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Sample records for cash flow method

  1. Cash Flow Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, George W., III

    1979-01-01

    Proper cash flow planning allows a school business administrator to determine the availability of cash for operating expenses, the need for bank loans to cover these expenses, and the availability of idle cash for investment. (Author)

  2. A Conceptual Framework for the Indirect Method of Reporting Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental concept of the reconciliation behind the indirect method of the statement of cash flows. A conceptual framework is presented to demonstrate how accrual and cash-basis accounting methods relate to each other and to illustrate the concept of reconciling these two accounting methods. The conceptual framework…

  3. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms.

  4. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965

  5. The FASB explores accounting for future cash flows.

    PubMed

    Luecke, R W; Meeting, D T

    2001-03-01

    The FASB's Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 7, Using Cash Flow Information and Present Value in Accounting Measurements (Statement No. 7), presents the board's views regarding how cash-flow information and present values should be used in accounting for future cash flows when information on fair values is not available. Statement No. 7 presents new concepts regarding how an asset's present value should be calculated and when the interest method of allocation should be used. The FASB proposes a present-value method that takes into account the degree of uncertainty associated with future cash flows among different assets and liabilities. The FASB also suggests that rather than use estimated cash flows (in which a single set of cash flows and a single interest rate is used to reflect the risk associated with an asset or liability), accountants should use expected cash flows (in which all expectations about possible cash flows are used) in calculating present values.

  6. Back to Basics: Teaching the Statement of Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne; King, Teresa T.; Andrews, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual foundation for the Statement of Cash Flows based on the ten elements of financial statements provides students with a deep understanding of core accounting concepts. Traditional methods of teaching the statement of cash flows tend to focus on statement preparation rules, masking the effect of business events on the change in cash.…

  7. Teaching the Indirect Method of the Statement of Cash Flows in Introductory Financial Accounting: A Comprehensive, Problem-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickner, Daniel R.; McCombs, Gary B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an instructional resource for presenting the indirect method of the statement of cash flows (SCF) in an introductory financial accounting course. The authors focus primarily on presenting a comprehensive example that illustrates the "why" of SCF preparation and show how journal entries and T-accounts can be…

  8. FASB's Latest Standard: A Look at the Statement of Cash Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mary; Blythe, Joseph C.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's new accounting standard No. 117, which concerns colleges and universities as nonprofit organizations, looks at new provisions and reporting requirements. Methods for producing the required cash flow statement are outlined, and the use of cash flow ratios is examined. (MSE)

  9. A Logical Approach to the Statement of Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petro, Fred; Gean, Farrell

    2014-01-01

    Of the three financial statements in financial reporting, the Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) is perhaps the most challenging. The most difficult aspect of the SCF is in developing an understanding of how previous transactions are finalized in this document. The purpose of this paper is to logically explain the indirect approach of cash flow whereby…

  10. Fourteen Steps to More Effective Cash Flow Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Managing cash flow is an incredibly important skill for a center director. Even a center with an annual budget showing a healthy surplus may experience brief periods where funds in the checkbook are insufficient to pay all the bills. To discover how successful directors manage cash flow in tight times, the author surveyed members of the "Exchange…

  11. ACFAC: a cash flow analysis code for estimating product price from an industrial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.

    1980-04-01

    A computer code is presented which uses a discountted cash flow methodology to obtain an average product price for an industtrial process. The general discounted cash flow method is discussed. Special code options include multiple treatments of interest during construction and other preoperational costs, investment tax credits, and different methods for tax depreciation of capital assets. Two options for allocating the cost of plant decommissioning are available. The FORTRAN code listing and the computer output for a sample problem are included.

  12. A Market, Operation, and Mission Assessment of Large Rural For-Profit Hospitals with Positive Cash Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: National benchmark data for 2002 indicate that large rural for-profit hospitals have a median cash flow margin of 19.5% compared to 9.2% for their nonprofit counterparts. Purpose: This study aims to gain insight regarding the driving factors behind the high cash flow performance of large rural for-profit hospitals. Methods: Using 3 annual…

  13. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  14. Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2012-09-01

    NREL has developed and maintains a variety of infrastructure analysis models for the U.S. Department of Energy. Business case analysis has recently been added to this tool set. This presentation focuses on cash flow analysis. Cash flows depend upon infrastructure costs, optimized spatially and temporally, and assumptions about financing and revenue. NREL has incorporated detailed metrics on financing and incentives into the models. Next steps in modeling include continuing to collect feedback on regional/local infrastructure development activities and 'roadmap' dynamics, and incorporating consumer preference assumptions on infrastructure to provide direct feedback between vehicles and station rollout.

  15. Back to Basics: Algebraic Foundations of the Statement of Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Donald T.; Banatte, Jean-Marie; Dondeti, V. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The indirect method for preparing the statement of cash flows, as described in many standard textbooks, involves an item-by-item approach, telling you to add to or subtract from the net income, the increases or decreases in the balance sheet items, such as accounts payable or accounts receivable. Many business students, especially at the…

  16. Modeling banks cash flow behavior in the Federal Reserve system

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Drake, R.H.

    1992-07-01

    Do financial institutions exhibit similar currency flow patterns within the Federal reserve system? Certain models indicate that the answer is yes. However, the answer not only depends upon model formation, but also upon the manner in which the raw data is structured. This structuring refers to how the raw data is collapsed, or what level of detail is used in the model. For example, should cash flows be averaged on a yearly basis? The choice of granularity becomes crucial in obtaining an affirmative answer to the question. This paper presents the results of various model formations using linear models and principal components, and using various granularities in the data. Other factors involved in the modeling effect include temporal effects, geographic effects, and characteristics of the financial institutions such as institution type (commercial bank, S&L, Credit Union, etc.) and ``size`` (deposits, loans, volume). The results of this study indicate similar currency flow behaviors at more general levels of detail, indicate how varied and different these behaviors can be at finer levels of detail, and indicate which data transformations and covariates are best for model construction.

  17. Why Cash Flow Is No Longer for Wimps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John R.; Hutton, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Managing liquidity--a college or university's ability to access cash quickly or to easily convert assets to cash--is an increasingly crucial component of enterprise risk management. Liquidity risks lurk around nearly every corner--in the endowment portfolio, the debt portfolio, and in working-capital management. It also influences students'…

  18. The use of cash flow to analyze financial distress in California hospitals.

    PubMed

    McCue, M J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of financial distress have utilized operating margins to measure this outcome. This study examines financial distress from the standpoint of cash flow, which is defined as net income plus depreciation adjusted for accruals. Defining financially distressed hospitals as ones with negative cash flows, the findings of the study show that these hospitals possess a lower occupancy rate, exhibit a slower collection of receivables, and have higher amounts of debt. However, the findings show that it is harder to predict financial distress defined in terms of cash flow than in profitability.

  19. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services; (2) Estimated amounts and timing of payments of purchase or production of capital assets, test facilities, and tooling; (3) Amounts and timing of fixed cash charges such as debt installments, interest... direct and indirect; (5) Reasonableness of projected manufacturing and production schedules;...

  20. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services; (2) Estimated amounts and timing of payments of purchase or production of capital assets, test facilities, and tooling; (3) Amounts and timing of fixed cash charges such as debt installments, interest... direct and indirect; (5) Reasonableness of projected manufacturing and production schedules;...

  1. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services; (2) Estimated amounts and timing of payments of purchase or production of capital assets, test facilities, and tooling; (3) Amounts and timing of fixed cash charges such as debt installments, interest... direct and indirect; (5) Reasonableness of projected manufacturing and production schedules;...

  2. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services; (2) Estimated amounts and timing of payments of purchase or production of capital assets, test facilities, and tooling; (3) Amounts and timing of fixed cash charges such as debt installments, interest... direct and indirect; (5) Reasonableness of projected manufacturing and production schedules;...

  3. 48 CFR 232.072-3 - Cash flow forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services; (2) Estimated amounts and timing of payments of purchase or production of capital assets, test facilities, and tooling; (3) Amounts and timing of fixed cash charges such as debt installments, interest... direct and indirect; (5) Reasonableness of projected manufacturing and production schedules;...

  4. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  5. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, David W.; Gemmell, Peter S.; Brickell, Ernest F.

    1998-01-01

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z.sub.u,i, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z.sub.u,i and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bankindicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin.

  6. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, D.W.; Gemmell, P.S.; Brickell, E.F.

    1998-11-03

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z{sub u,i}, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z{sub u,i} and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bank indicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin. 16 figs.

  7. Improving cash flow in a down economy. How HIM can help reduce denials.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Rose

    2009-03-01

    Maybe HIM professionals can't ease tight credit or reduce bad debt, but they can make sure their organizations get full, correct reimbursement on the first submission. HIM professionals help improve cash flow by contributing to revenue cycle management n these tough economic times-when increases in bad

  8. What does free cash flow tell us about hospital efficiency? A stochastic frontier analysis of cost inefficiency in California hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pratt, William R

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals are facing substantial financial and economic pressure as a result of health plan payment restructuring, unfunded mandates, and other factors. This article analyzes the relationship between free cash flow (FCF) and hospital efficiency given these financial challenges. Data from 270 California hospitals were used to estimate a stochastic frontier model of hospital cost efficiency that explicitly takes into account outpatient heterogeneity. The findings indicate that hospital FCF is significantly linked to firm efficiency/inefficiency. The results indicate that higher positive cash flows are related to lower cost inefficiency, but higher negative cash flows are related to higher cost inefficiency. Thus, cash flows not only impact the ability of hospitals to meet current liabilities, they are also related to the ability of the hospitals to use resources effectively. PMID:20973372

  9. Cash flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    After conducting a survey of the state of the 55,000 water systems in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has found that communities need $12.1 billion in immediate funding to protect the nation's drinking water supplies and to meet minimum health-based standards. Required by the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act to assess the needed capital improvements to drinking-water supplies, EPA also estimated that $138.4 billion will be needed over the next 20 years to replace or upgrade the nation's eroding water infrastructure.

  10. Alternative Methods in the Evaluation of School District Cash Management Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    1980-01-01

    Empirically evaluates three measures of effectiveness of school district cash management: the rate of return method in common use and two new measures--efficiency rating and Net Present Value (NPV). The NPV approach allows examination of efficiency and provides a framework for evaluating other areas of educational policy. (Author/IRT)

  11. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered the equivalent of cash and you must comply with the rules in 41 CFR 102-118.50 that limit the use of cash for such purposes. (a) Personal credit cards; (b) Cash withdrawals obtained from an ATM...

  12. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... considered the equivalent of cash and you must comply with the rules in 41 CFR 102-118.50 that limit the use of cash for such purposes. (a) Personal credit cards; (b) Cash withdrawals obtained from an ATM...

  13. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equivalent of cash and you must comply with the rules in 41 CFR 102-118.50 that limit the use of cash for such purposes. (a) Personal credit cards; (b) Cash withdrawals obtained from an ATM using a...

  14. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... considered the equivalent of cash and you must comply with the rules in 41 CFR 102-118.50 that limit the use of cash for such purposes. (a) Personal credit cards; (b) Cash withdrawals obtained from an ATM...

  15. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... considered the equivalent of cash and you must comply with the rules in 41 CFR 102-118.50 that limit the use of cash for such purposes. (a) Personal credit cards; (b) Cash withdrawals obtained from an ATM...

  16. Financial Crisis Now Striking Home for School Districts: Project Delays, Worries About Cash Flow Result of Tight Credit Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the crisis besetting U.S. and world financial markets is hitting school districts hard, as they struggle to float the bonds needed for capital projects, borrow money to ensure cash flow, and get access to investment funds locked up in troubled institutions. Some schools districts depend heavily on borrowed money to pay…

  17. Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation--VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-04-02

    This presentation discusses the differences between the original Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) Model and the revamped version, VICE 2.0. The enhanced tool can now help assess projects to acquire vehicles and infrastructure, or to acquire vehicles only.

  18. Cash Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mary L.; Ostrom, John S.

    1982-01-01

    Elements of an effective management program for colleges and universities are examined. Five basic purposes of an effective program of cash management are identified: developing accurate cash projections, managing cash receipts, controlling cash disbursements, establishing sound banking relationships, and investing funds. It is suggested that all…

  19. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  20. A Cash Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, William W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1973, Ronald G. Lykins presented a model for cash management and analysed its benefits for Ohio University. This paper attempts to expand on the previous method by providing answers to questions raised by the Lykins methods by a series of simple algebraic formulas. Both methods are based on two premises: (1) all cash over which the business…

  1. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions

    PubMed Central

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. • The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation. • Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable. • The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered. PMID:27054095

  2. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions.

    PubMed

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered. PMID:27054095

  3. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions.

    PubMed

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered.

  4. 26 CFR 1.448-1 - Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disbursements method of accounting. 1.448-1 Section 1.448-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Methods of Accounting § 1.448-1 Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting. (a)-(f) (g) Treatment...

  5. Capital investment analysis: three methods.

    PubMed

    Gapenski, L C

    1993-08-01

    Three cash flow/discount rate methods can be used when conducting capital budgeting financial analyses: the net operating cash flow method, the net cash flow to investors method, and the net cash flow to equity holders method. The three methods differ in how the financing mix and the benefits of debt financing are incorporated. This article explains the three methods, demonstrates that they are essentially equivalent, and recommends which method to use under specific circumstances.

  6. Conditional E-Cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Larry; Carbunar, Bogdan; Sion, Radu

    We introduce a novel conditional e-cash protocol allowing future anonymous cashing of bank-issued e-money only upon the satisfaction of an agreed-upon public condition. Payers are able to remunerate payees for services that depend on future, yet to be determined outcomes of events. Once payment complete, any double-spending attempt by the payer will reveal its identity; no double-spending by the payee is possible. Payers can not be linked to payees or to ongoing or past transactions. The flow of cash within the system is thus both correct and anonymous. We discuss several applications of conditional e-cash including online trading of financial securities, prediction markets, and betting systems.

  7. SRC-I: revised baseline supplement. [Cash flows associated with Phase IIIC extended operation of SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The recently submitted Revised SRC-I Project Baseline included 30 months of plant operations. This period is divided into two sub-phases: IIIA and IIIB. Phase IIIA is six months in duration and is defined as Startup and Shakedown of the Demonstration Plant. Phase IIIB is two years in duration and encompasses two years of test operations. The Prime Contract allowed for the possibility of up to three additional years of test operations. This extension, Phase IIIC, was subject to mutual agreement by ICRC and DOE. It was also dependent upon a formal Notice of Buyout and plan for expansion of the Demonstration Plant. Pursuant to DOE instructions, the cash flows associated with Phase IIIC have been prepared consistent with the Revised SRC-I Project Baseline and are herewith included.

  8. Optimal portfolio selection in a Lévy market with uncontrolled cash flow and only risky assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Li, Zhongfei; Wu, Huiling

    2013-03-01

    This article considers an investor who has an exogenous cash flow evolving according to a Lévy process and invests in a financial market consisting of only risky assets, whose prices are governed by exponential Lévy processes. Two continuous-time portfolio selection problems are studied for the investor. One is a benchmark problem, and the other is a mean-variance problem. The first problem is solved by adopting the stochastic dynamic programming approach, and the obtained results are extended to the second problem by employing the duality theory. Closed-form solutions of these two problems are derived. Some existing results are found to be special cases of our results.

  9. Finding Multiple Internal Rates of Return for a Project with Non-Conventional Cash Flows: Utilizing Popular Financial/Graphing Calculators and Spreadsheet Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeng-Hong

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates that a popular graphing calculator among students, TI-83 Plus, has a powerful function to draw the NPV profile and find the accurate multiple IRRs for a project with non-conventional cash flows. However, finance textbooks or related supplementary materials do not provide students instructions for this part. The detailed…

  10. 31 CFR 206.6 - Cash management planning and review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... needing improvement. (b) As part of its cash management review process, an agency is expected to document... RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.6 Cash management... basis for identification of improvements and preparation of cash flow reports for submission to...

  11. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  12. Cafeteria Cash Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, Michael V.; Spoonhour, Laura T.

    1994-01-01

    A South Carolina school district changed food service from a financial loss to a profit. Recommends that food service managers record meal revenues and expenses when they occur and study the profitability of each program. Selling meal tickets in advance provides some control over the number of students who purchase meals. (MLF)

  13. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  14. 43 CFR 5452.1 - Cash sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cash sales. 5452.1 Section 5452.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) AWARD OF CONTRACT Method of Payment § 5452.1 Cash sales. For sales under $500 the full amount shall be paid prior to or at the time the authorized officer signs...

  15. 43 CFR 5452.1 - Cash sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cash sales. 5452.1 Section 5452.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) AWARD OF CONTRACT Method of Payment § 5452.1 Cash sales. For sales under $500 the full amount shall be paid prior to or at the time the authorized officer signs...

  16. 43 CFR 5452.1 - Cash sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cash sales. 5452.1 Section 5452.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) AWARD OF CONTRACT Method of Payment § 5452.1 Cash sales. For sales under $500 the full amount shall be paid prior to or at the time the authorized officer signs...

  17. 43 CFR 5452.1 - Cash sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cash sales. 5452.1 Section 5452.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) AWARD OF CONTRACT Method of Payment § 5452.1 Cash sales. For sales under $500 the full amount shall be paid prior to or at the time the authorized officer signs...

  18. 26 CFR 1.448-1 - Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and....441-2(c), is deemed to begin) in 1987, 1988, 1989, or 1990, (2) The taxpayer has not been contacted... entered into on or before September 25, 1985. Any such election described in the preceding sentence may...

  19. 26 CFR 1.448-1 - Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and....441-2(c), is deemed to begin) in 1987, 1988, 1989, or 1990, (2) The taxpayer has not been contacted... entered into on or before September 25, 1985. Any such election described in the preceding sentence may...

  20. Flow analysis system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Wayne S. (Inventor); Barck, Bruce N. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive flow analysis system and method wherein a sensor, such as an acoustic sensor, is coupled to a conduit for transmitting a signal which varies depending on the characteristics of the flow in the conduit. The signal is amplified and there is a filter, responsive to the sensor signal, and tuned to pass a narrow band of frequencies proximate the resonant frequency of the sensor. A demodulator generates an amplitude envelope of the filtered signal and a number of flow indicator quantities are calculated based on variations in amplitude of the amplitude envelope. A neural network, or its equivalent, is then used to determine the flow rate of the flow in the conduit based on the flow indicator quantities.

  1. 28 CFR 345.72 - Cash bonus or cash award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cash bonus or cash award. 345.72 Section 345.72 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.72 Cash bonus or cash award. An inmate worker...

  2. 28 CFR 345.72 - Cash bonus or cash award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cash bonus or cash award. 345.72 Section 345.72 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.72 Cash bonus or cash award. An inmate worker...

  3. 28 CFR 345.72 - Cash bonus or cash award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cash bonus or cash award. 345.72 Section 345.72 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.72 Cash bonus or cash award. An inmate worker...

  4. 28 CFR 345.72 - Cash bonus or cash award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cash bonus or cash award. 345.72 Section 345.72 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.72 Cash bonus or cash award. An inmate worker...

  5. 28 CFR 345.72 - Cash bonus or cash award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cash bonus or cash award. 345.72 Section 345.72 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Awards Program § 345.72 Cash bonus or cash award. An inmate worker...

  6. Vortex methods for separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.

  7. Unusually high levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs): development and application of a robust LC-UV method to quantify BPA in CRs.

    PubMed

    Babu, Sainath; Uppu, Sannihith N; Martin, Brittany; Agu, Ogad A; Uppu, Rao M

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs). The method is suitable for analysis of other types of bisphenols and it involves an overnight extraction of CRs with acetonitrile (AN) at 50 °C followed by the HPLC analysis on a Supelcosil LC18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 μ) using 50% AN in water as the mobile phase (5 min, isocratic). The composition of AN in the mobile phase changed to 100% over a 10 min period (linear gradient) and then held at 100% AN for 10 min (isocratic). The flow rate was set at 1 mL/min (injection volume: 20 μL) and the eluent was monitored at 234 nm. The authentic BPA eluted with a retention time of 5.9 min and gave a linear detector response in the concentration range of 0.23-50 mg/L. BPA in the CR extracts also eluted with the same retention and had identical absorbance properties as the standard. When CR extracts were co-injected with authentic BPA, they were resolved as a single peak. Further, GC/MS/EI analysis of authentic BPA and the HPLC-purified CR extracts have identical ion chromatograms and fragmentation of the molecular ion (m/z = 228). We have analyzed 170 CRs collected from 62 different vendors including supermarkets, fast food restaurants, gas stations and banking outlets. Almost all cash receipts (n = 168) showed the presence of BPA in the concentration range of 0.45-4.26% (M ± SD, 1.54 ± 0.73%).

  8. Vortex methods for separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented in an elementary fashion and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, the convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two- and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. The overlap with the excellent review articles available is kept to a minimum and more emphasis is placed on the area of expertise, namely two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies. When solid walls are present, complete mathematical models are not available and a more heuristic attitude must be adopted. The imposition of inviscid and viscous boundary conditions without conformal mappings or image vortices and the creation of vorticity along solid walls are examined in detail. Methods for boundary-layer treatment and the question of the Kutta condition are discussed. Practical aspects and tips helpful in creating a method that really works are explained. The topics include the robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, timemarching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming. Calculations of flows past streamlined or bluff bodies are used as examples when appropriate.

  9. Krylov methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidriri, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the application of Krylov methods to compressible flows, and the effect of implicit boundary conditions on the implicit solution of nonlinear problems. Two defect-correction procedures, namely, approximate factorization (AF) for structured grids and ILU/GMRES for general grids, are considered. Also considered here are Newton-Krylov matrix-free methods that we combined with the use of mixed discretization schemes in the implicitly defined Jacobian and its preconditioner. Numerical experiments that show the performance of our approaches are then presented.

  10. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  11. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  12. What Happened to the Cash? Effective Cash Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    This paper examines a variety of cash-generating school operations--student activity accounts, athletics, athletic user fees, other user fees, concessions, and cafeterias--and identifies areas where controls are needed. Specific techniques for ensuring effective cash controls are outlined. Internal-audit procedures are suggested that address the…

  13. Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Voloshin, Sergei A.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss how the different estimates of elliptic flow are influenced by flow fluctuations and nonflow effects. It is explained why the event-plane method yields estimates between the two-particle correlation methods and the multiparticle correlation methods. It is argued that nonflow effects and fluctuations cannot be disentangled without other assumptions. However, we provide equations where, with reasonable assumptions about fluctuations and nonflow, all measured values of elliptic flow converge to a unique mean v_2,PP elliptic flow in the participant plane and, with a Gaussian assumption on eccentricity fluctuations, can be converted to the mean v_2,RP in the reaction plane. Thus, the 20percent spread in observed elliptic flow measurements from different analysis methods is no longer mysterious.

  14. The Importance of Cash in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs for Child Health, Growth and Development:

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Gertler, Paul J.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many governments around the world have implemented conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs with the goal of improving options for poor families through interventions in health, nutrition and education. Families enrolled in CCT programs receive cash in exchange for complying with “conditionalities” – preventive health requirements and nutrition supplementation, education and monitoring designed to improve health outcomes and promote positive behavior change. A great challenge in evaluating the effectiveness of CCT programs has been disaggregating the effects of the cash transfer component from that of the conditionalities. Methods In an intervention that began in 1998 in Mexico, low-income communities (n=506) were randomly assigned to be enrolled in a CCT program (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) immediately or 18 months later. In 2003, children (n=3793), aged 24–72 months who had been enrolled in the program their entire lives, were assessed for a wide variety of outcomes. The analyses reported here separated out the association of the cash transfer component of Oportunidades with several outcomes in children from the program conditionalities, while controlling for a wide range of covariates including many measures of household socio-economic status. Findings An increase in the cash transfer to the household was associated with higher height-for-age z-score and hemoglobin concentration, lower prevalence of stunting, and lower prevalence of overweight. Children in families whose households received a greater quantity of cash also performed better on a scale of motor development (McCarthy Test of Children’s Abilities), three scales of cognitive development (sub-scales of the Woodcock-Muñoz, including working memory), and receptive language (Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody). Interpretation The results suggest that the cash transfer component of Oportunidades is associated with better outcomes in child health and development. PMID

  15. Implementation of the partograph in India's JSY cash transfer programme for facility births: a mixed methods study in Madhya Pradesh province

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha; Raven, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study implementation of partograph use to monitor labour in facilities providing the JSY (Janani Suraksha Yojana) cash transfer programme for facility births in India by determining (1) adherence to partograph use, (2) staff abilities at partograph use and (3) staff responsiveness to the policy on partograph use. Design A mixed methods study using Carroll's framework for implementation fidelity. Methods include (1) obstetric case record review, (2) a vignette-based survey among nurse midwives and (3) interviews with staff. Setting Routine use of the partograph is recommended to monitor progress of labour in most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), including India, although currently available evidence in this regard is insufficient. This study was conducted in the context of the highly successful JSY programme in three districts of Madhya Pradesh province. Participants 73 different level JSY programme facilities participated in the record review, 233 nurse midwives at these facilities participated in the vignette survey and a total of 11 doctors and midwives participated in the interviews. Results The partograph was used in 6% of the 1466 records reviewed. The staff obtained a median score of 1.08 (maximum of 10) at competence in plotting a partograph. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) partographs are used rarely and retrospectively; (2) training does not support correct use of the partograph; and (3) partographs can be useful but are not feasible. Conclusions Implementation fidelity of partograph use in the JSY programme is low. Successful implementation of the partograph can result in improved quality of care in the JSY programme only if potential moderators to its adherence, such as training, supervision, staff ‘buy in’ and practice environment are addressed so that staff find a conducive practice environment in which to use the partograph and women find it beneficial to present early in labour. PMID:25922094

  16. On the Methods to Measure Powder Flow.

    PubMed

    Tan, Geoffrey; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependent nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing.

  17. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...) Consequences for maintaining excess cash. Upon a finding that an institution maintains excess cash for...

  18. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...) Consequences for maintaining excess cash. Upon a finding that an institution maintains excess cash for...

  19. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...) Consequences for maintaining excess cash. Upon a finding that an institution maintains excess cash for...

  20. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...) Consequences for maintaining excess cash. Upon a finding that an institution maintains excess cash for...

  1. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...) Consequences for maintaining excess cash. Upon a finding that an institution maintains excess cash for...

