading content and released more stably. Thus, apprehending micelles and mixed micelles were suited as poor aqueous solubility drug carriers, and mixed micelles were better due to their high loading content and more stable release

  5. Effect of headgroup size, charge, and solvent structure on polymer-micelle interactions, studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shang, Barry Z; Wang, Zuowei; Larson, Ronald G

    2009-11-19

    We performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of anionic and cationic micelles in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to understand why nonionic water-soluble polymers such as PEO interact strongly with anionic micelles but only weakly with cationic micelles. Our micelles include sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), n-dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), n-dodecyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and micelles in which we artificially reverse the sign of partial charges in SDS and DTAC. We observe that the polymer interacts hydrophobically with anionic SDS but only weakly with cationic DTAC and DAC, in agreement with experiment. However, the polymer also interacts with the artificial anionic DTAC but fails to interact hydrophobically with the artificial cationic SDS, illustrating that large headgroup size does not explain the weak polymer interaction with cationic micelles. In addition, we observe through simulation that this preference for interaction with anionic micelles still exists in a dipolar "dumbbell" solvent, indicating that water structure and hydrogen bonding alone cannot explain this preferential interaction. Our simulations suggest that direct electrostatic interactions between the micelle and polymer explain the preference for interaction with anionic micelles, even though the polymer overall carries no net charge. This is possible given the asymmetric distribution of negative charges on smaller atoms and positive charges on larger units in the polymer chain.

  6. Process efficiency of casein separation from milk using polymeric spiral-wound microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Mercier-Bouchard, D; Benoit, S; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2017-11-01

    Microfiltration is largely used to separate casein micelles from milk serum proteins (SP) to produce a casein-enriched retentate for cheese making and a permeate enriched in native SP. Skim milk microfiltration is typically performed with ceramic membranes and little information is available about the efficiency of spiral-wound (SW) membranes. We determined the effect of SW membrane pore size (0.1 and 0.2 µm) on milk protein separation in total recirculation mode with a transmembrane pressure gradient to evaluate the separation efficiency of milk proteins and energy consumption after repeated concentration and diafiltration (DF). Results obtained in total recirculation mode demonstrated that pore size diameter had no effect on the permeate flux, but a drastic loss of casein was observed in permeate for the 0.2-µm SW membrane. Concentration-DF experiments (concentration factor of 3.0× with 2 sequential DF) were performed with the optimal 0.1-µm SW membrane. We compared these results to previous data we generated with the 0.1-µm graded permeability (GP) membrane. Whereas casein rejection was similar for both membranes, SP rejection was higher for the 0.1-µm SW membrane (rejection coefficient of 0.75 to 0.79 for the 0.1-µm SW membrane versus 0.46 to 0.49 for the GP membrane). The 0.1-µm SW membrane consumed less energy (0.015-0.024 kWh/kg of permeate collected) than the GP membrane (0.077-0.143 kWh/kg of permeate collected). A techno-economic evaluation led us to conclude that the 0.1-µm SW membranes may represent a better option to concentrate casein for cheese milk; however, the GP membrane has greater permeability and its longer lifetime (about 10 yr) potentially makes it an interesting option. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium effect on self-organization of amphiphilic carboxylates: formation of structured micelles and superlattices.

    PubMed

    Rosenlehner, Karin; Schade, Boris; Böttcher, Christoph; Jäger, Christof M; Clark, Timothy; Heinemann, Frank W; Hirsch, Andreas

    2010-08-16

    Not only the self-aggregation of dendritic polycarboxylates into structurally persistent micelles, but also that of the micelles themselves into superlattices is controlled by alkali-metal counterions and shows a pronounced sodium effect. Our combined experimental and computational work has revealed the formation of superlattices for the first time. The behavior of a variety of amphiphilic carboxylates and the different effects of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) have been investigated by conductivity measurements, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Together, these show that sodium salts of the amphiphiles give the most stable micelles, followed by lithium and potassium. Our results suggest that ion multiplets in bridging positions, rather than contact ion pairs, are responsible for the enhanced stability and the formation of hexagonally ordered superlattices with sodium counterions. Potassium ions do not form such ion multiplets and cannot therefore induce aggregation of the micelles. This sodium effect has far-reaching consequences for a large number of biological and technical systems and sheds new light on the origin of specific-ion effects.

  8. Production of calcium- and magnesium-enriched caseins and caseinates by an ecofriendly technology.

    PubMed

    Masson, Félix-André; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2018-05-09

    Finding new green ways of producing proteins has never been of such critical public interest, both to meet consumers' needs and to preserve the environment. Milk proteins are among the most attractive protein types due to their high nutritional value and attractive functional properties. In this work, the separation of caseins by conventional chemical acidification was compared with electrodialysis with bipolar membrane coupled to an ultrafiltration module (EDBM-UF), a green process that allows the precipitation of caseins by H + generated in situ by the bipolar membrane and, simultaneously, the production of a separated NaOH stream from OH - electrogenerated by the bipolar membrane. Caseinate production using this NaOH stream by-product and the quantity of NaOH needed to produce caseinates from both methods were also investigated. Hence, the purity and composition of caseins and caseinates were compared in terms of protein, ash, and lactose contents as well as mineral composition. The results showed for the first time that caseinates can be produced by solubilizing caseins with NaOH stream from the EDBM process. Furthermore, the caseins and caseinates produced by EDBM-UF were equivalent in terms of lactose and protein contents to their respective caseins and caseinates that were chemically produced but presented slightly lower sodium content and 3 to 4 times higher magnesium and calcium contents. The fact that calcium and magnesium are likely bound to milk caseins would ensure their favorable absorbability. These caseins or caseinates from the new EDBM-UF process could be suitable as an improved protein-based calcium or magnesium supplement, both for their enhanced nutritional quality and because they are produced by a green process. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.; ...

    2017-04-19

    In this work, the effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strengthmore » of the effect was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.« less

  10. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strength of the effectmore » was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.« less

  11. Micelle Morphology and Mechanical Response of Triblock Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michelle E.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Shull, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-12

    The effect of polymer concentration on mechanical response and micelle morphology of ABA and AB copolymers in B-selective solvents has been systematically studied. Micelle morphology was determined using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering, shear, and birefringence while mechanical response at low and high strains was determined using indentation techniques. Self-consistent field theory calculations were used to determine micelle volume fraction profiles and to construct an equilibrium phase map. The transition from spherical to cylindrical micelles increases the triblock gel modulus and energy dissipation. Combining knowledge of gel relaxation time, which determines the rate at which the gel can equilibratemore » its micelle structure, with the equilibrium phase map allows estimation of the experimental temperatures and time scales over which kinetic trapping will arrest micelle structure evolution. Kinetic trapping enables cylindrical morphologies to be obtained at significantly lower polymer fractions than is possible in equilibrated systems.« less

  12. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein

    PubMed Central

    Meyrand, M.; Dallas, D.C.; Caillat, H.; Bouvier, F.; Martin, P.; Barile, D.

    2014-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)—free complex carbohydrates—confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (αs1-casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (αs1-casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk

  13. Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat gluten-based protein-rich food.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives to meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well-balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten-based protein-rich foods. Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend for 120 min at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g)-freeze-dried egg white (16.8 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten-water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated with loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat-induced polymerization of the gluten-water blend with egg white but not with casein was greater than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten-based protein-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Short communication: Serum composition of milk subjected to re-equilibration by dialysis at different temperatures, after pH adjustments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengtao; Corredig, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the properties of casein micelles after pH adjustment and their re-equilibration to the original pH and serum composition. Re-equilibration was carried out by dialyzing against skim milk at 2 different temperatures (4 or 22 °C). Turbidity, the average radius of the casein micelles, and the composition of the soluble phase were measured at different pH values, ranging between 5.5 and 8. Acidification led to the solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate and decrease of the average radius of the micelles. With re-equilibration, casein dissociation occurred. In milk with pH values greater than 6.0, the average radius was recovered after re-equilibration. At pH values greater than neutral, an increase of the radius of casein micelles and increased dissociation of the casein were found. After re-equilibration, the radius of micelles and soluble protein in the serum decreased. The results were not affected by the temperature of re-equilibration. The changes to the calcium phosphate equilibrium and the dissociation of the micelles will have important consequences to the functionality of casein micelles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Smart wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zonglin; Dreiss, Cécile A; Feng, Yujun

    2013-09-07

    A major scientific challenge of the past decade pertaining to the field of soft matter has been to craft 'adaptable' materials, inspired by nature, which can dynamically alter their structure and functionality on demand, in response to triggers produced by environmental changes. Amongst these, 'smart' surfactant wormlike micelles, responsive to external stimuli, are a particularly recent area of development, yet highly promising, given the versatility of the materials but simplicity of the design-relying on small amphiphilic molecules and their spontaneous self-assembly. The switching 'on' and 'off' of the micellar assembly structures has been reported using electrical, optical, thermal or pH triggers and is now envisaged for multiple stimuli. The structural changes, in turn, can induce major variations in the macroscopic characteristics, affecting properties such as viscosity and elasticity and sometimes even leading to a spontaneous and effective 'sol-gel' transition. These original smart materials based on wormlike micelles have been successfully used in the oil industry, and offer a significant potential in a wide range of other technological applications, including biomedicine, cleaning processes, drag reduction, template synthesis, to name but a few. This review will report results in this field published over the last few years, describe the potential and practical applications of stimuli-responsive wormlike micelles and point out future challenges.

  16. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  17. Caseoperoxidase, mixed β-casein-SDS-hemin-imidazole complex: a nano artificial enzyme.

    PubMed

    Moosavi-Movahedi, Zainab; Gharibi, Hussein; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Akbarzadeh, Mohammad; Esmaili, Mansoore; Atri, Maliheh S; Sefidbakht, Yahya; Bohlooli, Mousa; Nazari, Khodadad; Javadian, Soheila; Hong, Jun; Saboury, Ali A; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    A novel peroxidase-like artificial enzyme, named "caseoperoxidase", was biomimetically designed using a nano artificial amino acid apo-protein hydrophobic pocket. This four-component nano artificial enzyme containing heme-imidazole-β-casein-SDS exhibited high activity growth and k(cat) performance toward the native horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by the steady state kinetics using UV-vis spectrophotometry. The hydrophobicity and secondary structure of the caseoperoxidase were studied by ANS fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Camel β-casein (Cβ-casein) was selected as an appropriate apo-protein for the heme active site because of its innate flexibility and exalted hydrophobicity. This selection was confirmed by homology modeling method. Heme docking into the newly obtained Cβ-casein structure indicated one heme was mainly incorporated with Cβ-casein. The presence of a main electrostatic site for the active site in the Cβ-casein was also confirmed by experimental methods through Wyman binding potential and isothermal titration calorimetry. The existence of Cβ-casein protein in this biocatalyst lowered the suicide inactivation and provided a suitable protective role for the heme active-site. Additional experiments confirmed the retention of caseoperoxidase structure and function as an artificial enzyme.

  18. Binding of vitamin A with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2013-05-01

    The binding sites of retinol and retinoic acid with milk α- and β-caseins were determined, using constant protein concentration and various retinoid contents. FTIR, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modelling were used to analyse retinol and retinoic acid binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of retinoid complexation on the stability and conformation of caseins. Structural analysis showed that retinoids bind caseins via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(retinol-)(α)(-caseins)=1.21 (±0.4)×10(5) M(-1) and K(retinol-)(β)(-caseins)=1.11 (±0.5)×10(5) M(-1) and K(retinoic acid-)(α)(-caseins)=6.2 (±0.6)×10(4) M(-1) and K(retinoic acid-)(β)(-caseins)=6.3 (±0.6)×10(4) M(-1). The number of bound retinol molecules per protein (n) was 1.5 (±0.1) for α-casein and 1.0 (±0.1) for β-casein, while 1 molecule of retinoic acid was bound in the α- and β-casein complexes. Molecular modelling showed different binding sites for retinol and retinoic acid on α- and β-caseins with more stable complexes formed with α-casein. Retinoid-casein complexation induced minor alterations of protein conformation. Caseins might act as carriers for transportation of retinoids to target molecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and dynamics of micelle-bound neuropeptide Y: comparison with unligated NPY and implications for receptor selection.

    PubMed

    Bader, R; Bettio, A; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Zerbe, O

    2001-01-12

    The biological importance of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) has steered a number of investigations about its solution structure over the last 20 years. Here, we focus on the comparison of the structure and dynamics of NPY free in solution to when bound to a membrane mimetic, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, as studied by 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both, free in solution and in the micelle-bound form, the N-terminal segment (Tyr1-Glu15) is shown to extend like a flexible tail in solution. This is not compatible with the PP-fold model for NPY that postulates backfolding of the flexible N terminus onto the C-terminal helix. The correlation time (tau(c)) of NPY in aqueous solution, 5.5 (+/-1.0) ns at 32 degrees C, is only consistent with its existence in a dimeric form. Exchange contributions especially enhancing transverse relaxation rates (R(2)) of residues located on one side of the C-terminal helix of the molecule are supposed to originate from dimerization of the NPY molecule. The dimerization interface was directly probed by looking at (15)N-labeled NPY/spin-labeled [TOAC34]-[(14)N]-NPY heterodimers and revealed both parallel and anti-parallel alignment of the helices. The NMR-derived three-dimensional structure of micelle-bound NPY at 37 degrees C and pH 6.0 is similar but not identical to that free in solution. The final set of 17 lowest-energy DYANA structures is particularly well defined in the region of residues 21-31, with a mean pairwise RMSD of 0.23 A for the backbone heavy atoms and 0.85 A for all heavy atoms. The combination of NMR relaxation data and CD measurements clearly demonstrates that the alpha-helical region Ala18-Thr32 is more stable, and the C-terminal tetrapeptide becomes structured only in the presence of the phosphocholine micelles. The position of NPY relative to the DPC micelle surface was probed by adding micelle integrating spin labels. Together with information from (1)H,(2)H exchange rates, we conclude that the interaction of NPY with

  20. Cryo-TEM of morphology and kinetics of self-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingshan

    Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) is applied to study various structures in solutions and suspensions from micron to nanometer scale. By vitrifying the liquid samples at different moments, sequential stages of a dynamic process can be frozen and the structures occurring from about 30 sec to over 10 min can be imaged. Therefore a picture of how the structures evolve with time in the liquid systems can be established. This method has been proven to be a powerful technique in studying the morphology and kinetics of self-assembled nanostructures. Such a pseudo-in-situ technique is used to "watch" the crystallization process of silver stearate (AgSt) from sodium stearate (NaSt) dispersions. AgSt crystal is produced from a reaction of NaSt and silver nitrate. The reaction, as a AgSt crystallization process, starts from AgSt micelles, which aggregate and grow into hexagonal shaped crystals of about 10 microns. If silver bromide (AgBr) grains are present, the micelles do not prefer to aggregate, but rather deposit on the surface of the AgBr crystalline grains. Variation of the carboxylate chain length does not affect the crystallization process very much, although the morphology of both the reactant and the product is changed. Nanostructure transition in sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) solutions is investigated as well. A micellar network structure can form if equal molar calcium chloride is added to 3 wt% SLES solution. The network can be broken into wormlike micelle segments such as spheres and rods by sonication. After about 10 min, these broken pieces can reassemble and reform the network through wormlike micelle growth and connection. Also by using Cryo-TEM, 100-200 nm casein micelles are observed at 1 wt% casein solution, but aggregated submicelles cannot be distinguished. However, individual submicelles of about 30 nm are indeed captured in a 0.03 wt% solution. By adding acid or EDTA, the casein micelles can be disrupted into small particles

  1. Locating the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-12

    We located the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various folic acid contents. FTIR, UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyze folic acid binding sites, the binding constant, and the effect of folic acid interaction on the stability and conformation of caseins. Structural analysis showed that folic acid binds caseins via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(folic acid-α-caseins) = 4.8 (±0.6) × 10(4) M(-1) and K(folic acid-β-caseins) = 7.0 (±0.9) × 10(4) M(-1). The number of bound acid molecules per protein was 1.5 (±0.4) for α-casein and 1.4 (±0.3) for β-casein complexes. Molecular modeling showed different binding sites for folic acid on α- and β-caseins. The participation of several amino acids in folic acid-protein complexes was observed, which was stabilized by hydrogen bonding network and the free binding energy of -7.7 kcal/mol (acid-α-casein) and -8.1 kcal/mol (acid-β-casein). Folic acid complexation altered protein secondary structure by the reduction of α-helix from 35% (free α-casein) to 33% (acid-complex) and 32% (free β-casein) to 26% (acid-complex) indicating a partial protein destabilization. Caseins might act as carriers for transportation of folic acid to target molecules.

  2. Characterisation of monotreme caseins reveals lineage-specific expansion of an ancestral casein locus in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Using a milk-cell cDNA sequencing approach we characterised milk-protein sequences from two monotreme species, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and found a full set of caseins and casein variants. The genomic organisation of the platypus casein locus is compared with other mammalian genomes, including the marsupial opossum and several eutherians. Physical linkage of casein genes has been seen in the casein loci of all mammalian genomes examined and we confirm that this is also observed in platypus. However, we show that a recent duplication of beta-casein occurred in the monotreme lineage, as opposed to more ancient duplications of alpha-casein in the eutherian lineage, while marsupials possess only single copies of alpha- and beta-caseins. Despite this variability, the close proximity of the main alpha- and beta-casein genes in an inverted tail-tail orientation and the relative orientation of the more distant kappa-casein genes are similar in all mammalian genome sequences so far available. Overall, the conservation of the genomic organisation of the caseins indicates the early, pre-monotreme development of the fundamental role of caseins during lactation. In contrast, the lineage-specific gene duplications that have occurred within the casein locus of monotremes and eutherians but not marsupials, which may have lost part of the ancestral casein locus, emphasises the independent selection on milk provision strategies to the young, most likely linked to different developmental strategies. The monotremes therefore provide insight into the ancestral drivers for lactation and how these have adapted in different lineages.

  3. Continuous fast Fourier transforms cyclic voltammetry as a new approach for investigation of skim milk k-casein proteolysis, a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shayeh, Javad Shabani; Sefidbakht, Yahya; Siadat, Seyed Omid Ranaei; Niknam, Kaveh

    2017-10-01

    Cheese production is relied upon the action of Rennet on the casein micelles of milk. Chymosin assay methods are usually time consuming and offline. Herein, we report a new electrochemical technique for studying the proteolysis of K-casein. The interaction of rennet and its substrate was studied by fast Fourier transform continuous cyclic voltammetry (FFTCCV) based on a determination of k-casein in aqueous solution. FFTCCV technique is a very useful method for studying the enzymatic procedures. Fast response, no need of modified electrodes or complex equipment is some of FFTCCV advantages. Various concentrations of enzyme and substrate were selected and the increase in the appearance of charged species in solution as a result of the addition of rennet was studied. Data obtained using FFTCCV technique were also confirmed by turbidity analysis. The results show that rennet proteolysis activity occurs in much shorter time scales compare with its aggregation. Hence, following the appearance of charged segments as a result of proteolysis could be under consideration as a rapid and online method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Basis for the Potent and Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Alexander M.; Zhao, Huilin; Huang, Xin

    2012-10-29

    Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and its closest homologue CK1δ are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. We report two crystal structures of PF4800567, a potent and selective inhibitor of CK1ε, bound to the kinase domains of human CK1ε and CK1δ as well as one apo CK1ε crystal structure. These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific inhibitor interactions with CK1ε and suggest clues for further development of CK1δ inhibitors.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of the human milk-sourced peptide Casein201.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Cui, Xianwei; Fu, Yanrong; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yahui; Sun, Yazhou; Wang, Xing; Li, Yun; Liu, Qianqi; Chen, Ting

    2017-04-08

    Casein201 is one of the human milk sourced peptides that differed significantly in preterm and full-term mothers. This study is designed to demonstrate the biological characteristics, antibacterial activity and mechanisms of Casein201 against common pathogens in neonatal infection. The analysis of biological characteristics was done by bioinformatics. Disk diffusion method and flow cytometry were used to detect the antimicrobial activity of Casein201. Killing kinetics of Casein201 was measured using microplate reader. The antimicrobial mechanism of Casein201 was studied by electron microscopy and electrophoresis. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that Casein201 derived from β-casein and showed significant sequence overlap. Antibacterial assays showed Casein201 inhibited the growth of S taphylococcus aureus and Y ersinia enterocolitica. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that the antibacterial activity of Casein201 is through cytoplasmic structures disintegration and bacterial cell envelope alterations but not combination with DNA. We conclude the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of Casein201. Our data demonstrate that Casein201 has potential therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of pathogens in neonatal infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of modified [epsilon]-polylysine micelles and their application in improving cellular antioxidant activity of curcuminoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hailong; Li, Ji; Shi, Ke

    The micelle structure of octenyl succinic anhydride modified {var_epsilon}-polylysine (M-EPL), an anti-microbial surfactant prepared from natural peptide {var_epsilon}-polylysine in aqueous solution has been studied using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results revealed that M-EPLs formed spherical micelles with individual size of 24-26 {angstrom} in aqueous solution which could further aggregate to form a larger dimension with averaged radius of 268-308 {angstrom}. Furthermore, M-EPL micelle was able to encapsulate curcuminoids, a group of poorly-soluble bioactive compounds from turmeric with poor oral bioavailability, and improve their water solubility. Three loading methods, including solvent evaporation, dialysis, and high-speed homogenization were compared. Themore » results indicated that the dialysis method generated the highest loading capacity and curcuminoids water solubility. The micelle encapsulation was confirmed as there were no free curcuminoid crystals detected in the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. It was also demonstrated that M-EPL encapsulation stabilized curcuminoids against hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and the encapsulated curcuminoids showed elevated cellular antioxidant activity compared with free curcuminoids. This work suggested that M-EPL could be used as new biopolymer micelles for delivering poorly soluble drugs/phytochemicals and improving their bioactivities.« less

  7. Milk caseins as useful vehicle for delivery of dipyridamole drug.

    PubMed

    Dezhampanah, Hamid; Esmaili, Masoomeh; Hasani, Leila

    2018-05-01

    The interaction of bovine milk α- and β-caseins as an efficient drug carrier system with Dipyridamole (DIP) was investigated using spectroscopy and molecular docking studies at different temperatures (20-37 °C). FTIR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopy methods demonstrated that α- and β-caseins interact with DIP molecule mainly via hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and change in secondary structure of α- and β-caseins. DIP showed a higher quenching efficiency and binding constant of α-casein than β-casein. There was only one binding site for DIP and it was located on the surface of the protein molecule. The thermodynamic parameters of calculation showed that the binding process occurs spontaneously and demonstrated that α- and β-caseins provide very good binding and entrapment to DIP via hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and docking study showed that DIP binds to the Trp residues of α- and β-casein molecules with short distances. Docking study showed that DIP molecule made several hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions with α- and β-caseins. The study of cell culture and micellar solubility of DIP demonstrated α- and β-caseins relatively the same helping in delivery of DIP. Milk α- and β-caseins are considered as a useful vehicle for the solublization and stabilization of DIP in aqueous solution at natural pH.

  8. Mixed micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid and selected hydrophobic bile acids: interaction parameter, partition coefficient of nitrazepam and mixed micelles haemolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Tepavčević, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    The formation of mixed micelles built of 7,12-dioxolithocholic and the following hydrophobic bile acids was examined by conductometric method: cholic (C), deoxycholic (D), chenodeoxycholic (CD), 12-oxolithocholic (12-oxoL), 7-oxolithocholic (7-oxoL), ursodeoxycholic (UD) and hiodeoxycholic (HD). Interaction parameter (β) in the studied binary mixed micelles had negative value, suggesting synergism between micelle building units. Based on β value, the hydrophobic bile acids formed two groups: group I (C, D and CD) and group II (12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD and HD). Bile acids from group II had more negative β values than bile acids from group I. Also, bile acids from group II formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds in aggregates with both smaller (2) and higher (4) aggregation numbers, according to the analysis of their stereochemical (conformational) structures and possible structures of mixed micelles built of these bile acids and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. Haemolytic potential and partition coefficient of nitrazepam were higher in mixed micelles built of the more hydrophobic bile acids (C, D, CD) and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid than in micelles built only of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. On the other hand, these mixed micelles still had lower values of haemolytic potential than micelles built of C, D or CD. The mixed micelles that included bile acids: 12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD or HD did not significantly differ from the micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid, observing the values of their haemolytic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of the human milk-sourced peptide Casein201

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing; Cui, Xianwei

    Introduction: Casein201 is one of the human milk sourced peptides that differed significantly in preterm and full-term mothers. This study is designed to demonstrate the biological characteristics, antibacterial activity and mechanisms of Casein201 against common pathogens in neonatal infection. Methodology: The analysis of biological characteristics was done by bioinformatics. Disk diffusion method and flow cytometry were used to detect the antimicrobial activity of Casein201. Killing kinetics of Casein201 was measured using microplate reader. The antimicrobial mechanism of Casein201 was studied by electron microscopy and electrophoresis. Results: Bioinformatics analysis indicates that Casein201 derived from β-casein and showed significant sequence overlap. Antibacterialmore » assays showed Casein201 inhibited the growth of S taphylococcus aureus and Y ersinia enterocolitica. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that the antibacterial activity of Casein201 is through cytoplasmic structures disintegration and bacterial cell envelope alterations but not combination with DNA. Conclusion: We conclude the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of Casein201. Our data demonstrate that Casein201 has potential therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of pathogens in neonatal infection.« less

  10. Absolute Quantification of Human Milk Caseins and the Whey/Casein Ratio during the First Year of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Weber, Darren; Xu, Wei; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Phinney, Brett S; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-11-03

    Whey proteins and caseins in breast milk provide bioactivities and also have different amino acid composition. Accurate determination of these two major protein classes provides a better understanding of human milk composition and function, and further aids in developing improved infant formulas based on bovine whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we implemented a LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis based on iBAQ label-free quantitation, to estimate absolute concentrations of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein in human milk samples (n = 88) collected between day 1 and day 360 postpartum. Total protein concentration ranged from 2.03 to 17.52 with a mean of 9.37 ± 3.65 g/L. Casein subunits ranged from 0.04 to 1.68 g/L (α-), 0.04 to 4.42 g/L (β-), and 0.10 to 1.72 g/L (α-), with β-casein having the highest average concentration among the three subunits. Calculated whey/casein ratio ranged from 45:55 to 97:3. Linear regression analyses show significant decreases in total protein, β-casein, κ-casein, total casein, and a significant increase of whey/casein ratio during the course of lactation. Our study presents a novel and accurate quantitative analysis of human milk casein content, demonstrating a lower casein content than earlier believed, which has implications for improved infants formulas.

  11. Bioavailability, rheology and sensory evaluation of fat-free yogurt enriched with VD3 encapsulated in re-assembled casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Yonatan; Ish-Shalom, Sophia; Segal, Elena; Livney, Yoav D

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D3 (VD3) deficiency is a global problem. Better ways are needed to enrich foods with this important nutraceutical. VD3 is fat-soluble, hence requiring a suitable vehicle for enriching nonfat foods. Our objectives were to assess the bioavailability of VD3, from fat-free yogurt, in re-assembled casein micelles (rCMs) compared to that in polysorbate-80 (PS80/Tween-80) a commonly used synthetic emulsifier, and to assess and compare their rheology and palatability. We enriched fat-free yogurt with VD3 loaded into either rCM (VD3-rCMs) or PS80 (VD3-PS80). In vivo VD3 bioavailability was evaluated by a large randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, measuring serum 25(OH)D increase in subjects who consumed fat-free yogurt with 50,000 IU of either VD3-rCM, VD3-PS80, or VD3-free placebo yogurt. Both VD3-rCM and VD3-PS80 increased the serum 25(OH)D levels by ∼8 ng ml(-1) and no significant differences in mean 25(OH)D levels were observed, evidencing the fact that VD3 bioavailability in rCM was as high as that in the synthetic emulsifier. VD3-rCM yogurt had a higher viscosity than VD3-PS80 yogurt. In sensory evaluations, panelists were able to discern between VD3-rCM and VD3-PS80 yogurt, and showed a dislike for PS80 yogurt, compared to rCM or the unenriched control. These results complement our past results showing higher protection against thermal treatment, UV irradiation, and deterioration during shelf life, conferred to hydrophobic nutraceuticals by rCM compared to that by the synthetic surfactant or to the unprotected bioactive, in showing the advantageous use of rCM over the synthetic emulsifier as a delivery system for the enrichment of food with VD3 and other hydrophobic nutraceuticals.

  12. Designing Mixed Detergent Micelles for Uniform Neutron Contrast

    DOE PAGES

    Oliver, Ryan C.; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S.

    2017-09-29

    Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that mimics lipid bilayers and are important tools used to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins in solution for in vitro structural investigations. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) performed at the neutron contrast match point of detergent molecules allows observing the scattering signal from membrane proteins unobstructed by contributions from the detergent. However, we show here that even for a perfectly average-contrast matched detergent there arises significant core-shell scattering from the contrast difference between aliphatic detergent tails and hydrophilic head groups. This residual signal at the average detergent contrast match point interferes with interpreting structural datamore » of membrane proteins. This complication is often made worse by the presence of excess empty (protein-free) micelles. Here, we present an approach for the rational design of mixed micelles containing a deuterated detergent analog, which eliminates neutron contrast between core and shell, and allows the micelle scattering to be fully contrast matched to unambiguously resolve membrane protein structure using solution SANS.« less

  13. Designing Mixed Detergent Micelles for Uniform Neutron Contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Ryan C.; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S.

    Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that mimics lipid bilayers and are important tools used to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins in solution for in vitro structural investigations. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) performed at the neutron contrast match point of detergent molecules allows observing the scattering signal from membrane proteins unobstructed by contributions from the detergent. However, we show here that even for a perfectly average-contrast matched detergent there arises significant core-shell scattering from the contrast difference between aliphatic detergent tails and hydrophilic head groups. This residual signal at the average detergent contrast match point interferes with interpreting structural datamore » of membrane proteins. This complication is often made worse by the presence of excess empty (protein-free) micelles. Here, we present an approach for the rational design of mixed micelles containing a deuterated detergent analog, which eliminates neutron contrast between core and shell, and allows the micelle scattering to be fully contrast matched to unambiguously resolve membrane protein structure using solution SANS.« less

  14. Binding sites of resveratrol, genistein, and curcumin with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2013-02-07

    The binding sites of antioxidant polyphenols resveratrol, genistein, and curcumin are located with milk α- and β-caseins in aqueous solution. FTIR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to analyze polyphenol binding sites, the binding constant, and the effects of complexation on casein stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that polyphenols bind casein via hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with the number of bound polyphenol molecules (n) 1.20 for resveratrol, 1.42 for genistein, and 1.43 for curcumin with α-casein and 1.14 for resveratrol, 1.27 for genistein, and 1.27 for curcumin with β-casein. The overall binding constants of the complexes formed are K(res-α-casein) = 1.9 (±0.6) × 10(4) M(-1), K(gen-α-casein) = 1.8 (±0.4) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(cur-α-casein) = 2.8 (±0.8) × 10(4) M(-1) with α-casein and K(res-β-casein) = 2.3 (±0.3) × 10(4) M(-1), K(gen-β-casein) = 3.0 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(cur-β-casein) = 3.1 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1) for β-casein. Molecular modeling showed the participation of several amino acids in polyphenol-protein complexes, which were stabilized by the hydrogen bonding network with the free binding energy of -11.56 (resveratrol-α-casein), -12.35 (resveratrol-β-casein), -9.68 (genistein-α-casein), -9.97 (genistein-β-casein), -8.89 (curcumin-α-casein), and -10.70 kcal/mol (curcumin-β-casein). The binding sites of polyphenols are different with α- and β-caseins. Polyphenol binding altered casein conformation with reduction of α-helix, indicating a partial protein destabilization. Caseins might act as carriers to transport polyphenol in vitro.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chitra; Arora, Sumit; Syama, M A; Sharma, Apurva

    2018-04-01

    Native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes {Sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (NaCas-VA ST), succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (SNaCas-VA ST), reassembled sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RNaCas-VA) and reassembled succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RSNaCas-VA)} were prepared and characterized for their physicochemical characteristics e.g. particle size, zeta potential, turbidity analysis and tryptophan intensities which confirmed structural modification of both native (NaCas-VA ST) and modified (SNaCas-VA ST, RNaCas-VA and RSNaCas- VA) proteins upon complex formation with vitamin A. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein reduced the turbidity caused by vitamin A, however, the particle size and zeta potential of milk protein increased after complexation. Microstructure details of NaCas (spray dried) showed uniform spherical structure, however, other milk proteins and milk protein- Vit A complexes (freeze dried) showed broken glass and flaky structures. Tiny particles were observed on the surface of reassembled protein and reassembled protein- Vit A complexes. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein did not have an influence on the electrophoretic mobility and elution profile (RP-HPLC). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Micelle-induced depletion interaction and resultant structure in charged colloidal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-04-28

    The evolution of the interaction and the resultant structure in the mixed system of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactant decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10), undergoing phase separation, have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. The measurements have been carried out for a fixed concentration of nanoparticle (1 wt. %) with varying concentration of surfactant (0 to 1 wt. %), in the absence and presence of an electrolyte. It is found that the micelles of non-ionic surfactant adsorb on the nanoparticle in the absence of electrolyte (form stable system), whereas these micelles become non-adsorbing in the presence of electrolytemore » (show phase separation). The phase separation arises because of C12E10 micelles, causing depletion interaction between nanoparticles and leading to their aggregation. The interaction is modeled by double Yukawa potential accounting for attractive depletion as well as repulsive electrostatic forces. Both the interactions (attraction and repulsion) are found to be of long-range. The nanoparticle aggregation (phase separation) is governed by the increase in the magnitude and the range of the depletion attraction with the increase in the surfactant concentration. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are quite large in size (order of micron) and are characterized by the surface fractal having simple cubic packing of nanoparticles within the aggregates.« less

  17. THE ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF GLOBIN CASEINATE

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frederick P.; Robertson, T. Brailsford

    1913-01-01

    This study of globin and its compound with casein (globin caseinate) shows that globin fails to produce fixation antibodies in rabbits after repeated injections, thus agreeing with our own work and with that of others with similar histon bodies which are primarily toxic. When globin is combined with casein, however, it gives rise to antibodies that react not only with globin caseinate and casein but also with globin. The antibodies in antiglobin casein serum are apparently separate, one for globin and one for casein. In other words, the change in globin undergone on combination with casein has apparently rendered it antigenic. We did not succeed in demonstrating the genesis of this new antigenic property by anaphylaxis experiments. A further investigation of similar and more complex combined proteins is indicated and gives promise of more light on the nature of biological specificity. PMID:19867665

  18. Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Maria José; Hambleton, Alicia; Talens, Pau; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Chiralt, Amparo; Voilley, Andrée

    2008-05-01

    The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer.

  19. NMR structure of the Arctic mutation of the Alzheimer's Aβ(1-40) peptide docked to SDS micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usachev, K. S.; Filippov, A. V.; Khairutdinov, B. I.; Antzutkin, O. N.; Klochkov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The “Arctic” point mutation of the Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptide is a rare mutation leading to an early onset of Alzheimer's disease. The peptide may interact with neuronal membranes, where it can provide its toxic effects. We used 2D NMR spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the “Arctic” mutant of Aβ1-40 Alzheimer's amyloid peptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle solutions, which are the type of amphiphilic structures mimicking some properties of biomembranes. The study showed that the Arctic mutant of Aβ1-40 interacts with the surface of SDS micelles mainly through the Leu17-Asn27 310-helical region, while the Ile31-Val40 region is buried in the hydrophobic interior of the micelle. In contrast, wild-type Aβ1-40 interacts with SDS micelles through the Lys16-Asp23 α-helical region and Gly29-Met35. Both the Arctic mutant and the wild-type Aβ1-40 peptides interactions with SDS micelles are hydrophobic in nature. Aβ peptides are thought to be capable of forming pores in biomembranes that can cause changes in neuronal and endothelial cell membrane permeability. It has also been shown that Aβ peptides containing the “Arctic” mutation are more neurotoxic and aggregate more readily than the wild-type Aβ peptides at physiological conditions. Here, we propose that the extension of the helical structure of Leu17-Asn27 and a high aliphaticity (neutrality) of the C-terminal region in the Arctic Aβ peptides are consistent with the idea that formation of ion-permeable pores by Aβ oligomers may be one of prevailing mechanisms of a larger neuronal toxicity of the Arctic Aβ compared to the wild-type Aβ peptides, independent of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation.

  20. Investigation of structural changes of β-casein and lysozyme at the gas-liquid interface during foam fractionation.

    PubMed

    Barackov, Ivana; Mause, Anika; Kapoor, Shobhna; Winter, Roland; Schembecker, Gerhard; Burghoff, Bernhard

    2012-10-15

    Purification and separation of proteins play a major role in biotechnology. Nowadays, alternatives to multistep operations suffering from low product yields and high costs are investigated closely amidst which one of the promising options is foam fractionation. The molecular behavior at the gas-liquid interface plays an important role in the formation and stabilization of enriched foam. This study for the first time correlates the physico-chemical parameters to the molecular structure in view of protein enrichment during foam fractionation of the two relatively different proteins lysozyme and β-casein employing biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). In case of lysozyme, high enrichment was achieved at pHstructural changes and these changes are fully reversible. In case of β-casein, no pronounced unfolding can be observed using CD spectroscopy and IRRAS. The β-casein molecules adsorb and purely reorient at the gas-liquid interface, depending on favorable or unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: separation and quantification of caseins and casein macropeptide using ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Holland, B; Rahimi Yazdi, S; Ion Titapiccolo, G; Corredig, M

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work was to improve an existing method to separate and quantify the 4 major caseins from milk samples (i.e., containing whey proteins) using ion-exchange chromatography. The separation process was carried out using a mini-preparative cation exchange column (1 or 5mL of column volume), using urea acetate as elution buffer at pH 3.5 with a NaCl gradient. All 4 major caseins were separated, and the purity of each peak was assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Purified casein fractions were also added to raw milk to confirm their elution volumes. The quantification was carried out using purified caseins in buffer as well as added directly to fresh skim milk. This method can also be employed to determine the decrease in kappa-casein and the release of the casein-macropeptide during enzymatic hydrolysis using rennet. In this case, the main advantage of using this method is the lack of organic solvents compared with the conventional method for separation of macropeptide (using reversed phase HPLC).

  2. Thermoresponsive complex amphiphilic block copolymer micelles investigated by laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Xie, Dinghai; Zhang, Guangzhao; Pispas, Stergios

    2008-05-22

    Poly(isoprene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PI-b-PEO) diblock copolymers form micelles in water. The introduction of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO) triblock copolymer leads to the formation of mixed micelles through hydrophobic interaction. The dimension of the mixed micelles varies with the weight ratio (r) of PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO to PI-b-PEO. By use of laser light scattering, we have investigated the temperature dependence of the structural evolution of the micelles at different r. At r<10, the size of the mixed micelles decreases with temperature. At r>10, due to the excessive PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO chains in solution, as temperature increases, the mixed micelles aggregate into larger micelle clusters.

  3. The fabrication of nanopatterns with Au nanoparticles-embedded micelles via nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Kim, Eun-Uk; Koh, Haeng-Deog; Kang, Nam-Goo; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2009-09-09

    We fabricated nanopatterns with Au nanoparticles-embedded micelles (Au-micelles) by self-assembly of block copolymers via nanoimprint lithography. The micelle structure prepared by self-assembled block copolymers was used as a template for the synthesis of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were synthesized in situ inside the micelles of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS- b-P2VP). Au-micelles were arranged on the trenches of the polymer template, which was imprinted by nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication of line-type and dot-type nanopatterns was carried out by the combined method. In addition, multilayer nanopatterns of the Au-micelles were also proposed.

  4. Responsive micellar films of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles: control on micelle opening and closing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; He, Changcheng; Li, Fengbin; Tong, Ling; Liao, Xingzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    We reported the deliberate control on the micelle opening and closing of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) micellar films by exposing them to selective solvents. We first treated the micellar films with polar solvents including ethanol and water (pH = 4, 8, and 12) that have different affinities to P2VP. We observed opening of the micelles in all the cases. Both the size of opened pores and the opening rate are dependent on the solvency of different solvents for P2VP. We then explored the closing behavior of the opened micelles using solvents having different affinities to PS. We found that the opened micelles were recovered to their initial closed micelle forms. The recovery was accompanied by a slow micelle disassociation process which gradually reduced the micelle size. The rates of the micelle closing and disassociation are also dependent on the solvency of different solvents for PS.

  5. Effect of temperature and pH on the solubility of caseins: environmental influences on the dissociation of α(S)- and β-casein.

    PubMed

    Post, A E; Arnold, B; Weiss, J; Hinrichs, J

    2012-04-01

    Selective precipitation is a common method for the isolation of β-casein, using the different calcium sensitivities of the individual caseins and the selective solubility of β-casein at a low temperature. In previous studies, it has been indicated that the β-casein yield depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the casein raw material used for fractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the solubility of α(S)- and β-casein in solutions of micellar casein, sodium caseinate, and calcium caseinate as a function of pH and temperature. Additionally, the solubility of isolated α(S)- and β-casein fractions in demineralized water, ultrafiltration permeate, and a calcium-depleted milk salt solution was investigated depending on the pH and temperature. Furthermore, micellar casein, sodium caseinate, and calcium caseinate were subjected to a calcium chloride-precipitation process to determine the solubility of α(S)- and β-casein in calcium chloride precipitate, which is produced during selective precipitation, as a function of temperature and pH. Generally, the temperature had only a marginal influence on the α(S)-casein solubility compared with the β-casein solubility, whereas the solubility was shown to be strongly influenced by the pH. Our results suggest that the yield of β-casein obtained during isolation by means of selective precipitation may be a result of the solubility characteristics of α(S)- and β-casein in calcium chloride precipitate. Manufacturers may consider a simple solubility experiment before the β-casein isolation process by means of selective precipitation to predict β-casein yield. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Urea on the Thermodynamics of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelle Formation in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikov, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of urea on the thermodynamics of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle formation in aqueous urea solutions was studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The thermodynamic functions of Δ H, Δ G, and Δ S of CTAB micelle formation were calculated. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were determined. The addition of urea to the solution decreased the micelle formation entropy. This was attributed to the "lowering" of the structural temperature of the solution, which led to an increased number of hydrogen bonds and structure formation of water.

  7. Amyloid-like fibrils formed from intrinsically disordered caseins: physicochemical and nanomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-08-07

    Amyloid-like fibrils are studied because of their significance in understanding pathogenesis and creating functional materials. Amyloid-like fibrils have been studied by heating globular proteins at acidic conditions. In the present study, intrinsically disordered α-, β-, and κ-caseins were studied to form amyloid-like fibrils at pH 2.0 and 90 °C. No fibrils were observed for α-caseins, and acid hydrolysis was found to be the rate-limiting step of fibrillation of β- and κ-caseins. An increase of β-sheet structure was observed after fibrillation. Nanomechanic analysis of long amyloid-like fibrils using peak-force quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy showed the lowest and highest Young's modulus for β-casein (2.35 ± 0.29 GPa) and κ-casein (4.14 ± 0.66 GPa), respectively. The dispersion with β-casein fibrils had a viscosity more than 10 and 5 times higher than those of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin, respectively, at 0.1 s(-1) at comparable concentrations. The current findings may assist not only the understanding of amyloid fibril formation but also the development of novel functional materials from disordered proteins.

  8. Internal Structure of 15 nm 3-Helix Micelle Revealed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Coarse-Grained MD Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ang, JooChuan; Ma, Dan; Lund, Reidar; Keten, Sinan; Xu, Ting

    2016-10-10

    3-Helix micelles (3HM) formed by self-assembly of peptide-polymer conjugate amphiphiles have shown promise as a nanocarrier platform due to their long-circulation, deep tumor penetration, selective accumulation in tumor, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma therapy. There is a need to understand the structural contribution to the high in vivo stability and performance of 3HM. Using selective deuteration, the contrast variation technique in small-angle neutron scattering, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we determined the spatial distribution of each component within 3HM. Our results show a slightly deformed polyethylene glycol (PEG) conformation within the micelle that is radially offset from its conjugation site toward the exterior of the micelle and a highly solvated shell. Surprisingly, ∼85 v/v % of 3HM is water, unusually higher than any micellar nanocarrier based on our knowledge. The result will provide important structural insights for future studies to uncover the molecular origin of 3HM's in vivo performance, and development of the nanocarriers.

  9. Casein expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Grusby, M J; Mitchell, S C; Nabavi, N; Glimcher, L H

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA that expresses a mRNA restricted to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and mammary tissue has been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence from this cDNA shows extensive homology with the previously reported amino acid sequence for rat alpha-casein. Indeed, the presence of a six-residue-repeated motif that is specific for rodent alpha-caseins strongly supports the identification of this cDNA as mouse alpha-casein. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of many hematopoietic cell types revealed that this gene is restricted to CTL, being expressed in four of six CTL lines examined. Furthermore, CTL that express this gene were also found to express other members of the casein gene family, such as beta- and kappa-casein. These results suggest that caseins may be important in CTL function, and their potential role in CTL-mediated lysis is discussed. Images PMID:2395885

  10. Relationship between nano/micro structure and physical properties of TiO2-sodium caseinate composite films.

    PubMed

    Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan Manuel; Altamura, Davide; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Scattarella, Francesco; Siliqi, Dritan; Giannini, Cinzia; Herrera, María Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Films obtained by casting, starting from conventional emulsions (CE), nanoemulsions (NE) or their gels, which led to different structures, with the aim of explore the relationship between structure and physical properties, were prepared. Sodium caseinate was used as the matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, glucono-delta-lactone as acidulant to form the gels, and TiO 2 nanoparticles as reinforcement to improve physical behavior. Structural characterization was performed by SAXS and WAXS (Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, respectively), combined with confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of the lipid phase does not notably modify the mechanical properties of the films compared to solution films. Films from NE were more stable against oil release than those from CE. Incorporation of TiO 2 improved mechanical properties as measured by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) and uniaxial tensile tests. TiO 2 macroscopic spatial distribution homogeneity and the nanostructure character of NE films were confirmed by mapping the q-dependent scattering intensity in scanning SAXS experiments. SAXS microscopies indicated a higher intrinsic homogeneity of NE films compared to CE films, independently of the TiO 2 load. NE-films containing structures with smaller and more homogeneously distributed building blocks showed greater potential for food applications than the films prepared from sodium caseinate solutions, which are the best known films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  12. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  13. Micelle depletion-induced vs. micelle-mediated aggregation in nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D., E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K.

    2015-06-24

    The phase behavior anionic silica nanoparticle (Ludox LS30) with non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) and cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticle–surfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-micelle system in both the cases lead to the aggregation of nanoparticles. The aggregation is found to be micelle depletion-inducedmore » for C12E10 whereas micelle-mediated aggregation for DTAB. Interestingly, it is also found that phase behavior of mixed surfactant (C12E10 + DTAB) system is similar to that of C12E10 (unlike DTAB) micelles with nanoparticles.« less

  14. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of polymeric micelles with tumor targeted in chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Song; Liu, Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Polymeric micelles (PMs) have gained more progress as a carrier system with the quick development of biological and nanoparticle techniques. In particular, PMs with smart targeting can deliver anti-cancer drugs directly into tumor cells at a sustained rate. PMs with core-shell structure (with diameters of 10 100 nm) have been prepared by a variety of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers via a self-assembly process. The preparation of polymeric micelles with stimuli-responsive block copolymers or modification of target molecules on polymeric micelles' surface are able to significantly improve the efficiency of drug delivery. Polymeric micelles, which have been considered as a novel promising drug carrier for cancer therapeutics, are rapidly evolving and being introduced in an attempt to overcome several limitations of traditional chemotherapeutics, including water solubility, tumor-specific accumulation, anti-tumor efficacy, and non-specific toxicity. This review describes the preparation of polymeric micelles and the targeted modification which greatly enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  17. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. Polymer nano-particle hybrid micelles: Encapsulation of POSS into semi-fluorinated polymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaweera, Dilru; Perahia, Dvora; Iacono, Scott; Mabry, Joseph; Smith, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents was used to form a nanoparticle (NP)/polymer hybrid micelles. These micelles can be used as a cargo vehicle for other substances such as drug delivery, and as building blocks for polymer-nanocomposites with controlled NP distribution. Association of NPs into specific blocks of the copolymer depends on the compatibility between the NPs and the block as well as their preference to the solvent that micellization takes place. The current work introduces a small angle neutron scattering study of association of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) NPs into micelles of a highly segregating random copolymer, Biphenyl Perfluorocyclobutane (BPh-PFCB), in toluene, which is a good solvent for BPh. Incompatibility between the blocks drives copolymer into micelles with PFCB in the core and BPh in swollen corona. Modification of NPs with polymer chains drives POSS cages into the micelle core and prevents the micelle dissociation at higher temperatures.

  7. Shape-designed single-polymer micelles: a proof-of-concept simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    Much effort has been directed towards self-assembling nanostructures. Strong, local interactions between specific building blocks often determine these structures (e.g., globular proteins). We seek to produce designed structures that are instead determined by collective effects of weak interactions (e.g., surfactant self-assembly). Such structures may reversibly change conformation or disassemble in response to changing solvent conditions, and, being soft, have potential to adapt to fluctuating or unknown application-imposed shape requirements. Concretely, we aim to realize such a structure in the form of a single polymer micelle--an amphiphilic polymer exhibiting a condensed, phase-segregated conformation when immersed in solvent. Connecting all amphiphiles into a single chain provides geometric constraints controlling the surface curvature profile, thus dictating a non-trivial shape. We present 2D Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of such soft, shape-designed micelles. Preliminary results demonstrate a stable concave ``dimple'' in a micelle composed of a single A-B multiblock linear copolymer. We discuss both current limitations on shape robustness and effects of block asymmetry, block molecular weights and overall chain length on micelle shape. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  8. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. The adsorption of orthophosphate onto casein-iron precipitates.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vikas A; Ellis, Ashling; Ye, Aiqian; Edwards, Patrick J B; Singh, Harjinder

    2018-01-15

    This study explored the interactions of orthophosphate with casein-iron precipitates. Casein-iron precipitates were formed by adding ferric chloride at ≥10mM to sodium caseinate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 3%(w/v). The addition of different concentrations of orthophosphate solution to the casein-iron precipitates resulted in gradual adsorption of the orthophosphate, causing re-dispersion of the casein-iron complexes. The interactions of added orthophosphate with iron in the presence and absence of caseins are postulated, and new mechanisms are proposed. The re-dispersed soluble complexes of casein-iron-orthophosphate generated using this process could be used as novel iron fortificants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chitosan-caseinate bilayer coatings for paper packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Khwaldia, Khaoula; Basta, Altaf H; Aloui, Hajer; El-Saied, Houssni

    2014-01-01

    Papers coated with caseinate and caseinate/chitosan bilayer films were developed. Caseinate, chitosan and caseinate/chitosan films were preliminary characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal stability analyses. The effects of coating weight, caseinate concentration (7%, 10%, and 12%, w/w), and coating application methods (single layer and bilayer) on the physical and mechanical properties of coated papers were studied. Increasing the concentration of caseinate led to a decrease in water vapor permeability (WVP) of the resulting coated paper sheets. Chitosan significantly (p<0.05) increased the elongation at break (%E) of coated paper. However, the application of chitosan as a second layer on wet or dry caseinate films did not significantly affect (p>0.05) the tensile strength (TS) of coated paper. The greatest reduction in paper WVP is achieved by addition of a chitosan layer to the dried preformed caseinate-coated paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical and immunochemical characterization of caseins and the major whey proteins of rabbit milk.

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, R; Hurlimann, J; Suard, Y M; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    1982-01-01

    Caseins were separated from whey proteins by acid precipitation of skimmed rabbit milk. Whole casein was resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis into three major bands with apparent relative molecular masses (Mr of 31 000, 29 000 and 25 000. On agarose/urea-gel electrophoresis whole casein gave three bands with electrophoretic mobilities alpha, beta and gamma. The three components were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography under denaturing and reducing conditions. Each was shown to have a different amino acid, hexose and phosphorus content, as well as non-identical peptide fragments after proteinase digestion. The 31 000 Da (dalton) protein, of alpha-electrophoretic mobility, had a high phosphorus content (4.38%, w/w); the 29 000 Da peptide, of gamma-mobility, had the highest hexose content (2.2%, w/w), contained 0.8 cysteine residue per 100 amino acid residues and was susceptible to chymosin digestion corresponding thus to kappa-casein; the 25 000 Da protein migrated to the beta-position. The rabbit casein complex is composed of at least three caseins, two of which (alpha- and kappa-caseins) are analogous to the caseins from ruminants. Although caseins are poor immunogens, specific antibodies were raised against total and purified polypeptides. The antiserum directed against whole casein recognized each polypeptide, each casein corresponding to a distinct precipitation line. The antisera directed against each casein polypeptide reacted exclusively with the corresponding casein and no antiserum cross-reaction occurred between the three polypeptides. From whey, several proteins were isolated, characterized and used as antigens to raise specific antibodies. An iron-binding protein with an apparent Mr of 80 000 was shown to be immunologically and structurally identical with serum transferrin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6177316

  12. Worm-like micelles of CTAB and sodium salicylate under turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta K; da Silva, Marcelo A; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2008-12-16

    Polymers with high molecular weight and worm-like micelles are drag-reducing agents under turbulent flow. However, in contrast to the polymeric systems, the worm-like micelles do not undergo mechanical degradation due to the turbulence, because their macromolecular structure can be spontaneously restored. This very favorable property, together with their drag-reduction capability, offer the possibility to use such worm-like micelles in heating and cooling systems to recirculate water while expending less energy. The formation, growth, and stability of worm-like micelles formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) were investigated using the self-fluorescence of salicylate ions and the ability of the giant micelles to promote hydrodynamic drag reduction under turbulent flow. The turbulence in solutions of CTAB-Sal was produced within the double-gap cell of a rotational rheometer. Detailed diagrams were obtained for different ratios of Sal and CTAB, which revealed transitions associated with the thermal stability of giant micelles under turbulent flow.

  13. Structuration in the Interface of Direct and Reversed Micelles of Sucrose Esters, Studied by Fluorescent Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Catalina; Ortega, Anakenna; Sanchez, Susana A.; Morales, Javier; Gunther, German

    2015-01-01

    Background Reactors found in nature can be described as micro-heterogeneous systems, where media involved in each micro-environment can behave in a markedly different way compared with the properties of the bulk solution. The presence of water molecules in micro-organized assemblies is of paramount importance for many chemical processes, ranging from biology to environmental science. Self-organized molecular assembled systems are frequently used to study dynamics of water molecules because are the simplest models mimicking biological membranes. The hydrogen bonds between sucrose and water molecules are described to be stronger (or more extensive) than the ones between water molecules themselves. In this work, we studied the capability of sucrose moiety, attached to alkyl chains of different length, as a surface blocking agent at the water-interface and we compared its properties with those of polyethylenglycol, a well-known agent used for this purposes. Published studies in this topic mainly refer to the micellization process and the stability of mixed surfactant systems using glycosides. We are interested in the effect induced by the presence of sucrose monoesters at the interface (direct and reverse micelles) and at the palisade (mixtures with Triton X-100). We believe that the different functional group (ester), the position of alkyl chain (6-O) and the huge capability of sucrose to interact with water will dramatically change the water structuration at the interface and at the palisade, generating new possibilities for technological applications of these systems. Results Our time resolved and steady state fluorescence experiments in pure SEs micelles show that sucrose moieties are able to interact with a high number of water molecules promoting water structuration and increased viscosity. These results also indicate that the barrier formed by sucrose moieties on the surface of pure micelles is more effective than the polyoxyethylene palisade of Triton X-100

  14. Multipath Time Spreading of Optical Pulses Propagating through a Scattering Medium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    laboratory scale media. Initially a highly dilute mixture of skim milk and distilled water was used as a &cattering medium. Casein micelles in skim milk act...V.A. Bloomfield, and C.V. Morr, I "Molecular Ueight and Size Distribution of Bovine Milk Casein Micelles ," Btochim. Biophvs. Acta, vol. 342, pp. 313...as hi.ghly hydrated spheres of mean radius 80OX. Approximately 95Z of these are in the range 400-2200A, [9]. Thus the larger micelles have strong

  15. Filamentous, mixed micelles of triblock copolymers enhance tumor localization of indocyanine green in a murine xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Mount, Christopher W; Dulken, Benjamin W; Ramos, Jenelyn; Fu, Caroline J; Khant, Htet A; Chiu, Wah; Gombotz, Wayne R; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for tumor-delivery applications. Filamentous carriers with high aspect ratios offer potential advantages over spherical carriers, including prolonged circulation times. In this work, mixed micelles comprised of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) were used to encapsulate a near-infrared fluorophore. The micelle formulations were assessed for tumor accumulation after tail vein injection to xenograft tumor-bearing mice by non-invasive optical imaging. The mixed micelle formulation that facilitated the highest tumor accumulation was shown by cryo-electron microscopy to be filamentous in structure compared to spherical structures of pure PF-127 micelles. In addition, increased dye loading efficiency and dye stability was attained in this mixed micelle formulation compared to pure PEO-PHB-PEO micelles. Therefore, the optimized PEO-PHB-PEO/PF-127 mixed micelle formulation offers advantages for cancer delivery over micelles formed from the individual copolymer components. PMID:22118658

  16. Influence of phosphocholine alkyl chain length on peptide-micelle interactions and micellar size and shape.

    PubMed

    Göbl, Christoph; Dulle, Martin; Hohlweg, Walter; Grossauer, Jörg; Falsone, S Fabio; Glatter, Otto; Zangger, Klaus

    2010-04-08

    The interaction with biological membranes is of functional importance for many peptides and proteins. Structural studies on such membrane-bound biomacromolecules are often carried out in solutions containing small membrane-mimetic assemblies of detergent molecules. To investigate the influence of the hydrophobic chain length on the structure, diffusional and dynamical behavior of a peptide bound to micelles, we studied the binding of three peptides to n-phosphocholines with n ranging from 8 to 16. The peptides studied are the 15 residue antimicrobial peptide CM15, the 25-residue transmembrane helix 7 of yeast V-ATPase (TM7), and the 35-residue bacterial toxin LdrD. To keep the dimension of the peptide-membrane-mimetic assembly small, micelles are typically used when studying membrane-bound peptides and proteins, for example, by solution NMR spectroscopy. Since they are readily available in deuterated form most often sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) are used as the micelle-forming detergent. Using NMR, CD, and SAXS, we found that all phosphocholines studied form spherical micelles in the presence and absence of small bound peptides and the diameters of the micelles are basically unchanged upon peptide binding. The size of the peptide relative to the micelle determines to what extent the secondary structure can form. For small peptides (up to approximately 25 residues) the use of shorter chain phosphocholines is recommended for solution NMR studies due to the favorable spectral quality and since they are as well-structured as in DPC. In contrast, larger peptides are better structured in micelles formed by detergents with chain lengths longer than DPC.

  17. Light Scattering Characterization of Elastin-Like Polypeptide Trimer Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuper, Ilona; Terrano, Daniel; Maraschky, Adam; Holland, Nolan; Streletzky, Kiril

    The elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) nanoparticles are composed of three-armed star polypeptides connected by a negatively charged foldon. Each of the three arms extending from the foldon domain includes 20 repeats of the (GVGVP) amino acid sequence. The ELP polymer chains are soluble at room temperature and become insoluble at the transition temperature (close to 50 ° C), forming micelles. The size and shape of the micelle are dependent on the temperature and the pH of the solution, and on the concentration of the phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) was employed to study the structure and dynamics of micelles at 62 ° C. The solution was maintained at an approximate pH level of 7.3 - 7.5, while varying PBS concentration. At low salt concentrations (<15 mM), the micelle radius was about 10nm but not very reproducible on account of unstable pH levels arising from low buffer concentrations. At intermediate salt concentrations (15 - 60 mM), the system formed spherically-shaped micelles, exhibiting a steady growth in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) from 10 to 21 nm, with increasing PBS concentration. Interestingly, higher salt concentrations (>60 mM) displayed an apparent elongation of the micelles evident by a significant VH signal, along with a surge in the apparent Rh. A model of micelle growth (and potential elongation) with increase in salt concentration is considered.