  2. Spectral methods for compressible reactive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, David; Gottlieb, Sigal

    2005-01-01

    High order simulations are necessary in order to capture fine details in resolving supersonic reactive flows. However, high Mach number compressible flows feature sharp gradients and discontinuities, which present a challenge to successful simulations using high order methods. Spectral methods have proven a powerful tool in simulation of incompressible turbulent flows, and recent advances allow the application of spectral methods to compressible reactive flows. We review the recent advances in the theory and application of spectral methods which allow stable computations of discontinuous phenomena, and the recovery of high order information via postprocessing, and present applications of high Mach number reactive flows. To cite this article: D. Gottlieb, S. Gottlieb, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  3. Spectral methods for inviscid, compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Salas, M. D.; Zang, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Report developments in the application of spectral methods to two dimensional compressible flows are reviewed. A brief introduction to spectral methods -- their history and especially their implementation -- is provided. The stress is on those techniques relevant to transonic flow computation. The spectral multigrid iterative methods are discussed with application to the transonic full potential equation. Discontinuous solutions of the Euler equations are considered. The key element is the shock fitting technique which is briefly explained.

  4. Computational methods for ideal compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Conservative dissipative difference schemes for computing one dimensional flow are introduced, and the recognition and representation of flow discontinuities are discussed. Multidimensional methods are outlined. Second order finite volume schemes are introduced. Conversion of difference schemes for a single linear convection equation into schemes for the hyperbolic system of the nonlinear conservation laws of ideal compressible flow is explained. Approximate Riemann solvers are presented. Monotone initial value interpolation; and limiters, switches, and artificial dissipation are considered.

  5. Solving functional flow equations with pseudospectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, J.; Knorr, B.

    2016-07-01

    We apply pseudospectral methods to integrate functional flow equations with high accuracy, extending earlier work on functional fixed point equations [J. Borchardt and B. Knorr, Phys. Rev. D 91, 105011 (2015)]. The advantages of our method are illustrated with the help of two classes of models: first, to make contact with literature, we investigate flows of the O (N ) model in three dimensions, for N =1 , 4 and in the large N limit. For the case of a fractal dimension, d =2.4 , and N =1 , we follow the flow along a separatrix from a multicritical fixed point to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point over almost 13 orders of magnitude. As a second example, we consider flows of bounded quantum-mechanical potentials, which can be considered as a toy model for Higgs inflation. Such flows pose substantial numerical difficulties, and represent a perfect test bed to exemplify the power of pseudospectral methods.

  6. Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

  7. Asymptotic methods for internal transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    For many internal transonic flows of practical interest, some of the relevant nondimensional parameters typically are small enough that a perturbation scheme can be expected to give a useful level of numerical accuracy. A variety of steady and unsteady transonic channel and cascade flows is studied with the help of systematic perturbation methods which take advantage of this fact. Asymptotic representations are constructed for small changes in channel cross-section area, small flow deflection angles, small differences between the flow velocity and the sound speed, small amplitudes of imposed oscillations, and small reduced frequencies. Inside a channel the flow is nearly one-dimensional except in thin regions immediately downstream of a shock wave, at the channel entrance and exit, and near the channel throat. A study of two-dimensional cascade flow is extended to include a description of three-dimensional compressor-rotor flow which leads to analytical results except in thin edge regions which require numerical solution. For unsteady flow the qualitative nature of the shock-wave motion in a channel depends strongly on the orders of magnitude of the frequency and amplitude of impressed wall oscillations or fluctuations in back pressure. One example of supersonic flow is considered, for a channel with length large compared to its width, including the effect of separation bubbles and the possibility of self-sustained oscillations. The effect of viscosity on a weak shock wave in a channel is discussed.

  8. An exact inverse method for subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    1988-01-01

    A new inverse method for the aerodynamic design of airfoils is presented for subcritical flows. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed as a function of the arclength of the still unknown body. It is shown that this inverse problem is mathematically equivalent to solving only one nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary.

  9. Semiempirical methods for computing turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, I. A.; Ginzburg, I. P.

    1986-01-01

    Two semiempirical theories which provide a basis for determining the turbulent friction and heat exchange near a wall are presented: (1) the Prandtl-Karman theory, and (2) the theory utilizing an equation for the energy of turbulent pulsations. A comparison is made between exact numerical methods and approximate integral methods for computing the turbulent boundary layers in the presence of pressure, blowing, or suction gradients. Using the turbulent flow around a plate as an example, it is shown that, when computing turbulent flows with external turbulence, it is preferable to construct a turbulence model based on the equation for energy of turbulent pulsations.

  10. Unstructured grid methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of the finite element method on unstructured triangular grids is described and the development of centered finite element schemes for the solution of the compressible Euler equation on general triangular and tetrahedral grids is discussed. Explicit and implicit Lax-Wendroff type methods and a method based upon the use of explicit multistep timestepping are considered. In the latter case, the convergence behavior of the method is accelerated by the incorporation of a fully unstructured multigrid procedure. The advancing front method for generating unstructured grids of triangles and tetrahedra is described and the application of adaptive mesh techniques to both steady and transient flow analysis is illustrated.

  11. Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy Kerr

    1977-01-25

    A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.

  12. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1225 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as...

  13. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cash account. 220.8 Section 220.8 Banks and...) CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.8 Cash account. (a) Permissible transactions. In a cash account, a creditor, may: (1) Buy for or sell to any customer any security or other asset if:...

  14. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash account. 220.8 Section 220.8 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.8 Cash account. (a) Permissible transactions. In a cash account... sufficient funds in the account; or (ii) The creditor accepts in good faith the customer's agreement that...

  15. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cash account. 220.8 Section 220.8 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.8 Cash account. (a) Permissible transactions. In a cash account... sufficient funds in the account; or (ii) The creditor accepts in good faith the customer's agreement that...

  16. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cash account. 220.8 Section 220.8 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.8 Cash account. (a) Permissible transactions. In a cash account... sufficient funds in the account; or (ii) The creditor accepts in good faith the customer's agreement that...

  17. 12 CFR 220.8 - Cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash account. 220.8 Section 220.8 Banks and...) CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.8 Cash account. (a) Permissible transactions. In a cash account, a creditor, may: (1) Buy for or sell to any customer any security or other asset if:...

  18. Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Karidis, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.

  19. Cash transfer in Brazil and nutritional outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of conditional cash transfer programs on diet and nutrition outcomes among beneficiary families in Brazil. METHODS A systematic review of literature was carried out with original evaluation studies conducted in Brazil, including all types of clinical trials and observational studies. The search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS databases for papers published since 1990. The studies were analyzed according to the program evaluated, participants, study design, location, principal conclusions, confounding factors and methodological limitations. They were classified according to outcomes (nutritional status, dietary intake and food security) and level of evidence for the association with conditional cash transfer programs (adequacy or plausibility). RESULTS We found 1,412 non-duplicated papers. Fifteen met the eligibility criteria and twelve evaluated the Bolsa Família program. Five plausibility studies and two adequacy analyses indicated a positive influence of conditional cash transfer programs on nutritional status of the beneficiary children. The conditional cash transfer programs influence on dietary intake was analyzed in one population-based adequacy study and three cross-sectionals plausibility researches in different municipalities. All of them indicated that beneficiaries had higher food intake than non-beneficiaries. The three cross-sectional plausibility analyses suggest a positive influence of conditional cash transfer programs on the food security of the beneficiaries. The main methodological limitations found were using cross-sectional analysis and difficulties in data collection, small sample sizes and limitations of the instruments used. CONCLUSIONS The few studies found indicated a positive association between Brazilian conditional cash transfer programs and improvements in the recipients' diet and nutrition. Greater efforts to widen and qualify evaluations are needed in order to assess more

  20. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    SciTech Connect

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  1. Method of fabricating a flow device

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is a novel method for fabricating leak-tight tubular articles which have an interior flow channel whose contour must conform very closely with design specifications but which are composed of metal which tends to warp if welded. The method comprises designing two longitudinal half-sections of the article, the half-sections being contoured internally to cooperatively form the desired flow passageway. Each half-section is designed with a pair of opposed side flanges extending between the end flanges and integral therewith. The half-sections are positioned with their various flanges in confronting relation and with elongated metal gaskets extending between the confronting flanges for the length of the array. The gaskets are a deformable metal which is fusion-weldable to the end flanges. The mating side flanges are joined mechanically to deform the gaskets and provide a longitudinally sealed assembly. The portions of the end flanges contiguous with the ends of the gaskets then are welded to provide localized end welds which incorporate ends of the gaskets, thus transversely sealing the assembly. This method of fabrication provides leak-tight articles having the desired precisely contoured flow channels, whereas various conventional methods have been found unsatisfactory.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann method and channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensholt, Sigvat; Mongstad Hope, Sigmund

    2016-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann methods are presented at an introductory level with a focus on fairly simple simulations that can be used to test and illustrate the model’s capabilities. Two scenarios are presented. The first is a simple laminar flow in a straight channel driven by a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The second is a more complex, including a wedge where Moffatt vortices may be induced if the wedge is deep enough. Simulations of the Poiseuille flow scenario accurately capture the theoretical velocity profile. The experiment shows the location of the fluid-wall boundary and the effects viscosity has on the velocity and convergence time. The numerical capabilities of the lattice Boltzmann model are tested further by simulating the more complex Moffatt vortex scenario. The method reproduces with high accuracy the theoretical predction that Moffat vortices will not form in a wedge if the vertex angle exceeds 146°. Practical issues limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. In particular the accuracy of the bounce-back boundary condition is first order dependent on the grid resolution.

  3. “No one says ‘No’ to money” – a mixed methods approach for evaluating conditional cash transfer schemes to improve girl children’s status in Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Haryana was the first state in India to launch a conditional cash transfer (CCT) scheme in 1994. Initially it targeted all disadvantaged girls but was revised in 2005 to restrict it to second girl children of all groups. The benefit which accrued at girl attaining 18 years and subject to conditionalities of being fully immunized, studying till class 10 and remaining unmarried, was increased from about US$ 500 to US$ 2000. Using a mixed methods approach, we evaluated the implementation and possible impact of these two schemes. Methods A survey was conducted among 200 randomly selected respondents of Ballabgarh Block in Haryana to assess their perceptions of girl children and related schemes. A cohort of births during this period was assembled from population database of 28 villages in this block and changes in sex ratio at birth and in immunization coverage at one year of age among boys and girls was measured. Education levels and mean age at marriage of daughters were compared with daughters-in-law from outside Haryana. In-depth interviews were conducted among district level implementers of these schemes to assess their perceptions of programs’ implementation and impact. These were analyzed using a thematic approach. Results The perceptions of girls as a liability and poor (9% to 15%) awareness of the schemes was noted. The cohort analysis showed that while there has been an improvement in the indicators studied, these were similar to those seen among the control groups. Qualitative analysis identified a “conspiracy of silence” - an underplaying of the pervasiveness of the problem coupled with a passive implementation of the program and a clash between political culture of giving subsidies and a bureaucratic approach that imposed many conditionalities and documentary needs for availing of benefits. Conclusion The apparent lack of impact on the societal mindset calls for a revision in the current approach of addressing a social issue by a purely

  4. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.

    2006-08-01

    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM, on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA, on the 5' end.

  5. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi,Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.

    2011-07-05

    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.

  6. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  7. A Filtering Method For Gravitationally Stratified Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip

    2005-04-25

    Gravity waves arise in gravitationally stratified compressible flows at low Mach and Froude numbers. These waves can have a negligible influence on the overall dynamics of the fluid but, for numerical methods where the acoustic waves are treated implicitly, they impose a significant restriction on the time step. A way to alleviate this restriction is to filter out the modes corresponding to the fastest gravity waves so that a larger time step can be used. This paper presents a filtering strategy of the fully compressible equations based on normal mode analysis that is used throughout the simulation to compute the fast dynamics and that is able to damp only fast gravity modes.

  8. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

    PubMed

    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power. PMID:23614264

  9. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

    PubMed

    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power.

  10. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  11. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  12. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  13. Transonic Flow Computations Using Nonlinear Potential Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation describes the state of transonic flow simulation using nonlinear potential methods for external aerodynamic applications. The presentation begins with a review of the various potential equation forms (with emphasis on the full potential equation) and includes a discussion of pertinent mathematical characteristics and all derivation assumptions. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, is discussed. Key characteristics of all numerical algorithm types used for solving nonlinear potential equations, including steady, unsteady, space marching, and design methods, are described. Both spatial discretization and iteration scheme characteristics are examined. Numerical results for various aerodynamic applications are included throughout the presentation to highlight key discussion points. The presentation ends with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work. Overall. nonlinear potential solvers are efficient, highly developed and routinely used in the aerodynamic design environment for cruise conditions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Finite area method for nonlinear conical flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritharan, S. S.; Seebass, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A fully conservative finite area method for the computation of steady inviscid flow about general conical bodies at incidence is described. The procedure utilizes the potential approximation and implements a body conforming mesh generator. The conical potential is assumed to have its best linear variation inside each mesh cell and a secondary interlocking cell system is used to establish the flux balance required to conserve mass. In the supersonic regions the scheme is desymmetrized by adding appropriate artificial viscosity in conservation form. The algorithm is nearly an order of a magnitude faster than present Euler methods and predicts known results accurately and qualitative features such as nodal point lift off correctly. Results are compared with those of other investigations.

  15. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  16. Flow "Fine" Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shū

    2016-02-18

    The concept of flow "fine" synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow "fine" synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society.

  17. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  18. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.

  19. Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D.

    1976-01-01

    An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.

  20. 32 CFR 37.1245 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cash contributions. 37.1245 Section 37.1245 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions toward cost sharing, including...

  1. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  2. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  3. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  4. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  5. Lessons about Cash and Manager Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mong, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Experienced managers know that cash affects virtually every aspect of a company's strategy and operations. Business students and new managers, however, sometimes lose sight of the importance of cash amidst the details of accrual-based accounting courses, formula-based finance courses, and production-based management courses. We therefore use…

  6. 23 CFR 140.612 - Cash management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will...

  7. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Check cashing. 141.19 Section 141.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.19 Check cashing. (a) A reservation...

  8. Computational methods for internal flows with emphasis on turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, W. D.; Sockol, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Current computational methods for analyzing flows in turbomachinery and other related internal propulsion components are presented. The methods are divided into two classes. The inviscid methods deal specifically with turbomachinery applications. Viscous methods, deal with generalized duct flows as well as flows in turbomachinery passages. Inviscid methods are categorized into the potential, stream function, and Euler aproaches. Viscous methods are treated in terms of parabolic, partially parabolic, and elliptic procedures. Various grids used in association with these procedures are also discussed.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, A.C.

    1983-09-06

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  11. Microfluidic devices and methods for integrated flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-08-16

    Microfluidic devices and methods for flow cytometry are described. In described examples, various sample handling and preparation steps may be carried out within a same microfluidic device as flow cytometry steps. A combination of imaging and flow cytometry is described. In some examples, spiral microchannels serve as incubation chambers. Examples of automated sample handling and flow cytometry are described.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for

  13. Climate change, cash transfers and health

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Caroline; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Yablonski, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hales, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The forecast consequences of climate change on human health are profound, especially in low- and middle-income countries and among the most disadvantaged populations. Innovative policy tools are needed to address the adverse health effects of climate change. Cash transfers are established policy tools for protecting population health before, during and after climate-related disasters. For example, the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Programme provides cash transfers to reduce food insecurity resulting from droughts. We propose extending cash transfer interventions to more proactive measures to improve health in the context of climate change. We identify promising cash transfer schemes that could be used to prevent the adverse health consequences of climatic hazards. Cash transfers for using emission-free, active modes of transport – e.g. cash for cycling to work – could prevent future adverse health consequences by contributing to climate change mitigation and, at the same time, improving current population health. Another example is cash transfers provided to communities that decide to move to areas in which their lives and health are not threatened by climatic disasters. More research on such interventions is needed to ensure that they are effective, ethical, equitable and cost–effective. PMID:26478613

  14. Climate change, cash transfers and health.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Shaw, Caroline; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Yablonski, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hales, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The forecast consequences of climate change on human health are profound, especially in low- and middle-income countries and among the most disadvantaged populations. Innovative policy tools are needed to address the adverse health effects of climate change. Cash transfers are established policy tools for protecting population health before, during and after climate-related disasters. For example, the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Programme provides cash transfers to reduce food insecurity resulting from droughts. We propose extending cash transfer interventions to more proactive measures to improve health in the context of climate change. We identify promising cash transfer schemes that could be used to prevent the adverse health consequences of climatic hazards. Cash transfers for using emission-free, active modes of transport - e.g. cash for cycling to work - could prevent future adverse health consequences by contributing to climate change mitigation and, at the same time, improving current population health. Another example is cash transfers provided to communities that decide to move to areas in which their lives and health are not threatened by climatic disasters. More research on such interventions is needed to ensure that they are effective, ethical, equitable and cost-effective.

  15. Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.

    1990-12-31

    Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if {alpha}D > 4, where {alpha} is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on {alpha}D. 11 refs., 4 figs.,

  16. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusser, Adi

    2016-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, B, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of B as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three-dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring B for either of these definitions which coincide only for the case of a velocity field which is constant in space. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute B in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer B directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of B. The WF methodology could easily be adapted to the second definition, in which case it will be equivalent to the CMV with the exception of the imposed constraint. For a prior with vanishing correlations or very noisy data, CMV reproduces the standard Maximum Likelihood estimation for B of the entire sample independent of the radial weighting function. Therefore, this estimator is likely more susceptible to observational biases that could be present in measurements of distant galaxies. Finally, two additional estimators are proposed.

  17. PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.

  18. Field methods for measuring concentrated flow erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; James, M. R.; Quinton, J. N.; Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    techniques (3D) for measuring erosion from concentrated flow (pole, laser profilemeter, photo-reconstruction and terrestrial LiDAR) The comparison between two- and three-dimensional methods has showed the superiority of the 3D techniques for obtaining accurate cross sectional data. The results from commonly-used 2D methods can be subject to systematic errors in areal cross section that exceed magnitudes of 10 % on average. In particular, the pole simplified method has showed a clear tendency to understimate areas. Laser profilemeter results show that further research on calibrating optical devices for a variety of soil conditions must be carried out to improve its performance. For volume estimations, photo-reconstruction results provided an excellent approximation to terrestrial laser data and demonstrate that this new remote sensing technique has a promising application field in soil erosion studies. 2D approaches involved important errors even over short measurement distances. However, as well as accuracy, the cost and time requirements of a technique must be considered.

  19. 47 CFR 36.182 - Cash working capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if...

  20. Banknotes and unattended cash transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Ronald R.

    2000-04-01

    There is a 64 billion dollar annual unattended cash transaction business in the US with 10 to 20 million daily transactions. Even small problems with the machine readability of banknotes can quickly become a major problem to the machine manufacturer and consumer. Traditional note designs incorporate overt security features for visual validation by the public. Many of these features such as fine line engraving, microprinting and watermarks are unsuitable as machine readable features in low cost note acceptors. Current machine readable features, mostly covert, were designed and implemented with the central banks in mind. These features are only usable by the banks large, high speed currency sorting and validation equipment. New note designs should consider and provide for low cost not acceptors, implementing features developed for inexpensive sensing technologies. Machine readable features are only as good as their consistency. Quality of security features as well as that of the overall printing process must be maintained to ensure reliable and secure operation of note readers. Variations in printing and of the components used to make the note are one of the major causes of poor performance in low cost note acceptors. The involvement of machine manufacturers in new currency designs will aid note producers in the design of a note that is machine friendly, helping to secure the acceptance of the note by the public as well as acting asa deterrent to fraud.

  1. Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

    1975-12-19

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

  3. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  4. A method of determining combustion gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon Tempi, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.

  5. APPROXIMATE MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING BY CHARACTERISTIC METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flow of petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents and other liquids that are immiscible with water presents the nation with some of the most difficult subsurface remediation problems. One aspect of contaminant transport associated releases of such liquids is the transport as a...

  6. Methods for improved resolution of flow electrophoresis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.; Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    First method involves remote adjusting of zeta potential. Second approach sandwiches two conducting metal plates between opposite cell walls and thin insulating layer. Third method forces buffer to flow in direction opposite particle streams.

  7. Impulse-based methods for fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, R.

    1995-05-01

    A Lagrangian numerical method based on impulse variables is analyzed. A relation between impulse vectors and vortex dipoles with a prescribed dipole moment is presented. This relation is used to adapt the high-accuracy cutoff functions of vortex methods for use in impulse-based methods. A source of error in the long-time implementation of the impulse method is explained and two techniques for avoiding this error are presented. An application of impulse methods to the motion of a fluid surrounded by an elastic membrane is presented.

  8. Ten best resources on conditional cash transfers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Caroline; Hill, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    The world's economy is in a fragile state. Although cautiously recovering from a global recession, unemployment rates and poverty levels remain high. At the same time, food and fuel crises have resulted in skyrocketing commodity costs, straining household budgets even further than before. In the wake of these financial pressure points, there has been increased focus on social safety net programmes. More recently, Brazil's 'Bolsa Familia' conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme has celebrated its tenth-year anniversary, renewing focus on this particular aspect of social transfer programmes. This essay examines one particular aspect of these social safety net programmes: CCTs. CCT programmes are useful social programmes that have had demonstrable effects on many different populations. However, they are not a 'magic bullet' against poverty, and their image has suffered from unreasonable expectations of their impacts. This 10 best list is an ideal starting point from which a potential user can begin to understand CCTs. There remain significant gaps in the literature behind CCTs, with a particular need for much more research on emerging areas such as impacts on gender, long-term school and health outcomes, methods for increasing efficiency and adapting conditionalities within cultural contexts, among others. However, this list can function as a starting point from which the reader can gain an understanding and appreciation for what we believe to be one of the most innovative social programmes for addressing poverty worldwide.

  9. Ten best resources on conditional cash transfers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Caroline; Hill, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    The world's economy is in a fragile state. Although cautiously recovering from a global recession, unemployment rates and poverty levels remain high. At the same time, food and fuel crises have resulted in skyrocketing commodity costs, straining household budgets even further than before. In the wake of these financial pressure points, there has been increased focus on social safety net programmes. More recently, Brazil's 'Bolsa Familia' conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme has celebrated its tenth-year anniversary, renewing focus on this particular aspect of social transfer programmes. This essay examines one particular aspect of these social safety net programmes: CCTs. CCT programmes are useful social programmes that have had demonstrable effects on many different populations. However, they are not a 'magic bullet' against poverty, and their image has suffered from unreasonable expectations of their impacts. This 10 best list is an ideal starting point from which a potential user can begin to understand CCTs. There remain significant gaps in the literature behind CCTs, with a particular need for much more research on emerging areas such as impacts on gender, long-term school and health outcomes, methods for increasing efficiency and adapting conditionalities within cultural contexts, among others. However, this list can function as a starting point from which the reader can gain an understanding and appreciation for what we believe to be one of the most innovative social programmes for addressing poverty worldwide. PMID:24972827

  10. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-12

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.

  11. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann methods for viscous fluid flows and for two-phase fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamuro, Takaji

    2006-09-01

    Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for viscous fluid flows and for two-phase fluid flows are presented. First, the LBMs for incompressible viscous fluid flows and for temperature fields are described. Then, we derive a lattice kinetic scheme (LKS) which is an improved scheme of the LBM. The LKS does not require any velocity distribution functions and is more stable than the LBMs. In addition, the LBM for two-phase fluid flows is presented. The method can simulate flows with the density ratio up to 1000. Numerical examples of unsteady flows in a three-dimensional porous structure, binary droplet collision and rising bubbles in a square duct are illustrated. It is expected that the LBMs (and LKS) will become promising numerical schemes for simulating complex fluid flows.

  13. Fourier time spectral method for subsonic and transonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Papamoschou, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    The time accuracy of the exponentially accurate Fourier time spectral method (TSM) is examined and compared with a conventional 2nd-order backward difference formula (BDF) method for periodic unsteady flows. In particular, detailed error analysis based on numerical computations is performed on the accuracy of resolving the local pressure coefficient and global integrated force coefficients for smooth subsonic and non-smooth transonic flows with moving shock waves on a pitching airfoil. For smooth subsonic flows, the Fourier TSM method offers a significant accuracy advantage over the BDF method for the prediction of both the local pressure coefficient and integrated force coefficients. For transonic flows where the motion of the discontinuous shock wave contributes significant higher-order harmonic contents to the local pressure fluctuations, a sufficient number of modes must be included before the Fourier TSM provides an advantage over the BDF method. The Fourier TSM, however, still offers better accuracy than the BDF method for integrated force coefficients even for transonic flows. A problem of non-symmetric solutions for symmetric periodic flows due to the use of odd numbers of intervals is uncovered and analyzed. A frequency-searching method is proposed for problems where the frequency is not known a priori. The method is tested on the vortex shedding problem of the flow over a circular cylinder.

  14. Method and apparatus for coal analysis and flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Rollwitz, W.L.; King, J.D.

    1985-07-23

    A flow meter apparatus and method for measuring the flow, composition and heat content of coal is set forth. In the preferred and illustrated embodiment, the free or unpaired electron population of flowing coal is measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR); the hydrogen nucleii population is measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). By calibration utilizing a standard specimen for a given type of coal, a profile for various types of coal can be obtained wherein measurement data is converted into an indication of the heat content typically measured in BTU per pound. This enables provision of a volumetric flow meter, a flow meter indicating flow in calorie content. This device enables integration to provide total heat content flow. Other variables describing the coal can be obtained.

  15. Advanced surface paneling method for subsonic and supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L. L.; Johnson, F. T.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical results illustrating the capabilities of an advanced aerodynamic surface paneling method are presented. The method is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow, as represented by linearized potential flow theory. The method is based on linearly varying sources and quadratically varying doublets which are distributed over flat or curved panels. These panels are applied to the true surface geometry of arbitrarily shaped three dimensional aerodynamic configurations.