  18. The study of zinc ions binding to casein.

    PubMed

    Pomastowski, P; Sprynskyy, M; Buszewski, B

    2014-08-01

    The presented research was focused on physicochemical study of casein properties and the kinetics of zinc ions binding to the protein. Moreover, a fast and simple method of casein extraction from cow's milk has been proposed. Casein isoforms, zeta potential (ζ) and particle size of the separated caseins were characterized with the use of capillary electrophoresis, zeta potential analysis and field flow fractionation (FFF) technique, respectively. The kinetics of the metal-binding process was investigated in batch adsorption experiments. Intraparticle diffusion model, first-order and zero-order kinetic models were applied to test the kinetic experimental data. Analysis of changes in infrared bands registered for casein before and after zinc binding was also performed. The obtained results showed that the kinetic process of zinc binding to casein is not homogeneous but is expressed with an initial rapid stage with about 70% of zinc ions immobilized by casein and with a much slower second step. Maximum amount of bound zinc in the experimental conditions was 30.04mgZn/g casein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and dynamics of water in nonionic reverse micelles: a combined time-resolved infrared and small angle x-ray scattering study.

    PubMed

    van der Loop, Tibert H; Panman, Matthijs R; Lotze, Stephan; Zhang, Jing; Vad, Thomas; Bakker, Huib J; Sager, Wiebke F C; Woutersen, Sander

    2012-07-28

    We study the structure and reorientation dynamics of nanometer-sized water droplets inside nonionic reverse micelles (water/Igepal-CO-520/cyclohexane) with time-resolved mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. In the time-resolved experiments, we probe the vibrational and orientational dynamics of the O-D bonds of dilute HDO:H(2)O mixtures in Igepal reverse micelles as a function of temperature and micelle size. We find that even small micelles contain a large fraction of water that reorients at the same rate as water in the bulk, which indicates that the polyethylene oxide chains of the surfactant do not penetrate into the water volume. We also observe that the confinement affects the reorientation dynamics of only the first hydration layer. From the temperature dependent surface-water dynamics, we estimate an activation enthalpy for reorientation of 45 ± 9 kJ mol(-1) (11 ± 2 kcal mol(-1)), which is close to the activation energy of the reorientation of water molecules in ice.

  20. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  1. Separation and partial characterization of guinea-pig caseins.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, R K; McIlreavy, D; Hall, R L

    1978-01-01

    1. Guinea-pig caseins A, B and C were purified free of each other by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. 2. Determination of the amino acid composition showed all three caseins to contain a high proportion of proline and glutamic acid, but no cysteine. This apart, the amino acid composition of the three caseins was markedly different, though calculated divergence values suggest that some homology may exist between caseins A and B. Molecular-weight estimates based on amino acid composition were in good agreement with those based on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 3. N-Terminal analysis showed lysine, methionine and lysine to be the N-terminal residues of caseins A, B and C respectively. 4. Two-dimensional separation of tryptic digests revealed a distinctive pattern for each casein. 5. All caseins were shown to be phosphoproteins. The casein C preparation also contained significant amounts of sialic acid, neutral and amino sugars. 6. The results suggest that each casein represents a separate gene product, and that the low-molecular-weight proteins are not the result of a post-translational cleavage of the largest. All were distinctly different from the whey protein alpha-lactalbumin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:697741

  2. Characteristic aroma components of rennet casein.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Yonca; Vlahovich, Katrina N; Drake, MaryAnne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-11-05

    Rennet casein, produced by enzymatic (rennet) precipitation of casein from pasteurized skim milk, is used in both industrial (technical) and food applications. The flavor of rennet casein powder is an important quality parameter; however, the product often contains an odor described as like that of animal/wet dog. Two commercial rennet casein powders were evaluated to determine the compounds responsible for the typical odor. Aroma extracts were prepared by high-vacuum distillation of direct solvent (ether) extracts and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Odorants detected by GCO were typical of those previously reported in skim milk powders and consisted mainly of short-chain volatile acids, phenolic compounds, lactones, and furanones. Results of AEDA indicated o-aminoacetophenone to be a potent odorant; however, sensory descriptive sensory analysis of model aroma systems revealed that the typical odor of rennet casein was principally caused by hexanoic acid, indole, guaiacol, and p-cresol.

  3. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  4. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  5. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an inmore » vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein.« less

  6. Sequence of rat alpha- and gamma-casein mRNAs: evolutionary comparison of the calcium-dependent rat casein multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, A A; Rosen, J M

    1982-01-01

    The complete sequences of rat alpha- and gamma-casein mRNAs have been determined. The 1402-nucleotide alpha- and 864-nucleotide gamma-casein mRNAs both encode 15 amino acid signal peptides and mature proteins of 269 and 164 residues, respectively. Considerable homology between the 5' non-coding regions, and the regions encoding the signal peptides and the phosphorylation sites, in these mRNAs as compared to several other rodent casein mRNAs, was observed. Significant homology was also detected between rat alpha- and bovine alpha s1-casein. Comparison of the rodent and bovine sequences suggests that the caseins evolved at about the time of the appearance of the primitive mammals. This may have occurred by intragenic duplication of a nucleotide sequence encoding a primitive phosphorylation site, -(Ser)n-Glu-Glu-, and intergenic duplication resulting in the small casein multigene family. A unique feature of the rat alpha-casein sequence is an insertion in the coding region containing 10 repeated elements of 18 nucleotides each. This insertion appears to have occurred 7-12 million years ago, just prior to the divergence of rat and mouse. Images PMID:6298707

  7. Formation of crystal-like structures and branched networks from nonionic spherical micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiel, Joshua J.; Furusho, Hirotoshi; Skoglund, Ulf; Shen, Amy Q.

    2015-12-01

    Crystal-like structures at nano and micron scales have promise for purification and confined reactions, and as starting points for fabricating highly ordered crystals for protein engineering and drug discovery applications. However, developing controlled crystallization techniques from batch processes remain challenging. We show that neutrally charged nanoscale spherical micelles from biocompatible nonionic surfactant solutions can evolve into nano- and micro-sized branched networks and crystal-like structures. This occurs under simple combinations of temperature and flow conditions. Our findings not only suggest new opportunities for developing controlled universal crystallization and encapsulation procedures that are sensitive to ionic environments and high temperatures, but also open up new pathways for accelerating drug discovery processes, which are of tremendous interest to pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries.

  8. Tailor-made dimensions of diblock copolymer truncated micelles on a solid by UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jiun-You; Sun, Ya-Sen

    2015-09-28

    We investigated the structural evolution of truncated micelles in ultrathin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine), PS-b-P2VP, of monolayer thickness on bare silicon substrates (SiOx/Si) upon UV irradiation in air- (UVIA) and nitrogen-rich (UVIN) environments. The structural evolution of micelles upon UV irradiation was monitored using GISAXS measurements in situ, while the surface morphology was probed using atomic force microscopy ex situ and the chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This work provides clear evidence for the interpretation of the relationship between the structural evolution and photochemical reactions in PS-b-P2VP truncated micelles upon UVIA and UVIN. Under UVIA treatment, photolysis and cross-linking reactions coexisted within the micelles; photolysis occurred mainly at the top of the micelles, whereas cross-linking occurred preferentially at the bottom. The shape and size of UVIA-treated truncated micelles were controlled predominantly by oxidative photolysis reactions, which depended on the concentration gradient of free radicals and oxygen along the micelle height. Because of an interplay between photolysis and photo-crosslinking, the scattering length densities (SLD) of PS and P2VP remained constant. In contrast, UVIN treatments enhanced the contrast in SLD between the PS shell and the P2VP core as cross-linking dominated over photolysis in the presence of nitrogen. The enhancement of the SLD contrast was due to the various degrees of cross-linking under UVIN for the PS and P2VP blocks.

  9. Influence of hydrophobic micelle structure on crystallization of the photosynthetic RC-LH1-PufX complex from Rhodobacter blasticus.

    PubMed

    Barret, Laurie-Anne; Barrot-Ivolot, Cherone; Raynal, Simon; Jungas, Colette; Polidori, Ange; Bonneté, Françoise

    2013-07-25

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments are performed on two non-ionic surfactants, the dodecyl β-maltoside (DDβM) and the propyl(bi)cyclohexyl α-maltoside (PCCαM), a maltoside derivative containing a rigid bicyclohexyl group as hydrophobic chain, in order to compare the influence of both hydrophobic moiety structure and anomeric form on micelle form factors and intermicellar interactions relevant for membrane protein crystallization. Density and refractive index measurements were performed in order to determine volumetric and optical properties of surfactants, essential for determination of micelle molar masses by both SAXS and SEC-MALLS. SAXS form factors were analyzed by Guinier approximation and inverse Fourier transformation, to obtain the radius of gyration (RG) and the pair distribution function (P(r)) of each surfactant. Form factor model fitting was also performed to describe the shape and the assembly of both surfactant micelles. Finally, second virial coefficients were measured at different percentages of polyethylene glycol 3350, in order to correlate surfactant intermicellar interactions and RC-LH1-PufX phase diagram. It is thus found that while size, shape, and dimensions of micelles are slightly similar for both surfactants, their molar mass and aggregation number differ significantly. PCCαM are more densely packed than DDβM, which reflects (1) an increase in van der Waals contacts between PCCαM hydrophobic chains in the micelle bulk and (2) a supplementary intermicellar attraction compared to DDβM. Finally addition of PEG, which induces a depletion attraction, decreases the solubility of the RC-LH1-PufX complex in PCCαM.

  10. Block and Gradient Copoly(2-oxazoline) Micelles: Strikingly Different on the Inside.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Sergey K; Verbraeken, Bart; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Angelov, Borislav; Vishnevetskaya, Natalya S; Papadakis, Christine M; Rogers, Sarah; Radulescu, Aurel; Courtin, Tim; Martins, José C; Starovoytova, Larisa; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Kravchenko, Vitaly S; Potemkin, Igor I; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-08-17

    Herein, we provide a direct proof for differences in the micellar structure of amphiphilic diblock and gradient copolymers, thereby unambiguously demonstrating the influence of monomer distribution along the polymer chains on the micellization behavior. The internal structure of amphiphilic block and gradient co poly(2-oxazolines) based on the hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx) and the hydrophobic poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (PPhOx) was studied in water and water-ethanol mixtures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Contrast matching SANS experiments revealed that block copolymers form micelles with a uniform density profile of the core. In contrast to popular assumption, the outer part of the core of the gradient copolymer micelles has a distinctly higher density than the middle of the core. We attribute the latter finding to back-folding of chains resulting from hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions, leading to a new type of micelles that we refer to as micelles with a "bitterball-core" structure.

  11. Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

    2005-03-23

    The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  14. Thermodynamics and Structural Evolution during a Reversible Vesicle-Micelle Transition of a Vitamin-Derived Bolaamphiphile Induced by Sodium Cholate.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Nan; Ge, Bing-Qiang; Shen, Yun-Feng; He, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2016-03-09

    Interaction of endogenous sodium cholate (SC) with dietary amphiphiles would induce structural evolution of the self-assembled aggregates, which inevitably affects the hydrolysis of fat in the gut. Current work mainly focused on the interaction of bile salts with classical double-layered phospholipid vesicles. In this paper, the thermodynamics and structural evolution during the interaction of SC with novel unilamellar vesicles formed from vitamin-derived zwitterionic bolaamphiphile (DDO) were characterized. It was revealed that an increased temperature and the presence of NaCl resulted in narrowed micelle-vesicle coexistence and enlarged the vesicle region. The coexistence of micelles and vesicles mainly came from the interaction of monomeric SC with DDO vesicles, whereas micellar SC contributed to the total solubilization of DDO vesicles. This research may enrich the thermodynamic mechanism behind the structure transition of the microaggregates formed by amphiphiles in the gut. It will also contribute to the design of food formulation and drug delivery system.

  15. Nanoparticle packing within block copolymer micelles prepared by the interfacial instability method.

    PubMed

    Nabar, Gauri M; Winter, Jessica O; Wyslouzil, Barbara E

    2018-05-02

    The interfacial instability method has emerged as a viable approach for encapsulating high concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs) within morphologically diverse micelles. In this method, transient interfacial instabilities at the surface of an emulsion droplet guide self-assembly of block co-polymers and NP encapsulants. Although used by many groups, there are no systematic investigations exploring the relationship between NP properties and micelle morphology. Here, the effect of quantum dot (QD) and superparamagnetic iron oxide NP (SPION) concentration on the shape, size, and surface deformation of initially spherical poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) micelles was examined. Multi-NP encapsulation and uniform dispersion within micelles was obtained even at low NP concentrations. Increasing NP concentration initially resulted in larger numbers of elongated micelles and cylinders with tightly-controlled diameters smaller than those of spherical micelles. Beyond a critical NP concentration, micelle formation was suppressed; the dominant morphology became densely-loaded NP structures that were coated with polymer and exhibited increased polydispersity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that NPs in densely-loaded structures can be well-ordered, with packing volume fractions of up to 24%. These effects were enhanced in magnetic composites, possibly by dipole interactions. Mechanisms governing phase transitions triggered by NP loading in the interfacial instability process were proposed. The current study helps establish and elucidate the active role played by NPs in directing block copolymer assembly in the interfacial instability process, and provides important guiding principles for the use of this approach in generating NP-loaded block copolymer composites.

  16. Musk Oxen and Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John W.

    1996-09-01

    Musk oxen behavior provides an analogy to micelle formation by amphipathic substances. Mature male musk oxen protect their young and females from wolves by forming a protective circle around them. The males stand with their tails to the inside and their heads facing outward. Amphipathic substances such as soap form micelles. The hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails of the soap are turned to the inside of the micelle and the hydrophilic carboxylate heads are on the outside at the interface with the polar water molecules.

  17. High-frequency ultrasound-responsive block copolymer micelle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Pelletier, Maxime; Zhang, Hongji; Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2009-11-17

    Micelles of a diblock copolymer composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(2-tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PTHPMA) in aqueous solution could be disrupted by high-frequency ultrasound (1.1 MHz). It was found that, upon exposure to a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beam at room temperature, the pH value of the micellar solution decreased over irradiation time. The infrared spectroscopic analysis of solid block copolymer samples collected from the ultrasound irradiated micellar solution revealed the formation of carboxylic acid dimers and hydroxyl groups. These characterization results suggest that the high-frequency HIFU beam could induce the hydrolysis reaction of THPMA at room temperature resulting in the cleavage of THP groups. The disruption of PEO-b-PTHPMA micelles by ultrasound was investigated by using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the basis of the pH change, it was found that the disruption process was determined by a number of factors such as the ultrasound power, the micellar solution volume and the location of the focal spot of the ultrasound beam. This study shows the potential to develop ultrasound-sensitive block copolymer micelles by having labile chemical bonds in the polymer structure, and to use the high-frequency HIFU to trigger a chemical reaction for the disruption of micelles.

  18. RNA-based micelles: A novel platform for paclitaxel loading and delivery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Yin, Hongran; Rajabi, Mehdi; Li, Hui; Vieweger, Mario; Guo, Sijin; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2018-04-28

    RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures for biotechnological and biomedical applications. In addition to current self-assembly strategies utilizing base pairing, motif piling and tertiary interactions, we reported for the first time the formation of RNA based micellar nanoconstruct with a cholesterol molecule conjugated onto one helical end of a branched pRNA three-way junction (3WJ) motif. The resulting amphiphilic RNA micelles consist of a hydrophilic RNA head and a covalently linked hydrophobic lipid tail that can spontaneously assemble in aqueous solution via hydrophobic interaction. Taking advantage of pRNA 3WJ branched structure, the assembled RNA micelles are capable of escorting multiple functional modules. As a proof of concept for delivery for therapeutics, Paclitaxel was loaded into the RNA micelles with significantly improved water solubility. The successful construction of the drug loaded RNA micelles was confirmed and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and fluorescence Nile Red encapsulation assay. The estimate critical micelle formation concentration ranges from 39 nM to 78 nM. The Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles can internalize into cancer cells and inhibit their proliferation. Further studies showed that the Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles induced cancer cell apoptosis in a Caspase-3 dependent manner but RNA micelles alone exhibited low cytotoxicity. Finally, the Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles targeted to tumor in vivo without accumulation in healthy tissues and organs. There is also no or very low induction of pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, multivalence, cancer cell permeability, combined with controllable assembly, low or non toxic nature, and tumor targeting are all promising features that make our pRNA micelles a suitable platform for potential drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modular Design Features of a Peptide Amphiphile Micelle Vaccine Platform and Their Impact on an Immune Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John Christopher

    Inducing a strong and specific immune response is the hallmark of a successful vaccine. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising vaccine delivery devices to discover and elicit immune responses. Modular platforms are attractive for their engineerability and broad potential applications. Fine-tuning a nanoparticle vaccine to create an immune response with specific antibody and other cellular responses is influenced by many factors such as shape, size and composition. Peptide amphiphile micelles are a unique biomaterials platform that can function as a modular vaccine delivery system, enabling control over many of these important factors. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) consist of a hydrophilic peptide antigen conjugated to a hydrophobic lipid tail. The PAs then self-assemble into micelles, with the micelle characteristics determined by the chemical composition of the PA and micelle preparation methods. PA micelles contain a large design space, so it is important to have a basic understanding of how each design feature can affect the platform's interaction with the immune system. In this dissertation, the structure, composition, and biodistribution properties of PA micelles are evaluated for their ability to impact an immune response against a Group A Streptococcus B cell antigen (J8). Through structural design and physical characterization, micelles are shown to self-assemble into either short rod-like or long cylindrical shapes. Analyzing these shape effects on the immune response showed that cylindrical micelles induced higher antibody titers than rod-like micelles, providing evidence that the cylindrical micelle shape is important to induce immune responses and a possible mechanism of action. Shape was also seen to impact the activation profile of dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. Assembly into cylindrical micelles also stabilizes the secondary structure of peptide antigens, which may impact the immune response raised. In composition, the hydrophobic

  20. Antiviral activity of casein and αs2 casein hydrolysates against the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, a rhabdovirus from salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Saint-Jean, S; De las Heras, A; Carrillo, W; Recio, I; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Ramos, M; Gomez-Ruiz, J A; Sarasquete, C; Pérez-Prieto, S I

    2013-05-01

    Salmonid fish viruses, such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), are responsible for serious losses in the rainbow trout and salmon-farming industries, and they have been the subject of intense research in the field of aquaculture. Thus, the aim of this work is to study the antiviral effect of milk-derived proteins as bovine caseins or casein-derived peptides at different stages during the course of IHNV infection. The results indicate that the 3-h fraction of casein and α(S2) -casein hydrolysates reduced the yield of infectious IHNV in a dose-dependent manner and impaired the production of IHNV-specific antigens. Hydrolysates of total casein and α(S2) -casein target the initial and later stages of viral infection, as demonstrated by the reduction in the infective titre observed throughout multiple stages and cycles. In vivo, more than 50% protection was observed in the casein-treated fish, and the kidney sections exhibited none of the histopathological characteristics of IHNV infection. The active fractions from casein were identified, as well as one of the individual IHNV-inhibiting peptides. Further studies will be required to determine which other peptides possess this activity. These findings provide a basis for future investigations on the efficacy of these compounds in treating other viral diseases in farmed fish and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. However, the present results provide convincing evidence in support of a role for several milk casein fractions as suitable candidates to prevent and treat some fish viral infections. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Spherical harmonics analysis of surface density fluctuations of spherical ionic SDS and nonionic C12E8 micelles: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Noriyuki; Nimura, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Okazaki, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    The surface structure and its fluctuation of spherical micelles were investigated using a series of density correlation functions newly defined by spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials based on the molecular dynamics calculations. To investigate the influence of head-group charges on the micelle surface structure, ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate and nonionic octaethyleneglycol monododecylether (C12E8) micelles were investigated as model systems. Large-scale density fluctuations were observed for both micelles in the calculated surface static structure factor. The area compressibility of the micelle surface evaluated by the surface static structure factor was tens-of-times larger than a typical value of a lipid membrane surface. The structural relaxation time, which was evaluated from the surface intermediate scattering function, indicates that the relaxation mechanism of the long-range surface structure can be well described by the hydrostatic approximation. The density fluctuation on the two-dimensional micelle surface has similar characteristics to that of three-dimensional fluids near the critical point.

  2. Spherical harmonics analysis of surface density fluctuations of spherical ionic SDS and nonionic C12E8 micelles: A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Noriyuki; Nimura, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Okazaki, Susumu

    2017-07-21

    The surface structure and its fluctuation of spherical micelles were investigated using a series of density correlation functions newly defined by spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials based on the molecular dynamics calculations. To investigate the influence of head-group charges on the micelle surface structure, ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate and nonionic octaethyleneglycol monododecylether (C 12 E 8 ) micelles were investigated as model systems. Large-scale density fluctuations were observed for both micelles in the calculated surface static structure factor. The area compressibility of the micelle surface evaluated by the surface static structure factor was tens-of-times larger than a typical value of a lipid membrane surface. The structural relaxation time, which was evaluated from the surface intermediate scattering function, indicates that the relaxation mechanism of the long-range surface structure can be well described by the hydrostatic approximation. The density fluctuation on the two-dimensional micelle surface has similar characteristics to that of three-dimensional fluids near the critical point.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of the properties and structure of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles of various shapes in aqueous-salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, S. V.; Piotrovskaya, E. M.

    2006-08-01

    The thermodynamic and structural properties of spherical and cylindrical hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles in water and a solution of sodium benzoate were studied by the Monte Carlo method. The local densities of particles in the systems, orientations of benzoate ions, two-particle distribution functions, and the influence of sodium benzoate admixtures on the properties and structure of micellar solutions were studied.

  4. Polymeric microcapsules assembled from a cationic/zwitterionic pair of responsive block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Addison, Timothy; Cayre, Olivier J; Biggs, Simon; Armes, Steven P; York, David

    2010-05-04

    Using a layer-by-layer (LbL) approach, this work presents the preparation of hollow microcapsules with a membrane constructed entirely from a cationic/zwitterionic pair of pH-responsive block copolymer micelles. Our previous work with such systems highlighted that, in order to retain the responsive nature of the individual micelles contained within the multilayer membranes, it is important to optimize the conditions required for the selective dissolution of the sacrificial particulate templates. Consequently, here, calcium carbonate particles have been employed as colloidal templates as they can be easily dissolved in aqueous environments with the addition of chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Furthermore, the dissolution can be carried out in solutions buffered to a desirable pH so not to adversely affect the pH sensitive micelles forming the capsule membranes. First, we have deposited alternating layers of anionic poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-block-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)] (PDMA-PDEA) and cationic poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)methacrylate-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (PDEA-PMAA) copolymer micelles onto calcium carbonate colloidal templates. After deposition of five micelle bilayers, addition of dilute EDTA solution resulted in dissolution of the calcium carbonate and formation of hollow polymer capsules. The capsules were imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which shows that the micelle/micelle membrane is sufficiently robust to withstand dissolution of the supporting template. Quartz crystal microbalance studies were conducted and provide good evidence that the micelle multilayer structure is retained after EDTA treatment. In addition, a hydrophobic dye was incorporated into the micelle cores prior to adsorption. After dissolution of the particle template, the resulting hollow capsules retained a high concentration of dye, suggesting that the core

  5. RAMA casein zymography: Time-saving and highly sensitive casein zymography for MMP7 and trypsin.

    PubMed

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    To detect metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), zymography is conducted using a casein substrate and conventional CBB stain. It has disadvantages because it is time consuming and has low sensitivity. Previously, a sensitive method to detect MMP7 up to 30 pg was reported, however it required special substrates and complicated handlings. RAMA casein zymography described herein is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible. By applying high-sensitivity staining with low substrate conditions, the staining process is completed within 1 h and sensitivity was increased 100-fold. The method can detect 10 pg MMP7 by using commercially available casein without complicated handlings. Moreover, it increases detection sensitivity for trypsin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  7. Protein unfolding in detergents: effect of micelle structure, ionic strength, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Otzen, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    The 101-residue monomeric protein S6 unfolds in the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) above the critical micelle concentration, with unfolding rates varying according to two different modes. Our group has proposed that spherical micelles lead to saturation kinetics in unfolding (mode 1), while cylindrical micelles prevalent at higher SDS concentrations induce a power-law dependent increase in the unfolding rate (mode 2). Here I investigate in more detail how micellar properties affect protein unfolding. High NaCl concentrations, which induce cylindrical micelles, favor mode 2. This is consistent with our model, though other effects such as electrostatic screening cannot be discounted. Furthermore, unfolding does not occur in mode 2 in the cationic detergent LTAB, which is unable to form cylindrical micelles. A strong retardation of unfolding occurs at higher LTAB concentrations, possibly due to the formation of dead-end protein-detergent complexes. A similar, albeit much weaker, effect is seen in SDS in the absence of salt. Chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 exhibits the same modes of unfolding in SDS as S6, indicating that this type of protein unfolding is not specific for S6. The unfolding process in mode 1 has an activation barrier similar in magnitude to that in water, while the activation barrier in mode 2 is strongly concentration-dependent. The strong pH-dependence of unfolding in SDS and LTAB suggests that the rate of unfolding in anionic detergent is modulated by repulsion between detergent headgroups and anionic side chains, while cationic side chains modulate unfolding rates in cationic detergents. PMID:12324439

  8. Comparison between pre-exercise casein peptide and intact casein supplementation on glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yutaka; Tamura, Yuki; Sakata, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Yudai; Saito, Noriko; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Shimizu, Takashi; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Terada, Shin; Hatta, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We hypothesized that along with exercise, casein peptide supplementation would have a higher impact on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein. Male 6-week-old ICR mice were provided a high-fat diet to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. The mice were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (Con), endurance training (Tr), endurance training with intact casein supplementation (Cas+Tr), and endurance training with casein peptide supplementation (CP+Tr). The mice in each group were orally administrated water, intact casein, or casein peptide (1.0 mg/g body weight, every day), and then subjected to endurance training (15-25 m/min, 60 min, 5 times/week for 4 weeks) on a motor-driven treadmill 30 min after ingestion. Our results revealed that total intra-abdominal fat was significantly lower in CP+Tr than in Con (p < 0.05). Following an oral glucose tolerance test, the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was found to be significantly smaller for CP+Tr than for Con (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the soleus muscle, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels were significantly higher in CP+Tr than in Con (p < 0.01). However, intra-abdominal fat, blood glucose AUC, and GLUT4 protein content in the soleus muscle did not alter in Tr and Cas+Tr when compared with Con. These observations suggest that pre-exercise casein peptide supplementation has a higher effect on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein does in mice fed a high-fat diet.

  9. Structural model of the SARS coronavirus E channel in LMPG micelles.

    PubMed

    Surya, Wahyu; Li, Yan; Torres, Jaume

    2018-06-01

    Coronaviruses (CoV) cause common colds in humans, but are also responsible for the recent Severe Acute, and Middle East, respiratory syndromes (SARS and MERS, respectively). A promising approach for prevention are live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), some of which target the envelope (E) protein, which is a small membrane protein that forms ion channels. Unfortunately, detailed structural information is still limited for SARS-CoV E, and non-existent for other CoV E proteins. Herein, we report a structural model of a SARS-CoV E construct in LMPG micelles with, for the first time, unequivocal intermolecular NOEs. The model corresponding to the detergent-embedded region is consistent with previously obtained orientational restraints obtained in lipid bilayers and in vivo escape mutants. The C-terminal domain is mostly α-helical, and extramembrane intermolecular NOEs suggest interactions that may affect the TM channel conformation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and Dynamics of Highly PEG-ylated Sterically Stabilized Micelles in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, Lela; Khatib, Fatima A.; Drake, Stephanie P.; Madriaga, Antonett; Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Král, Petr; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2011-01-01

    Molecular assemblies of highly PEG-ylated phospholipids are important in many biomedical applications. We study sterically stabilized micelles (SSM) of self-assembled DSPE-PEG2000 in pure water and isotonic HEPES buffered saline solution. The observed SSM sizes of 2 – 15 nm largely depend on the solvent and the lipid concentration used. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of DSPE-PEG2000 is ≈ 10 times higher in water than in buffer and the viscosity of the dispersion dramatically increases with the lipid concentration. To explain the experimentally observed results, we perform atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated SSM. Our modeling reveal that the observed assemblies have very different aggregation numbers of Nagg ≈ 90 (saline solution) and Nagg < 8 (water), due to very different screening of their charged −PO4− groups. We also demonstrate that the micelle cores can inflate and their corona highly fluctuate, allowing thus storage and delivery of molecules with different chemistry. PMID:21780810

  11. Structure and dynamics of highly PEG-ylated sterically stabilized micelles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Lela; Khatib, Fatima A; Drake, Stephanie P; Madriaga, Antonett; Brandenburg, Kenneth S; Král, Petr; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2011-08-31

    Molecular assemblies of highly PEG-ylated phospholipids are important in many biomedical applications. We have studied sterically stabilized micelles (SSMs) of self-assembled DSPE–PEG2000 in pure water and isotonic HEPES-buffered saline solution. The observed SSM sizes of 2–15 nm largely depend on the solvent and the lipid concentration used. The critical micelle concentration of DSPE–PEG2000 is 10 times higher in water than in buffer, and the viscosity of the dispersion dramatically increases with the lipid concentration. To explain the experimentally observed results, we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of solvated SSMs. Our modeling revealed that the observed assemblies have very different aggregation numbers (N(agg) ≈ 90 in saline solution and N(agg) < 8 in water) because of very different screening of their charged PO4(–) groups. We also demonstrate that the micelle cores can inflate and their coronas can fluctuate strongly, thus allowing storage and delivery of molecules with different chemistries.