  16. A Reconstruction Method of Blood Flow Velocity in Left Ventricle Using Color Flow Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Heo, Jung; Lee, DongHak; Joo, Chulmin; Choi, Jung-il; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-01-01

    Vortex flow imaging is a relatively new medical imaging method for the dynamic visualization of intracardiac blood flow, a potentially useful index of cardiac dysfunction. A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color flow images compiled from ultrasound measurements. In this paper, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is proposed to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. The boundary conditions to solve the system of equations are derived from the dimensions of the ventricle extracted from 2D echocardiography data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated numerically using synthetic flow data acquired from simulating left ventricle flows. The numerical simulations show the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed method of reconstructing the intracardiac flow fields. Of particular note is the finding that the mass source term in the proposed model improves the reconstruction performance. PMID:26078773

  17. Chaotic maps, Hamiltonian flows, and Holographic methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami

    2010-01-01

    Holographic functional methods are introduced as probes of discrete time-stepped maps that lead to chaotic behavior. The methods provide continuous time interpolation between the time steps, thereby revealing the maps to be quasi-Hamiltonian systems underlain by novel potentials that govern the motion of a perceived point particle. Between turning points, the particle is strictly driven by Hamiltonian dynamics, but at each encounter with a turning point the potential changes abruptly, loosely analogous to the switchbacks on a mountain road. A sequence of successively deepening switchback potentials explains, in physical terms, the frequency cascade and trajectory folding that occur on the particular route to chaos revealed by the logistic map.

  18. Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2003-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65 delta wing with different values of leading-edge radius. Although the geometry is quite simple, it poses a challenging problem for computing vortices originating from blunt leading edges. The second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the wind-tunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

  19. Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2001-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65deg delta wing with different values of leading-edge bluntness, and the second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the windtunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

  20. Construction of School Timetables by Flow Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Werra, D.

    In this paper, a heuristic algorithm for constructing school timetables is described. The algorithm is based on an exact method that applies to a family of particular timetable problems. The procedure has been used to construct timetables for Swiss schools having about 50 classes, 80 teachers, and 35 weekly periods. Less than five percent of…

  1. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  2. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  3. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  4. Inconsistency of Species Tree Methods under Gene Flow.

    PubMed

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Yang, Mengyao; Ané, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    Coalescent-based methods are now broadly used to infer evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms under the assumption that incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) is the only source of gene tree discordance. Many of these methods are known to consistently estimate the species tree when all their assumptions are met. Nonetheless, little work has been done to test the robustness of such methods to violations of their assumptions. Here, we study the performance of two of the most efficient coalescent-based methods, ASTRAL and NJst, in the presence of gene flow. Gene flow violates the assumption that ILS is the sole source of gene tree conflict. We find anomalous gene trees on three-taxon rooted trees and on four-taxon unrooted trees. These anomalous trees do not exist under ILS only, but appear because of gene flow. Our simulations show that species tree methods (and concatenation) may reconstruct the wrong evolutionary history, even from a very large number of well-reconstructed gene trees. In other words, species tree methods can be inconsistent under gene flow. Our results underline the need for methods like PhyloNet, to account simultaneously for ILS and gene flow in a unified framework. Although much slower, PhyloNet had better accuracy and remained consistent at high levels of gene flow. PMID:27151419

  5. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  7. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  8. Packet flow monitoring tool and method

    DOEpatents

    Thiede, David R [Richland, WA

    2009-07-14

    A system and method for converting packet streams into session summaries. Session summaries are a group of packets each having a common source and destination internet protocol (IP) address, and, if present in the packets, common ports. The system first captures packets from a transport layer of a network of computer systems, then decodes the packets captured to determine the destination IP address and the source IP address. The system then identifies packets having common destination IP addresses and source IP addresses, then writes the decoded packets to an allocated memory structure as session summaries in a queue.

  9. Characterization of peak flow events with local singularity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.; Li, L.; Wang, L.

    2009-07-01

    Three methods, return period, power-law frequency plot (concentration-area) and local singularity index, are introduced in the paper for characterizing peak flow events from river flow data for the past 100 years from 1900 to 2000 recorded at 25 selected gauging stations on rivers in the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) area, Canada. First a traditional method, return period, was applied to the maximum annual river flow data. Whereas the Pearson III distribution generally fits the values, a power-law frequency plot (C-A) on the basis of self-similarity principle provides an effective mean for distinguishing "extremely" large flow events from the regular flow events. While the latter show a power-law distribution, about 10 large flow events manifest departure from the power-law distribution and these flow events can be classified into a separate group most of which are related to flood events. It is shown that the relation between the average water releases over a time period after flow peak and the time duration may follow a power-law distribution. The exponent of the power-law or singularity index estimated from this power-law relation may be used to characterize non-linearity of peak flow recessions. Viewing large peak flow events or floods as singular processes can anticipate the application of power-law models not only for characterizing the frequency distribution of peak flow events, for example, power-law relation between the number and size of floods, but also for describing local singularity of processes such as power-law relation between the amount of water released versus releasing time. With the introduction and validation of singularity of peak flow events, alternative power-law models can be used to depict the recession property as well as other types of non-linear properties.

  10. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y.; Frankel, Y.

    1996-10-16

    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  11. Why Cash "Doesn't" Motivate...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2011-01-01

    If money is the root of all evil, is it also the root of all motivation? When talking about workplace performance and training, the experts' consensus is a resounding "No." This article discusses why cash doesn't motivate everyone all the time when it comes to workplace performance and training and takes a look at what does.

  12. 24 CFR 220.842 - Cash adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cash adjustment. 220.842 Section 220.842 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 220.842 - Cash adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash adjustment. 220.842 Section 220.842 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 220.842 - Cash adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cash adjustment. 220.842 Section 220.842 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 24 CFR 220.842 - Cash adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash adjustment. 220.842 Section 220.842 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 24 CFR 220.842 - Cash adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash adjustment. 220.842 Section 220.842 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  17. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cashing a draft, check or money order. (b) A reservation business owner or employee may advise a customer... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or employee... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO,...

  18. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cashing a draft, check or money order. (b) A reservation business owner or employee may advise a customer... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or employee... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO,...

  19. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cashing a draft, check or money order. (b) A reservation business owner or employee may advise a customer... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or employee... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO,...

  20. 25 CFR 141.19 - Check cashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cashing a draft, check or money order. (b) A reservation business owner or employee may advise a customer... or any other obligation the customer owes to the business, but in no event may the owner or employee... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO,...

  1. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD access, and features and…

  2. 18 CFR 154.306 - Cash working capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash working capital... Changes § 154.306 Cash working capital. A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part may not receive a cash working capital adjustment to its rate base unless the company or...

  3. Cash receipts process for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    All Fluor Daniel Hanford cash receipts are processed in the Operations Travel System. There are five types of cash receipts. Depending on the type, the receipt may be processed by APM OTS, Site-Wide Savings, retirement Information System, or PeopleSoft Benefits System. Regardless of the source, all cash received is eventually forwarded to Treasure for deposit into the bank.

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Cash Register Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course is on the fundamentals of operating a cash register. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Face of Cash Register, (2) Operating a Checkout Station, (3) Checker-Cashier Qualities, and (4) NCR 250 Electronic Cash Register. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  5. 38 CFR 8.11 - Cash value and policy loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.11 Cash value and policy loan. (a) Provisions for... become effective at the completion of the first policy year on any plan of National Service Life Insurance other than the 5-year level premium term plan. The cash value at the end of the first policy...

  6. 18 CFR 367.1360 - Account 136, Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cash investments. 367.1360 Section 367.1360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... cash investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments, such as demand and time... similar investments, acquired for the purpose of temporarily investing cash. (b) This account must...

  7. 12 CFR 952.5 - Community Investment Cash Advance Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. 952... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.5 Community Investment Cash... targeted community lending at the appropriate targeted income levels. (3) Each Bank may offer RDF...

  8. 38 CFR 8.11 - Cash value and policy loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... policies are hereby amended accordingly. (g) All values, reserves, and net single premiums on participating... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cash value and policy... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.11 Cash value and policy loan. (a) Provisions...

  9. Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.

  10. A Fast Estimation Method of Railway Passengers' Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Yusaku; Asuka, Masashi; Komaya, Kiyotoshi

    To evaluate a train schedule from the viewpoint of passengers' convenience, it is important to know each passenger's choice of trains and transfer stations to arrive at his/her destination. Because of difficulties of measuring such passengers' behavior, estimation methods of railway passengers' flow are proposed to execute such an evaluation. However, a train schedule planning system equipped with those methods is not practical due to necessity of much time to complete the estimation. In this article, the authors propose a fast passengers' flow estimation method that employs features of passengers' flow graph using preparative search based on each train's arrival time at each station. And the authors show the results of passengers' flow estimation applied on a railway in an urban area.

  11. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  12. On the no-field method for void time determination in flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michel; Hoyos, Mauricio

    2011-07-01

    Elution time measurements of colloidal particles injected in a symmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (flow FFF) system when the inlet and outlet cross-flow connections are closed have been performed. This no-field method has been proposed earlier for void time (and void volume) determination in flow FFF Giddings et al. (1977). The elution times observed were much larger than expected on the basis of the channel geometrical volume and the flow rate. In order to explain these discrepancies, a flow model allowing the carrier liquid to flow through the porous walls toward the reservoirs located behind the porous elements and along these reservoirs was developed. The ratio between the observed elution time and expected one is found to depend only on a parameter which is a function of the effective permeability and thickness of the porous elements and of the channel thickness and length. The permeabilities of the frits used in the system were measured. Their values lead to predicted elution times in reasonable agreement with experimental ones, taking into account likely membrane protrusion inside the channel on system assembly. They comfort the basic feature of the flow model, in the no-field case. The carrier liquid mostly bypasses the channel to flow along the system mainly in the reservoir. It flows through the porous walls toward the reservoirs near channel inlet and again through the porous walls from the reservoirs to the channel near channel outlet before exiting the system. In order to estimate the extent of this bypassing process, it is desirable that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the permeable elements (permeability and thickness) are provided by flow FFF manufacturers. The model applies to symmetrical as well as asymmetrical flow FFF systems. PMID:21256498

  13. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  14. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  15. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  16. A study of methods to estimate debris flow velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flow velocities are commonly back-calculated from superelevation events which require subjective estimates of radii of curvature of bends in the debris flow channel or predicted using flow equations that require the selection of appropriate rheological models and material property inputs. This research investigated difficulties associated with the use of these conventional velocity estimation methods. Radii of curvature estimates were found to vary with the extent of the channel investigated and with the scale of the media used, and back-calculated velocities varied among different investigated locations along a channel. Distinct populations of Bingham properties were found to exist between those measured by laboratory tests and those back-calculated from field data; thus, laboratory-obtained values would not be representative of field-scale debris flow behavior. To avoid these difficulties with conventional methods, a new preliminary velocity estimation method is presented that statistically relates flow velocity to the channel slope and the flow depth. This method presents ranges of reasonable velocity predictions based on 30 previously measured velocities. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  18. Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, D.; Hargreaves, J.; Lönnroth, K.; Jaramillo, E.; Weiss, J.; Uplekar, M.; Porter, J. D. H.; Evans, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the impact of cash transfer and microfinance interventions on a selected list of tuberculosis (TB) risk factors and assess their potential role in supporting TB control. DATA SOURCE Published and unpublished references identified from clinical and social electronic databases, grey literature and web sites. METHODS Eligible interventions had to be conducted in middle- or low-income countries and document an impact evaluation on any of the following outcomes: 1) TB or other respiratory infections; 2) household socio-economic position; and 3) factors mediating the association between low household socio-economic position and TB, including inadequate health-seeking behaviours, food insecurity and biological TB risk factors such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and adult malnutrition. Interventions targeting special populations were excluded. RESULTS Fifteen cash transfer schemes (four unconditional and 11 conditional) and seven microfinance programmes met the eligibility criteria. No intervention addressed TB or any other respiratory infection. Of 11 cash transfer and four microfinance interventions, respectively seven and four reported a positive impact on indicators of economic well-being. A positive impact on household food security was documented in respectively eight of nine and three of five cash transfer and microfinance interventions. Improved health care access was documented respectively in 10 of 12 cash transfer and four of five microfinance interventions. The only intervention evaluating impact on HIV incidence was a microfinance project that found no effect. No cash transfer or microfinance interventions had an impact on adult malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS Cash transfer and microfinance interventions can positively impact TB risk factors. Evaluation studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of these social protection interventions on actual TB indicators. PMID:21740658

  19. Topography Modeling in Atmospheric Flows Using the Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Senocak, I.; Mansour, N. N.; Stevens, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation of flow over complex geometry needs accurate and efficient computational methods. Different techniques are available to handle complex geometry. The unstructured grid and multi-block body-fitted grid techniques have been widely adopted for complex geometry in engineering applications. In atmospheric applications, terrain fitted single grid techniques have found common use. Although these are very effective techniques, their implementation, coupling with the flow algorithm, and efficient parallelization of the complete method are more involved than a Cartesian grid method. The grid generation can be tedious and one needs to pay special attention in numerics to handle skewed cells for conservation purposes. Researchers have long sought for alternative methods to ease the effort involved in simulating flow over complex geometry.

  20. The solving of one dimensional unsteady flow with difference methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Guangri; Shang, Yu; Wang, Rongsheng

    In this paper, one-dimensional unsteady gas flow equations are formulated with Riemann variables as the functions of time and space to be solved. By using the 'de Haller' test and a simple pipe flow with a temperature discontinuity, the equations are solved by difference methods of first-order accuracy and second-order accuracy for non-homentropic cases. As compared with the commonly used characteristic method, the results show the above-mentioned formulation and difference methods have the advantages of consuming less computer time and being easier to reach higher order accuracy. The application to turbocharged internal combustion engines is also discussed in this paper.

  1. Fiber optic liquid mass flow sensor and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Gregory, Don Allen (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing the mass flow rate of a fluid flowing through a pipe. A light beam containing plural individual wavelengths is projected from one side of the pipe across the width of the pipe so as to pass through the fluid under test. Fiber optic couplers located at least two positions on the opposite side of the pipe are used to detect the light beam. A determination is then made of the relative strengths of the light beam for each wavelength at the at least two positions and based at least in part on these relative strengths, the mass flow rate of the fluid is determined.

  2. Compressible flow calculations employing the Galerkin/least-squares method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakib, F.; Hughes, T. J. R.; Johan, Zdenek

    1989-01-01

    A multielement group, domain decomposition algorithm is presented for solving linear nonsymmetric systems arising in the finite-element analysis of compressible flows employing the Galerkin/least-squares method. The iterative strategy employed is based on the generalized minimum residual (GMRES) procedure originally proposed by Saad and Shultz. Two levels of preconditioning are investigated. Applications to problems of high-speed compressible flow illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  3. AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...

  4. The flow curvature method applied to canard explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginoux, Jean-Marc; Llibre, Jaume

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work is to establish that the bifurcation parameter value leading to a canard explosion in dimension 2 obtained by the so-called geometric singular perturbation method can be found according to the flow curvature method. This result will be then exemplified with the classical Van der Pol oscillator.

  5. Determination of renal blood flow by thermodilution method.

    PubMed

    Leivestad, T; Brodwall, E K; Simonsen, S

    1978-09-01

    The single bolus thermodilution method for measurement of renal vein blood flow was tested. In model experiments the thermodilution method was compared with graduated cylinder measurements over a flow range from 50 to 1050 ml/min. There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.98) with a mean of differences of 5.2%. In eighteen patients measurements were performed in duplicate in thirty-one renal veins. Comparison was made between the first (x) and second (u) measurement--performed within 3 min. The correlation between the two was very good (r = 0.99; y = 1.03x - 11.48). In twelve patients bilateral renal vein blood flow measurements were performed simultaneous to blood flow measurement by PAH clearance. The correlation between total flow measured by thermodilution (y) and by the clearance method (x) was good (r = 0.98; y = 0.79x + 221). It is concluded that the thermodilution method requires catheterization of the renal veins, but is otherwise simple to perform, is inexpensive and gives reliable results. It is particularly advantageous when repeated measurements in the study of acute changes in renal haemodynamics is desirable. PMID:705231

  6. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Low Flow Characteristics of Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    Four methods for estimating the 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 20-year low flows for streams are compared by the bootstrap method. The bootstrap method is a Monte Carlo technique in which random samples are drawn from an unspecified sampling distribution defined from observed data. The nonparametric nature of the bootstrap makes it suitable for comparing methods based on a flow series for which the true distribution is unknown. Results show that the two methods based on hypothetical distribution (Log-Pearson III and Weibull) had lower mean square errors than did the G. E. P. Box-D. R. Cox transformation method or the Log-W. C. Boughton method which is based on a fit of plotting positions.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a flow path having solid components flowing therethrough

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Bauer, William F.; Elias, Gracy

    2008-05-06

    A method and apparatus is provided for monitoring a flow path having plurality of different solid components flowing therethrough. For example, in the harvesting of a plant material, many factors surrounding the threshing, separating or cleaning of the plant material and may lead to the inadvertent inclusion of the component being selectively harvested with residual plant materials being discharged or otherwise processed. In accordance with the present invention the detection of the selectively harvested component within residual materials may include the monitoring of a flow path of such residual materials by, for example, directing an excitation signal toward of flow path of material and then detecting a signal initiated by the presence of the selectively harvested component responsive to the excitation signal. The detected signal may be used to determine the presence or absence of a selected plant component within the flow path of residual materials.

  8. A nonintrusive method of quantifying flow visualization data in vortex flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, Vincent J.

    1994-12-01

    The High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) as well as other similar flight test aircraft have been using smoke flow visualization techniques to characterize the vortex flow created by leading edge extensions and the forebody. With the advent of video measurement techniques, this type of flow visualization can not only provide a qualitative assessment of the flow but also a quantitative measure to be used to validate computational fluid dynamic codes and wind tunnel test. One of the major drawbacks to employing video imaging was the introduction of false motion due to camera movement in flight. A relative motion approach using fixed targets along with the flow visualization scheme was utilized to remove unwanted motion. The relative motion algorithm was tested using a laboratory test setup where cameras underwent both translational and rotational motion to simulate both wing bending and torsion. The method was effective in removing both motions with only a slight loss of accuracy.

  9. Proposed method for measurement of flow rate in turbulent periodic pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werzner, E.; Ray, S.; Trimis, D.

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation deals with a previously proposed flow metering technique for laminar, fully-developed, time-periodic pipe flow. Employing knowledge of the pulsation frequency-dependent relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure gradient, the method allows reconstruction of the instantaneous mass flow rate on the basis of a recorded pressure gradient time series. In order to explore if the procedure can be extended for turbulent flows, numerical simulations for turbulent, fully-developed, sinusoidally pulsating pipe flow with low pulse amplitude have been carried out using a ν2-f turbulence model. The study covers pulsation frequencies, ranging from the quasi-steady up to the inertia-dominated frequency regime, and three cycle-averaged Reynolds numbers of 4360, 9750 and 15400. After providing the theoretical background of the flow rate reconstruction principle, the numerical model and an experimental facility for the verification of simulations are explained. The obtained results, presented in time and frequency domain, show good agreement with each other and indicate a frequency dependence, similar to that used for the signal reconstruction for laminar flows. A modified dimensionless frequency definition has been introduced, which allows a generalised representation of the results considering the influence of Reynolds number.

  10. Gpu Implementation of Preconditioning Method for Low-Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiale; Chen, Hongquan

    2016-06-01

    An improved preconditioning method for low-Mach-number flows is implemented on a GPU platform. The improved preconditioning method employs the fluctuation of the fluid variables to weaken the influence of accuracy caused by the truncation error. The GPU parallel computing platform is implemented to accelerate the calculations. Both details concerning the improved preconditioning method and the GPU implementation technology are described in this paper. Then a set of typical low-speed flow cases are simulated for both validation and performance analysis of the resulting GPU solver. Numerical results show that dozens of times speedup relative to a serial CPU implementation can be achieved using a single GPU desktop platform, which demonstrates that the GPU desktop can serve as a cost-effective parallel computing platform to accelerate CFD simulations for low-Speed flows substantially.

  11. A multi-domain method for subsonic viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Daniel C.; Sindir, Munir M.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a Schwarz type domain decomposition method for a pressure base, two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. This technique allows one to partition a flow path, which can be characterized by complex geometry and/or complicated flow physics, into smaller sub-domains according to the local geometric simplicity or estimated flow scales. We can, then, sweep the sub-domains in some order and solve the Navier-Stokes equations using as boundary conditions, along the domain interfaces, the Dirichlet conditions which are taken from the most recent update of the solution in the adjacent neighboring domains. With this technique, one can minimize the adverse effects caused by grid skewness and the stiffness problem caused by disparate flow scales. Here, we report the results of a few fundamental flow cases to demonstrate that a judicious use of the multi-domain method can offer a significant convergence acceleration over the traditional one-domain method. This method can be extended to exploit the architecture of a parallel computer to further improve the speed.

  12. The impact of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme, Oportunidades, on birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah L.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate the impact of Oportunidades, a large-scale, conditional cash transfer programme in Mexico, on birthweight. The programme provides cash transfers to low-income, rural households in Mexico, conditional on accepting nutritional supplements health education, and health care. Methods The primary analyses used retrospective reports from 840 women in poor rural communities participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999 across seven Mexican states. Pregnant women in participating households received nutrition supplements and health care, and accepted cash transfers. Using multivariate and instrumental variable analyses, we estimated the impact of the programme on birthweight in grams and low birthweight (<2500 g), receipt of any pre-natal care, and number of pre-natal visits. Results Oportunidades beneficiary status was associated with 127.3 g higher birthweight among participating women and a 4.6 percentage point reduction in low birthweight. Conclusion The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme improved birthweight outcomes. This finding is relevant to countries implementing conditional cash transfer programmes. PMID:18983270

  13. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  14. Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

  15. Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turan, A.; Vandoormaal, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of discrete methods for the prediction of fluid flows can be enhanced by improving the convergence rate of solvers and by increasing the accuracy of the discrete representation of the equations of motion. This report evaluates the gains in solver performance that are available when various acceleration methods are applied. Various discretizations are also examined and two are recommended because of their accuracy and robustness. Insertion of the improved discretization and solver accelerator into a TEACH mode, that has been widely applied to combustor flows, illustrates the substantial gains to be achieved.

  16. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  17. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  18. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  19. Finite element method application for turbulent and transitional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sváček, Petr

    2016-03-01

    This paper is interested in numerical simulations of the interaction of the fluid flow with an airfoil. Particularly, the problem of the turbulent flow around the airfoil with elastic support is considered. The main attention is paid to the numerical approximation of the flow problem using the finite element approximations. The laminar - turbulence transition of the flow on the surface airfoil is considered. The chois of the transition model is discussed. The transition model based on the two equation k-ω turbulence model is used. The structure motion is described with the aid of two degrees of freedom. The motion of the computational domain is treated with the aid of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. Numerical results are shown.

  20. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  1. Method for selectively controlling flow across slotted liners

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Dees, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A process is described for decreasing flow rate across the radial boundary of a selected interval in a well bore containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin solution inside an elongated container; locating the elongated container opposite the selected interval in the well bore where flow rate through the slotted liner is to be decreased; firing the explosive; and allowing the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow through the well. A method is described for decreasing production of unwanted fluids from a horizontal well containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin inside an elongated container; placing the elongated container opposite an interval in the horizontal well where unwanted fluid is entering the well bore through the slotted liner; firing the explosive; and permitting the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow in the well.

  2. A simulated dye method for flow visualization with a computational model for blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Cheer, A Y; Dwyer, H A

    2004-08-01

    A numerical dye method for the visualization of unsteady three-dimensional flow calculations is introduced by coupling the unsteady convection-diffusion equation to the Navier-Stokes equation for mass and momentum. This system of equations is descretized using a finite volume projection-like algorithm with generalized coordinates and overset grids. A powerful pressure prediction method is used to accelerate the convergence of the Pressure Poisson equation. To demonstrate the visualization technique, blood flow through the aortic arch region and the three main arterial branches is computed using various Womersley numbers. In this technique, parcels of fluid are followed in time as a function of the cardiac cycle without having to track individual particles, which in turn aids us to better understand some important aspects of the three-dimensionality of the developing unsteady flow. Using this numerical dye method we analyze the strength of the cross flow during the cardiac cycle, the relationship between the penetration of blood into the aortic branches from its relative position in the ascending aortic region and the effects of the Womersley parameter. This technique can be very useful in the design and development of stents where the topology of the device would require understanding where the blood emanating from the heart ends up at the end of the cardiac cycle. Moreover, this method could be useful in investigating the influence of flow and geometry on the local introduction of medication.

  3. Methods for estimating low-flow statistics for Massachusetts streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Methods and computer software are described in this report for determining flow duration, low-flow frequency statistics, and August median flows. These low-flow statistics can be estimated for unregulated streams in Massachusetts using different methods depending on whether the location of interest is at a streamgaging station, a low-flow partial-record station, or an ungaged site where no data are available. Low-flow statistics for streamgaging stations can be estimated using standard U.S. Geological Survey methods described in the report. The MOVE.1 mathematical method and a graphical correlation method can be used to estimate low-flow statistics for low-flow partial-record stations. The MOVE.1 method is recommended when the relation between measured flows at a partial-record station and daily mean flows at a nearby, hydrologically similar streamgaging station is linear, and the graphical method is recommended when the relation is curved. Equations are presented for computing the variance and equivalent years of record for estimates of low-flow statistics for low-flow partial-record stations when either a single or multiple index stations are used to determine the estimates. The drainage-area ratio method or regression equations can be used to estimate low-flow statistics for ungaged sites where no data are available. The drainage-area ratio method is generally as accurate as or more accurate than regression estimates when the drainage-area ratio for an ungaged site is between 0.3 and 1.5 times the drainage area of the index data-collection site. Regression equations were developed to estimate the natural, long-term 99-, 98-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 75-, 70-, 60-, and 50-percent duration flows; the 7-day, 2-year and the 7-day, 10-year low flows; and the August median flow for ungaged sites in Massachusetts. Streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for 87 to 133 streamgaging stations and low-flow partial-record stations were used to develop the equations. The

  4. A reconstruction method of intra-ventricular blood flow using color flow ultrasound: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Choi, Jung-il; Lee, Changhoon; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-03-01

    A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color Doppler echocardiography measurement. From 3D incompressible Navier- Stokes equation, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is derived to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. For demonstrating a feasibility of the proposed method, we have performed numerical simulations of the forward problem and numerical analysis of the reconstruction method. First, we construct a 3D moving LV region having a specific stroke volume. To obtain synthetic intra-ventricular flows, we performed a numerical simulation of the forward problem of Navier-Stokes equation inside the 3D moving LV, computed 3D intra-ventricular velocity fields as a solution of the forward problem, projected the 3D velocity fields on the imaging plane and took the inner product of the 2D velocity fields on the imaging plane and scanline directional velocity fields for synthetic scanline directional projected velocity at each position. The proposed method utilized the 2D synthetic projected velocity data for reconstructing LV blood flow. By computing the difference between synthetic flow and reconstructed flow fields, we obtained the averaged point-wise errors of 0.06 m/s and 0.02 m/s for u- and v-components, respectively.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOEpatents

    McGrail, Bernard P.; Martin, Paul F.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  6. Validation of an Impedance Education Method in Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results of a research effort to validate a method for educing the normal incidence impedance of a locally reacting liner, located in a grazing incidence, nonprogressive acoustic wave environment with flow. The results presented in this paper test the ability of the method to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance of a solid steel plate and two soft test liners in a uniform flow. The test liners are known to be locally react- ing and exhibit no measurable amplitude-dependent impedance nonlinearities or flow effects. Baseline impedance spectra for these liners were therefore established from measurements in a conventional normal incidence impedance tube. A key feature of the method is the expansion of the unknown impedance function as a piecewise continuous polynomial with undetermined coefficients. Stewart's adaptation of the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell optimization algorithm is used to educe the normal incidence impedance at each Mach number by optimizing an objective function. The method is shown to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance spectrum for each of the test liners, thus validating its usefulness for determining the normal incidence impedance of test liners for a broad range of source frequencies and flow Mach numbers. Nomenclature

  7. Method and apparatus for characterizing blood flow through the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, N.G.; Gray, R.I.; Kramer, H.H.; Picunko, T.