  12. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Micelles (ION-Micelles) for Sensitive (Molecular) Magnetic Particle Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Starmans, Lucas W. E.; Burdinski, Dirk; Haex, Nicole P. M.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas; Grüll, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. Methods and Results IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles). Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS) measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem) and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles) bound to blood clots. Conclusions The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular) MPI and warrants further investigation of the FibPep-ION-Micelle platform for

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles) for sensitive (molecular) magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Starmans, Lucas W E; Burdinski, Dirk; Haex, Nicole P M; Moonen, Rik P M; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nicolay, Klaas; Grüll, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles). Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS) measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem) and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles) bound to blood clots. The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular) MPI and warrants further investigation of the FibPep-ION-Micelle platform for in vivo, non-invasive imaging of fibrin in

  15. Chain exchange in triblock copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Block polymer micelles offer a host of technological applications including drug delivery, viscosity modification, toughening of plastics, and colloidal stabilization. Molecular exchange between micelles directly influences the stability, structure and access to an equilibrium state in such systems and this property recently has been shown to be extraordinarily sensitive to the core block molecular weight in diblock copolymers. The dependence of micelle chain exchange dynamics on molecular architecture has not been reported. The present work conclusively addresses this issue using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS) applied to complimentary S-EP-S and EP-S-EP triblock copolymers dissolved in squalane, a selective solvent for the EP blocks, where S and EP refer to poly(styrene) and poly(ethylenepropylene), respectively. Following the overall SANS intensity as a function of time from judiciously deuterium labelled polymer and solvent mixtures directly probes the rate of molecular exchange. Remarkably, the two triblocks display exchange rates that differ by approximately ten orders of magnitude, even though the solvophobic S blocks are of comparable size. This discovery is considered in the context of a model that successfully explains S-EP diblock exchange dynamics.

  16. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  17. Polymer Micelles with Cross-Linked Polyanion Core for Delivery of a Cationic Drug Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores were prepared by using block ionomer complexes of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) copolymer and divalent metal cations as templates. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline anticancer drug, was successfully incorporated into the ionic cores of such micelles via electrostatic interactions. A substantial drug loading level (up to 50 w/w %) was achieved and it was strongly dependent on the structure of the cross-linked micelles and pH. The drug-loaded micelles were stable in aqueous dispersions exhibiting no aggregation or precipitation for a prolonged period of time. The DOX-loaded polymer micelles exhibited noticeable pH-sensitive behavior with accelerated release of DOX in acidic environment due to the protonation of carboxylic groups in the cores of the micelles. The attempt to protect the DOX-loaded core with the polycationic substances resulted in the decrease of loading efficacy and had a slight effect on the release characteristics of the micelles. The DOX-loaded polymer micelles exhibited a potent cytotoxicity against human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. These results point to a potential of novel polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores to be attractive carriers for the delivery of DOX. PMID:19386272

  18. Multifunctional polymeric micelles for delivery of drugs and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Aditi M.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric micelles, self-assembling nano-constructs of amphiphilic copolymers with a core-shell structure have been used as versatile carriers for delivery of drugs as well as nucleic acids. They have gained immense popularity owing to a host of favorable properties including their capacity to effectively solubilize a variety of poorly soluble pharmaceutical agents, biocompatibility, longevity, high stability in vitro and in vivo and the ability to accumulate in pathological areas with compromised vasculature. Moreover, additional functions can be imparted to these micelles by engineering their surface with various ligands and cell-penetrating moieties to allow for specific targeting and intracellular accumulation, respectively, to load them with contrast agents to confer imaging capabilities, and incorporating stimuli-sensitive groups that allow drug release in response to small changes in the environment. Recently, there has been an increasing trend toward designing polymeric micelles which integrate a number of the above functions into a single carrier to give rise to “smart,” multifunctional polymeric micelles. Such multifunctional micelles can be envisaged as key to improving the efficacy of current treatments which have seen a steady increase not only in hydrophobic small molecules, but also in biologics including therapeutic genes, antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the development of multifunctional polymeric micelles specifically for delivery of drugs and siRNA. In spite of the tremendous potential of siRNA, its translation into clinics has been a significant challenge because of physiological barriers to its effective delivery and the lack of safe, effective and clinically suitable vehicles. To that end, we also discuss the potential and suitability of multifunctional polymeric micelles, including lipid-based micelles, as promising vehicles for both siRNA and drugs. PMID:24795633

  19. Effect of Fatty acids and beeswax addition on properties of sodium caseinate dispersions and films.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Jiménez, A; Atarés, L; Talens, P; Chiralt, A

    2009-06-08

    Edible films based on sodium caseinate and different saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, or beeswax were formulated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, rheological behavior and surface tension. In order to evaluate the influence of lipids on sodium caseinate matrices, mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties were studied, taking into account the effect of water content and film structure on such properties. Saturated fatty acids affected the film properties in a particular way due to the formation of bilayer structures which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to nonflexible and more opaque films. Oleic acid and beeswax were less effective as water vapor barriers, although the former imparted more flexibility to the caseinate films and did not reduce the film transparency notably.

  20. Water dynamics in large and small reverse micelles: From two ensembles to collective behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, David E.; Fenn, Emily E.; Wong, Daryl; Fayer, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of water in Aerosol-OT reverse micelles are investigated with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch. In large reverse micelles, the dynamics of water are separable into two ensembles: slow interfacial water and bulklike core water. As the reverse micelle size decreases, the slowing effect of the interface and the collective nature of water reorientation begin to slow the dynamics of the core water molecules. In the smallest reverse micelles, these effects dominate and all water molecules have the same long time reorientational dynamics. To understand and characterize the transition in the water dynamics from two ensembles to collective reorientation, polarization and frequency selective infrared pump-probe experiments are conducted on the complete range of reverse micelle sizes from a diameter of 1.6–20 nm. The crossover between two ensemble and collective reorientation occurs near a reverse micelle diameter of 4 nm. Below this size, the small number of confined water molecules and structural changes in the reverse micelle interface leads to homogeneous long time reorientation. PMID:19586114

  1. Complexation of sodium caseinate with gum tragacanth: Effect of various species and rheology of coacervates.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Gorji, Sara; Ghorbani Gorji, Elham; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2014-06-01

    We investigated complex coacervation of sodium caseinate/Astragalus rahensis (A.r) as a function of pH with light scattering, spectrophotometry, and viscosity measurements. Interestingly, sodium caseinate/A.r displayed five structural transitions; pH 7.00 to pH ∼5.40: no interaction occurred, pH ∼5.40 to pH ∼4.80: initiation of the formation of primary soluble complexes, pH ∼4.80 to ∼4.30: formation of interpolymer complexes, pH ∼4.30 to ∼4.02: optimum coacervation and pH ∼4.02 to ∼2.50: suppression of coacervation. In addition, rheological properties of sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates were studied at various pH values. A much higher storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″) for all sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates suggests the formation of highly interconnected gel-like network structures with mainly elastic behaviour. Moreover, sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates at all pH values exhibited a shear thinning behaviour across the entire shear rate range investigated. Effects of different species of gum tragacanth on the interactions with sodium caseinate have been scarcely studied. Our study showed that systems containing various species (A.r, soluble fraction of A.r and Astragalus gossypinus (A.g)) had different critical pH values and particle sizes during complex coacervation, which could be due to different ratio of soluble to insoluble fractions and uronic acid content of various species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High pressure stability of protein complexes studied by static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    The high pressure dissociation of hemocyanin prepared from the lobster Homarus americanus and casein micelles from cow milk were observed by in situ light scattering. The hemocyanin dodecamer dissociated via a hexamer into monomers in a two-step three-species reaction. The influence of ligands and the effector l-lactate on the dissociation behavior was investigated. While no effect by carbon monoxide after exchanging the ligand oxygen was observed, the addition of the effector l-lactate led to a decrease in the pressure stability. Due to a trimer intermediate which was found to be stabilized by l-lactate, the dissociation reaction in the presence of the effector was analyzed by a three-step four-species reaction. In the case of casein micelles, a two-step dissociation mechanism was found. The stabilizing interactions of casein micelles were identified and separated.

  3. A folate-integrated magnetic polymer micelle for MRI and dual targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Lijiao; Wang, Bi; Liu, Peng; Huang, Liang; Yue, Caixia; Gao, Duyang; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Wu

    2014-08-01

    This paper devotes a novel micellar structure for cancer theranostics by incorporating magnetic and therapeutic functionalities into a natural sourced targeting polymer vehicle. Heparin-folic acid micelles taking advantage of both excellent loading capability and cancer targeting ability have been employed to simultaneously incorporate superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and doxorubicin through an ultrasonication-assisted microemulsion method. In this system, folic acids not only take the responsibility of micelle construction, but also facilitate cellular uptake due to their specific reorganization by MCF-7 cells over-expressing folate receptors. The obtained micelles exhibit good colloidal stability, a high magnetic content, considerable drug loading and sustained in vitro drug release. These clustered SPIONs exhibited high r2 relaxivity (243.65 mM-1 s-1) and further served as efficient probes for MR imaging. Notably, the transport efficiency of these micelles could be significantly improved under an external magnetic field, owing to their quick magnetic response. As a result, the as-proposed micelle shows great potential in multimodal theranostics, including active targeting, MRI diagnosis and drug delivery.This paper devotes a novel micellar structure for cancer theranostics by incorporating magnetic and therapeutic functionalities into a natural sourced targeting polymer vehicle. Heparin-folic acid micelles taking advantage of both excellent loading capability and cancer targeting ability have been employed to simultaneously incorporate superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and doxorubicin through an ultrasonication-assisted microemulsion method. In this system, folic acids not only take the responsibility of micelle construction, but also facilitate cellular uptake due to their specific reorganization by MCF-7 cells over-expressing folate receptors. The obtained micelles exhibit good colloidal stability, a high magnetic content

  4. Stabilized micelles as delivery vehicles for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Calleja, Patricia; Agüeros, Maite; Petrov, Petar; Miladinova, Ivanka; Tsvetanov, Christo; Irache, Juan M

    2012-10-15

    Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic drug used against a variety of tumors, but its low aqueous solubility and active removal caused by P-glycoprotein in the intestinal cells hinder its oral administration. In our study, new type of stabilized Pluronic micelles were developed and evaluated as carriers for paclitaxel delivery via oral or intravenous route. The pre-stabilized micelles were loaded with paclitaxel by simple solvent/evaporation technique achieving high encapsulation efficiency of approximately 70%. Gastrointestinal transit of the developed micelles was evaluated by oral administration of rhodamine-labeled micelles in rats. Our results showed prolonged gastrointestinal residence of the marker encapsulated into micelles, compared to a solution containing free marker. Further, the oral administration of micelles in mice showed high area under curve of micellar paclitaxel (similar to the area of i.v. Taxol(®)), longer mean residence time (9-times longer than i.v. Taxol(®)) and high distribution volume (2-fold higher than i.v. Taxol(®)) indicating an efficient oral absorption of paclitaxel delivered by micelles. Intravenous administration of micelles also showed a significant improvement of pharmacokinetic parameters of micellar paclitaxel vs. Taxol(®), in particular higher area under curve (1.2-fold), 5-times longer mean residence time and lower clearance, indicating longer systemic circulation of the micelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microfibres and macroscopic films from the coordination-driven hierarchical self-assembly of cylindrical micelles

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, David J.; Gould, Oliver E. C.; Whittell, George R.; Armstrong, Daniel P.; Mineart, Kenneth P.; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Spontak, Richard J.; Pringle, Paul G.; Manners, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic nanoparticles prepared from block copolymers are of growing importance as building blocks for the creation of synthetic hierarchical materials. However, the assembly of these structural units is generally limited to the use of amphiphilic interactions. Here we report a simple, reversible coordination-driven hierarchical self-assembly strategy for the preparation of micron-scale fibres and macroscopic films based on monodisperse cylindrical block copolymer micelles. Coordination of Pd(0) metal centres to phosphine ligands immobilized within the soluble coronas of block copolymer micelles is found to induce intermicelle crosslinking, affording stable linear fibres comprised of micelle subunits in a staggered arrangement. The mean length of the fibres can be varied by altering the micelle concentration, reaction stoichiometry or aspect ratio of the micelle building blocks. Furthermore, the fibres aggregate on drying to form robust, self-supporting macroscopic micelle-based thin films with useful mechanical properties that are analogous to crosslinked polymer networks, but on a longer length scale. PMID:27538877

  6. Bile Salt Mediated Growth of Reverse Wormlike Micelles in Nonpolar Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Huang; Huang, Yi-En; Raghavan, Srinivasa

    2006-03-01

    We report the growth of reverse wormlike micelles induced by the addition of a bile salt in trace amounts to solutions of the phospholipid, lecithin in nonpolar organic solvents. Previous recipes for reverse wormlike micelles have usually required the addition of water to induce reverse micellar growth; here, we show that bile salts, due to their unique ``facially amphiphilic'' structure, can play a role analogous to water and promote the longitudinal aggregation of lecithin molecules into reverse micellar chains. The formation of transient entangled networks of these reverse micelles transforms low-viscosity lecithin organosols into strongly viscoelastic fluids. The zero-shear viscosity increases by more than five orders of magnitude, and it is the molar ratio of bile salt to lecithin that controls this viscosity enhancement. The growth of reverse wormlike micelles is also confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on these fluids.

  7. Charged triblock copolymer self-assembly into charged micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingchao; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Jiahua; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin; Department of Material Science; Engineering University of Delaware Team; Department of Chemistry Texas A&M University Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Micelles were formed through the self-assembly of amphiphlic block copolymer poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA-PMA-PS). ~Importantly, the polymer is complexed with diamine molecules in pure THF solution prior to water titration solvent processing-a critical aspect in the control of final micelle geometry. The addition of diamine triggers acid-base complexation ~between the carboxylic acid PAA side chains and amines. ~Remarkably uniform spheres were found to form close-packed patterns when forced into dried films and thin, solvated films when an excess of amine was used in the polymer assembly process. Surface properties and structural features of these hexagonal-packed spherical micelles with charged corona have been explored by various characterization methods including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM, z-potential analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering. The forming mechanism for this pattern and morphology changes against external stimulate such as salt will be discussed.

  8. Supramolecular "Step Polymerization" of Preassembled Micelles: A Study of "Polymerization" Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chaoying; Ma, Xiaodong; Lin, Jiaping; Wang, Liquan; Lu, Yingqing; Zhang, Liangshun; Cai, Chunhua; Gao, Liang

    2018-03-01

    In nature, sophisticated functional materials are created through hierarchical self-assembly of nanoscale motifs, which has inspired the fabrication of man-made materials with complex architectures for a variety of applications. Herein, a kinetic study on the self-assembly of spindle-like micelles preassembled from polypeptide graft copolymers is reported. The addition of dimethylformamide and, subsequently, a selective solvent (water) can generate a "reactive point" at both ends of the spindles as a result of the existence of structural defects, which induces the "polymerization" of the spindles into nanowires. Experimental results combined with dissipative particle dynamics simulations show that the polymerization of the micellar subunits follows a step-growth polymerization mechanism with a second-order reaction characteristic. The assembly rate of the micelles is dependent on the subunit concentration and on the activity of the reactive points. The present work reveals a law governing the self-assembly kinetics of micelles with structural defects and opens the door for the construction of hierarchical structures with a controllable size through supramolecular step polymerization. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers using living, crystallization-driven polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Gädt, Torben; Ieong, Nga Sze; Cambridge, Graeme; Winnik, Mitchell A; Manners, Ian

    2009-02-01

    Block copolymers consist of two or more chemically distinct polymer segments, or blocks, connected by a covalent link. In a selective solvent for one of the blocks, core-corona micelle structures are formed. We demonstrate that living polymerizations driven by the epitaxial crystallization of a core-forming metalloblock represent a synthetic tool that can be used to generate complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers. The use of platelet micelles as initiators enables the formation of scarf-like architectures in which cylindrical micelle tassels of controlled length are grown from specific crystal faces. A similar process enables the fabrication of brushes of cylindrical micelles on a crystalline homopolymer substrate. Living polymerizations driven by heteroepitaxial growth can also be accomplished and are illustrated by the formation of tri- and pentablock and scarf architectures with cylinder-cylinder and platelet-cylinder connections, respectively, that involve different core-forming metalloblocks.

  10. Noncovalent fabrication and tunable fusion of block copolymer-giant polyoxometalate hybrid micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Haolong; Wu, Lixin

    2014-09-21

    The block copolymers (BCs), as structure-directing agents, co-assembling with nanoscale inorganic additives is an important route to fabricate nanostructured hybrid materials. In this work, we present a facile approach to fabricate hybrid micelles composed of BCs and polyoxometalates (POMs), in which the POM clusters are premodified with the groups that can specifically interact with a certain BC block. A representative POM (NH4)42[Mo(132)O(372)(CH(3)COO)(30)(H2O)72] (Mo(132)) is chosen as the example and encapsulated with cationic molecules containing carboxyphenyl groups through electrostatic interactions, and then the resulting hybrid complex can further co-assemble with poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) through hydrogen bonding with the pyridine groups, which leads to the formation of hybrid micelles and the localization of Mo(132) in the micelle cores. The micelles exhibit a high stability despite time and dilution. Furthermore, the fusion of the micelles can be readily adjusted by varying the length of PS blocks, which is promising to be used in constructing polymer-POM hybrid materials with discrete or continuous hybrid domains. This work is based on the electrostatic premodification of POMs and thus its concept is generally suitable for the whole anionic POM system, which may create a large class of BC-POM nanocomposites with tunable structures.

  11. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic Growth of Giant Wormlike Micelles in Ternary Mixed Surfactant Solutions: Effect of Octanoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Gergana S; Anachkov, Svetoslav E; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Koynov, Kaloian; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2016-12-06

    The synergistic growth of giant wormlike micelles in ternary mixed solutions composed of an anionic surfactant (sodium laurylethersulfate, SLES), a zwitterionic surfactant (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB), and octanoic acid (HC8) is studied. Rheological data and their analysis in terms of Cole-Cole plots and micellar characteristic times are presented, and the micellar structures behind the observed rheological behavior are revealed by cryo-TEM micrographs. The surfactant composition is fixed near the maximal micelle size of the binary SLES + CAPB system, whereas the concentration of HC8 is varied. At a given HC8 concentration, the viscosity of the ternary micellar solutions exhibits a very high and sharp peak. Polarized-light optical microscopy indicates that all investigated solutions are isotropic rather than liquid-crystalline. The cryo-TEM imaging shows complex phase behavior: wormlike micelles to the left of the peak, giant entangled wormlike micelles at the peak, and long wormlike micelles coexisting with multiconnected micellar aggregates to the right of the peak. The formation of multiconnected micelles leads to a drop in viscosity at the higher concentrations. The results contribute to a better understanding of the structure-rheology relations in micellar surfactant solutions and could be useful for controlling the properties of formulations in personal-care and house-hold detergency.

  13. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  14. Determination of molecular weight of a purified fraction of colloidal calcium phosphate derived from the casein micelles of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2011-07-01

    Colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) plays a key role in the formation and integrity of casein (CN) micelles. However, limited information is available on the molecular weight (M(w)) of CCP. Recently, we theoretically derived the M(w) of CCP and the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine the M(w) of CCP. We used 2 methods to prepare CCP fractions: skim milk was enzymatically digested with either trypsin or a combination of papain and proteinase enzymes to remove most CN. The CN phosphopeptides are resistant to trypsin hydrolysis. Digestion was carried out in a membrane tube that was dialyzed against the same bulk milk used in sample preparation to remove small peptides and to minimize perturbation of CCP. After digestion, the protein contents of the enzyme-treated milks were 0.92 and 0.36% for the trypsin and papain-proteinase treatments, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography, coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering, was used to separate the CCP-phosphopeptide fraction from the digested mixture. Simulated milk ultrafiltrate was used as a mobile phase during size-exclusion chromatography separation to try to preserve the integrity of CCP. Size-exclusion chromatography peaks, which had higher Ca and P contents than the baseline, were identified as the likely fractions containing the phosphopeptide-stabilized CCP; this peak eluted with retention times of 100 to approximately 110 min for trypsinated samples. The papain-proteinase treatment caused excessive loss of CN that were needed to stabilize CCP, which resulted in no obvious peak that had elevated Ca and P contents. Debye plots at these retention times indicated that the weight-average M(w) for the fraction prepared by trypsin was 17,450 g/mol. Attempts to estimate the M(w) of the phosphopeptides associated with CCP using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE were not successful, as we did not observe any peptide bands in these gels, presumably because of their low concentration in the isolated

  15. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  16. Multiseed liposomal drug delivery system using micelle gradient as driving force to improve amphiphilic drug retention and its anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Caibin; Jin, Ya; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Zhiyu; Shaw, John P; Baguley, Bruce C; Wu, Zimei; Liu, Jianping

    2018-11-01

    To improve drug retention in carriers for amphiphilic asulacrine (ASL), a novel active loading method using micelle gradient was developed to fabricate the ASL-loaded multiseed liposomes (ASL-ML). The empty ML were prepared by hydrating a thin film with empty micelles. Then the micelles in liposomal compartment acting as 'micelle pool' drove the drug to be loaded after the outer micelles were removed. Some reasoning studies including critical micelle concentration (CMC) determination, influencing factors tests on entrapment efficiency (EE), structure visualization, and drug release were carried out to explore the mechanism of active loading, ASL location, and the structure of ASL-ML. Comparisons were made between pre-loading and active loading method. Finally, the extended drug retention capacity of ML was evaluated through pharmacokinetic, drug tissue irritancy, and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies. Comprehensive results from fluorescent and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, encapsulation efficiency (EE) comparison, and release studies demonstrated the formation of ML-shell structure for ASL-ML without inter-carrier fusion. The location of drug mainly in inner micelles as well as the superiority of post-loading to the pre-loading method , in which drug in micelles shifted onto the bilayer membrane was an additional positive of this delivery system. It was observed that the drug amphiphilicity and interaction of micelles with drug were the two prerequisites for this active loading method. The extended retention capacity of ML has been verified through the prolonged half-life, reduced paw-lick responses in rats, and enhanced tumor inhibition in model mice. In conclusion, ASL-ML prepared by active loading method can effectively load drug into micelles with expected structure and improve drug retention.

  17. Short communication: milk protein genetic variation and casein haplotype structure in the Original Pinzgauer cattle.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Rizzi, R; Lühken, G; Erhardt, G

    2010-03-01

    Milk protein genetic polymorphisms are often used for characterizing domesticated mammalian species and breeds, and for studying associations with economic traits. The aim of this work was to analyze milk protein genetic variation in the Original Pinzgauer, a dual-purpose (dairy and beef) cattle breed of European origin that was influenced in the past by human movements from different regions as well as by crossbreeding with Red Holstein. A total of 485 milk samples from Original Pinzgauer from Austria (n=275) and Germany (n=210) were typed at milk proteins alpha(S1)-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin by isoelectrofocusing to analyze the genetic variation affecting the protein amino acid charge. The Original Pinzgauer breed is characterized by a rather high genetic variation affecting the amino acid charge of milk proteins, with a total of 15 alleles, 12 of which were found at a frequency >0.05. The most polymorphic protein was beta-casein with 4 alleles detected. The prevalent alleles were CSN1S1*B, CSN2*A(2), CSN1S2*A, CSN3*A, LGB*A, and LAA*B. A relatively high frequency of CSN1S2*B (0.202 in the whole data set) was found, mainly occurring within the C-A(2)-B-A haplotype (in the order CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3), which seems to be peculiar to the Original Pinzgauer, possibly because the survival of an ancestral haplotype or the introgression of Bos indicus.

  18. Conformational transition of κ-casein in micellar environment: Insight from the tryptophan fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Smruti; Meher, Geetanjali; Chakraborty, Hirak

    2017-11-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are under intense analysis due to their structural flexibility and importance in biological functions. Minuscule modulation in the microenvironment induces significant conformational changes in IDPs, and these non-native conformations of the IDPs often induce aggregation and cause cell death. Changes in the membrane composition often change the microenvironment, which promote conformational change and aggregation of IDPs. κ-Casein, an important milk protein, belongs to the class of IDPs containing net negative charges. In this present work, we have studied the interaction of κ-casein with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a positively charged surfactant, utilizing various steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results clearly indicate that κ-casein undergoes at least two conformational transitions in presence of various concentrations of CTAB. The intrinsically disordered κ-casein assumes a partially folded conformation at lower concentration of CTAB, which adopts an unstructured conformation at higher concentration of CTAB. The partially folded conformation of κ-casein at a lower CTAB concentration might be induced by the favorable electrostatic interaction between the positively charged surfactant headgroup and net negative charges of the protein, whereas surfactant nature of CTAB is being pronounced at higher concentration of CTAB.

  19. Modeling micelle formation and interfacial properties with iSAFT classical density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Haghmoradi, Amin; Liu, Jinlu; Xi, Shun; Hirasaki, George J.; Miller, Clarence A.; Chapman, Walter G.

    2017-03-01

    Surfactants reduce the interfacial tension between phases, making them an important additive in a number of industrial and commercial applications from enhanced oil recovery to personal care products (e.g., shampoo and detergents). To help obtain a better understanding of the dependence of surfactant properties on molecular structure, a classical density functional theory, also known as interfacial statistical associating fluid theory, has been applied to study the effects of surfactant architecture on micelle formation and interfacial properties for model nonionic surfactant/water/oil systems. In this approach, hydrogen bonding is explicitly included. To minimize the free energy, the system minimizes interactions between hydrophobic components and hydrophilic components with water molecules hydrating the surfactant head group. The theory predicts micellar structure, effects of surfactant architecture on critical micelle concentration, aggregation number, and interfacial tension isotherm of surfactant/water systems in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, this model is applied to study swollen micelles and reverse swollen micelles that are necessary to understand the formation of a middle-phase microemulsion.

  20. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  1. EPR spin probe and spin label studies of some low molecular and polymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Timofeev, V. P.

    1998-12-01

    The rotational mobility of spin probes of different shape and size in low molecular and polymer micelles has been studied. Several probes having nitroxide fragment localized either in the vicinity of micelle interface or in the hydrocarbon core have been used. Upon increasing the number of carbon atoms in hydrocarbon chain of detergent from 7 to 13 (sodium alkyl sulfate micelles) or from 12 to 16 (alkyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles) the rotational mobility of spin probes is decreased by the factor 1.5-2.0. The spin probe rotational mobility in polymer micelles (the complexes of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides and polymethacrylic or polyacrylic acids) is less than mobility in free micelles of the same surfactants. The study of EPR-spectra of spin labeled polymethacrylic acid (PMA) indicated that formation of water soluble complexes of polymer and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in alkaline solutions (pH 9) does not affect the polymer segmental mobility. On the other hand, the polymer complexes formation in slightly acidic water solution (pH 6) breaks down the compact PMA conformation, thus increasing the polymer segmental mobility. Possible structures of polymer micelles are discussed.

  2. Apical-to-basolateral transepithelial transport of cow's milk caseins by intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers: MS-based quantitation of cellularly degraded α- and β-casein fragments.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nao; Nishio, Shunsuke; Akiyama, Yuka; Miyata, Shinji; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2018-02-27

    Casein is the major milk protein to nourish infants but, in certain population, it causes cow's milk allergy, indicating the uptake of antigenic casein and their peptides through the intestinal epithelium. Using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apical-to-basal transepithelial transport of casein was investigated. Confocal microscopy using component-specific antibodies showed that αs1-casein antigens became detectable as punctate signals at the apical-side cytoplasm and reached to the cytoplasm at a tight-junction level within a few hours. Such intracellular casein signals were more remarkable than those of the other antigens, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, colocalized in part with an early endosome marker protein, EEA1, and decreased in the presence of cytochalasin D or sodium azide and also at lowered temperature at 4 °C. LC-MS analysis of the protein fraction in the basal-side medium identified the αs1-casein fragment including the N-terminal region and the αs2-casein fragment containing the central part of polypeptide at 100∼1000 fmol per well levels. Moreover, β-casein C-terminal overlapping peptides were identified in the peptide fraction below 10 kDa of the basal medium. These results suggest that caseins are partially degraded by cellular proteases and/or peptidases and immunologically active casein fragments are transported to basal side of the cell monolayers.

  3. Impact of casein gel microstructure on self-diffusion coefficient of molecular probes measured by 1H PFG-NMR.

    PubMed

    Le Feunteun, Steven; Mariette, François

    2007-12-26

    The translational dynamics of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers with molecular weights (Mw) varying from 6x10(2) to 5x10(5) were investigated by pulsed field gradient NMR in casein suspensions and in gels induced by acidification, enzyme action, and a combination of both. For molecules with Mwcasein concentration whatever the molecular weight of the probe or the sample studied. However, for PEG with Mw>or=8000, there was strong dependence of diffusion on PEG size and on the casein network structure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy images. The diffusion coefficients of the two largest PEGs were increased after coagulation by amounts that depended on the internal structure of the gel. In addition, the 527,000 g/mol PEG was found to deviate from Gaussian diffusion behavior to greater or lesser extents according to the casein concentration and the sample microstructure. The results are discussed in terms of network rearrangements.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo delivery of curcumin by copolymeric mPEG-PCL micelles.