    1981-10-13

    An automated method and improved device provide a measurement of blood flow through the heart by the detection and analysis of radioactivity emitted by a radioactive tracer introduced into a patient's bloodstream. Real time, cardiac cycle by cardiac cycle information is processed and displayed to provide diagnostically useful information on an essentially ongoing basis as the patient is being tested.

  8. Simple method of supersonic flow visualization using smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. S.; Irani, E.

    1992-01-01

    A modified smoke wire visualization method for application in high-speed and supersonic flows has been developed which produces a large number of fine smoke filaments that do not dissipate. This new technique is easily implemented in an open-inlet induction-type supersonic wind tunnel. Shock waves and expansion regions are clearly identified by the smoke filament behavior.

  9. The numerical methods for the fluid flow of UCMCWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wenfu; Li Hui; Zhu Shuquan; Wang Zuna

    1997-12-31

    As an alternative for diesel oil for internal combustion engines, the fluid flow state of Ultra Clean Micronized Coal-Water Slurry (UCMCWS) in mini pipe and nozzle of a diesel engine must be known. In the laboratory three kinds of UCMCWS have been made with coal containing less than 0.8% ash, viscosity less than 600 mPa.s and concentration between 50% and 56%. Because the UCMCWS is a non-Newtonian fluid, there are no analytical resolution for pipe flow, especially in inlet and outlet sections. In this case using the numerical methods to research the flow state of UCMCWS is a useful method. Using the method of finite element, the flow state of UCMCWS in inlet and outlet sections (similar to a nozzle) have been studied. The distribution of velocity at different pressures of UCMCWS in outlet and inlet sections have been obtained. The result of the numerical methods is the efficient base for the pipe and nozzle design.

  10. Multicomponent-flow analyses by multimode method of characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1994-01-01

    For unsteady open-channel flows having N interacting unknown variables, a system of N mutually independent, partial differential equations can be used to describe the flow-field. The system generally belongs to marching-type problems and permits transformation into characteristic equations that are associated with N distinct characteristics directions. Because characteristics can be considered 'wave' or 'disturbance' propagation, a fluvial system so described can be viewed as adequately definable using these N component waves. A numerical algorithm to solve the N families of characteristics can then be introduced for formulation of an N-component flow-simulation model. The multimode method of characteristics (MMOC), a new numerical scheme that has a combined capacity of several specified-time-interval (STI) schemes of the method of characteristics, makes numerical modeling of such N-component riverine flows feasible and attainable. Merging different STI schemes yields different kinds of MMOC schemes, for which two kinds are displayed herein. With the MMOC, each characteristics is dynamically treated by an appropriate numerical mode, which should lead to an effective and suitable global simulation, covering various types of unsteady flow. The scheme is always linearly stable and its numerical accuracy can be systematically analyzed. By increasing the N value, one can develop a progressively sophisticated model that addresses increasingly complex river-mechanics problems.

  11. Method for measuring Doppler shifts in arc-heated flows.

    PubMed

    Aeschliman, D P; Hill, R A

    1972-01-01

    A novel method of determining both the Doppler and Stark shifts in a single measurement of spectral lines emitted by the arc-heated flow from a plasma jet has been successfully demonstrated. The method uses a spherical mirror arranged with its optical axis coincident with the optical axis of a Fabry-Perot interferometer and with its center of curvature at the center line of the flow. The common optical axis lies at an angle to the flow. With this system, both red-and blue-shifted line profiles are recorded in the same spectral scan. If conditions are such that the red-and blue-shifted profiles are not resolvable, the blue-shifted component is chopped so that the recorded signal consists of the envelopes of both the red-shifted profile and the superimposed red-and blue-shifted profiles. The wavelength difference between the blue-and red-shifted line profiles is exactly twice the Doppler shift integrated along a line of sight through the flow and is independent of a Stark shift. The Stark shift is given by the wavelength difference between the absolute line center and the midpoint of the red-and blue-shifted lines. Abel inversion of integrated line shift data has yielded radial velocity profiles to an accuracy of +/-3% in a supersonic, arc-heated argon flow.

  12. Methods of Visually Determining the Air Flow Around Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N; Johnson, Ernest

    1932-01-01

    This report describes methods used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to study visually the air flow around airplanes. The use of streamers, oil and exhaust gas streaks, lampblack and kerosene, powdered materials, and kerosene smoke is briefly described. The generation and distribution of smoke from candles and from titanium tetrachloride are described in greater detail because they appear most advantageous for general application. Examples are included showing results of the various methods.

  13. A Multi-domain Spectral Method for Supersonic Reactive Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Don, Wai-Sun; Gottlieb, David; Jung, Jae-Hun; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper has a dual purpose: it presents a multidomain Chebyshev method for the solution of the two-dimensional reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and it reports the results of the application of this code to the numerical simulations of high Mach number reactive flows in recessed cavity. The computational method utilizes newly derived interface boundary conditions as well as an adaptive filtering technique to stabilize the computations. The results of the simulations are relevant to recessed cavity flameholders.

  14. Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonlavante, Ernst; Nelson, N. Duane

    1986-01-01

    A numerical method for solving the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows was developed. The method was based on the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form. The method was tested on several demanding inviscid and viscous configurations. Two different forms of the implicit operator were investigated. The time marching to steady state was accelerated by the implementation of the multigrid procedure. Its various forms very effectively increased the rate of convergence of the present scheme. High quality steady state results were obtained in most of the test cases; these required only short computational times due to the relative efficiency of the basic method.

  15. Traffic Flow Management Using Aggregate Flow Models and the Development of Disaggregation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Dengfeng; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    A linear time-varying aggregate traffic flow model can be used to develop Traffic Flow Management (tfm) strategies based on optimization algorithms. However, there are no methods available in the literature to translate these aggregate solutions into actions involving individual aircraft. This paper describes and implements a computationally efficient disaggregation algorithm, which converts an aggregate (flow-based) solution to a flight-specific control action. Numerical results generated by the optimization method and the disaggregation algorithm are presented and illustrated by applying them to generate TFM schedules for a typical day in the U.S. National Airspace System. The results show that the disaggregation algorithm generates control actions for individual flights while keeping the air traffic behavior very close to the optimal solution.

  16. A Three-Dimensional Vortex Sheet Method for Multiphase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Mark; Dahm, Werner; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2002-11-01

    Previous work on a three-dimensional vortex-in-cell method is extended to include baroclinic vorticity generation in flows with large density ratios. A vortex sheet discretization is used both to maintain the boundary between different fluids or fluid phases, and to provide for a divergence-free vorticity field at all times. Automatic insertion and deletion of triangular elements allow the vortex sheet to maintain its connectivity and resolution during the simulation, despite extensive stretching of the material surface. The VIC grid provides regularization, and the simulation is inviscid at resolved scales. Computational results for flows with weak and strong density variations are presented.

  17. A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Louis H.

    1993-01-01

    There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.

  18. Analysis of Motorcycle Weave Mode by using Energy Flow Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Yoshitaka; Katayama, Tsuyoshi

    The activation mechanism of motorcycle weave mode is clarified within the framework of the energy flow method, which calculates energy flow of mechanical forces in each motion. It is demonstrated that only a few mechanical forces affect the stability of the weave mode from among a total of about 40 mechanical forces. The activation of the lateral, yawing and rolling motions destabilize the weave mode, while activation of the steering motion stabilizes the weave mode. A detailed investigation of the energy flow of the steering motion reveals that the steering motion plays an important role in clarifying the characteristics of the weave mode. As activation of the steering motion progresses the phase of the front tire side force, and the weave mode is consequently stabilized. This paper provides a design guide for stabilizing the weave mode and the wobble mode compatibility.

  19. Method for Studying Microbial Biofilms in Flowing-Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1982-01-01

    A method for the study of microbial biofilms in flowing-water systems was developed with special reference to the flow conditions in electrochemical concentration cells. Seawater was circulated in a semiclosed flow system through biofilm reactors (3 cm s−1) with microscope cover slips arranged in lamellar piles parallel with the flow. At fixed time intervals cover slips with their biofilm were removed from the pile, stained with crystal violet, and mounted on microscope slides. The absorbances of the slides were measured at 590 nm and plotted against time to give microbial biofilm development. From calibration experiments a staining time of 1 min and a rinse time of 10 min in a tap water flow (3 cm s−1) were considered sufficient. When an analysis of variance was performed on biofilm development data, 78% of the total variance was found to be due to random natural effects; the rest could be explained by experimental effects. The absorbance values correlated well with protein N, dry weight, and organic weight in two biofilm experiments, one with a biofilm with a high (75%) and one with a low (∼25%, normal) inorganic content. Comparisons of regression lines revealed that the absorbance of the stained biofilms was an estimate closely related to biofilm dry weight. PMID:16345929

  20. The ABC's of Financing Church and Synagogue Libraries. Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, Cash Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaford, Claudia

    The ABCs of financing church and synagogue libraries are presented in this guide as Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, and Cash Accounting. Acquiring funds and the basic means needed to start a library are described, including resources such as books, shelves, office supplies, and financial resources; ideas and methods are presented for soliciting both…

  1. Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Peter

    Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational

  2. Circulation methods in unsteady and three-dimensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiankun

    The largely unstudied extension of ultrasonic circulation measurement techniques (UCMT) to determine instantaneous lift in unsteady and three-dimensional flows has been addressed in this work. A combined analytical-numerical-experimental approach was undertaken with the goal of developing methods to properly convert the measurable time-dependent bound circulation to instantaneous lift force in unsteady flows. The measurement of mean sectional lift distribution along structure spans in three-dimensional flows was also studied. An unsteady correction method for thin airfoils was developed analytically and validated numerically (with finite element solutions) to properly convert bound circulation to instantaneous lift based on unsteady potential flow theory. Results show that the unsteady correction method can provide increased accuracy for unsteady lift prediction over the Kutta-Joukowski method used in previous unsteady flow studies. The unsteady correction model generally should be included for instantaneous lift prediction as long as the bound circulation is time-dependent. Using the same framework, we also studied determination of instantaneous lift forces on stationary bluff bodies (circular cylinders) at low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Various force models, including an approximate vortex force model, were studied. A new unsteady model, similar to that developed for the thin airfoils, using instantaneous bound circulation values, was proposed. Another important issue studied in this thesis is the effect of acoustic path sensitivity on bound circulation determination, which we found to be crucial for accurately predicting the instantaneous lift in both unsteady flat plate and cylinder flows. Proper path selection should take into account the location of boundary layers, attached and shed vortices. These findings will be useful in future experimental design of UCMT, PIV and LDV methods. Finally, we used the UCMT method to experimentally study the mean spatial

  3. Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.

    1993-01-01

    Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.

  4. A fictitious domain method for particulate flows with heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaosheng; Shao, Xueming; Wachs, Anthony

    2006-09-01

    The distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) method of Glowinski et al. [R. Glowinski, T.-W. Pan, T.I. Hesla, D.D. Joseph, A distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method for particulate flows, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) 755-794] is extended to deal with heat transfer in particulate flows in two dimensions. The Boussinesq approximation is employed for the coupling between the flow and temperature fields. The fluid-flow equations are solved with the finite-difference projection method on a half-staggered grid. In our operator splitting scheme, the Lagrange multipliers at the previous time level are kept in the fluid equations, and the new Lagrange multipliers for the rigid-body motion constraint and the Dirichlet temperature boundary condition are determined from the reduced saddle-point problem, whereas a very simple scheme based on the fully explicit computation of the Lagrange multiplier is proposed for the problem in which the solid heat conduction inside the particle boundary is also considered. Our code for the case of fixed temperature on the immersed boundary is verified by comparing favorably our results on the natural convection driven by a hot cylinder eccentrically placed in a square box and on the sedimentation of a cold circular particle in a vertical channel to the data in the literature. The code for the case of freely varying temperature on the boundaries of freely moving particles is applied to analyze the motion of a catalyst particle in a box and in particular the heat conductivities of nanofluids and sheared non-colloidal suspensions, respectively. Our preliminary computational results support the argument that the micro-heat-convection in the fluids is primarily responsible for the unusually high heat conductivity of nanofluids. It is shown that the Peclet number plays a negative role in the diffusion-related heat conductivity of a sheared non-colloidal suspension, whereas the Reynolds number does the

  5. Vectorization of a particle simulation method for hypersonic rarefied flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Jeffrey D.; Baganoff, Donald

    1988-01-01

    An efficient particle simulation technique for hypersonic rarefied flows is presented at an algorithmic and implementation level. The implementation is for a vector computer architecture, specifically the Cray-2. The method models an ideal diatomic Maxwell molecule with three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Algorithms are designed specifically for compatibility with fine grain parallelism by reducing the number of data dependencies in the computation. By insisting on this compatibility, the method is capable of performing simulation on a much larger scale than previously possible. A two-dimensional simulation of supersonic flow over a wedge is carried out for the near-continuum limit where the gas is in equilibrium and the ideal solution can be used as a check on the accuracy of the gas model employed in the method. Also, a three-dimensional, Mach 8, rarefied flow about a finite-span flat plate at a 45 degree angle of attack was simulated. It utilized over 10 to the 7th particles carried through 400 discrete time steps in less than one hour of Cray-2 CPU time. This problem was chosen to exhibit the capability of the method in handling a large number of particles and a true three-dimensional geometry.

  6. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail. PMID:25197717

  7. An upwind nodal integral method for incompressible fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, P.D. ); Witt, R.J. )

    1993-05-01

    An upwind nodal solution method is developed for the steady, two-dimensional flow of an incompressible fluid. The formulation is based on the nodal integral method, which uses transverse integrations, analytical solutions of the one-dimensional averaged equations, and node-averaged uniqueness constraints to derive the discretized nodal equations. The derivation introduces an exponential upwind bias by retaining the streamwise convection term in the homogeneous part of the transverse-integrated convection-diffusion equation. The method is adapted to the stream function-vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, which are solved over a nonstaggered nodal mesh. A special nodal scheme is used for the Poisson stream function equation to properly account for the exponentially varying vorticity source. Rigorous expressions for the velocity components and the no-slip vorticity boundary condition are derived from the stream function formulation. The method is validated with several benchmark problems. An idealized purely convective flow of a scalar step function indicates that the nodal approximation errors are primarily dispersive, not dissipative, in nature. Results for idealized and actual recirculating driven-cavity flows reveal a significant reduction in false diffusion compared with conventional finite difference techniques.

  8. The new performance calculation method of fouled axial flow compressor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huadong; Xu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  9. An efficient method for enumerating oral spirochetes using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Orth, Rebecca; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil; Dashper, Stuart; Walsh, Katrina; Reynolds, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Spirochetes, such as Treponema denticola, are thin walled, helical, motile bacteria. They are notoriously difficult to enumerate due to their thinness and the difficulties associated with culturing them. Here we have developed a modified oral bacterial growth medium (OBGM) that significantly improves the cultivation of T. denticola compared with a previously published growth medium. Three methods for the enumeration of T. denticola, semi-solid growth medium colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, DNA analysis and flow cytometry, are described and compared. Enumeration of T. denticola using the semi-solid agar method resulted in a positive linear relationship with absorbance of the culture (R(2)=0.9423). However, the semi-solid agar method was found to consistently underestimate (by 50 fold) the T. denticola cell density compared to previously published data. DNA analysis of T. denticola cultures reliably and consistently resulted in a positive linear relationship with absorbance (R(2)=0.9360), giving a calculated cell density of 6.9 x 10(8)cells/mL at an absorbance of 0.2 at 650 nm. Flow cytometry was also found to result in a positive linear relationship with absorbance (R(2)=0.9874), giving a calculated cell density of 6.6 x 10(8)cells/mL at an absorbance of 0.2 at 650 nm. In comparing all of these enumeration methods, the flow cytometry method was found to have distinct advantages, as it is accurate, rapid, and could distinguish between live and dead bacteria. Thus flow cytometry is a recommended means for the rapid and reliable enumeration of viable spirochetes from culture.

  10. A level-set method for interfacial flows with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun; Li, Zhilin; Lowengrub, John; Zhao, Hongkai

    2006-03-01

    A level-set method for the simulation of fluid interfaces with insoluble surfactant is presented in two-dimensions. The method can be straightforwardly extended to three-dimensions and to soluble surfactants. The method couples a semi-implicit discretization for solving the surfactant transport equation recently developed by Xu and Zhao [J. Xu, H. Zhao. An Eulerian formulation for solving partial differential equations along a moving interface, J. Sci. Comput. 19 (2003) 573-594] with the immersed interface method originally developed by LeVeque and Li and [R. LeVeque, Z. Li. The immersed interface method for elliptic equations with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31 (1994) 1019-1044] for solving the fluid flow equations and the Laplace-Young boundary conditions across the interfaces. Novel techniques are developed to accurately conserve component mass and surfactant mass during the evolution. Convergence of the method is demonstrated numerically. The method is applied to study the effects of surfactant on single drops, drop-drop interactions and interactions among multiple drops in Stokes flow under a steady applied shear. Due to Marangoni forces and to non-uniform Capillary forces, the presence of surfactant results in larger drop deformations and more complex drop-drop interactions compared to the analogous cases for clean drops. The effects of surfactant are found to be most significant in flows with multiple drops. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the level-set method has been used to simulate fluid interfaces with surfactant.

  11. Unstructured Mesh Methods for the Simulation of Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, Jaime; Bibb, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of hypersonic viscous flows about re-entry vehicles. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use, of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the, code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. In figures I and 2, we show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although these initial results were encouraging, it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in gridding, solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. As part of this research we have developed: 1) automatic meshing techniques and the corresponding computer codes have been delivered to NASA and implemented into the GridEx system, 2) a finite

  12. Computational flow development for unsteady viscous flows: Foundation of the numerical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Spehert, T.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure is presented for effective consideration of viscous effects in computational development of high Reynolds number flows. The procedure is based on the interpretation of the Navier-Stokes equations as vorticity transport equations. The physics of the flow was represented in a form suitable for numerical analysis. Lighthill's concept for flow development for computational purposes was adapted. The vorticity transport equations were cast in a form convenient for computation. A statement for these equations was written using the method of weighted residuals and applying the Galerkin criterion. An integral representation of the induced velocity was applied on the basis of the Biot-Savart law. Distribution of new vorticity, produced at wing surfaces over small computational time intervals, was assumed to be confined to a thin region around the wing surfaces.

  13. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  14. Multiple light scattering methods for multiphase flow diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flows of gases and liquids containing droplets, bubbles, or particulates present light scattering imaging challenges due to the interference from each phase, such as secondary reflections, extinctions, absorptions, and refractions. These factors often prevent the unambiguous detection of each phase and also produce undesired beam steering. The effects can be especially complex in presence of dense phases, multispecies flows, and high pressure environments. This investigation reports new methods for overcoming these effects for quantitative measurements of velocity, density, and temperature fields. The methods are based on light scattering techniques combining Mie and filtered Rayleigh scattering and light extinction analyses and measurements. The optical layout is designed to perform multiple property measurements with improved signal from each phase via laser spectral and polarization characterization, etalon decontamination, and use of multiple wavelengths and imaging detectors.

  15. Research on stochastic power-flow study methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    A general algorithm to determine the effects of uncertainty in bus load and generation on the output of conventional power flow analysis is presented. The use of statistical moments is presented and developed as a means for representing the stochastic process. Statistical moments are used to describe the uncertainties, and facilitate the calculations of single and multivarlate probability density functions of input and output variables. The transformation of the uncertainty through the power flow equations is made by the expansion of the node equations in a multivariate Taylor series about an expected operating point. The series is truncated after the second order terms. Since the power flow equations are nonlinear, the expected values of output quantities is in general not the solution to the conventional load flow problem using expected values of input quantities. The second order transformation offers a correction vector and allows the consideration of larger uncertainties which have caused significant error in the current linear transformation algorithms. Voltage controlled busses are included with consideration of upper and lower limits. The finite reactive power available at generation sites, and fixed ranges of transformer tap movement may have a significant effect on voltage and line power flow statistics. A method is given which considers limitation constraints in the evaluation of all output quantities. The bus voltages, line power flows, transformer taps, and generator reactive power requirements are described by their statistical moments. Their values are expressed in terms of the probability that they are above or below specified limits, and their expected values given that they do fall outside the limits. Thus the algorithm supplies information about severity of overload as well as probability of occurrence. An example is given for an eleven bus system, evaluating each quantity separately. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  17. A New Power Flow Tracing Method Based on Directed Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weimin; Guo, Xiaojing; Liu, Yaonian; Ni, Defu; Wang, Lina; Jia, Yanbing

    In this paper, a power-sharing principle is proposed, base on the generation of the directed path. The principle is used to calculate the contributions of individual generators and loads to line flows and the real power transfer among individual generators and loads that are significant to transmission open access. From the IEEE 14-bus power systems, the effectiveness and availability of the method are verified.

  18. Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunzburger, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.

  19. High speed inviscid compressible flow by the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zienkiewicz, O. C.; Loehner, R.; Morgan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The finite element method and an explicit time stepping algorithm which is based on Taylor-Galerkin schemes with an appropriate artificial viscosity is combined with an automatic mesh refinement process which is designed to produce accurate steady state solutions to problems of inviscid compressible flow in two dimensions. The results of two test problems are included which demonstrate the excellent performance characteristics of the proposed procedures.

  20. Reticulocyte count using thiazole orange. A flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, L; Goossens, W; Van Duppen, V; Verwilghen, R L

    1990-01-01

    Recently flow cytometry techniques have been developed to replace the microscope reticulocyte count. We used thiazole orange, a RNA binding fluorochrome, to discriminate reticulocytes from mature erythrocytes. Thiazole orange and the Retic-COUNT software package were evaluated for performance of routine analysis on different flow instruments. The applied methodology analysed 10(4) cells semi-automatically in an easily performed manner. Consistent results were obtained with dipotassium EDTA anticoagulated blood (stable for 30 h after venesection), with incubation times in thiazole orange solution ranging from 2 to 7 h at 25 degrees C. This allowed flexibility in specimen collection and storage and assay performance with no change in results. Changes of incubation temperature up to 30 degrees C had no measurable effect. The values obtained showed good linearity, precision and accuracy for normal, low and high reticulocyte counts. However interferences were observed: RBC autofluorescence, nucleated RBC, Howell-Jolly bodies, high leucocyte count, high platelet count and giant platelets, all falsely increased the number of reticulocytes. These artifacts were eliminated by software gate corrections, thus leaving less than 5% of the specimen to be reanalysed by the microscopic method. The thiazole orange flow cytometric method was determined to be a fast, reliable method for the routine clinical quantitation of reticulocytes.

  1. Newton like: Minimal residual methods applied to transonic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Y. S.

    1984-01-01

    A computational technique for the solution of the full potential equation is presented. The method consists of outer and inner iterations. The outer iterate is based on a Newton like algorithm, and a preconditioned Minimal Residual method is used to seek an approximate solution of the system of linear equations arising at each inner iterate. The present iterative scheme is formulated so that the uncertainties and difficulties associated with many iterative techniques, namely the requirements of acceleration parameters and the treatment of additional boundary conditions for the intermediate variables, are eliminated. Numerical experiments based on the new method for transonic potential flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil at different Mach numbers and different angles of attack are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained by the Approximate Factorization technique. Extention to three dimensional flow calculations and application in finite element methods for fluid dynamics problems by the present method are also discussed. The Inexact Newton like method produces a smoother reduction in the residual norm, and the number of supersonic points and circulations are rapidly established as the number of iterations is increased.

  2. Global convergence of inexact Newton methods for transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David P.; Melvin, Robin G.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.

    1990-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics, nonlinear differential equations are essential to represent important effects such as shock waves in transonic flow. Discretized versions of these nonlinear equations are solved using iterative methods. In this paper an inexact Newton method using the GMRES algorithm of Saad and Schultz is examined in the context of the full potential equation of aerodynamics. In this setting, reliable and efficient convergence of Newton methods is difficult to achieve. A poor initial solution guess often leads to divergence or very slow convergence. This paper examines several possible solutions to these problems, including a standard local damping strategy for Newton's method and two continuation methods, one of which utilizes interpolation from a coarse grid solution to obtain the initial guess on a finer grid. It is shown that the continuation methods can be used to augment the local damping strategy to achieve convergence for difficult transonic flow problems. These include simple wings with shock waves as well as problems involving engine power effects. These latter cases are modeled using the assumption that each exhaust plume is isentropic but has a different total pressure and/or temperature than the freestream.

  3. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-08-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  4. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-10-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  5. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  6. Finite element methods for non-Newtonian flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    The application of the finite element method to problems in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics is described. The formulation of the basic equations is presented for both inelastic and viscoelastic constitutive models. Solution algorithms for treating the material nonlinearities associated with inelastic fluids are described; typical solution procedures for the implicit stress-rate equations of viscoelastic fluids are also presented. Methods for the simulation of various types of free-surface flows are also outlined. Simple example analyses are included for both types of fluid models.