    PubMed

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Parisa; Malvandi, Hojjat; Mousavi, Mir Sajjad; Attari, Elahe; Danafar, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been associated with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability. To progress the bioavailability and water solubility of CUR, we synthesized five series of mono methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock copolymers. The structure of the copolymers was characterized by H NMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. In this study, CUR was encapsulated within micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to formation of CUR-loaded mPEG-PCL (CUR/mPEG-PCL) micelles. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytotoxicity of void CUR, mPEG-PCL and CUR/mPEG-PCL micelles was compared to each other by performing MTT assay of the treated MCF-7 and 4T1 cell line. Study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded micelles was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations. The results showed that the zeta potential of CUR-loaded micelles was about -11.5mV and the average size was 81.0nm. CUR was encapsulated into mPEG-PCL micelles with loading capacity of 20.65±0.015% and entrapment efficiency of 89.32±0.34%. The plasma AUC (0-t), t 1/2 and C max of CUR micelles were increased by 52.8, 4.63 and 7.51-fold compared to the CUR solution, respectively. In vivo results showed that multiple injections of CUR-loaded micelles could prolong the circulation time and increase the therapeutic efficacy of CUR. These results suggested that mPEG-PCL micelles would be a potential carrier for CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure formation of lipid membranes: Membrane self-assembly and vesicle opening-up to octopus-like micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    We briefly review our recent studies on self-assembly and vesicle rupture of lipid membranes using coarse-grained molecular simulations. For single component membranes, lipid molecules self-assemble from random gas states to vesicles via disk-shaped clusters. Clusters aggregate into larger clusters, and subsequently the large disks close into vesicles. The size of vesicles are determined by kinetics than by thermodynamics. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle called bicelle can be formed. When both surfactants have negligibly low critical micelle concentration, it is found that bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and spontaneous curvature of the membrane monolayer.

  6. Short communication: Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate modulates enteric nervous system development in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Cossais, F; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P C; Klempt, M

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins. Several casein-derived hydrolysates presenting immunomodulatory properties have been described recently. Furthermore, accumulating data indicate that milk-derived hydrolysate can enhance gut maturation and enrichment of milk formula with such hydrolysates has recently been proposed. However, the capability of milk-derived bioactive hydrolysate to target ENS maturation has not been analyzed so far. We, therefore, investigated the potential of a recently described tryptic β-casein hydrolysate to modulate ENS growth parameters in an in vitro model of rat primary culture of ENS. Rat primary cultures of ENS were incubated with a bioactive tryptic β-casein hydrolysate and compared with untreated controls or to cultures treated with native β-casein or a Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate (Lyven, Colombelles, France). Differentiation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells, and establishment of enteric neural network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Effect of tryptic β-casein hydrolysate on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)/Smad pathway, an essential regulator of ENS development, was further assessed using quantitative PCR and immunochemistry. Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate stimulated neurite outgrowth and simultaneously modulated the formation of enteric ganglia-like structures, whereas native β-casein or Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate did not. Additionally, treatment with tryptic bioactive β-casein

  7. Design strategy of pH-sensitive triblock copolymer micelles for efficient cellular uptake by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiang-sheng; Ding, Hong-ming; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2018-03-01

    Efficient delivery of nanoparticles into specific cell interiors is of great importance in biomedicine. Recently, the pH-responsive micelle has emerged as one potential nanocarrier to realize such purpose since there exist obvious pH differences between normal tissues and tumors. Herein, by using dissipative particle dynamics simulation, we investigate the interaction of the pH-sensitive triblock copolymer micelles composed of ligand (L), hydrophobic block (C) and polyelectrolyte block (P) with cell membrane. It is found that the structure rearrangement of the micelle can facilitate its penetration into the lower leaflet of the bilayer. However, when the ligand-receptor specific interaction is weak, the micelles may just fuse with the upper leaflet of the bilayer. Moreover, the ionization degree of polyelectrolyte block and the length of hydrophobic block also play a vital role in the penetration efficiency. Further, when the sequence of the L, P, C beads in the copolymers is changed, the translocation pathways of the micelles may change from direct penetration to Janus engulfment. The present study reveals the relationship between the molecular structure of the copolymer and the uptake of the pH-sensitive micelles, which may give some significant insights into the experimental design of responsive micellar nanocarriers for highly efficient cellular delivery.

  8. THE ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF SPLIT PRODUCTS OF CASEIN

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frederick P.; Robertson, T. Brailsford

    1912-01-01

    We draw the following conclusions from our experiments on the antigenic properties of chemically pure casein and some of its split products. Casein and paranuclein have distinct antigenic properties, particularly as shown by their ability to sensitize guinea pigs for subsequent anaphylactic intoxication by each other or by milk. This sensitizing ability and a corresponding ability to intoxicate are indistinguishably equivalent, under the conditions employed. On immunizing rabbits by repeated injections of paranuclein or of casein, and subsequently testing their sera for precipitins and fixation antibodies, it was found that casein apparently produces them much more readily, giving an antiserum that reacted (fixation) in very high dilution with casein (0.000,000,1 of a 1 per cent. solution), but much less strongly with paranuclein. Only one of two antiparanuclein sera showed the presence of antibodies to paranuclein by the delicate fixation reaction, and that in relatively small amounts. The two antibodies to casein and to paranuclein are, in the case of casein quantitatively, and in the case of paranuclein absolutely specific. A solution of the products of complete peptic digestion of casein fails to sensitize to paranuclein and gives no fixation reaction with an anticasein or antiparanuclein serum. It intoxicates animals sensitized to paranuclein but no more markedly than it does normal animals. It also fails to show specific intoxication in an animal that has been sensitized by the same substance. The amino acids, glutamic acid, and leucin, the principal components of their kind in casein, and in the same proportion therein present, likewise failed to show antigenic properties. They do not sensitize animals to milk intoxication or to intoxication by themselves, and likewise failed to produce precipitins in rabbits in a preliminary experiment. These experiments are regarded as a fairly systematic analysis of the antigenic properties of split products of a single

  9. Light Scattering Study of Mixed Micelles Made from Elastin-Like Polypeptide Linear Chains and Trimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrano, Daniel; Tsuper, Ilona; Maraschky, Adam; Holland, Nolan; Streletzky, Kiril

    Temperature sensitive nanoparticles were generated from a construct (H20F) of three chains of elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) linked to a negatively charged foldon domain. This ELP system was mixed at different ratios with linear chains of ELP (H40L) which lacks the foldon domain. The mixed system is soluble at room temperature and at a transition temperature (Tt) will form swollen micelles with the hydrophobic linear chains hidden inside. This system was studied using depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) and static light scattering (SLS) to determine the size, shape, and internal structure of the mixed micelles. The mixed micelle in equal parts of H20F and H40L show a constant apparent hydrodynamic radius of 40-45 nm at the concentration window from 25:25 to 60:60 uM (1:1 ratio). At a fixed 50 uM concentration of the H20F, varying H40L concentration from 5 to 80 uM resulted in a linear growth in the hydrodynamic radius from about 11 to about 62 nm, along with a 1000-fold increase in VH signal. A possible simple model explaining the growth of the swollen micelles is considered. Lastly, the VH signal can indicate elongation in the geometry of the particle or could possibly be a result from anisotropic properties from the core of the micelle. SLS was used to study the molecular weight, and the radius of gyration of the micelle to help identify the structure and morphology of mixed micelles and the tangible cause of the VH signal.

  10. Grafting C8-C16 alkyl groups altered the self-assembly and curcumin -loading properties of sodium caseinate in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Yang, Puyu; Yao, Fangyi; Liu, Jie; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-02-01

    The data presented here are related to the research article entitled "Synthesis and characterization of alkylated caseinate, and its structure-curcumin loading property relationship in water" (Zhang et al., 2018) [1]. This data article reports the detailed spectra information for 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF MS of the N-succinimidyl fatty acid esters with various alkyl chain lengths (Cn-NHSs, n = 8, 12, 14 and 16). 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF MS spectra for C16-NHS are shown as an example. Then the stacked 1 H NMR spectra of the obtained alkylated caseinates (Cn-caseinates, n = 8, 12, 14 and 16) are provided. The surface hydrophobicity index (S 0 ) of Cn-caseinates with different substitution degrees (SD) of alkyl groups is shown. Additionally, Visual appearances for the formed aqueous dispersions of curcumin-loaded native caseinate (NaCas) and Cn-caseinates self-assemblies are shown. X-ray diffraction patterns of curcumin, C16-caseinate, its physical mixture and curcumin-loaded C16-caseinate self-assemblies are examined. The re-dispersibility and short-term storage stability of the curcumin-loaded NaCas and C16-caseinate self-assemblies are also studied.

  11. Viscoelastic fluid-structure interactions between a flexible cylinder and wormlike micelle solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anita A.; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly mounted structure is placed perpendicular to the flow of a Newtonian fluid, it can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable even at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability that can occur at large Weissenberg numbers. Recent work has shown that these elastic flow instabilities can drive the motion of flexible sheets. The fluctuating fluid forces exerted on the structure from the elastic flow instabilities can lead to a coupling between an oscillatory structural motion and the state of stress in the fluid flow. In this paper, we present the results of an investigation into the flow of a viscoelastic wormlike micelle solution past a flexible circular cylinder. The time variation of the flow field and the state of stress in the fluid are shown using a combination of particle image tracking and flow-induced birefringence images. The static and dynamic responses of the flexible cylinder are presented for a range of flow velocities. The nonlinear dynamics of the structural motion is studied to better understand an observed transition from a symmetric to an asymmetric structural deformation and oscillation behavior.

  12. Dual drug release from hydrogels covalently containing polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mari; Uchida, Yusuke; Takami, Taku; Ito, Tomoki; Anzai, Ryosuke; Sonotaki, Seiichi; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we designed hydrogels for dual drug release: the hydrogels that covalently contained the polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties. The hydrogels that were formed from polymeric micelles possessing a tightly packed (i.e., well-entangled) inner core exhibited a higher storage modulus than the hydrogels that were formed from the polymeric micelles possessing a loosely packed structure. Furthermore, we conducted release experiments and fluorescent observations to evaluate the profiles depicting the release of two compounds, rhodamine B and auramine O, from either polymeric micelles or hydrogels. According to our results, (1) hydrogels that covalently contains polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties successfully exhibit the independent release behaviors of the two compounds and (2) fluorescence microscopy can greatly facilitate efforts to evaluate drug release properties of materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Treating acute cystitis with biodegradable micelle-encapsulated quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi Lan; Gao, Xiang; Men, Ke; Qiu, Jinfeng; Yang, Bowen; Gou, Ma Ling; Huang, Mei Juan; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yu Quan

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application. In an attempt to improve water solubility of QU, biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles were used to encapsulate QU by self-assembly methods, creating QU/MPEG-PCL micelles. These QU/MPEG-PCL micelles with DL of 7% had a mean particle size of <34 nm, and could release QU for an extended period in vitro. The in vivo study indicated that intravesical application of MPEG-PCL micelles did not induce any toxicity to the bladder, and could efficiently deliver cargo to the bladder. Moreover, the therapeutic efficiency of intravesical administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles on acute cystitis was evaluated in vivo. Results indicated that QU/MPEG-PCL micelle treatment efficiently reduced the edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bladder in an Escherichia coli-induced acute cystitis model. These data suggested that MPEG-PCL micelle was a candidate intravesical drug carrier, and QU/MPEG-PCL micelles may have potential application in acute cystitis therapy. PMID:22661886

  14. Targeted polymeric micelles for siRNA treatment of experimental cancer by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Christie, R James; Matsumoto, Yu; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nomoto, Takahiro; Fukushima, Shigeto; Osada, Kensuke; Halnaut, Julien; Pittella, Frederico; Kim, Hyun Jin; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-06-26

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) cancer therapies administered by intravenous injection require a delivery system for transport from the bloodstream into the cytoplasm of diseased cells to perform the function of gene silencing. Here we describe nanosized polymeric micelles that deliver siRNA to solid tumors and elicit a therapeutic effect. Stable multifunctional micelle structures on the order of 45 nm in size formed by spontaneous self-assembly of block copolymers with siRNA. Block copolymers used for micelle formation were designed and synthesized to contain three main features: a siRNA binding segment containing thiols, a hydrophilic nonbinding segment, and a cell-surface binding peptide. Specifically, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLL) comprising lysine amines modified with 2-iminothiolane (2IT) and the cyclo-Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptide on the PEG terminus was used. Modification of PEG-b-PLL with 2IT led to improved control of micelle formation and also increased stability in the blood compartment, while installation of the cRGD peptide improved biological activity. Incorporation of siRNA into stable micelle structures containing the cRGD peptide resulted in increased gene silencing ability, improved cell uptake, and broader subcellular distribution in vitro and also improved accumulation in both the tumor mass and tumor-associated blood vessels following intravenous injection into mice. Furthermore, stable and targeted micelles inhibited the growth of subcutaneous HeLa tumor models and demonstrated gene silencing in the tumor mass following treatment with antiangiogenic siRNAs. This new micellar nanomedicine could potentially expand the utility of siRNA-based therapies for cancer treatments that require intravenous injection.

  15. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on gas solubilization in micelles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bin; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2015-03-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of anionic sodium decylsulfate and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether micelles in water have been performed to examine the impact of hydrostatic pressure on argon solubilization as a function of pressure. The potential-of-mean force between the micelles and argon demonstrates that nonpolar gases are attracted to the interiors of both micelles. The affinity of argon for micelle interiors, however, decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the comparatively higher molar volume of argon inside assemblies. We evaluate solubility enhancement coefficients, which describe the drop in the solute chemical potential as a function of the micellized surfactant concentration, to quantify the impact of micellization on gas solubilization. While argon is similarly attracted to the hydrophobic cores of both micelles, the gas is more effectively sequestered within nonionic micelles compared with anionic micelles as a result of salting out by charged head groups and accompanying counterions. The solubility enhancement coefficients of both micelles decrease with increasing pressure, reflecting the changing forces observed in the potentials-of-mean force. An analytical liquid drop model is proposed to describe the pressure dependence of argon solubilization within micelles that captures the simulation solubility enhancement coefficients after fitting an effective micelle radius for each surfactant.

  16. Cellular uptake and trafficking of polydiacetylene micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravel, Edmond; Thézé, Benoit; Jacques, Isabelle; Anilkumar, Parambath; Gombert, Karine; Ducongé, Frédéric; Doris, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) micelles coated with either carboxylate-, ammonium-, or methoxy-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains were assembled and loaded with a fluorescent dye (DiO). Their interaction with MCF-7 human breast tumor cells was investigated by epi-fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to determine their internalization pathway and intracellular fate. It was found that the ionic character of the micelles influenced their internalization kinetics through a caveolae-mediated pathway and that all micelle types behaved somewhat similarly inside cells.Polydiacetylene (PDA) micelles coated with either carboxylate-, ammonium-, or methoxy-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains were assembled and loaded with a fluorescent dye (DiO). Their interaction with MCF-7 human breast tumor cells was investigated by epi-fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to determine their internalization pathway and intracellular fate. It was found that the ionic character of the micelles influenced their internalization kinetics through a caveolae-mediated pathway and that all micelle types behaved somewhat similarly inside cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedures and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr34149b

  17. Characterization of casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. α- and β-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). (PLArg/casein) films deposited in 0.15M NaCl exhibit fast (exponential-like) growth of the film thickness with the number of layers. The resulting films were c.a. 10 times thicker than obtained for poly-L-arginine and natural polyanions. We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation, finding that films with α-casein were slightly thicker than ones with β-casein. The effect of polyethylene imine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films was similar as for linear polyelectrolyte pairs. Thickness of "wet" films was c.a. two times larger than measured after drying that suggests their large hydration. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability. Films remain stable in the neutral and weakly basic conditions that includes HEPES buffer, which is widely used in cell culture and biomedical experiments. At the conditions of high ionic strength films swell but their swelling is reversible. Films containing caseins as polyanion appear to be more elastic and the same time more viscous than one formed with polyelectrolyte pairs. XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein...

  19. Amphiphilic polymeric micelles as the nanocarrier for peroral delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Mao, Shirui

    2012-06-01

    Many amphiphilic copolymers have recently been synthesized as novel promising micellar carriers for the delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. Studies on the formulation and oral delivery of such micelles have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing drug uptake and absorption, and exhibit prolonged circulation time in vitro and in vivo. In this review, literature on hydrophobic modifications of several hydrophilic polymers, including polyethylene glycol, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, pluronic and tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, is summarized. Parameters influencing the properties of polymeric micelles for oral chemotherapy are discussed and strategies to overcome main barriers for polymeric micelles peroral absorption are proposed. During the design of polymeric micelles for peroral chemotherapy, selecting or synthesizing copolymers with good compatibility with the drug is an effective strategy to increase drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. Stability of the micelles can be improved in different ways. It is recommended to take permeability, mucoadhesion, sustained release, and P-glycoprotein inhibition into consideration during copolymer preparation or to consider adding some excipients in the formulation. Furthermore, both the copolymer structure and drug loading methods should be controlled in order to get micelles with appropriate particle size for better absorption.

  20. Core-crosslinked polymeric micelles with controlled release of covalently entrapped doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Talelli, Marina; Iman, Maryam; Varkouhi, Amir K; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Etrych, Tomas; Ulbrich, Karel; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Lammers, Twan; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E

    2010-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is clinically applied in cancer therapy, but its use is associated with dose limiting severe side effects. Core-crosslinked biodegradable polymeric micelles composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-lactate] (mPEG-b-p(HPMAm-Lac(n))) diblock copolymers have shown prolonged circulation in the blood stream upon intravenous administration and enhanced tumor accumulation through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However a (physically) entrapped anticancer drug (paclitaxel) was previously shown to be rapidly eliminated from the circulation, likely because the drug was insufficiently retained in the micelles. To fully exploit the EPR effect for drug targeting, a DOX methacrylamide derivative (DOX-MA) was covalently incorporated into the micellar core by free radical polymerization. The structure of the doxorubicin derivative is susceptible to pH-sensitive hydrolysis, enabling controlled release of the drug in acidic conditions (in either the intratumoral environment and/or the endosomal vesicles). 30-40% w/w of the added drug was covalently entrapped, and the micelles with covalently entrapped DOX had an average diameter of 80 nm. The entire drug payload was released within 24 h incubation at pH 5 and 37 degrees C, whereas only around 5% release was observed at pH 7.4. DOX micelles showed higher cytotoxicity in B16F10 and OVCAR-3 cells compared to DOX-MA, likely due to cellular uptake of the micelles via endocytosis and intracellular drug release in the acidic organelles. The micelles showed better anti-tumor activity than free DOX in mice bearing B16F10 melanoma carcinoma. The results presented in this paper show that mPEG-b-p(HPMAm-Lac(n)) polymeric micelles with covalently entrapped doxorubicin is a system highly promising for the targeted delivery of cytostatic agents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. STUDIES ON THE FORMATION AND IONIZATION OF THE COMPOUNDS OF CASEIN WITH ALKALI

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David M.; Schmidt, Carl L. A.

    1924-01-01

    1. The deposition of casein on a platinum anode which takes place on the passage of a direct current through solutions of alkali caseinates was quantitatively studied, and it was found that: (a) the amount of casein which is deposited is directly proportional to the current, i.e. it obeys Faraday's law; (b) the amount of casein deposited is inversely proportional (within the limits studied) to the amount of alkali which is combined with the casein. 2. A method of determining the transport numbers of proteins insoluble at their isoelectric point has been developed. 3. A titration method for determining the amount of alkali in a casein solution is given. 4. Data from the results of transference experiments on sodium caseinate, potassium caseinate, cesium caseinate, and rubidium caseinate solutions are given. It is shown that the data are best explained on the assumption that in these solutions the carriers of the current are alkali metal cations and casein anions. 5. On the basis of our transference results an explanation is given of the results which were obtained by Robertson and by Haas in their migration experiments. PMID:19872135

  3. Improvement of rheological properties of firm acid gels by skim milk heating is conserved after stirring.

    PubMed

    Cayot, P; Fairise, J F; Colas, B; Lorient, D; Brulé, G

    2003-11-01

    The enhancement of the strength of set acid gels by heating milk was related to rheological parameters (water retention capacity, storage modulus) of corresponding stirred gels. To obtain accurate rheological data from stirred gel it was necessary to maintain a constant granulometry of gel particles and to recognize time after stirring as a contributing factor. Two hours after stirring, the gel exhibited a higher storage modulus when milk was heated above 80 degrees C. A measurement of viscosity of just-stirred yoghurt was sufficient to predict correctly the quality of a stirred gel analysed by viscoelastic measurements. Increased resistance to syneresis of just-stirred gels was related to higher viscosity. The quantity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Ig) bound to casein micelles explains the improvement of these gel qualities. We have considered that the structure of the initial firm gel (mesostructure level) was conserved in fragments within the stirred gel. Consequently, the explanation given by various authors for the effect of heating milk on the properties of set gels can also be applied to stirred gels. The same mechanism, described in literature for structure formation of set gels from acidified milk is purposed to explain the role of heating milk on the recovery of gel structure after stirring. The beta-Ig association with casein micelles during heating favoured micelle connections during the acidification. It also favoured the association of gel fragments after stirring during the recovery in gel structure.

  4. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  5. Azo polymeric micelles designed for colon-targeted dimethyl fumarate delivery for colon cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-Gang; Ma, Rui; Xiao, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Zi; Hu, Nan; Gao, Jin-Lai; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Dong, De-Li; Sun, Zhi-Jie

    2016-10-15

    Colon-targeted drug delivery and circumventing drug resistance are extremely important for colon cancer chemotherapy. Our previous work found that dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the approved drug by the FDA for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, exhibited anti-tumor activity on colon cancer cells. Based on the pharmacological properties of DMF and azo bond in olsalazine chemical structure, we designed azo polymeric micelles for colon-targeted dimethyl fumarate delivery for colon cancer therapy. We synthesized the star-shape amphiphilic polymer with azo bond and fabricated the DMF-loaded azo polymeric micelles. The four-arm polymer star-PCL-azo-mPEG (sPCEG-azo) (constituted by star-shape PCL (polycaprolactone) and mPEG (methoxypolyethylene glycols)-olsalazine) showed self-assembly ability. The average diameter and polydispersity index of the DMF-loaded sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles were 153.6nm and 0.195, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed that the cumulative release of DMF from the DMF-loaded sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles was no more than 20% in rat gastric fluid within 10h, whereas in the rat colonic fluids, the cumulative release of DMF reached 60% in the initial 2h and 100% within 10h, indicating that the DMF-loaded sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles had excellent colon-targeted property. The DMF-loaded sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles had no significant cytotoxicity on colon cancer cells in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and rat gastric fluid. In rat colonic fluid, the micelles showed significant cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells. The blank sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles (without DMF) showed no cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells in rat colonic fluids. In conclusion, the DMF-loaded sPCEG-azo polymeric micelles show colon-targeted DMF release and anti-tumor activity, providing a novel approach potential for colon cancer therapy. Colon-targeted drug delivery and circumventing drug resistance are extremely important for colon cancer chemotherapy. Our

  6. Interaction of flavan-3-ol derivatives and different caseins is determined by more than proline content and number of proline repeats.

    PubMed

    Bohin, Maxime C; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Westphal, Adrie H; Tripp, Annelise M; Dekker, Peter; van der Hijden, Harry T W M; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of Type A and B flavan-3-ol dimers (procyanidins) and several monomeric flavan-3-ols, with α-casein and β-casein, were investigated. Binding affinities measured were related to the ligands structure, including several properties (e.g. intrinsic flexibility (number of rotatable bonds) and hydrophobicity), and to the amino-acid composition of the caseins. A monomeric flavan-3-ol esterified with gallic acid (EGCG) had a five to ten times higher affinity to caseins compared to the non-galloylated dimeric flavan-3-ols. In this case, the larger number of rotatable bonds in EGCG might be accountable for this difference. Comparing flavan-3-ol dimers, intrinsic flexibility did not consistently promote interactions, as procyanidin A1 displayed a higher affinity to α-casein than the supposedly more flexible B-type dimers investigated. Despite its higher content of proline, compared to α-casein, β-casein did not always have a higher affinity for the ligands investigated (e.g. no interaction with procyanidin A1 detected). These results suggest that more factors than proline content and the number of proline repeats govern phenolic-casein interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serine Protease Zymography: Low-Cost, Rapid, and Highly Sensitive RAMA Casein Zymography.

    PubMed

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro

    2017-01-01

    To detect serine protease activity by zymography, casein and CBB stain have been used as a substrate and a detection procedure, respectively. Casein zymography has been using substrate concentration at 1 mg/mL and employing conventional CBB stain. Although ordinary casein zymography provides reproducible results, it has several disadvantages including time-consuming and relative low sensitivity. Improved casein zymography, RAMA casein zymography, is rapid and highly sensitive. RAMA casein zymography completes the detection process within 1 h after incubation and increases the sensitivity at least by tenfold. In addition to serine protease, the method also detects metalloprotease 7 (MMP7, Matrilysin) with high sensitivity.

  8. A study of properties of "micelle-enhanced" polyelectrolyte capsules: Structure, encapsulation and in vitro release.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Tian; Zhang, Jianxiang; Xu, Jiajie; Hu, Qiaoling; Zhao, Shifang; Shen, Jiacong

    2009-07-01

    "Micelle-enhanced" polyelectrolyte capsules were fabricated via a layer-by-layer technique, templated on hybrid calcium carbonate particles with built-in polymeric micelles based on polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid). Due to the presence of a large number of negatively charged micelles inside the polyelectrolyte capsule, which were liberated from templates, the capsule wall was reconstructed and had properties different to those of conventional polyelectrolyte capsules. This type of capsule could selectively entrap positively charged water-soluble substances. The encapsulation efficiency of positively charged substances was dependent on their molecular weight or size. For some positively charged compounds, such as rhodamine B and lysozyme, the concentration in the capsules was orders of magnitude higher than that in the incubation solution. In addition, in vitro release study suggested that the encapsulated compounds could be released through a sustained manner to a certain degree. All these results point to the fact that these capsules might be used as novel delivery systems for some water-soluble compounds.

  9. Milk β-casein as a vehicle for delivery of bis(indolyl)methane: Spectroscopy and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhampanah, Hamid; Esmaili, Masoomeh; Khorshidi, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of bis(indolyl)methane with bovine milk β-casein was investigated using spectroscopy and molecular docking studies at different temperatures (25-37 °C). The circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data demonstrated that β-casein interacts with BIM molecule mainly via both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with a minor change in the secondary structure of β-casein. The fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that the presence of a single binding site on β-casein for BIM with the binding constant value of ∼104 M-1. The negative values of entropy and enthalpy changes confirm the predominate role of hydrogen binding and van der Waals interactions in the binding process. Fӧrster energy transfer measurement suggested that the distance between bound BIM and Trp residue is higher than the respective critical distance. Hence, the static quenching is more likely responsible for the fluorescence quenching rather than the mechanism of non-radiative. Docking study showed that BIM molecule forms three hydrogen bonds and several van der Waals contacts with β-casein.

  10. Stimuli-sensitive polymeric micelles as anticancer drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Na, Kun; Sethuraman, Vijay T; Bae, You Han

    2006-11-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers often form core-shell type micelles by self-organization of the blocks in an aqueous medium or under specific experimental conditions. Polymeric micelles constructed from these polymers that contain a segment whose physical or chemical properties respond to small changes in environmental conditions are collectively called 'stimuli-sensitive' micelles. This class of nano-scaled constructs has been investigated as a promising anti-cancer drug carrier because the micelles are able to utilize small environmental changes and modify drug release kinetics, biodistribution and the interactions with tissues and cells. This review summarizes the recent progress in stimuli-sensitive micelles for tumor chemotherapy, particularly for those responding to hyperthermic conditions, tumor pH and endosomal/lysosomal pH.

  11. Integral physicochemical properties of reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Shubenkova, E. G.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Lutaeva, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the degree of hydration has on optical and electrophysical properties of water/AOT/ n-hexane system is studied. It is found that AOT reverse micelles form aggregates whose dimensions grow along with the degree of hydration and temperature. Aggregation enhances their electrical conductivity and shifts the UV spectrum of AOT reverse emulsions to the red region. Four states of water are found in the structure of AOT reverse micelles.

  12. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism.

    PubMed

    Lange, Klaus W; Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism. In a recent UK survey, more than 80% of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported some kind of dietary intervention for their child (gluten-free and casein-free diet in 29%). When asked about the effects of the gluten-free and casein-free diet, 20-29% of the parents reported significant improvements on the autism spectrum disorder core dimensions. The findings of this study suggest additional effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on comorbid problems of autism such as gastrointestinal symptoms, concentration, and attention. The findings of another recent investigation suggested that age and certain urine compounds may predict the response of autism symptoms to a gluten-free and casein-free diet. Although these results need to be replicated, they highlight the importance of patient subgroup analysis. Intervention trials evaluating the effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on autistic symptoms have so far been contradictory and inconclusive. Most investigations assessing the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free diet in the treatment of autism are seriously flawed. The evidence to support the therapeutic value of this diet is limited and weak. A gluten-free and casein-free diet should only be administered if an allergy or intolerance to nutritional gluten or casein is diagnosed.

  13. GRP78 enabled micelle-based glioma targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ran, Danni; Mao, Jiani; Shen, Qing; Xie, Cao; Zhan, Changyou; Wang, Ruifeng; Lu, Weiyue

    2017-06-10

    GRP78, a specific cancer cell-surface marker, is implicated in cancer cells proliferation, apoptosis resistance, metastasis and drug resistance. l-VAP (SNTRVAP) is a tumor homing peptide exhibiting high binding affinity in vitro to GRP78 protein overexpressed on glioma, glioma stem cells, vasculogenic mimicry and neovasculature. Even though short peptides are often non-immunogenic and demonstrate high affinity to tumor cells, their targeting efficacy is always undermined by rapid blood clearance and enzymatic degradation. In the present study, two d peptides RI-VAP (retro inverso isomer of l-VAP) and d-VAP (retro isomer of l-VAP) were developed by structure-guided peptide design and retro-inverso isomerization technique for glioma targeting. RI-VAP and d-VAP were predicted to bind their receptor GRP78 protein with similar binding affinity, which was experimentally confirmed. The results of in vivo imaging demonstrated that RI-VAP and d-VAP had remarkably advantage over l-VAP for tumor accumulation. In addition, RI-VAP and d-VAP modified paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle had better anti-tumor efficacy in comparison to taxol, paclitaxel-loaded plain micelles and l-VAP modified micelles. Overall, the VAP modified micelles suggested in the present study could effectively achieve glioma-targeted drug delivery, validating the potential of the stable VAP peptides in improving the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel for glioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the self-assembly and disassembly of pH-sensitive polymeric micelle with coating repair agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiumin; Gao, Jianbang; Wang, Zhikun; Xu, Jianchang; Li, Chunling; Sun, Shuangqing; Hu, Songqing

    2017-10-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were applied to investigate the coating repair agent dicyclopentadience (DCPD) in pH-sensitive micelles. The results show micelles self-assembled from triblock copolymers with strong hydrophobic interaction are not conducive to loading DCPD, and only micelles with weak interaction parameter can encapsulate DCPD well. After protonation, the structure of micelle was disassembled and DCPD beads have a stronger ability to shrink polymer chains and exposed to water. This work provides mesoscopic insight into self-assembly and disassembly of desired agent-loaded micelle, and might be useful for the design of new materials for agent delivery.