  7. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  8. A power flow method for evaluating vibration from underground railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-06-01

    One of the major sources of ground-borne vibration is the running of trains in underground railway tunnels. Vibration is generated at the wheel-rail interface, from where it propagates through the tunnel and surrounding soil into nearby buildings. An understanding of the dynamic interfaces between track, tunnel and soil is essential before engineering solutions to the vibration problem can be found. A new method has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vibration countermeasures. The method is based on calculating the mean power flow from the tunnel, paying attention to that part of the power which radiates upwards to places where buildings' foundations are expected to be found. The mean power is calculated for an infinite train moving through the tunnel with a constant velocity. An elegant mathematical expression for the mean power flow is derived, which can be used with any underground-tunnel model. To evaluate the effect of vibration countermeasures and track properties on power flow, a comprehensive three-dimensional analytical model is used. It consists of Euler-Bernoulli beams to account for the rails and the track slab. These are coupled in the wavenumber-frequency domain to a thin shell representing the tunnel embedded within an infinite continuum, with a cylindrical cavity representing the surrounding soil.

  9. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of cash contributions. (a) Officials authorized to accept contributions shall not maintain control over... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section...

  10. 31 CFR 206.6 - Cash management planning and review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cash management planning and review... planning and review. (a) An agency shall periodically perform cash management reviews to identify areas...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL...

  11. 18 CFR 367.1360 - Account 136, Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 136, Temporary cash investments. 367.1360 Section 367.1360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... cash investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments, such as demand and...

  12. 20 CFR 340.5 - Recovery by cash payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recovery by cash payment. 340.5 Section 340.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.5 Recovery by cash payment. The Board shall have the right to require...

  13. Subsistence Agriculture versus Cash Cropping: The Social Repercussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Sandra Joy

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of cash cropping in the Solomon Islands and Tonga has had negative effects on women, leading to deterioration in their status, decreased leisure time, fewer opportunities to earn cash, increased birth rate (to help with the increased workload), and more sharply defined sex roles. (SV)

  14. 25 CFR 140.24 - Cash payments only to Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash payments only to Indians. 140.24 Section 140.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.24 Cash payments only to Indians. Traders must not pay Indians in tokens, tickets, store...

  15. 25 CFR 140.24 - Cash payments only to Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash payments only to Indians. 140.24 Section 140.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.24 Cash payments only to Indians. Traders must not pay Indians in tokens, tickets, store...

  16. 45 CFR 400.203 - Federal funding for cash assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal funding for cash assistance. 400.203 Section 400.203 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT... Services § 400.203 Federal funding for cash assistance. (a) To the extent that sufficient funds...

  17. 47 CFR 32.1120 - Cash and equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cash and equivalents. 32.1120 Section 32.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1120 Cash...

  18. 47 CFR 32.1120 - Cash and equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash and equivalents. 32.1120 Section 32.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1120 Cash...

  19. 12 CFR 952.5 - Community Investment Cash Advance Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. 952.5 Section 952.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.5 Community Investment...

  20. 18 CFR 141.500 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash management programs. 141.500 Section 141.500 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... agreements with the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into...

  1. 18 CFR 357.5 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management programs. 357.5 Section 357.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into the...

  2. 18 CFR 357.5 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash management programs. 357.5 Section 357.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into the...

  3. 18 CFR 141.500 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cash management programs. 141.500 Section 141.500 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... agreements with the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into...

  4. 18 CFR 141.500 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management programs. 141.500 Section 141.500 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... agreements with the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into...

  5. 18 CFR 357.5 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cash management programs. 357.5 Section 357.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash management program and entry into the...

  6. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.52...

  7. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.52...

  8. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.52...

  9. 7 CFR 273.20 - SSI cash-out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SSI cash-out. 273.20 Section 273.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives § 273.20 SSI cash-out. (a) Ineligibility....

  10. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers'...

  11. Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods. [application of panel method to internal aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A solution method was developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.

  13. Deformation-phase measurement by optical flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ping

    2016-07-01

    A novel algorithm which extract the out-of-plane component of deformation-phase from two continuous fringe patterns is proposed. The whole-field out-of-plane component of deformation-phase map is obtained by the estimations of the optical flow velocity field between two images and the local frequency of the original image. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is introduced and applied to simulated and experimental interferograms. Simulation and experimental results show that the new method can demodulate the out-of-plane component of deformation-phase from the visible optical flow velocity field without the operation of phase unwrapping. Further, the proposed algorithm provides a new approach for whole-field deformation-phase measurement and dynamic deformation measurement.

  14. A nearly real-time UAV video flow mosaic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Jiang, C.; Sun, M.; Li, X. D.; Xiang, R.; Liu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of low accuracy and high computation cost of current video mosaic methods, and also to acquire large field of view images by the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which have high accuracy and high resolution, this paper propose a method for near real-time mosaic of video flow, so that we can provide essential reference data for the earthquake relief, as well as post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, in time. In this method, we obtain the flight area scope in the route planning process, and calculate the sizes of each frame with sensor sizes and altitudes. Given an overlap degree, time intervals are calculated, and key frames are extracted. After that, feature points are detected in each frame, and they are matched using Hamming distance. The RANSAC algorithm is then applied to remove error matching and calculate parameters of the transformation model. In one-strip case, the newly extracted frame is taken as the reference image in the first half, while after the middle frame is extracted, it is the reference one until the end. Experimental results show that our method can reduce the cascading error, and improve the accuracy and quality of the mosaic images, near real-time mosaic of aerial video flow is feasible.

  15. A diffusive information preservation method for small Knudsen number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fei; Fan, Jing

    2013-06-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful particle-based method for modeling gas flows. It works well for relatively large Knudsen (Kn) numbers, typically larger than 0.01, but quickly becomes computationally intensive as Kn decreases due to its time step and cell size limitations. An alternative approach was proposed to relax or remove these limitations, based on replacing pairwise collisions with a stochastic model corresponding to the Fokker-Planck equation [J. Comput. Phys., 229, 1077 (2010); J. Fluid Mech., 680, 574 (2011)]. Similar to the DSMC method, the downside of that approach suffers from computationally statistical noise. To solve the problem, a diffusion-based information preservation (D-IP) method has been developed. The main idea is to track the motion of a simulated molecule from the diffusive standpoint, and obtain the flow velocity and temperature through sampling and averaging the IP quantities. To validate the idea and the corresponding model, several benchmark problems with Kn ˜ 10-3-10-4 have been investigated. It is shown that the IP calculations are not only accurate, but also efficient because they make possible using a time step and cell size over an order of magnitude larger than the mean collision time and mean free path, respectively.

  16. A diffusive information preservation method for small Knudsen number flows

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Fei; Fan, Jing

    2013-06-15

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful particle-based method for modeling gas flows. It works well for relatively large Knudsen (Kn) numbers, typically larger than 0.01, but quickly becomes computationally intensive as Kn decreases due to its time step and cell size limitations. An alternative approach was proposed to relax or remove these limitations, based on replacing pairwise collisions with a stochastic model corresponding to the Fokker–Planck equation [J. Comput. Phys., 229, 1077 (2010); J. Fluid Mech., 680, 574 (2011)]. Similar to the DSMC method, the downside of that approach suffers from computationally statistical noise. To solve the problem, a diffusion-based information preservation (D-IP) method has been developed. The main idea is to track the motion of a simulated molecule from the diffusive standpoint, and obtain the flow velocity and temperature through sampling and averaging the IP quantities. To validate the idea and the corresponding model, several benchmark problems with Kn ∼ 10{sup −3}–10{sup −4} have been investigated. It is shown that the IP calculations are not only accurate, but also efficient because they make possible using a time step and cell size over an order of magnitude larger than the mean collision time and mean free path, respectively.

  17. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  18. Methods for blood flow measurements using ultrasound contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2003-10-01

    Blood flow measurements using ultrasound contrast agents are being investigated for myocardial perfusion and more recently in other organ systems. The methods are based largely on the relative increase in echogenicity due to the concentration of bubbles present in the ultrasound beam. In the simplest form, regional differences in blood volume can be inferred but the possibility exists to extract perfusion from the transit of contrast agent through tissue. Perfusion measurements rely on determining the flux of blood through a tissue volume and as such require knowledge of the fractional blood volume (FBV), i.e., ml blood/g tissue and the rate of exchange, commonly measured as the mean transit time (MTT). This presentation will discuss methods of determining each of these values and their combination to estimate tissue perfusion. Underlying principles of indicator-dilution theory will be provided in the context of ultrasound contrast agents. Current methods for determining MTT will include imaging of the intravenous bolus, in-plane contrast disruption with interval and real-time contrast recovery imaging, and control of contrast agent flow using arterial disruption (contrast interruption). The advantages and limitations of the methods will be examined along with current applications. [Work supported in part by NIH.

  19. Cash-based interventions: lessons from southern Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mattinen, Hanna; Ogden, Kate

    2006-09-01

    Commodity distributions, the predominant relief response, are subject to growing criticism, while donors and humanitarian actors are increasingly viewing cash-based interventions as a viable alternative. This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on cash-based interventions by drawing on the experience of Action Contre la Faim in southern Somalia, where it has implemented cash for work programmes since 2004. The authors conclude that cash-based interventions are a feasible option in complex emergencies as well as in highly insecure environments as long as appropriate modalities are employed and objectives are clearly set in accordance with the needs and the context. Cash as a relief response offers wide-reaching possibilities for the future from both the perspective of the donor/agency and the standpoint of the beneficiary. It enables the beneficiaries to take control of the relief themselves and to adapt it to their individual requirements in a timely manner.

  20. An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.

    1992-01-01

    A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.

  1. An engineering aerodynamic heating method for hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher J.; Dejarnette, Fred R.

    1992-01-01

    A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.

  2. Application of optical flow method for imaging diagnostic in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Alonso, A.; Lang, P. T.; Kocsis, G.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-05-01

    An optical flow method is applied to the study of several fusion plasma relevant issues, including plasma wall interactions. A multi-resolution coarse-to-fine procedure is used in order to cope with large displacements of objects between consecutive frames, characteristic of plasma images captured by JET fast visible camera. Occlusion modeling is also implemented. The method is able to provide good results for JET fast visible camera images which can be affected by saturation, discontinuous movement, reshaping of image objects, low gray-level in-depth resolution. Significant experimental cases concerning pellet injection, plasma filaments and MARFEs are analysed. The method is able to provide the real velocity for objects moving close to structures.

  3. Biochemical oxygen demand measurement by mediator method in flow system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Bai, Lu; Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    Using mediator as electron acceptor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement was developed in the last decade (BODMed). However, until now, no BOD(Med) in a flow system has been reported. This work for the first time describes a flow system of BOD(Med) method (BOD(Med)-FS) by using potassium ferricyanide as mediator and carbon fiber felt as substrate material for microbial immobilization. The system can determine the BOD value within 30 min and possesses a wider analytical linear range for measuring glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) standard solution from 2 up to 200 mg L(-1) without the need of dilution. The analytical performance of the BOD(Med)-FS is comparable or better than that of the previously reported BOD(Med) method, especially its superior long-term stability up to 2 months under continuous operation. Moreover, the BOD(Med)-FS has same determination accuracy with the conventional BOD5 method by measuring real samples from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

  4. Rotational flow in a curved-wall diffuser designed by using the inverse method of solution of potential flow theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. T.; Ntone, F.

    1981-05-01

    Curved wall diffusers designed by using an inverse method of solution of potential flow theory have been shown to be both short and highly efficient. These features make this type of diffuser attractive in thrust ejector applications. In ejectors, however, the flow at the diffuser inlet is nearly a uniform shear flow. This paper presents a method used in examining the flow velocity along the diffuser wall and some of the analytical results for diffusers designed with potential flow theory and receiving a rotational flow. The inlet flow vorticity and the diffuser area ratios prescribed in the inverse solution of the irrotational flow are the parameters of the study. The geometry of a sample ejector using such a diffuser and its estimated thrust augmentation ratio are also presented.

  5. COMPREHENSIVE METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS MODELS FOR FLOW SIMULATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1988-01-01

    The use of the specified time interval (STI) numerical schemes has been popular in applying the method of characteristics (MOC) to unsteady open-channel flow problems. Studies and analyses of several variants of the STI schemes have led to the derivation of a new scheme, referred to herein as the multimode scheme, which combines implicit, temporal reachback, spatial reachback, and classical schemes into one. Three numerical models have been developed to implement the implicit and multimode schemes. Numerical analyses, numerical experiments, and field applications that verify, support, and demonstrate the enhanced model capabilities are presented.

  6. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

    2015-09-01

    We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge-induced flow, no flow and centrifuge-induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite-clay-dominated core samples. All core samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi-)porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was > 0.97 for all samples). In combination, interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  7. The effects of national cash awards for science teaching on recipients and their peers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weld, Jeffrey Donn

    Cash teaching awards available to science teachers in the U.S. have goals to improve science teaching. This study assessed the effectiveness of five national cash award programs at identifying exemplars and inspiring better science teaching. Award winning secondary science teachers provided their perceptions of the effects of an award on their own teaching and on the profession as a whole. Randomly selected secondary science teachers across the U.S. reported their perceptions of the effects of the existence of awards on their own teaching and on the profession. Program directors for the five national cash awards were interviewed to determine the intentions and strategies of their award programs. The criteria that guide the selection of award winners were found to align with research-supported exemplar characteristics, but the methods used for identifying outstanding teachers were found to be inadequate for that purpose. Award winning science teachers perceive awards to result from, rather than to inspire, good teaching. Their motivation derives from student achievement and a job well done. The valued effects of winning an award are the recognition and increased respect that follow. Award winners perceive awards as difficult to win, minimally motivating, and frequently causing of dissension among peers. In most respects award winners perceive increased intrinsic rewards to accompany recognition through cash awards. Randomly selected U.S. science teachers who have not won cash awards perceive them as poor motivational incentives because too few awards exist, the basis for recognition is unclear, and the award itself is not a valued outcome. Most science teachers consider themselves good teachers and would apply for an award despite doubts that they would win. Direct comparisons reveal that winners and nonwinners have widely divergent opinions of awards. Winners of lesser cash amounts have the same perceptions of awards as winners of greater cash amounts. Effective

  8. An Anelastic Allspeed Projection Method for GravitationallyStratified Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip

    2005-02-24

    This paper looks at gravitationally-stratified atmospheric flows at low Mach and Froude numbers and proposes a new algorithm to solve the compressible Euler equations, in which the asymptotic limits are recovered numerically and the boundary conditions for block-structured local refinement methods are well-posed. The model is non-hydrostatic and the numerical algorithm uses a splitting to separate the fast acoustic dynamics from the slower anelastic dynamics. The acoustic waves are treated implicitly while the anelastic dynamics is treated semi-implicitly and an embedded-boundary method is used to represent mountain ranges. We present an example that verifies our asymptotic analysis and a set of results that compares very well with the classical gravity wave results presented by Durran.

  9. Finite area method for nonlinear supersonic conical flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritharan, S. S.; Seebass, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    A fully conservative numerical method for the computation of steady inviscid supersonic flow about general conical bodies at incidence is described. The procedure utilizes the potential approximation and implements a body conforming mesh generator. The conical potential is assumed to have its best linear variation inside each mesh cell; a secondary interlocking cell system is used to establish the flux balance required to conserve mass. In the supersonic regions the scheme is symmetrized by adding artificial viscosity in conservation form. The algorithm is nearly an order of a magnitude faster than present Euler methods and predicts known results accurately and qualitative features such as nodal point lift off correctly. Results are compared with those of other investigators.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  11. Discontinuous Galerkin method for multicomponent chemically reacting flows and combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for application to chemically reacting flows in subsonic and supersonic regimes under the consideration of variable thermo-viscous-diffusive transport properties, detailed and stiff reaction chemistry, and shock capturing. A hybrid-flux formulation is developed for treatment of the convective fluxes, combining a conservative Riemann-solver and an extended double-flux scheme. A computationally efficient splitting scheme is proposed, in which advection and diffusion operators are solved in the weak form, and the chemically stiff substep is advanced in the strong form using a time-implicit scheme. The discretization of the viscous-diffusive transport terms follows the second form of Bassi and Rebay, and the WENO-based limiter due to Zhong and Shu is extended to multicomponent systems. Boundary conditions are developed for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions, and the algorithm is coupled to thermochemical libraries to account for detailed reaction chemistry and complex transport. The resulting DG method is applied to a series of test cases of increasing physico-chemical complexity. Beginning with one- and two-dimensional multispecies advection and shock-fluid interaction problems, computational efficiency, convergence, and conservation properties are demonstrated. This study is followed by considering a series of detonation and supersonic combustion problems to investigate the convergence-rate and the shock-capturing capability in the presence of one- and multistep reaction chemistry. The DG algorithm is then applied to diffusion-controlled deflagration problems. By examining convergence properties for polynomial order and spatial resolution, and comparing these with second-order finite-volume solutions, it is shown that optimal convergence is achieved and that polynomial refinement provides advantages in better resolving the localized flame structure and complex flow-field features

  12. Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel

    2004-09-30

    Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.

  13. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard. PMID:23295678

  14. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard.

  15. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  16. Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. Subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, comparisons are made between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demonstrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processors.

  17. Finite volume methods for submarine debris flows and generated waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn; Issler, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides can impose great danger to the underwater structures and generate destructive tsunamis. Submarine debris flows often behave like visco-plastic materials, and the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is known to be appropriate for describing the motion. In this work, we develop numerical schemes for the visco-plastic debris flows using finite volume methods in Eulerian coordinates with two horizontal dimensions. We provide parameter sensitivity analysis and demonstrate how common ad-hoc assumptions such as including a minimum shear layer depth influence the modeling of the landslide dynamics. Hydrodynamic resistance forces, hydroplaning, and remolding are all crucial terms for underwater landslides, and are hence added into the numerical formulation. The landslide deformation is coupled to the water column and simulated in the Clawpack framework. For the propagation of the tsunamis, the shallow water equations and the Boussinesq-type equations are employed to observe how important the wave dispersion is. Finally, two cases in central Norway, i.e. the subaerial quick clay landslide at Byneset in 2012, and the submerged tsunamigenic Statland landslide in 2014, are both presented for validation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  18. Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.

  19. Initial cash/asset ratio and asset prices: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caginalp, Gunduz; Porter, David; Smith, Vernon

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments, in which nine participants trade an asset over 15 periods, test the hypothesis that an initial imbalance of asset/cash will influence the trading price over an extended time. Participants know at the outset that the asset or “stock” pays a single dividend with fixed expectation value at the end of the 15th period. In experiments with a greater total value of cash at the start, the mean prices during the trading periods are higher, compared with those with greater amount of asset, with a high degree of statistical significance. The difference is most significant at the outset and gradually tapers near the end of the experiment. The results are very surprising from a rational expectations and classical game theory perspective, because the possession of a large amount of cash does not lead to a simple motivation for a trader to bid excessively on a financial instrument. The gradual erosion of the difference toward the end of trading, however, suggests that fundamental value is approached belatedly, offering some consolation to the rational expectations theory. It also suggests that there is a time scale on which an evolution toward fundamental value occurs. The experimental results are qualitatively compatible with the price dynamics predicted by a system of differential equations based on asset flow. The results have broad implications for the marketing of securities, particularly initial and secondary public offerings, government bonds, etc., where excess supply has been conjectured to suppress prices. PMID:11038619

  20. Valuing instream flows using the hedonic price method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netusil, Noelwah R.; Summers, Matthew T.

    2009-11-01

    The Oregon Water Trust (OWT) uses a market-based approach to protect and enhance instream flows in Oregon. We use the hedonic price method to estimate the effect of numerous variables on the annualized price OWT pays for water rights: the amount of water protected by the transaction, transaction type (state approved or contractual agreement), presence of anadromous and/or resident fish, and if a fish is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find evidence of a premium for state-approved transactions and for transactions that protect water in streams with listed species. Adjusting the amount of water protected by each transaction to include only rights that will be delivered with a high degree of certainty produces coefficient estimates that are similar, but more accurate, than using unadjusted water rights amounts.

  1. Design of a Variational Multiscale Method for Turbulent Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral-element framework is presented for the simulation of subsonic compressible high-Reynolds-number flows. The focus of the work is maximizing the efficiency of the computational schemes to enable unsteady simulations with a large number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom. A collocation scheme is combined with optimized computational kernels to provide a residual evaluation with computational cost independent of order of accuracy up to 16th order. The optimized residual routines are used to develop a low-memory implicit scheme based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method. A preconditioner based on the finite-difference diagonalized ADI scheme is developed which maintains the low memory of the matrix-free implicit solver, while providing improved convergence properties. Emphasis on low memory usage throughout the solver development is leveraged to implement a coupled space-time DG solver which may offer further efficiency gains through adaptivity in both space and time.

  2. Methods for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2010-01-01

    Flow statistics can be used to provide decision makers with surface-water information needed for activities such as water-supply permitting, flow regulation, and other water rights issues. Flow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no flow data are available to compute the statistics. Methods are presented in this report for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma. Flow statistics included the (1) annual (period of record), (2) seasonal (summer-autumn and winter-spring), and (3) 12 monthly duration statistics, including the 20th, 50th, 80th, 90th, and 95th percentile flow exceedances, and the annual mean-flow (mean of daily flows for the period of record). Flow statistics were calculated from daily streamflow information collected from 235 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Oklahoma and areas in adjacent states. A drainage-area ratio method is the preferred method for estimating flow statistics at an ungaged location that is on a stream near a gage. The method generally is reliable only if the drainage-area ratio of the two sites is between 0.5 and 1.5. Regression equations that relate flow statistics to drainage-basin characteristics were developed for the purpose of estimating selected flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams that are not near gaging stations on the same stream. Regression equations were developed from flow statistics and drainage-basin characteristics for 113 unregulated gaging stations. Separate regression equations were developed by using U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in regions with similar drainage-basin characteristics. These equations can increase the accuracy of regression equations used for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics at ungaged stream locations in Oklahoma. Streamflow-gaging stations were grouped by selected drainage

  3. A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.

  4. A Method of Detecting Fire Smoke by Using Optical Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kenji; Miyahara, Hiroyuki; Nii, Yasutoshi

    In this paper, the authors propose a method for detecting fire smoke by using the optical flow. This method is not influenced against the image obtainment environment. About 60,000 fires have occurred every year in Japan. To be most important to the fires is an early period fire fighting. At present, the automatic devices of detectiong fires is needed. The alarms which can detect smoke and heat are utilized to house fires. However, these alarms are not useful for the outside of house such as the incendiary or woodland fire. This method is able to detect such a flame that becomes a fire is the early period. First, the region of the flame in the images obtained from the observation camera is detected. Next, the characteristic quantity that expresses the smoke is extracted. This characteristic is not influenced to the motion such as the cloud, leaf and moving objects. In other words, the only smoke can be detected, from the range which looks like the flame in the image.

  5. 40 CFR 35.3160 - Cash draw rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3160 Cash draw rules. (a... provide substantially more assistance; and (iv) The long term viability of the State program to meet...

  6. 40 CFR 35.3160 - Cash draw rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3160 Cash draw rules. (a... provide substantially more assistance; and (iv) The long term viability of the State program to meet...

  7. 40 CFR 35.3160 - Cash draw rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3160 Cash draw rules. (a... provide substantially more assistance; and (iv) The long term viability of the State program to meet...

  8. 40 CFR 35.3160 - Cash draw rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3160 Cash draw rules. (a... provide substantially more assistance; and (iv) The long term viability of the State program to meet...

  9. 40 CFR 35.3160 - Cash draw rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3160 Cash draw rules. (a... provide substantially more assistance; and (iv) The long term viability of the State program to meet...

  10. A proposed through-flow inverse method for the design of mixed-flow pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borges, Joao Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    A through-flow (hub-to-shroud) truly inverse method is proposed and described. It uses an imposition of mean swirl, i.e., radius times mean tangential velocity, given throughout the meridional section of the turbomachine as an initial design specification. In the present implementation, it is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational at inlet and that the blades are supposed to have zero thickness. Only blade rows that impart to the fluid a constant work along the space are considered. An application of this procedure to design the rotor of a mixed-flow pump is described in detail. The strategy used to find a suitable mean swirl distribution and the other design inputs is also described. The final blade shape and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented, showing that it is possible to obtain feasible designs using this technique. Another advantage of this technique is the fact that it does not require large amounts of CPU time.

  11. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  12. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. PMID:12583394

  13. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  14. Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified. PMID:27627407

  15. Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.

  16. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  17. Analysis of methods to estimate spring flows in a karst aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, N.

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulically and statistically based methods were analyzed to identify the most reliable method to predict spring flows in a karst aquifer. Measured water levels at nearby observation wells, measured spring pool altitudes, and the distance between observation wells and the spring pool were the parameters used to match measured spring flows. Measured spring flows at six Upper Floridan aquifer springs in central Florida were used to assess the reliability of these methods to predict spring flows. Hydraulically based methods involved the application of the Theis, Hantush-Jacob, and Darcy-Weisbach equations, whereas the statistically based methods were the multiple linear regressions and the technology of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Root mean square errors between measured and predicted spring flows using the Darcy-Weisbach method ranged between 5% and 15% of the measured flows, lower than the 7% to 27% range for the Theis or Hantush-Jacob methods. Flows at all springs were estimated to be turbulent based on the Reynolds number derived from the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The multiple linear regression and the Darcy-Weisbach methods had similar spring flow prediction capabilities. The ANNs provided the lowest residuals between measured and predicted spring flows, ranging from 1.6% to 5.3% of the measured flows. The model prediction efficiency criteria also indicated that the ANNs were the most accurate method predicting spring flows in a karst aquifer. ?? 2008 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Innovative Method for Greatly Reducing Flow Resistance and Obtaining Well-Ordered Continuous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiyi

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, firstly, the experiment on the flow resistance of the aerated pipe flow is introduced. And some experimental research on comparison between different volumes of air entrained is presented. Secondly, the characteristics of Gravity Pipe Flow under the action of Torricelli's Vacuum, shortly called as GPFUTV are dissertated, including creative and functional design, fundamental principle, etc. Under GPFUTV condition the water flow in the tube is full-pipe and continuous, colorless and non-aerated, high-speed and non-rotational as distinguished from laminar flow. Thirdly, an appeal in relation to the experimental research, the applied studies and basic theory research is given. For instance, the well-known Reynolds' experiment under GPFUTV condition, the potential for GPFUTV to be developed for deep seawater suction technology, seawater intake pipe of OTEC and lifting technology for deep ocean mining in Fe-Mn concretions, flow stability and flow resistance under GPFUTV condition, etc.

  19. Calculation of unsteady transonic flows using the integral equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D.

    1978-01-01

    The basic integral equations for a harmonically oscillating airfoil in a transonic flow with shock waves are derived; the reduced frequency is assumed to be small. The problems associated with shock wave motion are treated using a strained coordinate system. The integral equation is linear and consists of both line integrals and surface integrals over the flow field which are evaluated by quadrature. This leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved directly. The shock motion is obtained explicitly by enforcing the condition that the flow is continuous except at a shock wave. Results obtained for both lifting and nonlifting oscillatory flows agree satisfactorily with other accurate results.

  20. Methods for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts with mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, W.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of the methods available for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts. Rectangular and circular ducts with both uniform and non-uniform flow are considered as are ducts with peripherally varying liners. A historical perspective is provided by a discussion of the classical methods for computing attenuation when no mean flow is present. When flow is present these techniques become either impractical or impossible. A number of direct eigenvalue determination schemes which have been used when flow is present are discussed. Methods described are extensions of the classical no-flow technique, perturbation methods based on the no-flow technique, direct integration methods for solution of the eigenvalue equation, an integration-iteration method based on the governing differential equation for acoustic transmission, Galerkin methods, finite difference methods, and finite element methods.

  1. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  2. Quadrature Moments Method for the Simulation of Turbulent Reactive Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Venkatramanan; Pitsch, Heinz; Fox, Rodney O.

    2003-01-01

    A sub-filter model for reactive flows, namely the DQMOM model, was formulated for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using the filtered mass density function. Transport equations required to determine the location and size of the delta-peaks were then formulated for a 2-peak decomposition of the FDF. The DQMOM scheme was implemented in an existing structured-grid LES solver. Simulations of scalar shear layer using an experimental configuration showed that the first and second moments of both reactive and inert scalars are in good agreement with a conventional Lagrangian scheme that evolves the same FDF. Comparisons with LES simulations performed using laminar chemistry assumption for the reactive scalar show that the new method provides vast improvements at minimal computational cost. Currently, the DQMOM model is being implemented for use with the progress variable/mixture fraction model of Pierce. Comparisons with experimental results and LES simulations using a single-environment for the progress-variable are planned. Future studies will aim at understanding the effect of increase in environments on predictions.

  3. The backward phase flow method for the Eulerian finite time Lyapunov exponent computations

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Shingyu

    2013-12-15

    We propose a simple Eulerian approach to compute the moderate to long time flow map for approximating the Lyapunov exponent of a (periodic or aperiodic) dynamical system. The idea is to generalize a recently proposed backward phase flow method which is specially designed for long time level set propagation. Unlike the original phase flow method or the backward phase flow method, which is applicable only to autonomous systems, the current approach can also be applied to any time-dependent (periodic or aperiodic) flow. We will discuss the stability of the proposed method. Numerical examples will be given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. The least-squares finite element method for low-mach-number compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sheng-Tao

    1994-01-01

    The present paper reports the development of the Least-Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) for simulating compressible viscous flows at low Mach numbers in which the incompressible flows pose as an extreme. Conventional approach requires special treatments for low-speed flows calculations: finite difference and finite volume methods are based on the use of the staggered grid or the preconditioning technique; and, finite element methods rely on the mixed method and the operator-splitting method. In this paper, however, we show that such difficulty does not exist for the LSFEM and no special treatment is needed. The LSFEM always leads to a symmetric, positive-definite matrix through which the compressible flow equations can be effectively solved. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the method: first, driven cavity flows at various Reynolds numbers; and, buoyancy-driven flows with significant density variation. Both examples are calculated by using full compressible flow equations.

  5. Method for flow cytometric monitoring of Renibacterium salmoninarum inactivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Ongerth, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    with bacteriological culture (r2 ??? 0.22). In both assessments, there was a correlation between the estimates of inactivation based upon HRFI and CS analyses (r2 > 0.99). These results suggest that flow cytometry can be used as a supplementary or alternative method to bacteriological culture for monitoring the inactivation of R. salmoninarum.

  6. Method for controlling coolant flow in airfoil, flow control structure and airfoil incorporating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Devine, II, Robert Henry; Chopra, Sanjay; Toornman, Thomas Nelson

    2003-07-08

    A coolant flow control structure is provided to channel cooling media flow to the fillet region defined at the transition between the wall of a nozzle vane and a wall of a nozzle segment, for cooling the fillet region. In an exemplary embodiment, the flow control structure defines a gap with the fillet region to achieve the required heat transfer coefficients in this region to meet part life requirements.

  7. A numerical method for a model of two-phase flow in a coupled free flow and porous media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we study two-phase fluid flow in coupled free flow and porous media regions. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the porous medium region. We propose a Robin-Robin domain decomposition method for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  8. A velocity-correction projection method based immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shanggui

    2014-11-01

    In the present work we propose a novel direct forcing immersed boundary method based on the velocity-correction projection method of [J.L. Guermond, J. Shen, Velocity-correction projection methods for incompressible flows, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 41 (1)(2003) 112]. The principal idea of immersed boundary method is to correct the velocity in the vicinity of the immersed object by using an artificial force to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. Therefore, velocity-correction projection method is preferred to its pressure-correction counterpart in the present work. Since the velocity-correct projection method is considered as a dual class of pressure-correction method, the proposed method here can also be interpreted in the way that first the pressure is predicted by treating the viscous term explicitly without the consideration of the immersed boundary, and the solenoidal velocity is used to determine the volume force on the Lagrangian points, then the non-slip boundary condition is enforced by correcting the velocity with the implicit viscous term. To demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method, several numerical simulations are performed and compared with the results in the literature. China Scholarship Council.

  9. Piecewise uniform conduction-like flow channels and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2006-02-28

    A low-dispersion methodology for designing microfabricated conduction channels for on-chip electrokinetic-based systems is presented. The technique relies on trigonometric relations that apply for ideal electrokinetic flows, allowing faceted channels to be designed on chips using common drafting software and a hand calculator. Flows are rotated and stretched along the abrupt interface between adjacent regions with differing permeability. Regions bounded by interfaces form flow "prisms" that can be combined with other designed prisms to obtain a wide range of turning angles and expansion ratios while minimizing dispersion. Designs are demonstrated using two-dimensional numerical solutions of the Laplace equation.

  10. Method and applications of fiber synthesis using laminar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Bradley Justin

    A Laminar Flow Reactor (LFR) using the principles of hydrodynamic focusing was created and used to fabricate functional composite polymer fibers. These fibers had the ability to conduct or serve as a carrier for singlet oxygen-generating molecules. Critical to the process was designing an easy-to-fabricate, inexpensive device and developing a repeatable method that made efficient use of the materials. The initial designs used a planar layout and hydrodynamically focused in only one dimension while later versions switched to a two-fluid concentric design. Modeling was undertaken and verified for the different device layouts. Three types of conductive particles were embedded in the formed polymer: silver, indium tin oxide (ITO) and polyaniline. The polymer was also used as a carrier to two singlet oxygen generating molecules: Methylene Blue (MB) and perylene. Both were effective in killing Bacillus thuringiensis but MB leached from the fiber into the tested cell suspension. Perylene, which is not water soluble, did not leach out and was just as effective as MB. Research that was performed at ITT is also presented. A critical need exists to detect, identify, quantify, locate, and track virus and toxin aerosols to provide early warning during both light and dark conditions. The solution presented is a remote sensing technology using seeding particles. Seeding particles developed during this program provide specific identification of threat cloud content. When introduced to the threat cloud the seeders will bind specifically to the analyte of interest and upon interrogation from a stand off laser source will fluoresce. The fluorescent signal is detected from a distance using a long-range microscope and collection optics that allow detection of low concentrations of threat aerosols.

  11. Lattice-Boltzmann method for Stokes flow of Deformable Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingshu; Ding, E.-Jiang; Aidun, Cyrus

    2006-11-01

    Predicting the rheology of deformable particles suspended in viscous fluid is important in industrial and biological transport applications. We combine a Stokes lattice-Boltzmann Model (SLBM) and Lattice Spring Model (LSM) to capture the dynamics of particles with deformable membrane with enclosed fluid. We simulate blood flow in a small vessel which has deformable arterial wall and red blood cell (RBC) membrane. We find that the flow is affected by the physical properties of wall, membrane and enclosed fluid and these are very important in the hemodynamic applications. The combination of SLBM-LSM can calculate the mesoscale blood flow close to the endothelial surface layer (ESL) or its subset, the glycocalyx layer. And it is also a strong tool to capture the multiphase flow with large number of deformable particles.

  12. Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase. PMID:25500948

  13. Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  15. Involving Communities in the Targeting of Cash Transfer Programs for Vulnerable Children: Opportunities and Challenges☆

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Skovdal, Morten; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Makoni, Jeremiah C.; Crea, Tom; Mavise, Gideon; Dumba, Lovemore; Schumacher, Christina; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Summary We used baseline data, collected in July–September 2009, from a randomized controlled trial of a cash transfer program for vulnerable children in eastern Zimbabwe to investigate the effectiveness, coverage, and efficiency of census- and community-based targeting methods for reaching vulnerable children. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with beneficiaries and other stakeholders were used to explore community perspectives on targeting. Community members reported that their participation improved ownership and reduced conflict and jealousy. However, all the methods failed to target a large proportion of vulnerable children and there was poor agreement between the community- and census-based methods. PMID:24748713

  16. Numerical methods for simulating blood flow at macro, micro, and multi scales.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Shimogonya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-07-26

    In the past decade, numerical methods for the computational biomechanics of blood flow have progressed to overcome difficulties in diverse applications from cellular to organ scales. Such numerical methods may be classified by the type of computational mesh used for the fluid domain, into fixed mesh methods, moving mesh (boundary-fitted mesh) methods, and mesh-free methods. The type of computational mesh used is closely related to the characteristics of each method. We herein provide an overview of numerical methods recently used to simulate blood flow at macro and micro scales, with a focus on computational meshes. We also discuss recent progress in the multi-scale modeling of blood flow.

  17. Simulation of large incompressible flows by the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovier, M.; Engelman, M.

    Super computers together with low cost 32 bit machines with graphics render more actual the challenge of designing a general purpose Fluid Dynamic code. Such an approach was the key to the introduction of computational structural mechanics into the design cycle. There FEM codes have replaced experiments and are evaluation tools at every stage. Except for a very limited domain (low Reynolds numbers for instance) this "black box" concept cannot be aplied in fluid mechanics. Nevertheless the success of the modular approach of FIDAP, the addition of new models and the extension of its pre and post-processing capabilities bring a new bridge between the fluid mechanics engineer and the design floor shop. It is now the task of the scientific community to design acceptable models in domains like turbulent flows,multiphase flows slightly compressible flows and so on. At the same time faster and robust algorithms for highly non linear problems must be devised.

  18. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Reid, Robert S.; Ward, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  19. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  20. Computational Methods for Analyzing Fluid Flow Dynamics from Digital Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Luttman, A.

    2012-03-30

    The main goal (long term) of this work is to perform computational dynamics analysis and quantify uncertainty from vector fields computed directly from measured data. Global analysis based on observed spatiotemporal evolution is performed by objective function based on expected physics and informed scientific priors, variational optimization to compute vector fields from measured data, and transport analysis proceeding with observations and priors. A mathematical formulation for computing flow fields is set up for computing the minimizer for the problem. An application to oceanic flow based on sea surface temperature is presented.

  1. Divisible E-Cash Systems Can Be Truly Anonymous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Gouget, Aline

    This paper presents an off-line divisible e-cash scheme where a user can withdraw a divisible coin of monetary value 2 L that he can parceled and spend anonymously and unlinkably. We present the construction of a security tag that allows to protect the anonymity of honest users and to revoke anonymity only in case of cheat for protocols based on a binary tree structure without using a trusted third party. This is the first divisible e-cash scheme that provides both full unlinkability and anonymity without requiring a trusted third party.

  2. Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.

  3. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2016-02-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  4. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2015-05-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC) by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect (derived from a 5 m × 5 m DEM), surficial geology, permafrost distribution, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g., 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  5. Study of design and analysis methods for transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    An airfoil design program and a boundary layer analysis were developed. Boundary conditions were derived for ventilated transonic wind tunnels and performing transonic windtunnel wall calculations. A computational procedure for rotational transonic flow in engine inlet throats was formulated. Results and conclusions are summarized.

  6. A diameter-sensitive flow entropy method for reliability consideration in water distribution system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haixing; Savić, Dragan; Kapelan, Zoran; Zhao, Ming; Yuan, Yixing; Zhao, Hongbin

    2014-07-01

    Flow entropy is a measure of uniformity of pipe flows in water distribution systems. By maximizing flow entropy one can identify reliable layouts or connectivity in networks. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the common definition of flow entropy that does not consider the impact of pipe diameter on reliability, an extended definition of flow entropy, termed as diameter-sensitive flow entropy, is proposed. This new methodology is then assessed by using other reliability methods, including Monte Carlo Simulation, a pipe failure probability model, and a surrogate measure (resilience index) integrated with water demand and pipe failure uncertainty. The reliability assessment is based on a sample of WDS designs derived from an optimization process for each of the two benchmark networks. Correlation analysis is used to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between entropy and reliability. To ensure reliability, a comparative analysis between the flow entropy and the new method is conducted. The results demonstrate that the diameter-sensitive flow entropy shows consistently much stronger correlation with the three reliability measures than simple flow entropy. Therefore, the new flow entropy method can be taken as a better surrogate measure for reliability and could be potentially integrated into the optimal design problem of WDSs. Sensitivity analysis results show that the velocity parameters used in the new flow entropy has no significant impact on the relationship between diameter-sensitive flow entropy and reliability.

  7. Uncertainty Propagation for Turbulent, Compressible Flow in a Quasi-1D Nozzle Using Stochastic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Bataille, Francoise

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a fully spectral, Polynomial Chaos method for the propagation of uncertainty in numerical simulations of compressible, turbulent flow, as well as a novel stochastic collocation algorithm for the same application. The stochastic collocation method is key to the efficient use of stochastic methods on problems with complex nonlinearities, such as those associated with the turbulence model equations in compressible flow and for CFD schemes requiring solution of a Riemann problem. Both methods are applied to compressible flow in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle. The stochastic collocation method is roughly an order of magnitude faster than the fully Galerkin Polynomial Chaos method on the inviscid problem.

  8. An empirical method for estimating travel times for wet volcanic mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Travel times for wet volcanic mass flows (debris avalanches and lahars) can be forecast as a function of distance from source when the approximate flow rate (peak discharge near the source) can be estimated beforehand. The near-source flow rate is primarily a function of initial flow volume, which should be possible to estimate to an order of magnitude on the basis of geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic factors at a particular volcano. Least-squares best fits to plots of flow-front travel time as a function of distance from source provide predictive second-degree polynomial equations with high coefficients of determination for four broad size classes of flow based on near-source flow rate: extremely large flows (>1 000 000 m3/s), very large flows (10 000–1 000 000 m3/s), large flows (1000–10 000 m3/s), and moderate flows (100–1000 m3/s). A strong nonlinear correlation that exists between initial total flow volume and flow rate for "instantaneously" generated debris flows can be used to estimate near-source flow rates in advance. Differences in geomorphic controlling factors among different flows in the data sets have relatively little effect on the strong nonlinear correlations between travel time and distance from source. Differences in flow type may be important, especially for extremely large flows, but this could not be evaluated here. At a given distance away from a volcano, travel times can vary by approximately an order of magnitude depending on flow rate. The method can provide emergency-management officials a means for estimating time windows for evacuation of communities located in hazard zones downstream from potentially hazardous volcanoes.

  9. Comparison of Peak-Flow Estimation Methods for Small Drainage Basins in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Hebson, Charles; Lombard, Pamela J.; Mann, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the accuracy of commonly used methods for estimating peak streamflows is important because the designs of bridges, culverts, and other river structures are based on these flows. Different methods for estimating peak streamflows were analyzed for small drainage basins in Maine. For the smallest basins, with drainage areas of 0.2 to 1.0 square mile, nine peak streamflows from actual rainfall events at four crest-stage gaging stations were modeled by the Rational Method and the Natural Resource Conservation Service TR-20 method and compared to observed peak flows. The Rational Method had a root mean square error (RMSE) of -69.7 to 230 percent (which means that approximately two thirds of the modeled flows were within -69.7 to 230 percent of the observed flows). The TR-20 method had an RMSE of -98.0 to 5,010 percent. Both the Rational Method and TR-20 underestimated the observed flows in most cases. For small basins, with drainage areas of 1.0 to 10 square miles, modeled peak flows were compared to observed statistical peak flows with return periods of 2, 50, and 100 years for 17 streams in Maine and adjoining parts of New Hampshire. Peak flows were modeled by the Rational Method, the Natural Resources Conservation Service TR-20 method, U.S. Geological Survey regression equations, and the Probabilistic Rational Method. The regression equations were the most accurate method of computing peak flows in Maine for streams with drainage areas of 1.0 to 10 square miles with an RMSE of -34.3 to 52.2 percent for 50-year peak flows. The Probabilistic Rational Method was the next most accurate method (-38.5 to 62.6 percent). The Rational Method (-56.1 to 128 percent) and particularly the TR-20 method (-76.4 to 323 percent) had much larger errors. Both the TR-20 and regression methods had similar numbers of underpredictions and overpredictions. The Rational Method overpredicted most peak flows and the Probabilistic Rational Method tended to overpredict peak flows

  10. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  11. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  12. Comparing two methods of simulating mirco-scale viscous flows in a porous channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hui; Han, Jie; Jin, Yan; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2007-11-01

    Water flows in natural soil porous media are important to colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants and other phenomena with groundwater as the carrier. The 3D micro-scale flow is complicated due to the complex geometry. The transport and deposition of colloids in such flows are affected by several physical and chemical forces involved. In this talk, we first compare two methods of simulating viscous flows in both 2D and 3D channels filled with glass-bead particles. The first method is Physalis developed by Prosperetti's group, at Johns Hopkins, based on solving the Navier-Stokes equation using a combination of numerical solution and local analytical Stokes flow representation. The second method is a meso-scale approach by solving a lattice Boltzmann equation. Specific implementation issues will be discussed. The two methods yield almost identical flows. Preliminary simulation results as well as parallel experimental results on colloid deposition in the porous channel will also be presented.

  13. Expiratory flow limitation definition, mechanisms, methods, and significance.

    PubMed

    Tantucci, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    When expiratory flow is maximal during tidal breathing and cannot be increased unless operative lung volumes move towards total lung capacity, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is said to occur. EFL represents a severe mechanical constraint caused by different mechanisms and observed in different conditions, but it is more relevant in terms of prevalence and negative consequences in obstructive lung diseases and particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although in COPD patients EFL more commonly develops during exercise, in more advanced disorder it can be present at rest, before in supine position, and then in seated-sitting position. In any circumstances EFL predisposes to pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation and its unfavorable effects such as increased elastic work of breathing, inspiratory muscles dysfunction, and progressive neuroventilatory dissociation, leading to reduced exercise tolerance, marked breathlessness during effort, and severe chronic dyspnea.

  14. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, D.A.; Bacchi, D.P.; Connors, T.F.; Collins, E.L. III

    1998-02-10

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by a novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken. 2 figs.

  15. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, David A.; Bacchi, David P.; Connors, Timothy F.; Collins, III, Edwin L.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.

  16. Expiratory flow limitation definition, mechanisms, methods, and significance.

    PubMed

    Tantucci, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    When expiratory flow is maximal during tidal breathing and cannot be increased unless operative lung volumes move towards total lung capacity, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is said to occur. EFL represents a severe mechanical constraint caused by different mechanisms and observed in different conditions, but it is more relevant in terms of prevalence and negative consequences in obstructive lung diseases and particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although in COPD patients EFL more commonly develops during exercise, in more advanced disorder it can be present at rest, before in supine position, and then in seated-sitting position. In any circumstances EFL predisposes to pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation and its unfavorable effects such as increased elastic work of breathing, inspiratory muscles dysfunction, and progressive neuroventilatory dissociation, leading to reduced exercise tolerance, marked breathlessness during effort, and severe chronic dyspnea. PMID:23606962

  17. Methods Used in Game Development to Foster FLOW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeppsen, Isaac Ben

    2010-01-01

    Games designed for entertainment have a rich history of providing compelling experiences. From consoles to PCs, games have managed to present intuitive and effective interfaces for a wide range of game styles to successfully allow users to "walk-up-and-play". Once a user is hooked, successful games artfully present challenging experiences just within reach of a user's ability, weaving each task and achievement into a compelling and engaging experience. In this paper, engagement is discussed in terms of the psychological theory of Flow. I argue that engagement should be one of the primary goals when developing a serious game and I discuss the best practices and techniques that have emerged from traditional video game development which help foster the creation of engaging, high Flow experiences.

  18. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  19. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.

    1999-05-18

    A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.

  20. Understanding use of health services in conditional cash transfer programs: insights from qualitative research in Latin America and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Adato, Michelle; Roopnaraine, Terry; Becker, Elisabeth

    2011-06-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs provide cash grants to poor households conditional on their participation in primary health care services. While significant impacts have been demonstrated quantitatively, little attention is paid to why CCTs have these observed impacts, and as importantly- why impacts are not greater than they are. This article draws on qualitative research from four countries over a ten year period (1999-2009) to provide insights into why expected health and nutrition impacts do and do not occur. In Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Turkey, ethnographic methods were used, involving between 87 and 120 households per country, and in Mexico, focus groups were conducted with 230 people. Key informant interviews were conducted with health care providers in all countries. While CCTs operate primarily on the assumption that a cash incentive will produce behaviour change, we found multiple sociocultural and structural influences on health care decisions that compete with cash. These include beliefs around traditional and modern biomedical practices, sociocultural norms, gender relations, and the quotidian experience of poverty in many dimensions. We conclude that impacts can be increased through a better understanding of multiple contextual influences on health care decisions, and greater attention to the health education components and complementary interventions.

  1. Similar and Yet So Different: Cash-for-Care in Six European Countries’ Long-Term Care Policies

    PubMed Central

    Da Roit, Barbara; Le Bihan, Blanche

    2010-01-01

    Context: In response to increasing care needs, the reform or development of long-term care (LTC) systems has become a prominent policy issue in all European countries. Cash-for-care schemes—allowances instead of services provided to dependents—represent a key policy aimed at ensuring choice, fostering family care, developing care markets, and containing costs. Methods: A detailed analysis of policy documents and regulations, together with a systematic review of existing studies, was used to investigate the differences among six European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden). The rationale and evolution of their various cash-for-care schemes within the framework of their LTC systems also were explored. Findings: While most of the literature present cash-for-care schemes as a common trend in the reforms that began in the 1990s and often treat them separately from the overarching LTC policies, this article argues that the policy context, timing, and specific regulation of the new schemes have created different visions of care and care work that in turn have given rise to distinct LTC configurations. Conclusions: A new typology of long-term care configurations is proposed based on the inclusiveness of the system, the role of cash-for-care schemes and their specific regulations, as well as the views of informal care and the care work that they require. PMID:20860573

  2. Solution of Reactive Compressible Flows Using an Adaptive Wavelet Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikoski, Zachary; Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    This work presents numerical simulations of reactive compressible flow, including detailed multicomponent transport, using an adaptive wavelet algorithm. The algorithm allows for dynamic grid adaptation which enhances our ability to fully resolve all physically relevant scales. The thermodynamic properties, equation of state, and multicomponent transport properties are provided by CHEMKIN and TRANSPORT libraries. Results for viscous detonation in a H2:O2:Ar mixture, and other problems in multiple dimensions, are included.

  3. Flow visualization using the laser light sheet method in vehicle aerodynamics and combustion chamber engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner

    Laser light sheet flow visualization is applied in the automobile industry with a view to the reduction of air resistance. Using high power lasers a plane is cut out of the 3-D flow field and the course of flow in the plane is analyzed. In vehicle aerodynamics the flow phenomena are mainly visualized with smoke in the tail region of automobiles and in the wake, in planes parallel as well as perpendicular to the flow direction. For the investigation of flow phenomena in the combustion chamber of Otto and Diesel engines, the laser light sheet method is used on a series motor with optical access, the so-called flow motor. Typical results and requirements for future automated evaluation methods are discussed.

  4. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  5. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  6. 20 CFR 638.807 - Imprest and petty cash funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 638.807 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.807 Imprest... centers shall establish auditable petty cash funds. The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures...

  7. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments..., United States Treasury obligations, marketable securities, and other similar investments, acquired...

  8. Financial Management: Cash Management Practices in Florida Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiwak, Rand S.

    A study was conducted to identify those variables appearing to affect cash management practices in Florida community colleges, and recommend prescriptive measures concerning these practices. The study methodology included informal discussions with the chief fiscal officers of each Florida community college and appropriate state board staff,…

  9. 7 CFR 273.20 - SSI cash-out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SSI cash-out. 273.20 Section 273.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Department of Health and Human Services has determined that the SSI payments in California have...

  10. Multidimensional Targeting: Identifying Beneficiaries of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Viviane; Robles, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs) have two main objectives: reducing poverty and increasing the human capital of children. To reach these objectives, transfers are given to poor households conditioned on investments in their children's education, health, and nutrition. Targeting mechanisms used by CCTs have been generally successful in…

  11. 42 CFR 441.454 - Use of cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cash. 441.454 Section 441.454 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program...

  12. 17 CFR 300.501 - Claim for cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim for cash. 300.501 Section 300.501 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to...

  13. 17 CFR 300.501 - Claim for cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for cash. 300.501 Section 300.501 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to...

  14. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  15. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... management program and entry into the program must be filed within 10 days of the effective date of the...

  16. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... management program and entry into the program must be filed within 10 days of the effective date of the...

  17. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... management program and entry into the program must be filed within 10 days of the effective date of the...

  18. Conditional Cash Transfer against Child Labor: Indonesia Program Keluarga Harapan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kye Woo; Hwang, Miae

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether subsidies provided by the Indonesian conditional cash transfer against child labor program (Program Keluarga Harapan: PKH) were sufficient for children to stop working and go back to schooling. Ex-post evaluations of the program found that it did not improve children's enrollment rate and reduce child labor…

  19. 7 CFR 273.20 - SSI cash-out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SSI cash-out. 273.20 Section 273.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... benefits. The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services has determined that the SSI...

  20. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) §...