  15. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Copolymer Micelles for the Drug Delivery of Radioactive Iodine-131 Labeled Lipiodol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Yang, Ming-Hui; Chung, Tze-Wen; Jhuang, Ting-Syuan; Yang, Jean-Dean; Chen, Ko-Chin; Chen, Wan-Jou; Huang, Ying-Fong; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Lin, Po-Chiao; Tyan, Yu-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Micelles, with the structure of amphiphilic molecules including a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail, are recently developed as nanocarriers for the delivery of drugs with poor solubility. In addition, micelles have shown many advantages, such as enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effects, prolonged circulation times, and increased endocytosis through surface modification. In this study, we measured the critical micelle concentrations, diameters, stability, and cytotoxicity and the cell uptake of micelles against hepatic cells with two kinds of hydrophilic materials: PEG-PCL and HA-g-PCL. We used 131 I as a radioactive tracer to evaluate the stability, drug delivery, and cell uptake activity of the micelles. The results showed that HA-g-PCL micelles exhibited higher drug encapsulation efficiency and stability in aqueous solutions. In addition, the 131 I-lipiodol loaded HA-g-PCL micelles had better affinity and higher cytotoxicity compared to HepG2 cells.

  17. Casein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis Proteases: Peptide Profile Discriminates Strain-Dependent Enzyme Specificity.

    PubMed

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-25

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolyzed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC 50 in the 16-70 μg/mL range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  18. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles based on multiarm star-shaped PLGA-PEG block copolymers: influence of arm numbers on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guilei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Linhua; Sun, Hongfan; Song, Cunxian; Wang, Chun; Kong, Deling

    2016-01-01

    Star-shaped block copolymers based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (st-PLGA-PEG) were synthesized with structural variation on arm numbers in order to investigate the relationship between the arm numbers of st-PLGA-PEG copolymers and their micelle properties. st-PLGA-PEG copolymers with arm numbers 3, 4 and 6 were synthesized by using different cores such as trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol, and were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration decreased with increasing arm numbers in st-PLGA-PEG copolymers. The doxorubicin-loaded st-PLGA-PEG micelles were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method. Micellar properties such as particle size, drug loading content and in vitro drug release behavior were investigated as a function of the number of arms and compared with each other. The doxorubicin-loaded 4-arm PLGA-PEG micelles were found to have the highest cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity compared with 3-arm PLGA-PEG micelles and 6-arm PLGA-PEG micelles. The results suggest that structural tailoring of arm numbers from st-PLGA-PEG copolymers could provide a new strategy for designing drug carriers of high efficiency. Structural tailoring of arm numbers from star shaped-PLGA-PEG copolymers (3-arm/4-arm/6-arm-PLGA-PEG) could provide a new strategy for designing drug carriers of high efficiency.

  19. Interactions of milk α- and β-casein with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and their effects on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-05-15

    The interactions of α- and β-casein with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), were examined at pH 6.3 by fluorescence, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effects of the interactions on the caseins conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results showed that α- and β-casein bound with MG via hydrophilic (van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding) and hydrophobic interactions, respectively. α-Casein had a slightly stronger binding affinity toward MG than β-casein, with respective KS values of 0.51×10(3)M(-1) and 0.46×10(3)M(-1) at 297K. The secondary structures of α- and β-casein were changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix and an increase in turn for α-casein and no change in α-helix and a decrease in turn for β-casein. The casein-anthocyanin interaction appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of stable nanoparticles via electrostatic complexation between sodium caseinate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Flanagan, John; Singh, Harjinder

    2006-06-05

    The formation of electrostatic complexes between sodium caseinate and gum arabic (GA) was studied as a function of pH (2.0-7.0), using slow acidification in situ with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) or titration with HCl. The colloidal behavior of the complexes under specific conditions was investigated using absorbance measurements (at 515 or 810 nm) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In contrast to the sudden increase in absorbance and subsequent precipitation of sodium caseinate solutions at pH < 5.4, the absorbance values of mixtures of sodium caseinate and GA increased to a level that was dependent on GA concentration at pH 5.4 (pH(c)). The absorbance values remained constant with further decreases in pH until a sudden increase in absorbance was observed (at pH(phi)). The pH(phi) was also dependent upon the GA concentration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data showed that the sizes of the particles formed by the complexation of sodium caseinate and GA between pH(c) and pH(phi) were between 100 and 150 nm and these nanoparticles were visualized using negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Below pH(phi), the nanoparticles associated to form larger particles, causing phase separation. zeta-Potential measurements of the nanoparticles and chemical analysis after phase separation showed that phase separation was a consequence of charge neutralization. The formation of complexes between sodium caseinate and GA was inhibited at high ionic strength (>50 mM NaCl). It is postulated that the structure of the nanoparticles comprises an aggregated caseinate core, protected from further aggregation by steric repulsion of one, or more, electrostatically attached GA molecules. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of a detergent micelle environment on P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Abel, Biebele; Chufan, Eduardo E.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to export many structurally dissimilar hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds, including anticancer drugs from cells. Several structural studies on purified P-gp have been reported, but only limited and sometimes conflicting information is available on ligand interactions with the isolated transporter in a dodecyl-maltoside detergent environment. In this report we compared the biochemical properties of P-gp in native membranes, detergent micelles, and when reconstituted in artificial membranes. We found that the modulators zosuquidar, tariquidar, and elacridar stimulated the ATPase activity of purified human or mouse P-gp in a detergent micelle environment. In contrast, these drugs inhibited ATPase activity in native membranes or in proteoliposomes, with IC50 values in the 10–40 nm range. Similarly, a 30–150-fold decrease in the apparent affinity for verapamil and cyclic peptide inhibitor QZ59-SSS was observed in detergent micelles compared with native or artificial membranes. Together, these findings demonstrate that the high-affinity site is inaccessible because of either a conformational change or binding of detergent at the binding site in a detergent micelle environment. The ligands bind to a low-affinity site, resulting in altered modulation of P-gp ATPase activity. We, therefore, recommend studying structural and functional aspects of ligand interactions with purified P-gp and other ATP-binding cassette transporters that transport amphipathic or hydrophobic substrates in a detergent-free native or artificial membrane environment. PMID:28283574

  2. Modulation of partition and localization of perfume molecules in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Haiqiu; Strand, Ross; Wang, Yilin

    2016-01-07

    The influence of perfume molecules on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their localization in SDS micelles have been investigated by ζ potential, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), one- and two-dimensional NMR and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). A broad range of perfume molecules varying in octanol/water partition coefficients P are employed. The results indicate that the surface charge, size and aggregation number of the SDS micelles strongly depend on the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity degree of perfume molecules. Three distinct regions along the log P values are identified. Hydrophilic perfumes (log P < 2.0) partially incorporate into the SDS micelles and do not lead to micelle swelling, whereas hydrophobic perfumes (log P > 3.5) are solubilized close to the end of the hydrophobic chains in the SDS micelles and enlarge the micelles with higher ζ potential and a larger aggregation number. The incorporated fraction and micelle properties show increasing tendency for the perfumes in the intermediate log P region (2.0 < log P < 3.5). Besides, the molecular conformation of perfume molecules also affects these properties. The perfumes with a linear chain structure or an aromatic group can penetrate into the palisade layer and closely pack with the SDS molecules. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC show that the binding of the perfumes in the intermediate log P region is more spontaneous than those in the other two log P regions, and the micellization of SDS with the perfumes is driven by entropy.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation and NMR investigation of the association of the β-blockers atenolol and propranolol with a chiral molecular micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kevin F.; Billiot, Eugene J.; Billiot, Fereshteh H.; Hoffman, Charlene B.; Gladis, Ashley A.; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Southerland, William M.; Fang, Yayin

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy were used to compare the binding of two β-blocker drugs to the chiral molecular micelle poly-(sodium undecyl-(L)-leucine-valine). The molecular micelle is used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis. This study is part of a larger effort to understand the mechanism of chiral recognition in capillary electrophoresis by characterizing the molecular micelle binding of chiral compounds with different geometries and charges. Propranolol and atenolol were chosen because their structures are similar, but their chiral interactions with the molecular micelle are different. Molecular dynamics simulations showed both propranolol enantiomers inserted their aromatic rings into the molecular micelle core and that (S)-propranolol associated more strongly with the molecular micelle than (R)-propranolol. This difference was attributed to stronger molecular micelle hydrogen bonding interactions experienced by (S)-propranolol. Atenolol enantiomers were found to bind near the molecular micelle surface and to have similar molecular micelle binding free energies.

  4. Studies on the interactions between purified bovine caseins and alkaline-earth-metalions

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, I. R.; Perkins, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    1. Alkaline-earth-metal cations at low concentrations form soluble complexes with bovine caseins. The relative order of binding capacities is: Mg2+>Ca2+>Ba2+>Sr2+. 2. The cations interact with both free ionized carboxyl groups of aspartic acid and glutamic acid and with monoester phosphate groups covalently bound to serine and threonine; at low concentrations of the cations interactions are predominantly with the phosphate groups. 3. The order of binding capacities for purified components of the casein complex is: αs1-casein>β-casein>κ-casein. PMID:5166590

  5. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Kalkowski, Joseph; Luo, Hanying

    2017-08-31

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. Themore » structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.« less

  6. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Kalkowski, Joseph; Luo, Hanying

    2017-08-16

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. Themore » structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.« less

  7. New thiol-responsive mono-cleavable block copolymer micelles labeled with single disulfides.

    PubMed

    Sourkohi, Behnoush Khorsand; Schmidt, Rolf; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2011-10-18

    Thiol-responsive symmetric triblock copolymers having single disulfide linkages in the middle blocks (called mono-cleavable block copolymers, ss-ABP(2)) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization in the presence of a disulfide-labeled difunctional Br-initiator. These brush-like triblock copolymers consist of a hydrophobic polyacrylate block having pendent oligo(propylene oxide) and a hydrophilic polymethacrylate block having pendent oligo(ethylene oxide). Gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR results confirmed the synthesis of well-defined mono-cleavable block copolymers and revealed that polymerizations were well controlled. Because of amphiphilic nature, these copolymers self-assembled to form colloidally stable micelles above critical micellar concentration of 0.032 mg · mL(-1). In response to reductive reactions, disulfides in thiol-responsive micelles were cleaved. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis suggested that the cleavage of disulfides caused dissociation of micelles to smaller-sized assembled structures in water. Moreover, in a biomedical perspective, the mono-cleavable block copolymer micelles are not cytotoxic and thus biocompatible. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In situ electron-beam polymerization stabilized quantum dot micelles.

    PubMed

    Travert-Branger, Nathalie; Dubois, Fabien; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge; Mahler, Benoit; Gravel, Edmond; Dubertret, Benoit; Doris, Eric

    2011-04-19

    A polymerizable amphiphile polymer containing PEG was synthesized and used to encapsulate quantum dots in micelles. The quantum dot micelles were then polymerized using a "clean" electron beam process that did not require any post-irradiation purification. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the polymerized micelles provided an organic coating that preserved the quantum dot fluorescence better than nonpolymerized micelles, even under harsh conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Micelle Delivery of Parthenolide to Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baranello, Michael P.; Bauer, Louisa; Jordan, Craig T.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Parthenolide (PTL) has shown great promise as a novel anti-leukemia agent as it selectively eliminates acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast cells and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. This success has not yet translated to the clinical setting because PTL is rapidly cleared from blood due to its hydrophobicity. To increase the aqueous solubility of PTL, we previously developed micelles formed from predominantly hydrophobic amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-poly(styrene) (e.g., PSMA100-b-PS258) that exhibit robust PTL loading (75%efficiency, 11% w/w capacity) and release PTL over 24 h. Here, PTL-loaded PSMA-b-PS micelles were thoroughly characterized in vitro for PTL delivery to MV4-11 AML cells. Additionally, the mechanisms governing micelle-mediated cytotoxicity were examined in comparison to free PTL. PSMA-b-PS micelles were taken up by MV4-11 cells as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Specifically, MV4-11 cells relied on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, rather than caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. In addition, PTL-loaded PSMA-b-PS micelles exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards AML cells and were capable of reducing cell viability by 75% at 10 μM PTL, while unloaded micelles were nontoxic. At 10 μM PTL, the cytotoxicity of PTL-loaded micelles increased gradually over 24 h while free PTL achieved maximal cytotoxicity between 2 and 4 h, demonstrating micelle-mediated delivery of PTL to AML cells and stability of the drug-loaded micelle even in the presence of cells. Both free PTL and PTL-loaded micelles induced NF-κB inhibition at 10 μM PTL doses, demonstrating some mechanistic similarities in cytotoxicity. However, free PTL relied more heavily on exofacial free thiol interactions to induce cytotoxicity than PTL-loaded micelles; free PTL cytotoxicity was reduced by over twofold when cell surface free thiols were depleted, where PTL

  10. Drug-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers: a novel approach for controlled delivery of hydrophilic drugs by micelle formation.

    PubMed

    Danafar, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Davaran, S; Hamidi, M

    2017-12-01

    A conjugate of the antihypertensive drug, lisinopril, with triblock poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymer was synthesized by the reaction of PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer with lisinopril in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The conjugated copolymer was characterized in vitro by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques. Then, the lisinopril conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the micelles formed by the lisinopril-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA have spherical structure with the average size of 162 nm. The release behavior of conjugated copolymer, micelles and micelles physically loaded by lisinopril were compared in different media. In vitro release study showed that in contrast to physically loaded micelles, the release rate of micelles consisted of the conjugated copolymer was dependent on pH of media where it was higher at lower pH compared to the neutral medium. Another feature of the conjugated micelles was their more sustained release profile compared to the lisinopril-conjugated copolymer and physically loaded micelles.

  11. Fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles for targeting glioblastoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Ji; Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Nord, Kathryn; Han, Yu; Wegscheid, Michelle L.; Auffinger, Brenda; Wainwright, Derek A.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma-targeted drug delivery systems facilitate efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant gliomas, while minimizing systemic toxicity and side effects. Taking advantage of the fibrin deposition that is characteristic of tumors, we constructed spherical, Cy7-labeled, targeting micelles to glioblastoma through the addition of the fibrin-binding pentapeptide, cysteine–arginine–glutamic acid–lysine–alanine, or CREKA. Conjugation of the CREKA peptide to Cy7-micelles increased the average particle size and zeta potential. Upon intravenous administration to GL261 glioma bearing mice, Cy7-micelles passively accumulated at the brain tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and Cy7-CREKA-micelles displayed enhanced tumor homing via active targeting as early as 1 h after administration, as confirmed via in vivo and ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution of micelles showed an accumulation within the liver and kidneys, leading to micelle elimination via renal clearance and the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Histological evaluation showed no signs of cytotoxicity or tissue damage, confirming the safety and utility of this nanoparticle system for delivery to glioblastoma. Our findings offer strong evidence for the glioblastoma-targeting potential of CREKA-micelles and provide the foundation for CREKA-mediated, targeted therapy of glioma. PMID:24211079

  12. Effect of counterions on the shape, hydration, and degree of order at the interface of cationic micelles: the triflate case.

    PubMed

    Lima, Filipe S; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Horinek, Dominik; Amaral, Lia Q; Riske, Karin A; Schreier, Shirley; Salinas, Roberto K; Bastos, Erick L; Pires, Paulo A R; Bozelli, José Carlos; Favaro, Denize C; Rodrigues, Ana Clara B; Dias, Luís Gustavo; El Seoud, Omar A; Chaimovich, Hernan

    2013-04-02

    Specific ion effects in surfactant solutions affect the properties of micelles. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), bromide (DTAB), and methanesulfonate (DTAMs) micelles are typically spherical, but some organic anions can induce shape or phase transitions in DTA(+) micelles. Above a defined concentration, sodium triflate (NaTf) induces a phase separation in dodecyltrimethylammonium triflate (DTATf) micelles, a phenomenon rarely observed in cationic micelles. This unexpected behavior of the DTATf/NaTf system suggests that DTATf aggregates have unusual properties. The structural properties of DTATf micelles were analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence quenching, small-angle X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance and compared with those of DTAC, DTAB, and DTAMs micelles. Compared to the other micelle types, the DTATf micelles had a higher average number of monomers per aggregate, an uncommon disk-like shape, smaller interfacial hydration, and restricted monomer chain mobility. Molecular dynamic simulations supported these observations. Even small water-soluble salts can profoundly affect micellar properties; our data demonstrate that the -CF3 group in Tf(-) was directly responsible for the observed shape changes by decreasing interfacial hydration and increasing the degree of order of the surfactant chains in the DTATf micelles.

  13. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  14. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergenicity of casein containing chalk in milk allergic schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Larramendi, Carlos H; Marco, Francisco M; Llombart, Mónica; de la Vega, Ana; Chiner, Eusebi; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Sempere, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Nondietary exposure to milk proteins may be a risk for children who do not outgrow milk allergy by school age. To study the allergenicity of casein containing chalk. A 6-year-old, milk allergic child developed asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis while in school. The suspected cause was dust-free chalk containing casein. To study the relationship of dust-free chalk containing casein with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, 13 additional milk allergic patients were studied: 3 school-aged children, 8 preschool-aged infants, and 2 children with outgrown milk allergy. Skin tests and/or specific IgE with chalk and casein were performed. A chalk use test was performed in older children. Milk allergens contained in chalk were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblot, and IgE inhibition experiments. All school-aged, milk allergic children were exposed to chalk and reported symptoms attributed to chalk exposure. The skin test result to chalk was positive in 5 of 12 cases, and the specific IgE test result was positive in all 12 study participants in which it was performed. Casein strongly inhibited the binding of IgE to chalk. Chalk sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed proteins with molecular weight similar to caseins. Immunoblot demonstrated strong binding of IgE to chalk in a blurred pattern and a band at 30 kDa, inhibited by casein. The chalk challenge test result was positive in 2 school-age children who had a positive skin test result to chalk. Their symptoms improved after avoidance of chalk in the school. In 2 other cases in which the challenge test result was negative, chalk was reintroduced without problems. Inhalation of chalk dust containing casein can induce asthma symptoms in milk allergic patients. Hidden and nondietary sources of exposure should always be considered in food allergic patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Phase behaviour of oat β-glucan/sodium caseinate mixtures varying in molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Agbenorhevi, Jacob K; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The isothermal phase behaviour at 5 °C of mixtures of sodium caseinate and oat β-glucan isolates varying in molecular weight (MW) was investigated by means of phase diagram construction, rheometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrophoresis. Phase diagrams indicated that the compatibility of the β-glucan/sodium caseinate system increases as β-glucan MW decreases. Images of mixtures taken at various biopolymer concentrations revealed phase separated domains. Results also revealed that at the state of thermodynamic equilibrium, lower MW samples yielded considerable viscosity in the mixture. At equivalent hydrodynamic volume of β-glucan in the mixtures, samples varying in molecular weight exhibited similar flow behaviour. A deviation dependent on the protein concentration was observed for the high MW sample in the concentrated regime due to the size of β-glucan aggregates formed. Results demonstrate that by controlling the structural features of β-glucan in mixtures with sodium caseinate, informed manipulation of rheological properties in these systems can be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Casein mediated green synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Tammina, Sai Kumar; Kiran Kumar, H. A.

    This research is mainly focusing on one-step biosynthesis of graphene from graphene oxide and its stabilization using naturally occurring milk protein, casein. The synthesis of casein reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) was completed within 7 h under reflux at 90 °C with the formation of few layered fine graphene nanosheets. UV-Vis, XRD, XPS analysis data revealed the reduction process of the graphene oxide. Results of FT-IR, HPLC and TEM analysis have shown that the ensuing material consists of graphene decorated with casein molecules. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid residue present in casein molecules are responsible for the reduction of graphene oxide.

  18. Characterization of casein and poly-l-arginine multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability, while the XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers.

  19. Branching, Chain Scission, and Solution Stability of Worm-Like Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Greg; Vogtt, Karsten; Jiang, Hanqui

    As salt is added to a simple micelle solution such as SDS or SLES, the zero shear rate specific viscosity rises rapidly followed by a maximum and decay. The rapid rise in viscosity is associated with formation of elliptical and extended chain worm-like micelles, WLMs. Entanglement of these long chain micelles leads to the viscoelastic behavior we associate with shampoo and body wash. The plateau and drop in viscosity at high salt concentrations is caused by a special type of topological branching where the branch points have no energy penalty to motion along the chain according to Cates theory. These have some similarity to catenane crosslinks. Predictive dynamic theories for WLMs rely on structural details; the diameter, persistence length, contour length, branch length, segment length between branch points, and mesh size. Further, since the contour length and other large scale features are in kinetic equilibrium, with frequent chain breakage and formation, the thermodynamics of these long chain structures are of interest both in terms of chain scission as well as in terms of the stability of the colloidal solution as a whole. Recent structural studies of WLMs using static neutron scattering based on new scattering models will be presented demonstrating that these input parameters for dynamic models of complex topological systems are quantitatively and directly available. In this context it is important to consider a comparison between dynamic features, for instance entanglement, and their static analogs, chain overlap.

  20. Sodium caseinate stabilized zein colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Bouwens, Elisabeth C M; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2010-12-08

    The present work deals with the preparation and stabilization of zein colloidal particles using sodium caseinate as electrosteric stabilizer. Colloidal particles with well-defined size range (120-150 nm) and negative surface potential (-29 to -47 mV) were obtained using a simple antisolvent precipitation method. Due to the presence of caseinate, the stabilized colloidal particles showed a shift of isoelectric point (IEP) from 6.0 to around pH 5.0 and thus prevent the aggregation of zein near its native IEP (pH 6.2). The particles also showed good stability to varying ionic strength (15 mM-1.5 M NaCl). Furthermore, stabilized particles retained the property of redispersibility after drying. In vitro protein hydrolysis study confirmed that the presence of caseinate did not alter the digestibility of zein. Such colloidal particles could potentially serve as all-natural delivery systems for bioactive molecules in food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural formulations.

  1. Novel thermosensitive polymeric micelles for docetaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Ding, Yitao; Zhang, Leyang; Qian, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui

    2007-06-15

    Targeted delivery of antitumor drugs triggered by hyperthermia has significant advantages in clinical applications, since it is easy to implement and side effects are reduced. To release drugs site-specifically upon local heating often requires the drugs to be loaded into a thermosensitive polymer matrix with a low critical solution temperature (LCST) between 37 and 42 degrees C. However, the LCSTs of most thermosensitive materials were below 37 degrees C, which limits their application in clinic because they would precipitate once injected into human body and lost thermal targeting function. Herein, we prepared a novel thermosensitive copolymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide)-b-poly (DL-lactide)) that exhibits no obvious physical change up to 41 degrees C when heated. Docetaxel loaded micelles made of such thermosensitive polymer were prepared by dialysis method and the maximum loading content was found to be up to 27%. The physical properties, such as structure, morphology, and size distribution of the micelles with and without docetaxel were investigated by NMR, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, etc. The efficacy of this drug delivery system was also evaluated by examining the proliferation inhibiting activity against different cell lines in vitro. After hyperthermia, the cytotoxicity of docetaxel-loaded micelles increased prominently. Our results demonstrated that this copolymer could be an ideal candidate for thermal targeted antitumor drug delivery. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neutral Polymeric Micelles for RNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, Brittany B.; Convertine, Anthony; Miteva, Martina; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) drugs have significant therapeutic potential but delivery systems with appropriate efficacy and toxicity profiles are still needed. Here, we describe a neutral, ampholytic polymeric delivery system based on conjugatable diblock polymer micelles. The diblock copolymer contains a hydrophilic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-co-N-(2-(pyridin-2- yldisulfanyl)ethyl)methacrylamide) (poly[HPMA-co-PDSMA]) segment to promote aqueous stability and facilitate thiol-disulfide exchange reactions, and a second ampholytic block composed of propyl acrylic acid (PAA), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and butyl methacrylate (BMA). The poly[(HPMA-co-PDSMA)-b-(PAA-co-DMAEMA-co-BMA)] was synthesized using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization with an overall molecular weight of 22,000 g/mol and a PDI of 1.88. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence measurements indicated that the diblock copolymers self-assemble under aqueous conditions to form polymeric micelles with a hydrodynamic radius and critical micelle concentration of 25 nm and 25 μg/mL respectively. Red blood cell hemolysis experiments show that the neutral hydrophilic micelles have potent membrane destabilizing activity at endosomal pH values. Thiolated siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was directly conjugated to the polymeric micelles via thiol exchange reactions with the pyridal disulfide groups present in the micelle corona. Maximum silencing activity in HeLa cells was observed at a 1:10 molar ratio of siRNA to polymer following a 48 h incubation period. Under these conditions 90 % mRNA knockdown and 65 % and protein knockdown of at 48 h was achieved with negligible toxicity. In contrast the polymeric micelles lacking a pH-responsive endosomalytic segment demonstrated negligible mRNA and protein knockdown under these conditions. The potent mRNA knockdown and excellent biocompatibility of the neutral siRNA conjugates

  3. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Temperature-dependent micellar structures in poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer solutions near the critical micelle temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Joona; Viswanathan, Karthik; Lodge, Timothy P.; Park, Moon Jeong; Char, Kookheon

    2004-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the micelle structures formed by poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) diblock copolymers in the selective solvents diethyl phthalate (DEP) and tetradecane (C14), which are selective for the PS and PI blocks, respectively, have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Two nearly symmetric SI diblock copolymers, one with a perdeuterated PS block and the other with a perdeuterated PI block, were examined in both DEP and C14. The SANS scattering length density of the solvent was matched closely to either the core or the corona block. The resulting core and corona contrast data were fitted with a detailed model developed by Pedersen and co-workers. The fits provide quantitative information on micellar characteristics such as aggregation number, core size, overall size, solvent fraction in the core, and corona thickness. As temperature increases, the solvent selectivity decreases, leading to substantial solvent swelling of the core and a decrease in the aggregation number and core size. Both core and corona chains are able to relax their conformations near the critical micelle temperature due to a decrease in the interfacial tension, even though the corona chains are always under good solvent conditions.

  5. Development of biodegradable foamlike materials based on casein and sodium montmorillonite clay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodegradable foamlike materials based on a naturally occurring polymer (casein protein) and sodium montmorillonite clay (Na+-MMT) were produced through a simple freeze-drying process. By utilizing DL-glyceraldehyde (GC) as a chemical cross-linking agent, the structural integrity of these new aeroge...

  6. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Glutathione-responsive core cross-linked micelles for controlled cabazitaxel delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoxiong; Gong, Feirong; Sun, Jing; Li, Yueqi; Liu, XiaoFei; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianwen; Shen, Yaling

    2018-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) have recently received attention due to the controlled delivery of drug or gene for application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this work, novel glutathione-responsive PMs were prepared to encapsulate hydrophobic antineoplastic drug, cabazitaxel (CTX), to improve its solubility and toxicity. These CTX-loaded micelles core cross-linked by disulfide bonds (DCL-CTX micelles) were prepared by a novel copolymer, lipoic acid grafted mPEG-PLA. These micelles had regular spherical shape, homogeneous diameter of 18.97 ± 0.23 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The DCL-CTX micelles showed high encapsulation efficiency of 98.65 ± 1.77%, and the aqueous solubility of CTX was improved by a factor of 1:1200. In vitro release investigation showed that DCL-CTX micelles were stable in the medium without glutathione (GSH), whereas the micelles had burst CTX release in the medium with 10 mM GSH. Cell uptake results implied that DCL-CTX micelles were internalized into MCF-7 cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and released cargo more effectively than Jevtana (commercially available CTX) owing to GSH-stimulated degradation. In MTT assay against MCF-7 cells, these micelles inhibited tumor cell proliferation more effectively than Jevtana due to their GSH-responsive CTX release. All results revealed the potency of GSH-responsive DCL-CTX micelles for stable delivery in blood circulation and for intracellular GSH-trigged release of CTX. Therefore, DCL-CTX micelles show potential as safe and effective CTX delivery carriers and as a cancer chemotherapy formulation.

  8. Fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles for targeting glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Ji; Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Nord, Kathryn; Han, Yu; Wegscheid, Michelle L; Auffinger, Brenda; Wainwright, Derek A; Lesniak, Maciej S; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma-targeted drug delivery systems facilitate efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant gliomas, while minimizing systemic toxicity and side effects. Taking advantage of the fibrin deposition that is characteristic of tumors, we constructed spherical, Cy7-labeled, targeting micelles to glioblastoma through the addition of the fibrin-binding pentapeptide, cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine, or CREKA. Conjugation of the CREKA peptide to Cy7-micelles increased the average particle size and zeta potential. Upon intravenous administration to GL261 glioma bearing mice, Cy7-micelles passively accumulated at the brain tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and Cy7-CREKA-micelles displayed enhanced tumor homing via active targeting as early as 1 h after administration, as confirmed via in vivo and ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution of micelles showed an accumulation within the liver and kidneys, leading to micelle elimination via renal clearance and the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Histological evaluation showed no signs of cytotoxicity or tissue damage, confirming the safety and utility of this nanoparticle system for delivery to glioblastoma. Our findings offer strong evidence for the glioblastoma-targeting potential of CREKA-micelles and provide the foundation for CREKA-mediated, targeted therapy of glioma. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Micelle structure in a deep eutectic solvent: a small-angle scattering study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Edler, K J; Arnold, T; Heenan, R K; Porcar, L; Terrill, N J; Terry, A E; Jackson, A J

    2016-05-18

    In recent years many studies into green solvents have been undertaken and deep eutectic solvents (DES) have emerged as sustainable and green alternatives to conventional solvents since they may be formed from cheap non-toxic organic precursors. In this study we examine amphiphile behaviour in these novel media to test our understanding of amphiphile self-assembly within environments that have an intermediate polarity between polar and non-polar extremes. We have built on our recently published results to present a more detailed structural characterisation of micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) within the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. Here we show that SDS adopts an unusual cylindrical aggregate morphology, unlike that seen in water and other polar solvents. A new morphology transition to shorter aggregates was found with increasing concentration. The self-assembly of SDS was also investigated in the presence of water; which promotes the formation of shorter aggregates.