  1. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) §...

  2. Use and Impact of a Cash Subsidy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Sandra E.

    1991-01-01

    The use and impact of a $256 monthly cash subsidy by 1,283 Michigan families with children with severe disabilities were examined. Families reported such uses as the purchase of clothing, toys, sitters, special foods, adaptive equipment, and professional services. Families indicated that the subsidy had improved family life, eased financial…

  3. Computing Cash Discounts. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Jean

    Supporting performance objective 51 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on computing cash discounts are included in this packet. (The packet is the fourth in a set of nine on performing computational clerical activities--CE 016 951-959.)…

  4. An Empirical Method for Fast Prediction of Rarefied Flow Field around a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tao; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of free-stream Knudsen (Kn) number on rarefied flow field around a vertical plate employing an unstructured DSMC method, and an empirical method for fast prediction of flow-field structure at different Kn numbers in a given inflow velocity is proposed. First, the flow at a velocity 7500m/s is simulated using a perfect-gas model with free-stream Kn changing from 0.035 to 13.36. The flow-field characteristics in these cases with varying Kn numbers are analyzed and a linear-expansion phenomenon as a function of the square of Kn is discovered. An empirical method is proposed for fast flow-field prediction at different Kn based on the least-square-fitting method. Further, the effects of chemical reactions on flow field are investigated to verify the applicability of the empirical method in the real gas conditions. Three of the cases in perfect-gas flow are simulated again by introducing five-species air chemical module. The flow properties with and without chemical reactions are compared. In the end, the variation of chemical-reaction flow field as a function of Kn is analyzed and it is shown that the empirical method are also suitable when considering chemical reactions.

  5. Kinetic theory based new upwind methods for inviscid compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Two new upwind methods called the Kinetic Numerical Method (KNM) and the Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method for the solution of the Euler equations have been presented. Both of these methods can be regarded as some suitable moments of an upwind scheme for the solution of the Boltzmann equation provided the distribution function is Maxwellian. This moment-method strategy leads to a unification of the Riemann approach and the pseudo-particle approach used earlier in the development of upwind methods for the Euler equations. A very important aspect of the moment-method strategy is that the new upwind methods satisfy the entropy condition because of the Boltzmann H-Theorem and suggest a possible way of extending the Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) principle within the framework of the H-Theorem. The ability of these methods in obtaining accurate wiggle-free solution is demonstrated by applying them to two test problems.

  6. Tracking and Measurement of the Motion of Blood Cells Using Optical Flow Methods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongmin; Van de Ven, Anne L.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of microcirculation is a critical task in biomedical and physiological research. In order to monitor human’s condition and develop effective therapies of some diseases, the microcirculation information, such as flow velocity and vessel density, must be evaluated in a noninvasive manner. As one of the tasks of microcirculation investigation, automatic blood cell tracking presents an effective approach to estimate blood flow velocity. Currently, the most common method for blood cell tracking is based on spatiotemporal image analysis, which has lots of limitations, such as the diameter of microvesssels cannot be too larger than blood cells or tracers, cells or tracers should have fixed velocity, and it requires the image with high qualification. In this paper, we propose an optical flow method for automatic cell tracking. The key algorithm of the method is to align an image to its neighbors in a large image collection consisting of a variety of scenes. Considering the method cannot solve the problems in all cases of cell movement, another optical flow method, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) flow, is also presented. The experimental results show that both methods can track the cells accurately. Optical flow is specially robust to the case where the velocity of cell is unstable, while SIFT flow works well when there are large displacement of cell between two adjacent frames. Our proposed methods outperform other methods when doing in vivo cell tracking, which can be used to estimate the blood flow directly and help to evaluate other parameters in microcirculation. PMID:24058034

  7. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception to 90-day rule in special cash... Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account. (a) The Board of Governors has recently interpreted... stock in a special cash account with a member firm on Day 1. On Day 3 customer sold the same stock at...

  8. 38 CFR 6.14 - Cash value; other than special endowment at age 96 plan policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.14 Cash value; other... completion of the first policy year on any plan of United States Government Life Insurance other than the... American Experience Table of Mortality, with interest at the rate of 31/2 percent per annum. The cash...

  9. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash and Management Information (C... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the...

  10. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the HOPE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cash and Management Information...

  11. The Management of Cash. NACUBO Professional File, Volume 9, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, William W.

    With today's relatively high interest rates, inflationary trend, and declining public support to higher education, cash management programs are of interest to the academic business officer as well as the commercial businessman. Four areas in which the management of cash can be improved are: (1) speeding collections of cash; (2) delaying…

  12. 31 CFR 206.10 - Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from...

  13. 38 CFR 8.33 - Cash value for term-capped policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cash value for term... NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.33 Cash value for term-capped policies. (a) What is a term... accrue cash value? Normally, a policy issued on a 5-year level premium term plan does not accrue...

  14. 38 CFR 8.33 - Cash value for term-capped policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cash value for term... NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.33 Cash value for term-capped policies. (a) What is a term... accrue cash value? Normally, a policy issued on a 5-year level premium term plan does not accrue...

  15. 38 CFR 8.33 - Cash value for term-capped policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cash value for term... NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.33 Cash value for term-capped policies. (a) What is a term... accrue cash value? Normally, a policy issued on a 5-year level premium term plan does not accrue...

  16. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Cash and Management Information (C... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the...

  17. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cash and Management Information (C... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the...

  18. 24 CFR 572.230 - Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cash and Management Information (C... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the...

  19. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Biblarz, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  20. Method of characteristics for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R

    1947-01-01

    An approximation method for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows is developed; it is based on the characteristics theory (represented partly graphically, partly analytically). Thereafter this method is applied to the construction of rotationally symmetrical nozzles. (author)

  1. Comparison of wind tunnel test results at free stream Mach 0.7 with results from the Boeing TEA-230 subsonic flow method. [wing flow method tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohn, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the Boeing TEA-230 Subsonic Flow Analysis method as a primary design tool in the development of cruise overwing nacelle configurations is presented. Surface pressure characteristics at 0.7 Mach number were determined by the TEA-230 method for a selected overwing flow-through nacelle configuration. Results of this analysis show excellent overall agreement with corresponding wind tunnel data. Effects of the presence of the nacelle on the wing pressure field were predicted accurately by the theoretical method. Evidence is provided that differences between theoretical and experimental pressure distributions in the present study would not result in significant discrepancies in the nacelle lines or nacelle drag estimates.

  2. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  3. An Efficient Inverse Aerodynamic Design Method For Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milholen, William E., II

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics based design methods are maturing to the point that they are beginning to be used in the aircraft design process. Many design methods however have demonstrated deficiencies in the leading edge region of airfoil sections. The objective of the present research is to develop an efficient inverse design method which is valid in the leading edge region. The new design method is a streamline curvature method, and a new technique is presented for modeling the variation of the streamline curvature normal to the surface. The new design method allows the surface coordinates to move normal to the surface, and has been incorporated into the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. The accuracy and efficiency of the design method is demonstrated using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design cases.

  4. Fictitious domain method for fully resolved reacting gas-solid flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longhui; Liu, Kai; You, Changfu

    2015-10-01

    Fully resolved simulation (FRS) for gas-solid multiphase flow considers solid objects as finite sized regions in flow fields and their behaviours are predicted by solving equations in both fluid and solid regions directly. Fixed mesh numerical methods, such as fictitious domain method, are preferred in solving FRS problems and have been widely researched. However, for reacting gas-solid flows no suitable fictitious domain numerical method has been developed. This work presents a new fictitious domain finite element method for FRS of reacting particulate flows. Low Mach number reacting flow governing equations are solved sequentially on a regular background mesh. Particles are immersed in the mesh and driven by their surface forces and torques integrated on immersed interfaces. Additional treatments on energy and surface reactions are developed. Several numerical test cases validated the method and a burning carbon particles array falling simulation proved the capability for solving moving reacting particle cluster problems.

  5. Solution of transonic flows by an integro-differential equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogana, W.

    1978-01-01

    Solutions of steady transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil are obtained from a singular integro-differential equation which involves a tangential derivative of the perturbation velocity potential. Subcritical flows are solved by taking central differences everywhere. For supercritical flows with shocks, central differences are taken in subsonic flow regions and backward differences in supersonic flow regions. The method is applied to a nonlifting parabolic-arc airfoil and to a lifting NACA 0012 airfoil. Results compare favorably with those of finite-difference schemes.

  6. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOEpatents

    Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1993-10-19

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

  7. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOEpatents

    Heath, William O.; Virden, Jr., Judson W.; Richardson, R. L.; Bergsman, Theresa M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

  8. Evaluation of a method of estimating low-flow frequencies from base-flow measurements at Indiana streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical technique of estimating low-flow frequencies from base-flow measurements was evaluated by using data for streams in Indiana. Low-flow frequencies at low- flow partial-record stations were estimated by relating base-flow measurements to concurrent daily flows at nearby streamflow-gaging stations (index stations) for which low-flowfrequency curves had been developed. A network of long-term streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana provided a sample of sites with observed low-flow frequencies. Observed values of 7-day, 10-year low flow and 7-day, 2-year low flow were compared to predicted values to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Five test cases were used to evaluate the method under a variety of conditions in which the location of the index station and its drainage area varied relative to the partial-record station. A total of 141 pairs of streamflow-gaging stations were used in the five test cases. Four of the test cases used one index station, the fifth test case used two index stations. The number of base-flow measurements was varied for each test case to see if the accuracy of the method was affected by the number of measurements used. The most accurate and least variable results were produced when two index stations on the same stream or tributaries of the partial-record station were used. All but one value of the predicted 7-day, 10-year low flow were within 15 percent of the values observed for the long-term continuous record, and all of the predicted values of the 7-day, 2-year lowflow were within 15 percent of the observed values. This apparent accuracy, to some extent, may be a result of the small sample set of 15. Of the four test cases that used one index station, the most accurate and least variable results were produced in the test case where the index station and partial-record station were on the same stream or on streams tributary to each other and where the index station had a larger drainage area than the partial-record station. In

  9. High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    2000-01-01

    A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.

  10. Visualization of transitional pipe flow using the photochromic tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalzal, P.; Ojha, M.; Ethier, C. R.; Cobbold, R. S. C.; Johnston, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    Two noninvasive measurement techniques are described for investigating transitional flow in a rigid straight tube. Photochromic trace recordings, representing fluid displacement profiles, were made within the core and at the leading and trailing edges of turbulent slugs generated by a disturbance at the tube inlet. Consistent photochromic trace recordings were made possible through the discovery that Doppler ultrasound can be used to detect the passage of turbulent slugs, thereby allowing precise timing of the photochromic traces. Upstream and downstream Doppler probes enabled the leading and trailing edge velocities of slugs to be measured and also enabled the laminar/turbulent transition regions to be investigated in detail. Trailing edge interface velocities were in excellent agreement with existing data, while leading edge velocities agreed less well. Turbulence generation at the trailing edge appeared to be associated with a localized vortical structure which originated in the near wall region and then grew toward the tube centerline. The generation of this vortex is postulated to be induced by a shear layer instability. Mean velocity profiles obtained from within the core of turbulent slugs were similar to those obtained for fully developed turbulent flow.

  11. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  12. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose. PMID:26685585

  13. Pulsed-injection method for blood flow velocity measurement in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B

    1986-08-01

    The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598

  14. Methods for Computationally Efficient Structured CFD Simulations of Complex Turbomachinery Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Gregory P.; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This research presents more efficient computational methods by which to perform multi-block structured Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbomachinery, thus facilitating higher-fidelity solutions of complicated geometries and their associated flows. This computational framework offers flexibility in allocating resources to balance process count and wall-clock computation time, while facilitating research interests of simulating axial compressor stall inception with more complete gridding of the flow passages and rotor tip clearance regions than is typically practiced with structured codes. The paradigm presented herein facilitates CFD simulation of previously impractical geometries and flows. These methods are validated and demonstrate improved computational efficiency when applied to complicated geometries and flows.

  15. Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.

  16. Potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils using a singular integral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Yves; Wilson, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    The problem of potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils is solved by using a new singular integral method. The potential flow equations for incompressible potential flow are written in a singular integral equation. The equation is solved at N collocation points on the airfoil surface. A unique feature of this method is that the airfoil geometry is specified as an independent variable in the exact integral equation. Compared to other numerical methods, the present calculation procedure is much simpler and gives remarkable accuracy for many body shapes. An advantage of the present method is that it allows the inverse design calculation and the results are extremely accurate.

  17. On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.

  18. Calculation of compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils by a finite element/finite difference method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.

  19. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  20. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic-hydraulic methods in perennial rivers.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Reza; Yasi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of environmental flows in rivers is of vital importance for preserving riverine ecosystem processes. This paper addresses the evaluation of environmental flow requirements in three reaches along a typical perennial river (the Zab transboundary river, in north-west Iran), using different hydraulic, hydrological and ecological methods. The main objective of this study came from the construction of three dams and inter-basin transfer of water from the Zab River to the Urmia Lake. Eight hydrological methods (i.e. Tennant, Tessman, flow duration curve analysis, range of variability approach, Smakhtin, flow duration curve shifting, desktop reserve and 7Q2&10 (7-day low flow with a 2- and 10-year return period)); two hydraulic methods (slope value and maximum curvature); and two habitat simulation methods (hydraulic-ecologic, and Q Equation based on water quality indices) were used. Ecological needs of the riverine key species (mainly Barbus capito fish), river geometries, natural flow regime and the environmental status of river management were the main indices for determining the minimum flow requirements. The results indicate that the order of 35%, 17% and 18% of the mean annual flow are to be maintained for the upper, middle and downstream river reaches, respectively. The allocated monthly flow rates in the three Dams steering program are not sufficient to preserve the Zab River life.

  1. Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one-dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.

  2. Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, R. R.

    This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.

  3. A Survey of Flow Cytometry Data Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Ali; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is widely used in health research and in treatment for a variety of tasks, such as in the diagnosis and monitoring of leukemia and lymphoma patients, providing the counts of helper-T lymphocytes needed to monitor the course and treatment of HIV infection, the evaluation of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell grafts, and many other diseases. In practice, FCM data analysis is performed manually, a process that requires an inordinate amount of time and is error-prone, nonreproducible, nonstandardized, and not open for re-evaluation, making it the most limiting aspect of this technology. This paper reviews state-of-the-art FCM data analysis approaches using a framework introduced to report each of the components in a data analysis pipeline. Current challenges and possible future directions in developing fully automated FCM data analysis tools are also outlined. PMID:20049163

  4. Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Paul D.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system cludes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provide a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  6. A Phase-Field Method for Simulating Fluid-Structure Interactions in Multi-Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoning; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    We investigate two-phase flow instabilities by numerical simulations of fluid structure interactions in two-phase flow. The first case is a flexible pipe conveying two fluids, which exhibits self-sustained oscillations at high Reynolds number and tension related parameter. Well-defined two-phase flow patterns, i.e., slug flow and bubbly flow, are observed. The second case is external two-phase cross flow past a circular cylinder, which induces a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to density stratification. We solve the Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the structure equation in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. For the fluid solver, a spectral/hp element method is employed for spatial discretization and backward differentiation for time discretization. For the structure solver, a Galerkin method is used in Lagrangian coordinates for spatial discretization and the Newmark- β scheme for time discretization.

  7. Simulation of vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by a point-vortex method

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was made to simulate vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by the point-vortex method. Attention was divided into three different aspects: a nascent vortex-shedding algorithm, numerical demonstration of the point-vortex method, and the calculation of some example of aerodynamic interesting flows, which include two major categories: unsteady flow about a flat plate at a fixed angle of attack with and without a leading edge flap, and the transient, vortical cross flow produced by a slender delta wing. Evolution of the vortex traces, streamlines, surface pressure, and forces are studied. Flow features based on data obtained by different point-vortex shedding rates and different integration time steps and schemes are found to be consistent with each other on length and time scales comparable to as well as considerably smaller than those of the global flow.

  8. Computation of steady axisymmetric flow using a one-dimensional time-dependent method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walitt, L.

    1974-01-01

    An iterative numerical method for computing steady, three dimensional, viscous, compressible flow fields, about aerodynamic bodies was studied. In order to develop the iterative method economically, the primary emphasis was directed towards supersonic, axisymmetric flow. However, the technique readily extends to three spatial dimensions. The viscous flow field about a cone-cylinder-flare body was calculated and compared to existing experimental data. Numerical predictions of the cone boundary layer and the flow field shock wave structure agreed with corresponding measurements. A separation was calculated at the cylinder-flare junction in six iterations; however, the size of the vortex did not correspond to the measured size. It was estimated that fifty iterations would be required to properly define the vortex. It was concluded that the iteration technique is of limited value for plane two dimensional and axisymmetrix flows, but of great value for three-dimensional flows.

  9. Apparatus and method for constant flow oxidizing of organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony; Bryan, Garry H.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. A reaction vessel provides an advantage of independent reaction temperature control and electrochemical cell temperature control. A separate or independent reaction vessel may be used without an ultrasonic mixer to oxidize gaseous phase organic materials.

  10. Development of high order numerical methods for particle-laden flows on unstructured grids: A realizability-preserving Discontinuous Galerkin method for moderate Stokes number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larat, Adam; Sabat, Macole; Vié, Aymeric; Chalons, Christophe; Massot, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The simulation of particle-laden flows is of primary importance for several industrial applications, like sprays in aeronautical combustors or particles in fluidized beds. Our focus is on Moment methods that describes the disperse phase as a continuum. The accuracy and performance of such approaches highly depends on the number of controlled moments for correctly describing the physics of the flow, but also on the numerics that are used to solve the continuous system of equations at a discrete level. In the present work, we investigate the use of Discontinuous Galerkin methods to solve for the convective part of the moment equations. By deriving realizability conditions on the moment system that are associated to a convex space, a projection strategy is used to maintain the solution in the realizable space. This method is applied to the resolution of the pressure less gas dynamics and the Anisotropic Gaussian moment approach, the former solving for low Stokes number flows where no Particle Trajectory Crossing occurs, while the latter is solving for moderate Stokes number flows and can handle PTC through a pressure tensor in the convective term. The strategy is assessed on turbulent flows through comparisons with Lagrangian results.

  11. Method and apparatus for cold gas reinjection in through-flow and reverse-flow wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cold gas reinjection in through-flow and reverse-flow wave rotors having a plurality of channels formed around a periphery thereof. A first port injects a supply of cool air into the channels. A second port allows the supply of cool air to exit the channels and flow to a combustor. A third port injects a supply of hot gas from the combustor into the channels. A fourth port allows the supply of hot gas to exit the channels and flow to a turbine. A diverting port and a reinjection port are connected to the second and third ports, respectively. The diverting port diverts a portion of the cool air exiting through the second port as reinjection air. The diverting port is fluidly connected to the reinjection port which reinjects the reinjection air back into the channels. The reinjection air evacuates the channels of the hot gas resident therein and cools the channel walls, a pair of end walls of the rotor, ducts communicating with the rotor and subsequent downstream components. In a second embodiment, the second port receives all of the cool air exiting the channels and the diverting port diverts a portion of the cool air just prior to the cool air flowing to the combustor.

  12. Contrasting discharge computation methods in riverine and tidal-affected flows in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancements in acoustic science have improved the measurement of real-time flow conditions in complex open-channel flow systems with dynamic channel geometry, velocity distribution and direction, and other gradually varying hydraulic characteristics. In the lower Pascagoula River Basin, a drainage area of about 9,500 square miles in Mississippi, riverine and tidal-affected river reaches exist that exhibit fairly steady flows during and after rainfall runoff events, and unsteady flows during low flow, tidal-affected events. Fairly steady flows can be computed usually within 5 percent by using methods developed by the USGS. Accurate measurement and computation of varied, non-uniform open-channel hydraulic streamflow conditions have historically been difficult or impossible. Acoustic and conventional methodologies to measure velocity in an open-channel riverine and tidal-affected reach have been combined to compute continuous discharge during varied, nonuniform flows by using the relations of stage and area in concert with average velocity and index velocity. Due to the unique flow characteristics on the lower Pascagoula River in Mississippi, an independent means of computing high flows based on conventional methods of a log regression of stage and discharge for a range of stages was also used. The two methods were contrasted and had good correlation. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  13. Methods for estimating selected low-flow frequency statistics and harmonic mean flows for streams in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2012-01-01

    -least-squares equations developed for estimating the harmonic-mean-flow statistic for each of the three regions range from 66.4 to 80.4 percent. The regression equations are applicable only to stream sites in Iowa with low flows not significantly affected by regulation, diversion, or urbanization and with basin characteristics within the range of those used to develop the equations. If the equations are used at ungaged sites on regulated streams, or on streams affected by water-supply and agricultural withdrawals, then the estimates will need to be adjusted by the amount of regulation or withdrawal to estimate the actual flow conditions if that is of interest. Caution is advised when applying the equations for basins with characteristics near the applicable limits of the equations and for basins located in karst topography. A test of two drainage-area ratio methods using 31 pairs of streamgages, for the annual 7-day mean low-flow statistic for a recurrence interval of 10 years, indicates a weighted drainage-area ratio method provides better estimates than regional regression equations for an ungaged site on a gaged stream in Iowa when the drainage-area ratio is between 0.5 and 1.4. These regression equations will be implemented within the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats web-based geographic-information-system tool. StreamStats allows users to click on any ungaged site on a river and compute estimates of the seven selected statistics; in addition, 90-percent prediction intervals and the measured basin characteristics for the ungaged sites also are provided. StreamStats also allows users to click on any streamgage in Iowa and estimates computed for these seven selected statistics are provided for the streamgage.

  14. The development of three-dimensional adjoint method for flow control with blowing in convergent-divergent nozzle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikarwar, Nidhi

    The noise produced by the low bypass ratio turbofan engines used to power fighter aircraft is a problem for communities near military bases and for personnel working in close proximity to the aircraft. For example, carrier deck personnel are subject to noise exposure that can result in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss which in-turn results in over a billion dollars of disability payments by the Veterans Administration. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the jet noise at the source. These methods include microjet injection of air or water downstream of the jet exit, chevrons, and corrugated nozzle inserts. The last method involves the insertion of corrugated seals into the diverging section of a military-style convergent-divergent jet nozzle (to replace the existing seals). This has been shown to reduce both the broadband shock-associated noise as well as the mixing noise in the peak noise radiation direction. However, the original inserts were designed to be effective for a take-off condition where the jet is over-expanded. The nozzle performance would be expected to degrade at other conditions, such as in cruise at altitude. A new method has been proposed to achieve the same effects as corrugated seals, but using fluidic inserts. This involves injection of air, at relatively low pressures and total mass flow rates, into the diverging section of the nozzle. These fluidic inserts" deflect the flow in the same way as the mechanical inserts. The fluidic inserts represent an active control method, since the injectors can be modified or turned off depending on the jet operating conditions. Noise reductions in the peak noise direction of 5 to 6 dB have been achieved and broadband shock-associated noise is effectively suppressed. There are multiple parameters to be considered in the design of the fluidic inserts. This includes the number and location of the injectors and the pressures and mass flow rates to be used. These could be optimized on an ad hoc basis with

  15. High-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for coupled thermoconvective flows under gravity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.

  16. Limits and conditions of applicability of the experimental measurement methods of liquid flow rates through pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botezatu, N. P.

    1980-04-01

    Various flow measurement methods and their applications are reviewed in order to establish the best methods for rationalization and optimization of water consumption in a large industrial system. The methods discussed include volumetric and gravimetric techniques, Pitot and Venturi tubes, electromagnetic and ultrasonic flowmeters, counters, rotameters, and anemometers, as well as the use of classical and radioactive tracers. A comparative analysis of various methods and experimental results indicate that the method of radioactive tracers is the only universal method of measurement of fluid flows through pipes and channels for fluids of any physicochemical properties under any conditions.

  17. A pressure correction method for the calculation of compressible chemical reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Z. J.; Chen, C. P.; Chen, Y. S.

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed noniterative method for the solution of the transient fluid flow equations at all speed is extended to handle chemical reacting flows. The species conservation equations are loosely coupled into the predictor/multicorrector sequence of the solution procedure. A split-operator method separates the chemical kinetics terms from the fluid-dynamical terms, as well as an implicit differencing method enhance the numerical stability. The method was applied for turbulent diffusion flame calculations and for the analyses of high pressure, axisymmetric turbulent hypersonic nozzle flows. The diffusion flame results were compared with a similar pressure method for fast chemistry integration scheme without operator-splitting. Simulations of the nozzle flow indicated that the nonideal intermolecular effects must be included in the analysis and design of high pressure hypersonic nozzle.

  18. A scalable RBF-FD method for atmospheric flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillenius, Martin; Larsson, Elisabeth; Lehto, Erik; Flyer, Natasha

    2015-10-01

    Radial basis function-generated finite difference (RBF-FD) methods have recently been proposed as very interesting for global scale geophysical simulations, and have been shown to outperform established pseudo-spectral and discontinuous Galerkin methods for shallow water test problems. In order to be competitive for very large scale simulations, the RBF-FD methods needs to be efficiently implemented for modern multicore based computer architectures. This is a challenging assignment, because the main computational operations are unstructured sparse matrix-vector multiplications, which in general scale poorly on multicore computers due to bandwidth limitations. However, with the task parallel implementation described here we achieve 60-100% of theoretical speedup within a shared memory node, and 80-100% of linear speedup across nodes. We present results for global shallow water benchmark problems with a 30 km resolution.

  19. A higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The basic integral equations of linearized supersonic theory for an advanced supersonic panel method are derived. Methods using only linear varying source strength over each panel or only quadratic doublet strength over each panel gave good agreement with analytic solutions over cones and zero thickness cambered wings. For three dimensional bodies and wings of general shape, combined source and doublet panels with interior boundary conditions to eliminate the internal perturbations lead to a stable method providing good agreement experiment. A panel system with all edges contiguous resulted from dividing the basic four point non-planar panel into eight triangular subpanels, and the doublet strength was made continuous at all edges by a quadratic distribution over each subpanel. Superinclined panels were developed and tested on s simple nacelle and on an airplane model having engine inlets, with excellent results.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Pipe Flow Using a B-Spline Spectral Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loulou, Patrick; Moser, Robert D.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical method based on b-spline polynomials was developed to study incompressible flows in cylindrical geometries. A b-spline method has the advantages of possessing spectral accuracy and the flexibility of standard finite element methods. Using this method it was possible to ensure regularity of the solution near the origin, i.e. smoothness and boundedness. Because b-splines have compact support, it is also possible to remove b-splines near the center to alleviate the constraint placed on the time step by an overly fine grid. Using the natural periodicity in the azimuthal direction and approximating the streamwise direction as periodic, so-called time evolving flow, greatly reduced the cost and complexity of the computations. A direct numerical simulation of pipe flow was carried out using the method described above at a Reynolds number of 5600 based on diameter and bulk velocity. General knowledge of pipe flow and the availability of experimental measurements make pipe flow the ideal test case with which to validate the numerical method. Results indicated that high flatness levels of the radial component of velocity in the near wall region are physical; regions of high radial velocity were detected and appear to be related to high speed streaks in the boundary layer. Budgets of Reynolds stress transport equations showed close similarity with those of channel flow. However contrary to channel flow, the log layer of pipe flow is not homogeneous for the present Reynolds number. A topological method based on a classification of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor was used. Plotting iso-surfaces of the discriminant of the invariants proved to be a good method for identifying vortical eddies in the flow field.

  1. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  2. Vortical Flow Prediction using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65 delta wing with different values of leading-edge radius. Although the geometry is quite simple, it poses a challenging problem for computing vortices originating from blunt leading edges. The second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the wind-tunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-DIFFUSION FLUX-SPLITTING METHODS FOR DENSE GAS-SOLID FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a class of low-diffusion upwinding methods for computing dense gas-solid flows is presented in this work. An artificial compressibility/low-Mach preconditioning strategy is developed for a hyperbolic two-phase flow equation system consisting of separate solids ...

  4. Composite method to quantify powder flow as a screening method in early tablet or capsule formulation development.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M K; Ginsburg, J; Hickey, A; Gheyas, F

    2000-06-24

    The flow properties of typical tablet and capsule formulation excipients, active compounds, and representative formulation blends were tested with current and novel flow measurement techniques to identify a reliable bench test to quantify powder flow as a screening method in early tablet and capsule formulation development. Test methods employed were vibrating spatula, critical orifice, angle of repose, compressibility index, and avalanching analysis. Powder flow results from each method were compiled in a database, sorted, and compared. An empirical composite index was established and powder flow was ranked in accordance with formulator experience. Principal components analyses of the angle of repose, percent compressibility, and critical orifice of the powder materials were also performed. The first principal component accounted for 72.8% of data variability; scores associated with this principal component score can serve as an index of flowability. Data generated from vibrating spatula and avalanching methods were not reproducible and were inconsistent with formulator experience and cited vendor references for flow. Improvements of test instruments and further studies are necessary for better assessment of these approaches.

  5. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  6. Some Developments of the Equilibrium Particle Simulation Method for the Direct Simulation of Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrossan, M. N.

    1995-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.

  7. Methods for estimating low-flow characteristics of ungaged streams in selected areas, northern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumenik, R.P.; Grubbs, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for estimating low-flow frequency characteristics at ungaged sites were developed for two areas in northern Florida. In the Yellow, Blackwater, Escambia, and Perdido River Basins study area (northwestern Florida), regional regression equations were developed for estimating the 7- and 30-day, 2- and 10-year low-flow characteristic (Q7,2, Q7,10, Q30,2, and Q30,10) by determining values of basin characteristics from digital Geographical Information System (GIS) coverages or hardcopy maps. A GIS, ARC-INFO, was used to quantify basin characteristics that were used in regression equations. Sources of digital data used in this analysis are elevation data, from a digital elevation model, stream length and location data from a digital hydrography coverage, and watershed boundaries digitized from topographic maps. The most accurate regression equations employed a basin characteristic that was based on a simple conceptual model of one- dimensional ground-water flow using Darcy's law. Slightly less accurate equations were obtained using drainage area as the only explanatory variable. The standard error of prediction for the Darcy and drainage area equations of Q7,2 was 65 and 74 percent, respectively; Q7,10, 58 and 62 percent, respectively; Q30,2, 51 and, 54 percent, respectively; and Q30,10, 44 and 51 percent, respectively. In the Santa Fe River Basin study area (northeastern Florida), a flow-routing method was used to estimate low-flow characteristics at ungaged sites from low stream- flow analyses based on records at gaged sites. The use of the flow-routing method is suggested for areas where regression analysis proves unsuccessful, where low-flow characteristics have been defined at a significant number of sites, and where information about the basin characteristics has been thoroughly researched. Low-flow frequency characteristics determined at 40 sites and measurements made during five synoptic runs in 1989-91 were used to develop a flow-routing method. Low-flow

  8. Three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flow calculations using direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celenligil, M. Cevdet; Moss, James N.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of three-dimensional simulations on the hypersonic rarefied flows in an effort to understand the highly nonequilibrium flows about space vehicles entering the Earth's atmosphere for a realistic estimation of the aerothermal loads is presented. Calculations are performed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a five-species reacting gas model, which accounts for rotational and vibrational internal energies. Results are obtained for the external flows about various bodies in the transitional flow regime. For the cases considered, convective heating, flowfield structure and overall aerodynamic coefficients are presented and comparisons are made with the available experimental data. The agreement between the calculated and measured results are very good.

  9. A Novel Microfluidic Flow Rate Detection Method Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960

  10. Method for estimating low-flow characteristics of ungaged streams in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Glatfelter, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    Equations for estimating the 7-day, 2-year and 7oday, 10-year low flows at sites on ungaged streams are presented. Regression analysis was used to develop equations relating basin characteristics and low-flow characteristics at 82 gaging stations. Significant basin characteristics in the equations are contributing drainage area and flow-duration ratio, which is the 20-percent flow duration divided by the 90-percent flow duration. Flow-duration ratio has been regionalized for Indiana on a plate. Ratios for use in the equations are obtained from the plate. Drainage areas are determined from maps or are obtained from reports. The predictive capability of the method was determined by tests of the equations and of the flow-duration ratios on the plate. The accuracy of the equations alone was tested by estimating the low-flow characteristics at 82 gaging stations where flow-duration ratio is already known. In this case, the standard errors of estimate for 7-day, 2-year and 7-day, 10-year low flows are 19 and 28 percent. When flow-duration ratios for the 82 gaging stations are obtained from the map, the standard errors are 46 and 61 percent. However, when stations having drainage areas of less than 10 square miles are excluded from the test, the standard errors decrease to 38 and 49 percent. Standard errors increase when stations with small basins are included, probably because some of the flow-duration ratios obtained for these small basins are incorrect. Local geology and its effect on the ratio are not adequately reflected on the plate, which shows the regional variation in flow-duration ratio. In all the tests, no bias is apparent areally, with increasing drainage area or with increasing ratio. Guidelines and limitations should be considered when using the method. The method can be applied only at sites in the northern and central physiographic zones of the State. Low-flow characteristics cannot be estimated for regulated streams unless the amount of regulation is

  11. Method for estimating low-flow characteristics of ungaged streams in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.; Glatfelter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Equations for estimating the 7-day, 2-yr and 7-day, 10-yr low flows at sites on ungaged streams are presented. Regression analysis was used to develop equations relating basin characteristics and low flow characteristics at 82 gaging stations. Significant basin characteristics in the equations are contributing drainage area and flow duration ratio, which is the 20% flow duration divided by the 90% flow duration. Flow duration ratio has been regionalized for Indiana on a plate. Ratios for use in the equations are obtained from this plate. Drainage areas are determined from maps or are obtained from reports. The predictive capability of the method was determined by tests of the equations and of the flow duration ratios on the plate. The accuracy of the equations alone was tested by estimating the low flow characteristics at 82 gaging stations where flow duration ratio is already known. In this case, the standard errors of estimate for 7-day, 2-yr and 7-day, 10-yr low flows are 19% and 28%. When flow duration ratios for the 82 gaging stations are obtained from the map, the standard errors are 46% and 61%. However, when stations with drainage areas < 10 sq mi are excluded from the test, the standard errors reduce to 38% and 49%. Standard errors increase when stations with small basins are included, probably because some of the flow duration ratios obtained for these small basins are incorrect. Local geology and its effect on the ratio are not adequately reflected on the plate, which shows the regional variation in flow duration ratio. In all the tests, no bias is apparent areally, with increasing drainage area or with increasing ratio. Guidelines and limitations should be considered when using the method. The method can be applied only at sites in the northern and the central physiographic zones of the state. Low flow characteristics cannot be estimated for regulated streams unless the amount of regulation is known so that the estimated low flow characteristic can be

  12. Melt transport - a personal cashing-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.

    2005-12-01

    The flow of fluids through rocks transports heat and material and changes bulk composition. The large-scale chemical differentiation of the Earth is related to flow of partial melts. From the perspective of current understanding of tectonic processes, prominent examples of such transport processes are the formation of oceanic crust from ascending basic melts at mid-ocean ridges, melt segregation involved in the solidification of the Earth's core, and dissolution-precipitation creep in subduction channels. Transport and deformation cannot be separated for partially molten aggregates. Permeability is only defined as an instantaneous parameter in the sense that Darcy's law is assumed to be valid; it is not an explicit parameter in the fundamental mechanical conservation laws but can be derived from them in certain circumstances as a result of averaging schemes. The governing, explicit physical properties in the mechanical equations are the shear and bulk viscosities of the solid framework and the fluid viscosity and compressibility. Constraints on the magnitude of these properties are available today from experiments at specific loading configurations, i.e., more or less well constrained initial and boundary conditions. The melt pressure remains the least controlled parameter. While the fluid viscosity is often much lower than the solid's the two-phase aggregate may exhibit considerable strength owing to the difficulty of moving the fluid through the branched pore network. The extremes in behavior depend on the time scale of loading, as known from daily live experiences (spounge, Danish coffee-pot, human tissue between neighboring bones). Several theoretical approaches attempted to formulate mechanical constitutive equations for two-phase aggregates. An important issue is the handling of internal variables in these equations. At experimental conditions, grain size, melt pocket orientation and crystallographic orientation -prime candidates for internal variables

  13. Stock or cash? The trade-offs for buyers and sellers in mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, A; Sirower, M L

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, less than 2% of large deals were paid for entirely in stock; by 1998, that number had risen to 50%. The shift has profound ramifications for shareholders of both the acquiring and acquired companies. In this article, the authors provide a framework and two simple tools to guide boards of both companies through the issues they need to consider when making decisions about how to pay for--and whether to accept--a deal. First an acquirer has to decide whether to finance the deal using stock or pay cash. Second, if the acquirer decides to issue stock, it then must decide whether to offer a fixed value of shares or a fixed number of them. Offering cash places all the potential risks and rewards with the acquirer--and sends a strong signal to the markets that it has confidence in the value not only of the deal but in its own stock. By issuing shares, however, an acquirer in essence offers to share the newly merged company with the stockholders of the acquired company--a signal the market often interprets as a lack of confidence in the value of the acquirer's stock. Offering a fixed number of shares reinforces that impression because it requires the selling stockholders to share the risk that the value of the acquirer's stock will decline before the deal goes through. Offering a fixed value of shares sends a more confident signal to the markets, as the acquirer assumes all of that risk. The choice between cash and stock should never be made without full and careful consideration of the potential consequences. The all-too-frequent disappointing returns from stock transactions underscore how important the method of payment truly is.

  14. Stock or cash? The trade-offs for buyers and sellers in mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, A; Sirower, M L

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, less than 2% of large deals were paid for entirely in stock; by 1998, that number had risen to 50%. The shift has profound ramifications for shareholders of both the acquiring and acquired companies. In this article, the authors provide a framework and two simple tools to guide boards of both companies through the issues they need to consider when making decisions about how to pay for--and whether to accept--a deal. First an acquirer has to decide whether to finance the deal using stock or pay cash. Second, if the acquirer decides to issue stock, it then must decide whether to offer a fixed value of shares or a fixed number of them. Offering cash places all the potential risks and rewards with the acquirer--and sends a strong signal to the markets that it has confidence in the value not only of the deal but in its own stock. By issuing shares, however, an acquirer in essence offers to share the newly merged company with the stockholders of the acquired company--a signal the market often interprets as a lack of confidence in the value of the acquirer's stock. Offering a fixed number of shares reinforces that impression because it requires the selling stockholders to share the risk that the value of the acquirer's stock will decline before the deal goes through. Offering a fixed value of shares sends a more confident signal to the markets, as the acquirer assumes all of that risk. The choice between cash and stock should never be made without full and careful consideration of the potential consequences. The all-too-frequent disappointing returns from stock transactions underscore how important the method of payment truly is. PMID:10662003

  15. Finite element methods for non-Newtonian flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of the finite element method to problems in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics is described. The formulation of the basic equations is presented for both inelastic and viscoelastic constitutive models. Solution algorithms for treating the material nonlinearities associated with inealstic fluids are described; typical solution procedures for the implicit stress-rate equations of viscoelastic fluids are also presented. Simple example analyses are included for both types of fluid models. 65 refs., 21 figs.

  16. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  17. 'High payoff' research receives 150m US cash boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A US programme designed to support "high risk, high payoff" research into energy has handed out its first 150m in cash. The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) has funded 37 projects covering a range of topics in renewable energy. Run by the US Department of Energy (DOE), ARPA-E seeks to reduce greenhousegas emissions and lower US dependence on foreign sources of energy.

  18. Sensitive and real-time method for evaluating corneal barrier considering tear flow.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadahiro; Teshima, Mugen; Kitahara, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Nakashima, Mikiro; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Higuchi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new electrophysiological method mimicking tear flow to evaluate the epithelial tight junction of rabbit cornea quantitatively. We investigated the effect of tear flow on the corneal damage induced by ophthalmic preservatives using this method. An Ussing chamber system with Ag/AgCl electrodes was used in the electrophysiological experiment. The excised rabbit cornea was mounted in the Ussing chamber and the precorneal solution in the chamber was perfused with a peristaltic pump at the rate of human tear flow. Corneal transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was monitored as corneal barrier ability. In the electrophysiological method mimicking tear flow, we observed stable TEER, which rapidly decreased with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), an eye drop preservative. Using this system, we first found that 0.004% BAC decreased corneal TEER reversibly. A high concentration of BAC showed strong irreversible damage to the tight junction. The influence of BAC on corneal TEER was not only concentration-dependent but also tear flow rate-dependent. The electrophysiological method mimicking tear flow was useful to evaluate the corneal barrier quantitatively. Using this method, we clarified that the tear flow was important to protect the corneal damage induced by preservatives.

  19. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003).

  20. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

  1. Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow by the xenon/CT method and the microsphere method. A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, D.; Yonas, H.; Jackson, D.L.; Wolfson, S.K. Jr.; Rockette, H.; Good, W.F.; Cook, E.E.; Arena, V.C.; Willy, J.A.; Maitz, G.S.

    1985-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow have been performed in baboons to assess the correlation between the acute and invasive nondiffusible microsphere technique and the noninvasive xenon-enhanced CT method. Blood flows in small tissue volumes (approximately 1 cm3) were directly compared. The results of these studies demonstrate a statistically significant association between the two methods (P less than .001). Similar correlations were obtained by both the Kendall tau (tau) and the Spearman (r) methods. The problems and limitations of such correlations are discussed.

  2. A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.

    2014-12-01

    A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.

  3. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  4. Evaluation of the vibratory feeder method for assessment of powder flow properties.

    PubMed

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Hedden, David B; Olsofsky, Angela M; Qu, Xianggui; Hsieh, Wen-Yaw; Canter, Kelly G

    2004-01-28

    The flow properties of pharmaceutical powders and blends used in solid oral dosage forms are an important consideration during dosage form development. The vibratory feeder method, a flow measurement technique that quantifies avalanche flow, has been adapted for measurement of the flow properties of common pharmaceutical powders used in solid oral dosage forms. The flow properties of 17 different powders were measured with the instrument, and the results are reported as a powder flow index (PFI). The PFI trends of the powders correlate well with flow properties reported in the literature. The flow properties of the powders were also measured with a commercially available avalanche instrument, the Aero-Flow, and the results were reported as the mean time to avalanche (MTA). Since the two instruments analyze the avalanche by different algorithms, the results were compared with nonparametric statistical evaluation of ranked data, and they were found to be in excellent agreement. A recommended procedure for measurement of powder flow with the vibratory feeder is presented.

  5. Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.

    1980-06-13

    A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.

  6. Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Lorensen, Lyman E.; Locke, Frank E.

    1982-01-01

    A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds.

  7. A method for calculating turbulent boundary layers and losses in the flow channels of turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Lawrence F.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive inviscid core flow-boundary layer method is presented for the calculation of turbomachine channel flows. For this method, a one-dimensional inviscid core flow is assumed. The end-wall and blade surface boundary layers are calculated using an integral entrainment method. The boundary layers are assumed to be collateral and thus are two-dimensional. The boundary layer equations are written in a streamline coordinate system. The streamwise velocity profiles are approximated by power law profiles. Compressibility is accounted for in the streamwise direction but not in the normal direction. Equations are derived for the special cases of conical and two-dimensional rectangular diffusers. For these cases, the assumptions of a one-dimensional core flow and collateral boundary layers are valid. Results using the method are compared with experiment and good quantitative agreement is obtained.

  8. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model.

  9. Contingency Management for Cocaine Treatment: Cash vs. Vouchers

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Seymour, Brittany L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  10. Conditional Cash Transfers and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Unconditionally Promising?

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Thornton, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have recently received considerable attention as a potentially innovative and effective approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS. We evaluate a conditional cash transfer program in rural Malawi which offered financial incentives to men and women to maintain their HIV status for approximately one year. The amounts of the reward ranged from zero to approximately 3-4 months wage. We find no effect of the offered incentives on HIV status or on reported sexual behavior. However, shortly after receiving the reward, men who received the cash transfer were 9 percentage points more likely and women were 6.7 percentage points less likely to engage in risky sex. Our analyses therefore question the "unconditional effectiveness" of CCT program for HIV prevention: CCT Programs that aim to motivate safe sexual behavior in Africa should take into account that money given in the present may have much stronger effects than rewards offered in the future, and any effect of these programs may be fairly sensitive to the specific design of the program, the local and/or cultural context, and the degree of agency an individual has with respect to sexual behaviors.

  11. Conditional Cash Transfers and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Unconditionally Promising?

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Thornton, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have recently received considerable attention as a potentially innovative and effective approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS. We evaluate a conditional cash transfer program in rural Malawi which offered financial incentives to men and women to maintain their HIV status for approximately one year. The amounts of the reward ranged from zero to approximately 3–4 months wage. We find no effect of the offered incentives on HIV status or on reported sexual behavior. However, shortly after receiving the reward, men who received the cash transfer were 9 percentage points more likely and women were 6.7 percentage points less likely to engage in risky sex. Our analyses therefore question the “unconditional effectiveness” of CCT program for HIV prevention: CCT Programs that aim to motivate safe sexual behavior in Africa should take into account that money given in the present may have much stronger effects than rewards offered in the future, and any effect of these programs may be fairly sensitive to the specific design of the program, the local and/or cultural context, and the degree of agency an individual has with respect to sexual behaviors. PMID:24319306

  12. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    DOEpatents

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  13. Solution of non-isoenergetic supersonic flows by method of characteristics, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prozan, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The calculation of supersonic flow fields by the method of characteristics. The theoretical approach to the solution of these flow fields and a computer program to implement the numerical solution of the flow equations are discussed. This versatile program has a flexible set of boundary conditions enabling the calculation of nozzles, plumes and many other complex flow fields. A complete derivation of the equations of motion for reacting gas systems is presented. An important consequence of this derivation is that, for the reaction assumptions which were made, the thermochemistry was shown to be uncoupled from the flow solution and as such could be solved separately. The methods of characteristics equations are shown to be formally the same for ideal, frozen, and equilibrium reacting gas mixtures.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring the mass flow rate of a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert P.; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2002-01-01

    A non invasive method and apparatus is provided to measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid. An accelerometer is attached to a pipe carrying a multi-phase fluid. Flow related measurements in pipes are sensitive to random velocity fluctuations whose magnitude is proportional to the mean mass flow rate. An analysis of the signal produced by the accelerometer shows a relationship between the mass flow of a fluid and the noise component of the signal of an accelerometer. The noise signal, as defined by the standard deviation of the accelerometer signal allows the method and apparatus of the present invention to non-intrusively measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid.

  15. Spectral Element Method for the Simulation of Unsteady Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    This work uses a discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element method (DGSEM) to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations [1{3]. The inviscid ux is computed using the approximate Riemann solver of Roe [4]. The viscous fluxes are computed using the second form of Bassi and Rebay (BR2) [5] in a manner consistent with the spectral-element approximation. The method of lines with the classical 4th-order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used for time integration. Results for polynomial orders up to p = 15 (16th order) are presented. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The computations presented in this work are performed using the Sandy Bridge nodes of the NASA Pleiades supercomputer at NASA Ames Research Center. Each Sandy Bridge node consists of 2 eight-core Intel Xeon E5-2670 processors with a clock speed of 2.6Ghz and 2GB per core memory. On a Sandy Bridge node the Tau Benchmark [6] runs in a time of 7.6s.

  16. Projection Method for Flows with Large Density Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, Juan C.; Westra, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical models of solidification including a mushy zone are notoriously inefficient; most of them are based on formulations that require the coupled solution of the velocity components in the momentum equation greatly restricting the range of applicability of the models. There are only two models known to the authors that have used a projection or fractional step formulation, but none of these were used to model problems of any significant size. A third model was only applied to a partial mushy zone with no all-fluid region. Our initial attempts at modeling directional solidification in the presence of a developing mushy zone using a projection formulation encountered very serious difficulties once solidification starts. These difficulties were traced to the inability of the method to deal with large local density differences in the vicinity of the fluid-mush interface. As a result, a modified formulation of the projection method has been developed, that maintains the coupling between the body force and the pressure gradient and is presented in this work. The new formulation is shown to be robust and efficient, and can be applied to problems involving very large meshes. This is illustrated in this work through its application to simulations involving Pb-Sb and Pb-Sn alloys.

  17. Methods for estimating selected low-flow statistics and development of annual flow-duration statistics for Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to develop methods for estimating selected low-flow statistics and for determining annual flow-duration statistics for Ohio streams. Regression techniques were used to develop equations for estimating 10-year recurrence-interval (10-percent annual-nonexceedance probability) low-flow yields, in cubic feet per second per square mile, with averaging periods of 1, 7, 30, and 90-day(s), and for estimating the yield corresponding to the long-term 80-percent duration flow. These equations, which estimate low-flow yields as a function of a streamflow-variability index, are based on previously published low-flow statistics for 79 long-term continuous-record streamgages with at least 10 years of data collected through water year 1997. When applied to the calibration dataset, average absolute percent errors for the regression equations ranged from 15.8 to 42.0 percent. The regression results have been incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) StreamStats application for Ohio (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/ohio.html) in the form of a yield grid to facilitate estimation of the corresponding streamflow statistics in cubic feet per second. Logistic-regression equations also were developed and incorporated into the USGS StreamStats application for Ohio for selected low-flow statistics to help identify occurrences of zero-valued statistics. Quantiles of daily and 7-day mean streamflows were determined for annual and annual-seasonal (September–November) periods for each complete climatic year of streamflow-gaging station record for 110 selected streamflow-gaging stations with 20 or more years of record. The quantiles determined for each climatic year were the 99-, 98-, 95-, 90-, 80-, 75-, 70-, 60-, 50-, 40-, 30-, 25-, 20-, 10-, 5-, 2-, and 1-percent exceedance streamflows. Selected exceedance percentiles of the annual-exceedance percentiles were subsequently computed and tabulated to help facilitate consideration of the

  18. Characteristics method with cubic-spline interpolation for open channel flow computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tung-Lin; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Yang, Jinn-Chuang

    2004-10-01

    In the framework of the specified-time-interval scheme, the accuracy of the characteristic method is greatly related to the form of the interpolation. The linear interpolation was commonly used to couple the characteristics method (LI method) in open channel flow computation. The LI method is easy to implement, but it leads to an inevitable smoothing of the solution. The characteristics method with the Hermite cubic interpolation (HP method, originally developed by Holly and Preissmann, 1977) was then proposed to largely reduce the error induced by the LI method. In this paper, the cubic-spline interpolation on the space line or on the time line is employed to integrate with characteristics method (CS method) for unsteady flow computation in open channel. Two hypothetical examples, including gradually and rapidly varied flows, are used to examine the applicability of the CS method as compared with the LI method, the HP method, and the analytical solutions. The simulated results show that the CS method is comparable to the HP method and more accurate than the LI method. Without tackling the additional equations for spatial or temporal derivatives, the CS method is easier to implement and more efficient than the HP method.

  19. Contactless flow measurement in liquid metal using electromagnetic time-of-flight method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikova, Nataliia; Resagk, Christian; Karcher, Christian; Kolesnikov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Measuring flow rates of liquid metal flows is of utmost importance in industrial applications such as metal casting, in order to ensure process efficiency and product quality. A non-contact method for flow rate control is described here. The method is known as time-of-flight Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) and determines flow rate through measurement of Lorentz force that act on magnet systems that are placed close to the flow. In this method, a vortex generator is used to generate an eddy in the flow, with two magnet systems separated by a known distance placed downstream of the vortex generator. Each of the magnet systems has a force sensor attached to them which detects the passing of the eddy through its magnetic field as a significant perturbation in the force signal. The flow rate is estimated from the time span between the perturbations in the two force signals. In this paper, time-of-flight LFV technique is demonstrated experimentally for the case of liquid metal flow in a closed rectangular duct loop that is driven by an electromagnetic pump. A liquid metal alloy of gallium (Ga), indium (In) and tin (Sn)—GaInSn—is used as the working fluid. In contrast to prior works, for the first time, three-dimensional strain gauge force sensors were used for measuring Lorentz force to investigate the effect of flow disturbances in different directions for flow measurements by the time-of-flight LFV method. A prototype time-of-flight LFV flowmeter is developed, the operation of which in laboratory conditions is characterised by different experiments.

  20. Solutions of turbulent backward-facing step flow with heat transfer using the finite volume method

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, R.H.; Cochran, R.J.; Emergy, A.F.

    1995-12-31

    The heated turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is numerically solved using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT. The methods used here consist of the default power-law upwinding scheme, default multigrid equation solution method and a standard k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model with wall functions. A total of four separate cases are reported. The four cases consist of combinations of partially and fully developed flow at the inlet with uniform or developed temperature profiles. Three mesh refinements are reported for each flow.