  10. Peptide-conjugated micelles as a targeting nanocarrier for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen Jen; Chien, Wei Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated micelles possessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting ability for gene delivery. A sequence-modified dodecylpeptide, GE11(2R), with enhancing EGF receptor binding affinity, was applied in this study as a targeting ligand. The active targeting micelles were composed of poly( d,l-lactide- co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) copolymer conjugated with GE11(2R)-peptide. The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated micelles were 277.0 ± 5.1 and 308.7 ± 14.5 nm, respectively. The peptide-conjugated micelles demonstrated the cellular uptake significantly higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells due to GE11(2R)-peptide specificity. Furthermore, the peptide-conjugated micelles were able to encapsulate plasmid DNA and expressed cellular transfection higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed cells. The EGFR-targeting delivery micelles enhanced DNA internalized into cells and achieved higher cellular transfection in EGFR high-expressed cells.

  11. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling Coupled with Molecular Docking Analysis in Screening of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Qula Casein Hydrolysates Obtained by Two-Enzyme Combination Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue; Meng, Zhaoxu; Zhang, Jianming; Wu, Yifan; Cheng, Dayou

    2018-03-28

    In this study, Qula casein derived from yak milk casein was hydrolyzed using a two-enzyme combination approach, and high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity peptides were screened by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling integrated with molecular docking analysis. Hydrolysates (<3 kDa) derived from combinations of thermolysin + alcalase and thermolysin + proteinase K demonstrated high ACE inhibitory activities. Peptide sequences in hydrolysates derived from these two combinations were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). On the basis of the QSAR modeling prediction, a total of 16 peptides were selected for molecular docking analysis. The docking study revealed that four of the peptides (KFPQY, MPFPKYP, MFPPQ, and QWQVL) bound the active site of ACE. These four novel peptides were chemically synthesized, and their IC 50 was determined. Among these peptides, KFPQY showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 12.37 ± 0.43 μM). Our study indicated that Qula casein presents an excellent source to produce ACE inhibitory peptides.

  12. Influence of gold nanoparticles of varying size in improving the lipase activity within cationic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subhabrata; Das, Dibyendu; Shome, Anshupriya; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2010-02-08

    Herein, we report the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in enhancing lipase activity in reverse micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water/isooctane/n-hexanol. The size and concentration of the nanoparticles were varied and their specific roles were assessed in detail. An overall enhancement of activity was observed in the GNP-doped CTAB reverse micelles. The improvement in activity becomes more prominent with increasing concentration and size of the GNPs (0-52 microM and ca. 3-30 nm, respectively). The observed highest lipase activity (k(2)=1070+/-12 cm(3) g(-1) s(-1)) in GNP-doped CTAB reverse micelles ([GNP]: 52 microm, ca. 20 nm) is 2.5-fold higher than in CTAB reverse micelles without GNPs. Improvement in the lipase activity is only specific to the GNP-doped reverse micellar media, whereas GNP deactivates and structurally deforms the enzyme in aqueous media. The reason for this activation is probably due to the formation of larger-sized reverse micelles in which the GNP acts as a polar core and the surfactants aggregate around the nanoparticle ('GNP pool') instead of only water. Lipase at the augmented interface of the GNP-doped reverse micelle showed improved activity because of enhancement in both the substrate and enzyme concentrations and increased flexibility in the lipase conformation. The extent of the activation is greater in the case of the larger-sized GNPs. A correlation has been established between the activity of lipase and its secondary structure by using circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The generalized influence of GNP is verified in the reverse micelles of another surfactant, namely, cetyltripropylammonium bromide (CTPAB). TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis were utilized to characterize the GNPs and the organized aggregates. For the first time, CTAB-based reverse micelles have been found to be an excellent host for lipase simply by doping with appropriately sized GNPs.

  13. Patchy micelles based on coassembly of block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuzhe; Li, Zhan-Wei; Zhao, Hanying

    2015-04-14

    Patchy particles are a type of colloidal particles with one or more well-defined patches on the surfaces. The patchy particles with multiple compositions and functionalities have found wide applications from the fundamental studies to practical uses. In this research patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were prepared based on coassembly of free block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles. Thiol-terminated and cyanoisopropyl-capped polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block copolymers (PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and chemical modifications. Pyridyl disulfide-functionalized silica particles (SiO2-SS-Py) were prepared by four-step surface chemical reactions. PS-b-PNIPAM brushes on silica particles were prepared by thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and SiO2-SS-Py. Surface micelles on silica particles were prepared by coassembly of PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP and block copolymer brushes. Upon cleavage of the surface micelles from silica particles, patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were obtained. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta-potential measurements demonstrate the preparation of patchy micelles. Gold nanoparticles can be anchored onto the patchy micelles through S-Au bonds, and asymmetric hybrid structures are formed. The thiol groups can be oxidized to disulfides, which results in directional assembly of the patchy micelles. The self-assembly behavior of the patchy micelles was studied experimentally and by computer simulation.

  14. Structure formation in pH-sensitive hydrogels composed of sodium caseinate and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanxia; Xie, Rui; Lin, Yanbin; Xu, Yunfei; Wang, Fengxia; Liang, Wanfu; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The pH-sensitive hydrogels composed of sodium caseinate (SC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) were prepared and a new method to characterize the gelation process was presented in this work. Reological tests suggested that RSC/NOCC=3/7 (the weight ratio of SC and NOCC) was the best ratio of hydrogel. The well-developed three-dimensional network structures in the hydrogel were confirmed by AFM. Two structural parameters, tIS and tCS, denoted as the initial and critical structure formation time, respectively, were used to provide an exact determination of the start of structure formation and description of gelation process. The gelation process strongly depended on temperature changes, a high temperature resulted in an early start of gelation. The non-kinetic model suggested the higher activation energy in the higher temperatures was disadvantageous to structure formation, and vice versa. Due to the smart gel reported here was very stable at room temperature, we believed that the gel is required for applications in drug delivery or could be exploited in the development of potential application as molecular switches in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of casein gene complex and genetic diversity analysis in Indian goats.

    PubMed

    Rout, P K; Kumar, A; Mandal, A; Laloe, D; Singh, S K; Roy, R

    2010-04-01

    Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), alphaS2-CN (CSN1S2), kappa-CN (CSN3), beta-LG, and alpha-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The alphaS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 +/- 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 +/- 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by alphaS2-CN, beta-LG and alphaS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk.

  16. Evaluation of Doxorubicin-loaded 3-Helix Micelles as Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Nikhil; Shu, Jessica Y.; Dong, He; Seo, Jai W.; Ingham, Elizabeth; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Xu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Designing stable drug nanocarriers, 10-30 nm in size, would have significant impact on their transport in circulation, tumor penetration and therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, biological properties of 3-helix micelles loaded with 8 wt% doxorubicin (DOX), ~15 nm in size, were characterized to validate their potential as a nanocarrier platform. DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high stability in terms of size and drug retention in concentrated protein environments similar to conditions after intravenous injections. DOX-loaded micelles were cytotoxic to PPC-1 and 4T1 cancer cells at levels comparable to free DOX. 3-helix micelles can be disassembled by proteolytic degradation of peptide shell to enable drug release and clearance to minimize long-term accumulation. Local administration to normal rat striatum by convection enhanced delivery (CED) showed greater extent of drug distribution and reduced toxicity relative to free drug. Intravenous administration of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles demonstrated improved tumor half-life and reduced toxicity to healthy tissues in comparison to free DOX. In vivo delivery of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles through two different routes clearly indicates the potential of 3-helix micelles as safe and effective nanocarriers for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24050265

  17. Cationizable lipid micelles as vehicles for intraarterial glioma treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Juliane; Cooke, Johann R N; Ellis, Jason A; Deci, Michael; Emala, Charles W; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Bigio, Irving J; Straubinger, Robert M; Joshi, Shailendra

    2016-05-01

    The relative abundance of anionic lipids on the surface of endothelia and on glioma cells suggests a workable strategy for selective drug delivery by utilizing cationic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the extracellular pH of gliomas is relatively acidic suggesting that tumor selectivity could be further enhanced if nanoparticles can be designed to cationize in such an environment. With these motivating hypotheses the objective of this study was to determine whether nanoparticulate (20 nm) micelles could be designed to improve their deposition within gliomas in an animal model. To test this, we performed intra-arterial injection of micelles labeled with an optically quantifiable dye. We observed significantly greater deposition (end-tissue concentration) of cationizable micelles as compared to non-ionizable micelles in the ipsilateral hemisphere of normal brains. More importantly, we noted enhanced deposition of cationizable as compared to non-ionizable micelles in glioma tissue as judged by semiquantitative fluorescence analysis. Micelles were generally able to penetrate to the core of the gliomas tested. Thus we conclude that cationizable micelles may be constructed as vehicles for facilitating glioma-selective delivery of compounds after intraarterial injection.

  18. Hypoallergenic and Physicochemical Properties of the A2 β-Casein Fractionof Goat Milk.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ahn, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Goat milk has a protein composition similar to that of breast milk and contains abundant nutrients, but its use in functional foods is rather limited in comparison to milk from other sources. The aim of this study was to prepare a goat A2 β-casein fraction with improved digestibility and hypoallergenic properties. We investigated the optimal conditions for the separation of A2 β-casein fraction from goat milk by pH adjustment to pH 4.4 and treating the casein suspension with calcium chloride (0.05 M for 1 h at 25°C). Selective reduction of β-lactoglobulin and α s -casein was confirmed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The hypoallergenic property of A2 β-casein fraction was examined by measuring the release of histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha from HMC-1 human mast cells exposed to different proteins, including A2 β-casein fraction. There was no significant difference in levels of both indicators between A2 β-casein treatment and the control (no protein treatment). The A2 β-casein fraction is abundant in essential amino acids, especially, branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine). The physicochemical properties of A2 β-casein fraction, including protein solubility and viscosity, are similar to those of bovine whole casein which is widely used as a protein source in various foods. Therefore, the goat A2 β-casein fraction may be useful as a food material with good digestibility and hypoallergenic properties for infants, the elderly, and people with metabolic disorders.

  19. Nucleotide sequences of bovine alpha S1- and kappa-casein cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A F; Willis, I M; Mackinlay, A G

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences corresponding to bovine alpha S1- and kappa-casein mRNAs are presented. An unusual alpha S1-casein cDNA has been characterised whose 5' end commences upstream from its putative TATA box. The alpha S1-casein mRNA is compared to rat alpha-casein mRNA and two components of divergence are identified. Firstly, the two sequences have diverged at a high point mutation rate and the rate of amino acid replacement by this mechanism is at least as great as the rate of divergence of any other part of the mRNAs. Secondly, the protein coding sequence has been subjected to several insertion/deletion events, one of which may be an example of exon shuffling . The kappa-casein mRNA sequence verifies the proposition that it has arisen from a different ancestral gene to the other caseins. Images PMID:6328443

  20. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Alginate/sodium caseinate aqueous-core capsules: a pH-responsive matrix.

    PubMed

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Jacquot, Adrien; Probst, Laurent; Desobry, Stéphane

    2015-02-15

    Alginate capsules have several applications. Their functionality depends considerably on their permeability, chemical and mechanical stability. Consequently, the creation of composite system by addition of further components is expected to control mechanical and release properties of alginate capsules. Alginate and alginate-sodium caseinate composite liquid-core capsules were prepared by a simple extrusion. The influence of the preparation pH and sodium caseinate concentration on capsules physico-chemical properties was investigated. Results showed that sodium caseinate influenced significantly capsules properties. As regards to the membrane mechanical stability, composite capsules prepared at pH below the isoelectric point of sodium caseinate exhibited the highest surface Young's modulus, increasing with protein content, explained by potential electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate amino-groups and alginate carboxylic group. The kinetic of cochineal red A release changed significantly for composite capsules and showed a pH-responsive release. Sodium caseinate-dye mixture studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed complex formation at pH 2 by electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate tryptophan residues and cochineal red sulfonate-groups. Consequently, the release mechanism was explained by membrane adsorption process. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism from macro and micro-capsules by incorporating guest molecules which can interact with the entrapped molecule under specific conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of three types of human alpha s1-casein mRNA transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, L B; Rasmussen, L K; Petersen, T E; Berglund, L

    1995-01-01

    Here we report the molecular cloning and sequencing of three types of human alpha s1-casein transcripts and present evidence indicating that exon skipping is responsible for deleted mRNA transcripts. The largest transcript comprised 981 bp encoding a signal peptide of 15 amino acids followed by the mature alpha s1-casein sequence of 170 amino acids. Human alpha s1-casein has been reported to exist naturally as a multimer in complex with kappa-casein in mature human milk, thereby being unique among alpha s1-caseins [Rasmussen, Due and Petersen (1995) Comp. Biochem. Physiol., in the press]. The present demonstration of three cysteines in the mature protein provides a molecular explanation of the interactions in this complex. Tissue-specific expression of human alpha s1-casein was indicated by Northern-blot analysis. In addition, two cryptic exons were localized in the bovine alpha s1-casein gene. Images Figure 3 PMID:7619062

  3. Block copolymer micelles for controlled delivery of glycolytic enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shanjida; Clem, Brian F; Lee, Hyun Jin; Chesney, Jason; Bae, Younsoo

    2012-03-01

    To develop block copolymer micelles as an aqueous dosage form for a potent glycolytic enzyme inhibitor, 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3PO). The micelles were prepared from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate hydrazide) [PEG-p(HYD)] block copolymers to which 3PO was conjugated through an acid-labile hydrazone bond. The optimal micelle formulation was determined following the screening of block copolymer library modified with various aromatic and aliphatic pendant groups. Both physical drug entrapment and chemical drug conjugation methods were tested to maximize 3PO loading in the micelles during the screening. Particulate characterization showed that the PEG-p(HYD) block copolymers conjugated with 3PO (2.08∼2.21 wt.%) appeared the optimal polymer micelles. Block copolymer compositions greatly affected the micelle size, which was 38 nm and 259 nm when 5 kDa and 12 kDa PEG chains were used, respectively. 3PO release from the micelles was accelerated at pH 5.0, potentiating effective drug release in acidic tumor environments. The micelles retained biological activity of 3PO, inhibiting various cancer cells (Jurkat, He-La and LLC) in concentration ranges similar to free 3PO. A novel micelle formulation for controlled delivery of 3PO was successfully prepared.

  4. The bioactive effects of casein proteins on enteroendocrine cell health, proliferation and incretin hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Anna L; Green, Brian D

    2016-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that casein exerts various anti-diabetic effects. However, it is not known which casein proteins are bioactive, nor their effects on enteroendocrine cells. This study evaluated the effects of intact whole casein, intact individual proteins (alpha, beta and kappa casein) and hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine cell line. High content analysis accurately monitored changes in cell health and intracellular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content. Cheese ripening duration and GLP-1 secretory responses were also considered. Beta casein significantly stimulated enteroendocrine cell proliferation and all caseins were potent GLP-1 secretagogues (except kappa casein). Interestingly the GLP-1 secretory activity was almost always lost or significantly reduced upon hydrolysis with proteolytic enzymes. Only pepsin-derived beta casein hydrolysates had significantly increased potency compared with the intact protein, but this was diminished with prolonged hydrolysis. In conclusion casein proteins are not detrimental to enteroendocrine cells, and alpha and beta casein are particularly beneficial stimulating proliferation and GLP-1 secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress Report for the First Year (1 January-31 December 1992) on Contract N00014-93-C-0019 (Hawaii Biotechnology Group, Inc.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-10

    resulting from ultracentrifugation reduced the hydrophobicity of the solution, thus allowing improved precipitation of the casein which exists as micelles ...clarification of the whole ferret milk (supplied by Dr. Olgerts Pavlovskis of the Naval Medical Research Institute) for the removal of lipids and casein ...acetic acid until a final pH of 4.6 was achieved. Acidification of he solution precipitated casein (pi=4.6) which was then removed by centrifugation

  6. Nonionic amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: self-assembly into micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Strzelczyk, Karolina Maria; Goswami Shrestha, Rekha; Ichikawa, Kotoko; Aramaki, Kenji; Hill, Jonathan P.; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphiles, molecules that possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, are architecturally simple molecules that can spontaneously self-assemble into complex hierarchical structures from lower to higher dimensions either in the bulk phase or at an interface. Recent developments in multifunctional nanostructure design using the advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics utilize this simple process of assembly. Amphiphilic self-assemblies involving lipids or proteins mimic the structure of biological systems, thus highlighting the necessity of a fundamental physical understanding of amphiphilic self-assembly towards a realization of the complex mechanisms operating in nature. Herein, we describe self-assembled microstructures of biocompatible and biodegradable tetraglycerol lauryl ether (C12G4) nonionic surfactant in an aqueous solvent system. Temperature-composition analyses of equilibrium phases identified by using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provide strong evidence of various spontaneously self-assembled mesostructures, such as normal micelles (Wm), hexagonal liquid crystal (H1), and reverse micelles (Om). In contrast to conventional poly(oxyethylene) nonionic surfactants, C12G4 did not exhibit the clouding phenomenon at higher temperatures (phase separation was not observed up to 100 °C), demonstrating the greater thermal stability of the self-assembled mesophases. Generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) evaluation of the SAXS data confirmed the formation of core-shell-type spherical micelles with a maximum dimension ca. 8.7 nm. The shape and size of the C12G4 micelles remained apparently unchanged over a wide range of concentrations (up to 20%), but intermicellar interactions increased and could be described by the Percus-Yevick (PY) theory (after Carnahan and Starling), which provides a very accurate analytical expression for the osmotic pressure of a monodisperse hard sphere.

  7. Adsorption of hydrophobin/β-casein mixtures at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Tucker, I M; Petkov, J T; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Cox, A R; Hedges, N

    2016-09-15

    The adsorption behaviour of mixtures of the proteins β-casein and hydrophobin at the hydrophilic solid-liquid surface have been studied by neutron reflectivity. The results of measurements from sequential adsorption and co-adsorption from solution are contrasted. The adsorption properties of protein mixtures are important for a wide range of applications. Because of competing factors the adsorption behaviour of protein mixtures at interfaces is often difficult to predict. This is particularly true for mixtures containing hydrophobin as hydrophobin possesses some unusual surface properties. At β-casein concentrations ⩾0.1wt% β-casein largely displaces a pre-adsorbed layer of hydrophobin at the interface, similar to that observed in hydrophobin-surfactant mixtures. In the composition and concentration range studied here for the co-adsorption of β-casein-hydrophobin mixtures the adsorption is dominated by the β-casein adsorption. The results provide an important insight into how the competitive adsorption in protein mixtures of hydrophobin and β-casein can impact upon the modification of solid surface properties and the potential for a wide range of colloid stabilisation applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  9. Nucleotide sequence determination of guinea-pig casein B mRNA reveals homology with bovine and rat alpha s1 caseins and conservation of the non-coding regions of the mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L; Laird, J E; Craig, R K

    1984-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned guinea-pig casein B cDNA sequences has identified two casein B variants related to the bovine and rat alpha s1 caseins. Amino acid homology was largely confined to the known bovine or predicted rat phosphorylation sites and within the 'signal' precursor sequence. Comparison of the deduced nucleotide sequence of the guinea-pig and rat alpha s1 casein mRNA species showed greater sequence conservation in the non-coding than in the coding regions, suggesting a functional and possibly regulatory role for the non-coding regions of casein mRNA. The results provide insight into the evolution of the casein genes, and raise questions as to the role of conserved nucleotide sequences within the non-coding regions of mRNA species. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6548375

  10. Targeted polymeric micelles for delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Torchilin, V P

    2004-10-01

    Polymeric micelles (micelles formed by amphiphilic block copolymers) demonstrate a series of attractive properties as drug carriers, such as high stability both in vitro and in vivo and good biocompatibility, and can be successfully used for the solubilization of various poorly soluble pharmaceuticals. These micelles can also be used as targeted drug delivery systems. The targeting can be achieved via the enhanced permeability and retention effect (into the areas with the compromised vasculature), by making micelles of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic block copolymers, or by attaching specific targeting ligand molecules to the micelle surface. Immunomicelles prepared by coupling monoclonal antibody molecules to p-nitrophenylcarbonyl groups on the water-exposed termini of the micelle corona-forming blocks demonstrate high binding specificity and targetability. Immunomicelles prepared with cancer-specific monoclonal antibody 2C5 specifically bind to different cancer cells in vitro and demonstrate increased therapeutic activity in vivo. This new family of pharmaceutical carriers can be used for the solubilization and targeted delivery of poorly soluble drugs to various pathological sites in the body.

  11. Engineering single-polymer micelle shape using nonuniform spontaneous surface curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles. Our design scheme posits that further shapes are attained by altering the segment lengths. As a first study of the power of this scheme, we demonstrate the capacity to produce long-lived micelles of horseshoe form using conventional bead-spring simulations in two dimensions. Modest changes in the segment lengths produce smooth changes in the micelle's shape and stability.

  12. Protons in non-ionic aqueous reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Javier; Martí, Jordi; Guàrdia, Elvira; Laria, Daniel

    2007-05-03

    Using molecular dynamics techniques, we investigate the solvation of an excess proton within an aqueous reverse micelle in vacuo, with the neutral surfactant diethylene glycol monodecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OC2H4)2OH]. The simulation experiments were performed using a multistate empirical valence bond Hamiltonian model. Our results show that the stable solvation environments for the excess proton are located in the water-surfactant interface and that its first solvation shell is composed exclusively by water molecules. The relative prevalence of Eigen- versus Zundel-like solvation structures is investigated; compared to bulk results, Zundel-like structures in micelles become somewhat more stable. Characteristic times for the proton translocation jumps have been computed using population relaxation time correlation functions. The micellar rate for proton transfer is approximately 40x smaller than that found in bulk water at ambient conditions. Differences in the computed rates are examined in terms of the hydrogen-bond connectivity involving the first solvation shell of the excess charge with the rest of the micellar environment. Simulation results would indicate that proton transfers are correlated with rare episodes during which the HB connectivity between the first and second solvation shells suffers profound modifications.

  13. Intelligent polymeric micelles: development and application as drug delivery for docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimu; Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Guang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Recent years, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded intelligent polymeric micelles have been regarded as a promising vehicle for DTX for the reason that compared with conventional DTX-loaded micelles, DTX-loaded intelligent micelles not only preserve the basic functions of micelles such as DTX solubilization, enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue, and improved bioavailability and biocompatibility of DTX, but also possess other new properties, for instance, tumor-specific DTX delivery and series of responses to endogenous or exogenous stimulations. In this paper, basic theories and action mechanism of intelligent polymeric micelles are discussed in detail, especially the related theories of DTX-loaded stimuli-responsive micelles. The relevant examples of stimuli-responsive DTX-loaded micelles are also provided in this paper to sufficiently illustrate the advantages of relevant technology for the clinical application of anticancer drug, especially for the medical application of DTX.

  14. Reduction-responsive PEtOz-SS-PCL micelle with tailored size to overcome blood-brain barrier and enhance doxorubicin antiglioma effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuling; Baiyang, Li; Leran, Bu; Zhen, Wang; Yandong, Xie; Baixiang, Du; Dandan, Zhu; Yufu, Zhu; Jun, Liang; Rutong, Yu; Hongmei, Liu

    2017-11-01

    A series of novel reduction-responsive micelles with tailored size were designed and prepared to release doxorubicin (DOX) for treating glioma, which were developed based on amphiphilic block copolymer poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PEtOz-SS-PCL) and the micelle size could be regulated by designing the polymer structure. The DOX-loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL micelles had small size and rapid drug release in reductive intracellular environments. Biodistribution and in vivo imaging studies in C6 glioma mice tumor model showed that DOX loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL43 micelles with the smallest size had superior accumulation and fast drug release in tumor sites. In vivo antitumor activity demonstrated that DOX-loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL43 micelles improved antitumor efficacy in contrast to PEtOz-SS-PCL micelles with larger size toward the orthotopic C6-Luci cells-bearing mice. This study shows great potential in tailoring the micelle size and introducing the responsive bonds or compartment for intracellular drug delivery and release in glioma treatment by designing the architecture of the polymer.

  15. pH and redox-responsive mixed micelles for enhanced intracellular drug release.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mengtan; Zhu, Kun; Qiu, Yongbin; Liu, Xinrong; Chen, Yuanwei; Luo, Xianglin

    2014-04-01

    In order to prepare pH and redox sensitive micelles, amphiphilic copolymers of poly (epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PCL-PDEA) and disulfide-linked poly(ethyl glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-SS-PCL) were synthesized. The double-sensitive micelles were prepared simply by solvent-evaporating method with the mixed two copolymers. The pH sensitivity of the mixed micelles was confirmed by the change of micelle diameter/diameter distribution measured by dynamic lighting scattering (DLS) and the redox sensitivity of the mixed micelles was testified by the change of micellar morphous observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro drug release showed that drug-loaded mixed micelles (mass ratio 5:5) could achieve above 90% of drug release under low pH and reducing condition within 10h. Moreover, the drug-loaded mixed micelles (mass ratio 5:5) showed the largest cellular toxicity compared with other drug-loaded micelles, while blank mixed micelles exhibited no toxicity. These results meant that the mixed micelles composed by the two amphiphilic copolymers can enhance intracellular drug release. It is concluded that the newly developed mixed micelles can serve as a potential drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Micelle-templated composite quantum dots for super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianquan; Fan, Qirui; Mahajan, Kalpesh D; Ruan, Gang; Herrington, Andrew; Tehrani, Kayvan F; Kner, Peter; Winter, Jessica O

    2014-05-16

    Quantum dots (QDs) have tremendous potential for biomedical imaging, including super-resolution techniques that permit imaging below the diffraction limit. However, most QDs are produced via organic methods, and hence require surface treatment to render them water-soluble for biological applications. Previously, we reported a micelle-templating method that yields nanocomposites containing multiple core/shell ZnS-CdSe QDs within the same nanocarrier, increasing overall particle brightness and virtually eliminating QD blinking. Here, this technique is extended to the encapsulation of Mn-doped ZnSe QDs (Mn-ZnSe QDs), which have potential applications in super-resolution imaging as a result of the introduction of Mn(2+) dopant energy levels. The size, shape and fluorescence characteristics of these doped QD-micelles were compared to those of micelles created using core/shell ZnS-CdSe QDs (ZnS-CdSe QD-micelles). Additionally, the stability of both types of particles to photo-oxidation was investigated. Compared to commercial QDs, micelle-templated QDs demonstrated superior fluorescence intensity, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and greater stability against photo-oxidization,while reducing blinking. Additionally, the fluorescence of doped QD-micelles could be modulated from a bright 'on' state to a dark 'off' state, with a modulation depth of up to 76%, suggesting the potential of doped QD-micelles for applications in super-resolution imaging.

  17. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Erigala, Venkata R; Dasari, Madhuri; Yu, Junhua; Dickson, Robert M; Murthy, Niren

    2008-01-01

    The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the progress of numerous life-threatening diseases and there is a great need for the development of contrast agents that can detect hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this communication, we present a new contrast agent for hydrogen peroxide, termed peroxalate micelles, which detect hydrogen peroxide through chemiluminescence, and have the physical/chemical properties needed for in vivo imaging applications. The peroxalate micelles are composed of amphiphilic peroxalate based copolymers and the fluorescent dye rubrene, they have a ‘stealth’ polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona to evade macrophage phagocytosis, and a diameter of 33 nm to enhance extravasation into permeable tissues. The peroxalate micelles can detect nanomolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>50 nM) and thus have the sensitivity needed to detect physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We anticipate numerous applications of the peroxalate micelles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high sensitivity, small size, and biocompatible PEG corona. PMID:19337415

  18. Self-consistent-field calculations of proteinlike incorporations in polyelectrolyte complex micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem; Leermakers, Frans A. M.

    2009-11-01

    Self-consistent field theory is applied to model the structure and stability of polyelectrolyte complex micelles with incorporated protein (molten globule) molecules in the core. The electrostatic interactions that drive the micelle formation are mimicked by nearest-neighbor interactions using Flory-Huggins χ parameters. The strong qualitative comparison with experimental data proves that the Flory-Huggins approach is reasonable. The free energy of insertion of a proteinlike molecule into the micelle is nonmonotonic: there is (i) a small repulsion when the protein is inside the corona; the height of the insertion barrier is determined by the local osmotic pressure and the elastic deformation of the core, (ii) a local minimum occurs when the protein molecule is at the core-corona interface; the depth (a few kBT ’s) is related to the interfacial tension at the core-corona interface and (iii) a steep repulsion (several kBT ) when part of the protein molecule is dragged into the core. Hence, the protein molecules reside preferentially at the core-corona interface and the absorption as well as the release of the protein molecules has annealed rather than quenched characteristics. Upon an increase of the ionic strength it is possible to reach a critical micellization ionic (CMI) strength. With increasing ionic strength the aggregation numbers decrease strongly and only few proteins remain associated with the micelles near the CMI.

  19. Polymeric Micelles in Anticancer Therapy: Targeting, Imaging and Triggered Release

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Wouter; Bos, Mariska; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, J. Frank W.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Micelles are colloidal particles with a size around 5–100 nm which are currently under investigation as carriers for hydrophobic drugs in anticancer therapy. Currently, five micellar formulations for anticancer therapy are under clinical evaluation, of which Genexol-PM has been FDA approved for use in patients with breast cancer. Micelle-based drug delivery, however, can be improved in different ways. Targeting ligands can be attached to the micelles which specifically recognize and bind to receptors overexpressed in tumor cells, and chelation or incorporation of imaging moieties enables tracking micelles in vivo for biodistribution studies. Moreover, pH-, thermo-, ultrasound-, or light-sensitive block copolymers allow for controlled micelle dissociation and triggered drug release. The combination of these approaches will further improve specificity and efficacy of micelle-based drug delivery and brings the development of a ‘magic bullet’ a major step forward. PMID:20725771

  20. Soluplus/TPGS mixed micelles for dioscin delivery in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Ding, Yanfang; Chen, Manyu; Wang, Yifei; Peng, Jinyong; Li, Lei; Lv, Li

    2017-07-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its poor solubility and stability have limited its clinical application. In this study, we designed mixed micelles composed of TPGS and Soluplus ® copolymers entrapping the poorly soluble anticancer drug dioscin. In order to improve the aqueous solubility and bioactivity of dioscin, TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles with an optimal ratio were prepared using a thin-film hydration method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. Cellular cytotoxicity and uptake of the dioscin-loaded TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles were studied in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and A2780s ovarian cancer cells. The pharmacokinetics of free dioscin and dioscin-loaded TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles was studied in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats via a single intravenous injection in the tail vein. The average size of the optimized mixed micelle was 67.15 nm, with 92.59% drug encapsulation efficiency and 4.63% drug loading efficiency. The in vitro release profile showed that the mixed micelles presented sustained release behavior compared to the anhydrous ethanol solution of dioscin. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted on human cancer cell lines including A2780s ovarian cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The mixed micelles exhibited better antitumor activity compared to free dioscin against all cell lines, which may benefit from the significant increase in the cellular uptake of dioscin from mixed micelles compared to free dioscin. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the mixed micelle formulation achieved a 1.3 times longer mean residual time (MRT) in circulation and a 2.16 times larger area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) than the free dioscin solution. Our results suggest that the dioscin-loaded mixed micelles developed in this study might be a potential nano drug-delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Effect of chelators on functionality of milk protein concentrates obtained by ultrafiltration at a constant pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, Lata; Luo, XiaoXia; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-11-01

    Modulating conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk appears to be a feasible strategy to obtain milk protein concentrates (MPC) with tailored functionalities. Adjustment of pH and process temperature attenuated properties of casein micelle resulting in enhanced emulsification capacity. Additional pre-treatment options such as addition of calcium chelators can further impact on the functionality of MPC by modifying the calcium distribution and casein micelle integrity. The objective of the project was to establish effects of pre-treating skim milk with calcium chelators (EDTA or citrate) in concentrations between 10 to 30 mm prior to UF on the physical properties of the feed, corresponding retentates and dried MPC, including particle size, zeta potential and calcium distribution in skim milk and the corresponding retentates, as well as the physical functionalities such as solubility, heat stability and emulsifying properties. Addition of calcium chelators (EDTA or citrate), at levels 20-30 mm concentrations reduced casein micelle size as well as total, soluble and ionic calcium contents that resulted in MPC with enhanced solubility and heat stability. The emulsion capacity was, however, improved only with EDTA at 10 mm concentration. The enhanced functionality is attributed to the reduced particle size resulting from the removal of calcium from the retentate that could modify micellar casein to an extent sufficient to cause such improvements.

  2. Enhanced solubility and targeted delivery of curcumin by lipopeptide micelles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wenlan; Lai, Danyu; Li, Junbo; Fang, Cailin

    2015-01-01

    A lipopeptide (LP)-containing KKGRGDS as the hydrophilic heads and lauric acid (C12) as the hydrophobic tails has been designed and prepared by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis technique. LP can self-assemble into spherical micelles with the size of ~30 nm in PBS (phosphate buffer saline) (pH 7.4). Curcumin-loaded LP micelles were prepared in order to increase the water solubility, sustain the releasing rate, and improve the tumor targeted delivery of curcumin. Water solubility, cytotoxicity, in vitro release behavior, and intracellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LP micelles were investigated. The results showed that LP micelles can increase the water solubility of curcumin 1.1 × 10(3) times and sustain the release of curcumin in a low rate. Curcumin-loaded LP micelles showed much higher cell inhibition than free curcumin on human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) and HepG2 cells. When incubating these curcumin-loaded micelles with HeLa and COS7 cells, due to the over-expression of integrins on cancer cells, the micelles can efficiently use the tumor-targeting function of RGD (functionalized peptide sequences: Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence to deliver the drug into HeLa cells, and better efficiency of the self-assembled LP micelles for curcumin delivery than crude curcumin was also confirmed by LCSM (laser confocal scanning microscope) assays. Combined with the enhanced solubility and higher cell inhibition, LP micelles reported in this study may be promising in clinical application for targeted curcumin delivery.

  3. Stereocomplex micelle from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers efficiently transports antineoplastic drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jixue; Shen, Kexin; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Chunxi; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    Nanoscale polymeric micelles have attracted more and more attention as a promising nanocarrier for controlled delivery of antineoplastic drugs. Herein, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(D-lactide)-based micelle (PDM/DOX), poly(L-lactide)-based micelle (PLM/DOX), and stereocomplex micelle (SCM/DOX) from the equimolar mixture of the enantiomeric four-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PEG-PLA) copolymers were successfully fabricated. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4, SCM/DOX exhibited the smallest hydrodynamic diameter ( D h) of 90 ± 4.2 nm and the slowest DOX release compared with PDM/DOX and PLM/DOX. Moreover, PDM/DOX, PLM/DOX, and SCM/DOX exhibited almost stable D hs of around 115, 105, and 90 nm at above normal physiological condition, respectively, which endowed them with great potential in controlled drug delivery. The intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity after the incubation with the laden micelles was different degrees weaker than that incubated with free DOX · HCl within 12 h, probably due to the slow DOX release from micelles. As the incubation time reached to 24 h, all the cells incubated with the laden micelles, especially SCM/DOX, demonstrated a stronger intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity than free DOX · HCl-cultured ones. More importantly, all the DOX-loaded micelles, especially SCM/DOX, exhibited potent antineoplastic efficacy in vitro, excellent serum albumin-tolerance stability, and satisfactory hemocompatibility. These encouraging data indicated that the loading micelles from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers, especially SCM/DOX, might be promising in clinical systemic chemotherapy through intravenous injection.

  4. Self-assembly of star micelle into vesicle in solvents of variable quality: the star micelle retains its core-shell nanostructure in the vesicle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nijuan; He, Qun; Bu, Weifeng

    2015-03-03

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions of star polymers in dilute solutions are of fundamental importance for both theoretical interest and hierarchical self-assembly into functional nanostructures. Here, star micelles with a polystyrene corona and a small ionic core bearing platinum(II) complexes have been regarded as a model of star polymers to mimic their intra- and interstar interactions and self-assembled behaviors in solvents of weakening quality. In the chloroform/methanol mixture solvents, the star micelles can self-assemble to form vesicles, in which the star micelles shrink significantly and are homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike the morphological evolution of conventional amphiphiles from micellar to vesicular, during which the amphiphilic molecules are commonly reorganized, the star micelles still retain their core-shell nanostructures in the vesicles and the coronal chains of the star micelle between the ionic cores are fully interpenetrated.

  5. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  6. Delta-opiate DPDPE in magnetically oriented phospholipid micelles: binding and arrangement of aromatic pharmacophores.

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, F; Lin, M; Shapiro, M J; Petersheim, M

    1997-01-01

    D-Penicillamine(2,5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) is a potent opioid peptide that exhibits a high selectivity for the delta-opiate receptors. This zwitterionic peptide has been shown, by pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR diffusion studies, to have significant affinity for a zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer. The bilayer lipid is in the form of micelles composed of dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) mixtures, where the DMPC forms the bilayer structure. At high lipid concentration (25% w/w) these micelles orient in the magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. The resulting 1H-13C dipolar couplings and chemical shift changes in the natural abundance 13C resonances for the Tyr and Phe aromatic rings were used to characterize the orientations in the bilayer micelles of these two key pharmacophores. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 8 PMID:9414244

  7. Glycopolymer micelles with reducible ionic cores for hepatocytes-targeting delivery of DOX.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Zhang, Xinge; Yu, Peien; Li, Chaoxing

    2013-01-30

    A novel galactose-decorated cross-linked micelles (cl-micelles) with ionic cores using cystamine (Cys) as a biodegradable cross-linker was prepared by using block ionomer complexes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-acryloxyethyl-galactose)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA) and Ca(2+) (PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys). Doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully incorporated into the ionic cores of such micelles via electrostatic interactions. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer indicated galactose ligands were exposed at the micellar surface. The micelles were spherical in shape, with an average size of 100nm. The in vitro release studies confirmed that DOX-loaded PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys accomplished rapid drug release under reducing condition. Remarkably, PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys efficiently delivered and released DOX into the cell nucleus of HepG2 cells, and the intensity of fluorescence observed in HepG2 cells was stronger than that incubated with the micelles without galactose ligands. In contrast, little fluorescence was observed in NIH3T3 cells after incubation with PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys. Interestingly, cytotoxicity assays showed that DOX-loaded PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys retained higher cell inhibition efficiency in HepG2 cells as compared with NIH3T3 cells, and were more potent than the micelles without galactose ligands and the micelles with non degradable cross-links. These results indicate that PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys have great potential in liver tumor-targeted chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoscale elastic modulus variation in loaded polymeric micelle reactors.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Alim; Aytun, Taner; Deuschle, Julia K; Ow-Yang, Cleva W

    2012-07-17

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) enables mapping of chemical composition at the nanoscale by taking advantage of the variation in phase angle shift arising from an embedded second phase. We demonstrate that phase contrast can be attributed to the variation in elastic modulus during the imaging of zinc acetate (ZnAc)-loaded reverse polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock co-polymer micelles less than 100 nm in diameter. Three sample configurations were characterized: (i) a 31.6 μm thick polystyrene (PS) support film for eliminating the substrate contribution, (ii) an unfilled PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film, and (iii) a ZnAc-loaded PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film. Force-indentation (F-I) curves were measured over unloaded micelles on the PS film and over loaded micelles on the PS film, using standard tapping mode probes of three different spring constants, the same cantilevers used for imaging of the samples before and after loading. For calibration of the tip geometry, nanoindentation was performed on the bare PS film. The resulting elastic modulus values extracted by applying the Hertz model were 8.26 ± 3.43 GPa over the loaded micelles and 4.17 ± 1.65 GPa over the unloaded micelles, confirming that phase contrast images of a monolayer of loaded micelles represent maps of the nanoscale chemical and mechanical variation. By calibrating the tip geometry indirectly using a known soft material, we are able to use the same standard tapping mode cantilevers for both imaging and indentation.

  10. Enhancing curcumin anticancer efficacy through di-block copolymer micelle encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Shen, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jieying; Wang, Feihu; Li, Min; Li, Min; Guo, Aijie; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Dejian; Guo, Shengrong

    2014-02-01

    We report herein the development of a novel aqueous formulation and improved antitumor activity for curcumin by encapsulating it into a biocompatible and biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) based poly(anhydride-ester)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAE-b-PEG) micelle. The resulting curcumin loaded micelles were completely water-dispersible, overcoming the problem of poor water solubility that limited its efficacy and bioavailability. In vitro cellular studies revealed that the curcumin-loaded micelles were taken up mainly via endocytosis route and exhibited higher cytotoxicities toward model cancer cell lines (HeLa and EMT6) than free curcumin. An in vivo biodistribution study revealed that the curcumin-loaded micelles displayed significantly enhanced accumulation inside the tumor of EMT6 breast tumor-bearing mice. More impressively, the curcumin-loaded micelles showed stronger antitumor activity, higher anti-angiogenesis effects and induced apoptosis on the EMT6 breast tumor model bearing mice than free curcumin. Furthermore, the curcumin-loaded micelles showed no significant toxicity towards hemotological system, major organs or tissues in mice. Combined with a high antitumor activity and low toxic side-effects, the curcumin-loaded micelles developed here thus appear to be a highly attractive nanomedicine for effective, targeted cancer therapy.

  11. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-09-21

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.

  12. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex*

    PubMed Central

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements. PMID:16421963

  14. In situ diselenide-crosslinked polymeric micelles for ROS-mediated anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Deepagan, V G; Kwon, Seunglee; You, Dong Gil; Nguyen, Van Quy; Um, Wooram; Ko, Hyewon; Lee, Hansang; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli-responsive micelles have emerged as the drug carrier for cancer therapy since they can exclusively release the drug via their structural changes in response to the specific stimuli of the target site. Herein, we developed the in situ diselenide-crosslinked micelles (DCMs), which are responsive to the abnormal ROS levels of tumoral region, as anticancer drug carriers. The DCMs were spontaneously derived from selenol-bearing triblock copolymers consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polypeptide derivatives. During micelle formation, doxorubicine (DOX) was effectively encapsulated in the hydrophobic core, and diselenide crosslinks were formed in the shell. The DCMs maintained their structural integrity, at least for 6 days in physiological conditions, even in the presence of destabilizing agents. However, ROS-rich conditions triggered rapid release of DOX from the DOX-encapsulating DCMs (DOX-DCMs) because the hydrophobic diselenide bond was cleaved into hydrophilic selenic acid derivatives. Interestingly, after their systemic administration into the tumor-bearing mice, DOX-DCMs delivered significantly more drug to tumors (1.69-fold and 3.73-fold higher amount compared with their non-crosslinked counterparts and free drug, respectively) and effectively suppressed tumor growth. Overall, our data indicate that DCMs have great potential as drug carriers for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical properties of micelles of poly(styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Dian; Yokoyama, Yuuichi; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    Polymeric micelles from a new triblock copolymer, polystyrene-block-poly[(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride]-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PMAPTAC-b-PEO), were prepared in aqueous solutions and characterized by various techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The micelle consists of a PS core, PMAPTAC shell, and PEO corona. It was revealed by SEM and DLS measurements that the micelles have a spherical structure with a hydrodynamic diameter about 75 nm. The addition of tungstate to the micellar solution caused a morphological change in the micelles from extended to shrunken spheres, which can be attributed to the fact that electrostatic repulsion among the cationic PMAPTAC blocks is canceled by the negative charge of the bound tungstate ions. Effective incorporation of tungstate ions into the micelles were confirmed by TEM and zeta-potential measurements.

  16. Prediction of bovine milk technological traits from mid-infrared spectroscopy analysis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Visentin, G; McDermott, A; McParland, S; Berry, D P; Kenny, O A; Brodkorb, A; Fenelon, M A; De Marchi, M

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, cost-effective monitoring of milk technological traits is a significant challenge for dairy industries specialized in cheese manufacturing. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict rennet coagulation time, curd-firming time, curd firmness at 30 and 60min after rennet addition, heat coagulation time, casein micelle size, and pH in cow milk samples, and to quantify associations between these milk technological traits and conventional milk quality traits. Samples (n=713) were collected from 605 cows from multiple herds; the samples represented multiple breeds, stages of lactation, parities, and milking times. Reference analyses were undertaken in accordance with standardized methods, and mid-infrared spectra in the range of 900 to 5,000cm(-1) were available for all samples. Prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression, and prediction accuracy was based on both cross and external validation. The proportion of variance explained by the prediction models in external validation was greatest for pH (71%), followed by rennet coagulation time (55%) and milk heat coagulation time (46%). Models to predict curd firmness 60min from rennet addition and casein micelle size, however, were poor, explaining only 25 and 13%, respectively, of the total variance in each trait within external validation. On average, all prediction models tended to be unbiased. The linear regression coefficient of the reference value on the predicted value varied from 0.17 (casein micelle size regression model) to 0.83 (pH regression model) but all differed from 1. The ratio performance deviation of 1.07 (casein micelle size prediction model) to 1.79 (pH prediction model) for all prediction models in the external validation was <2, suggesting that none of the prediction models could be used for analytical purposes. With the exception of casein micelle size and curd firmness at 60min after rennet addition

  17. Dual pH-sensitive supramolecular micelles from star-shaped PDMAEMA based on β-cyclodextrin for drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zaishuai; Guo, Feng; Wang, Nairong; Meng, Meng; Li, Guiying

    2018-05-23

    Star-shaped poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD-(PDMAEMA) 7 ) was synthesized by means of atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Dual pH-sensitive supramolecular micelles were formed from β-CD-(PDMAEMA) 7 and benzimidazole modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (BM-PCL) through the host-guest interactions between β-CD and benzimidazole. The supramolecular micelles have regular spherical structure with hydrophobic β-CD/BM-PCL as the core and pH-sensitive PDMAEMA as the shell. The hydrophobic PCL as well as the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD can efficiently encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) with the drug-loading content and entrapment efficiency up to 40% and 86%. The drug release from micelles accelerated when the pH decreased from 7.0 to 2.0 and the temperature increased from 25 °C to 45 °C. MTT assay showed that drug loaded supramolecular micelles exhibited excellent anti-cancer activity than free DOX. These supramolecular micelles have promising potential applications as intelligent nanocarriers in drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of mineral (iron/zinc) bound caseinate and their mineral uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-08-15

    Milk proteins (especially caseins) are widely accepted as good vehicle for the delivery of various bioactive compounds including minerals. Succinylation is one of the most acceptable chemical modification techniques to enhance the mineral binding ability of caseins. Addition of minerals to succinylated proteins may alter their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Physicochemical characteristics of succinylated sodium caseinate (S.NaCN)-mineral (iron/zinc) complexes were elucidated. Chromatographic behaviour and fluorescence intensity confirmed the structural modification of S.NaCN upon binding with minerals. The bound mineral from protein complexes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioavailability (mineral uptake) than mineral salts in Caco-2 cells. Also, iron bound S.NaCN showed higher cellular ferritin formation than iron in its free form. These mineral bound protein complexes with improved bioavailability could safely replace inorganic fortificants in various functional food formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Including α s1 casein gene information in genomic evaluations of French dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carillier-Jacquin, Céline; Larroque, Hélène; Robert-Granié, Christèle

    2016-08-04

    Genomic best linear unbiased prediction methods assume that all markers explain the same fraction of the genetic variance and do not account effectively for genes with major effects such as the α s1 casein polymorphism in dairy goats. In this study, we investigated methods to include the available α s1 casein genotype effect in genomic evaluations of French dairy goats. First, the α s1 casein genotype was included as a fixed effect in genomic evaluation models based only on bucks that were genotyped at the α s1 casein locus. Less than 1 % of the females with phenotypes were genotyped at the α s1 casein gene. Thus, to incorporate these female phenotypes in the genomic evaluation, two methods that allowed for this large number of missing α s1 casein genotypes were investigated. Probabilities for each possible α s1 casein genotype were first estimated for each female of unknown genotype based on iterative peeling equations. The second method is based on a multiallelic gene content approach. For each model tested, we used three datasets each divided into a training and a validation set: (1) two-breed population (Alpine + Saanen), (2) Alpine population, and (3) Saanen population. The α s1 casein genotype had a significant effect on milk yield, fat content and protein content. Including an α s1 casein effect in genetic and genomic evaluations based only on male known α s1 casein genotypes improved accuracies (from 6 to 27 %). In genomic evaluations based on all female phenotypes, the gene content approach performed better than the other tested methods but the improvement in accuracy was only slightly better (from 1 to 14 %) than that of a genomic model without the α s1 casein effect. Including the α s1 casein effect in a genomic evaluation model for French dairy goats is possible and useful to improve accuracy. Difficulties in predicting the genotypes for ungenotyped animals limited the improvement in accuracy of the obtained estimated breeding values.

  20. Fractionation and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from buffalo and bovine casein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Shazly, Ahmed Behdal; He, Zhiyong; El-Aziz, Mahmoud Abd; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo and bovine caseins were hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin to produce novel antioxidant peptides. The casein hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration (UF) and further characterized by RP-HPLC. The fractions produced higher antioxidant activities were identified for their peptides using LC MS/MS. All UF-VI (MW<1kDa) fractions showed higher antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by alcalase for buffalo casein (UF-VI with 54.84-fold purification) showed higher antioxidant activity than that obtained by trypsin. Trypsin hydrolysate contained high amount of hydrophobic amino acids while alcalase hydrolysate consisted mainly of Ser, Arg, Ala and Leu. The antioxidant peptides identified by LC MS/MS were RELEE, MEDNKQ and TVA, EQL in buffalo casein hydrolysates produced by trypsin and alcalase, respectively. Mechanism and reaction pathways of selected antioxidant peptides with ABTS were proposed. Conclusively, buffalo casein provided antioxidant peptides similar to bovine, suggesting that buffalo casein is a novel source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymeric micelle for tumor pH and folate-mediated targeting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Seong; Na, Kun; Bae, You Han

    2003-08-28

    Novel pH-sensitive polymeric mixed micelles composed of poly(L-histidine) (polyHis; M(w) 5000)/PEG (M(n) 2000) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) (M(n) 3000)/PEG (M(n) 2000) block copolymers with or without folate conjugation were prepared by diafiltration. The micelles were investigated for pH-dependent drug release, folate receptor-mediated internalization and cytotoxicity using MCF-7 cells in vitro. The polyHis/PEG micelles showed accelerated adriamycin release as the pH decreased from 8.0. When the cumulative release for 24 h was plotted as a function of pH, the gradual transition in release rate appeared in a pH range from 8.0 to 6.8. In order to tailor the triggering pH of the polymeric micelles to the more acidic extracellular pH of tumors, while improving the micelle stability at pH 7.4, the PLLA/PEG block copolymer was blended with polyHis/PEG to form mixed micelles. Blending shifted the triggering pH to a lower value. Depending on the amount of PLLA/PEG, the mixed micelles were destabilized in the pH range of 7.2-6.6 (triggering pH for adriamycin release). When the mixed micelles were conjugated with folic acid, the in vitro results demonstrated that the micelles were more effective in tumor cell kill due to accelerated drug release and folate receptor-mediated tumor uptake. In addition, after internalization polyHis was found to be effective for cytosolic ADR delivery by virtue of fusogenic activity. This approach is expected to be useful for treatment of solid tumors in vivo.

  2. Freezing polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) micelle nanoparticles with different nanostructures and sizes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2014-04-28

    Herein we report how to control the nanostructures and sizes of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) nanoparticles via manipulating freezing in solvent-exchange. By characterizing and analyzing the distinct structural features of the obtained nanoparticles, we recognized that micelle self-assembly happens in the precipitation of PS-b-P2VP when water is added into the block copolymer (BCP) solution. Solvent properties significantly influence micelle types that are vesicles in acetone/H2O and spherical micelles in tetrahydrofuran/H2O, respectively, thus further inducing different frozen nanostructures of the obtained nanoparticles, onion-like in acetone/H2O and large compound micelles in tetrahydrofuran/H2O. By changing the concentration of the block copolymers and the Vsolvent/VH2O ratio to modify the freezing stage at which block copolymer micelles are frozen, we can further control the size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, small molecules (phosphotungstic acid, pyrene, 1-pyrenebutyric acid) can be trapped into the block copolymer nanoparticles via the freezing process. Their distribution in the nanoparticles relies not only on the solvent property, but also on their interactions with block copolymers. The hybrid nanoparticles with ordered distribution of small molecules can be further changed to partially-void nanoparticles. Our study demonstrated that manipulating the freezing of block copolymers in the solvent exchange process is a simple and controllable fabrication method to generate BCP nanoparticles with different architectures.

  3. Investigation of eco-friendly casein fibre production methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, M. C.; Kohn, S.; Stierand, A.; Grimmelsmann, N.; Homburg, S. V.; Rattenholl, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    The growing environmentally awareness of the consumers leads to a lot of new products in the textile industry. Either a sustainably produced textile or one which is created by reuse of a waste product is preferred. One possibility to create fibers from waste is using waste milk for casein fiber production. Opposite to several other biopolymers, however, spinning fibers from casein causes diverse problems. This article gives an overview of the investigations on how to produce fibres from the milk protein casein in a sustainable way, i.e. without formaldehyde or other polluting ingredients. Mechanical properties as well as water-resistance were investigated for chemical and physical modifications of the base composition. In this way, the positive influence of paraffin oil and wax as well as aggregation at high temperatures could be proven, while temperature treatment resulted in a higher E-modulus.

  4. Designing Dendrimers to Offer Micelle-Type Nanocontainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of a dendrimer with hydrophobic and hydrophilic substituents on an orthogonal plane is synthesized and studied. The resulting polymer contains one of the substituents in its concave interior and the other at the convex surface and the design promotes micelle-like behavior in polar solvent and inverted micelle arrangement in…

  5. The Use of Dodecylphosphocholine Micelles in Solution NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallick, D. A.; Tessmer, M. R.; Watts, C. R.; Li, C. Y.

    Dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles are useful as a model membrane system for solution NMR. Several new observations on dodecylphosphocholine micelles and their interactions with opioid peptides are described. The optimal lipid concentration has been investigated for small peptide NMR studies in DPC micelles for two opioid peptides, a 5-mer and a 17-mer. In contrast to reports in the literature, identical 2D spectra have been observed at low and high lipid concentrations. The chemical shift of resolved peptide proton resonances has been followed as a function of added lipid and indicates that there are changes in the chemical shifts above the critical micelle concentration and up to a ratio of 7:1 (lipid:peptide) for the 17-mer, and 9.6:1 for the 5-mer. These results suggest that conformational changes occur in the peptide significantly above the critical micelle concentration, up to a lipid:peptide ratio which is dependent upon the peptide, here ranging from 7:1 to 9.6:1. To address the stoichiometry more directly, the diffusion coefficients of the lipid alone and the lipid with peptide have been measured using pulsed-field gradient spin-echo NMR experiments. These data have been used to calculate the hydrodynamic radius and the aggregation number of the micelle with and without peptide and show that the aggregation number of the peptide-lipid complex increases at high lipid concentrations without a concomitant change in the peptide conformation. Last, several protonated impurities have been observed in the commercial preparation of DPC which resonate in the amide proton region of the NMR spectrum. These results are significant for researchers using DPC micelles and illustrate that both care in sample preparation and the stoichiometry are important issues with the use of DPC as a model membrane.

  6. Understanding Unimer Exchange Processes in Block Copolymer Micelles using NMR Diffusometry, Time-Resolved NMR, and SANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Louis; Kidd, Bryce; Li, Xiuli; Miller, Katherine; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan

    Our team seeks to understand dynamic behaviors of block copolymer micelles and their interplay with encapsulated cargo molecules. Quantifying unimer and cargo exchange rates micelles can provide critical information for determining mechanisms of unimer exchange as well as designing systems for specific cargo release dynamics. We are exploring the utility of NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry techniques as complements to existing SANS and fluorescence methods. One promising new method involves time-resolved NMR spin relaxation measurements, wherein mixing of fully protonated and 2H-labeled PEO-b-PCL micelles solutions shows an increase in spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) with time after mixing. This is due to a weakening in magnetic environment surrounding 1H spins as 2H-bearing unimers join fully protonated micelles. We are measuring time constants for unimer exchange of minutes to hours, and we expect to resolve times of <1 min. This method can work on any solution NMR spectrometer and with minimal perturbation to chemical structure (as in dye-labelled fluorescence methods). Multimodal NMR can complement existing characterization tools, expanding and accelerating dynamics measurements for polymer micelle, nanogel, and nanoparticle developers.

  7. Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles Target Fracture and Improve Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dusad, Anand; Yuan, Hongjiang; Ren, Ke; Li, Fei; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Goldring, Steven R.; Daluiski, Aaron; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidaemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug’s hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles’ therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing. PMID:25542644

  8. Polymeric micelles for multi-drug delivery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunah; Lai, Tsz Chung; Tomoda, Keishiro; Kwon, Glen S

    2015-02-01

    Drug combinations are common in cancer treatment and are rapidly evolving, moving beyond chemotherapy combinations to combinations of signal transduction inhibitors. For the delivery of drug combinations, i.e., multi-drug delivery, major considerations are synergy, dose regimen (concurrent versus sequential), pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and safety. In this contribution, we review recent research on polymeric micelles for multi-drug delivery in cancer. In concurrent drug delivery, polymeric micelles deliver multi-poorly water-soluble anticancer agents, satisfying strict requirements in solubility, stability, and safety. In sequential drug delivery, polymeric micelles participate in pretreatment strategies that "prime" solid tumors and enhance the penetration of secondarily administered anticancer agent or nanocarrier. The improved delivery of multiple poorly water-soluble anticancer agents by polymeric micelles via concurrent or sequential regimens offers novel and interesting strategies for drug combinations in cancer treatment.

  9. The poly(A) tail length of casein mRNA in the lactating mammary gland changes depending upon the accumulation and removal of milk.

    PubMed Central

    Kuraishi, T; Sun, Y; Aoki, F; Imakawa, K; Sakai, S

    2000-01-01

    The length of casein mRNA from the lactating mouse mammary gland, as assessed on Northern blots, is shorter after weaning, but is elongated following the removal of milk. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the molecular structures of beta- and gamma-casein mRNAs were analysed. The coding and non-coding regions of the two forms were the same length, but the long form of casein mRNA had a longer poly(A) tail than the short form (P<0.05). In order to examine the stability of casein mRNA under identical conditions, casein mRNAs with the long and short poly(A) tails were incubated in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) cell-free translation system. Casein mRNA with the long poly(A) tail had a longer half-life than that with the short tail (P<0.05). The beta- and gamma-casein mRNAs were first degraded into 0.92 and 0.81 kb fragments respectively. With undegraded mRNA, the poly(A) tail shortening by exoribonuclease was not observed until the end of the incubation. Northern blot analysis showed that casein mRNA with the long poly(A) tail was protected efficiently from endoribonucleases. We conclude that the length of the poly(A) tail of casein mRNA in the lactating mammary gland changes depending upon the accumulation and removal of the gland's milk, and we show that the longer poly(A) tail potentially protects the mRNA from degradation by endoribonucleases. PMID:10749689

  10. β-