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Sample records for cassava steep liquor

  1. Effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) on chitin and chitosan production by Cunninghamella elegans and their physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Cavalcante, Horacinna M de M; Macedo, Rui Oliveira; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-02-28

    Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) established using a 2² full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L) was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL), the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL). Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 10³ Da). Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  2. Antioxidative properties of phenolic antioxidants isolated from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Niwa, T; Doi, U; Kato, Y; Osawa, T

    2001-01-01

    With the immersion of corn into dilute sulfur oxide during starch-manufacturing processes, corn steep liquor (CSL) remains as leftover material. CSL is often used for fermentation, but its components are not fully understood. To determine the properties of CSL, 12 p-coumaric acid-related compounds were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of CSL with the guidance of antioxidative activity on the rabbit erythrocyte membrane ghost system. The activity of these compounds was compared against oxidative damages, and it was elucidated that the activity of p-coumaric acid derivatives was mainly affected by their functional groups at the 3-position and less by the conjugated side chain. Moreover, p-coumaric acid derivatives exhibited inhibitory activity stronger than that of tocopherols and ascorbic acid on peroxynitrite-mediated lipoprotein nitration. These findings that p-coumaric acid derivatives, which might play a beneficial role against oxidative damage, exist in CSL suggest this byproduct might be a useful resource of phenolic antioxidants.

  3. Anaerobic fermentative production of lactic acid using cheese whey and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Lata; Dutt, Kakoli; Meghwanshi, Gautam K; Saxena, R K

    2008-04-01

    Cheese whey was the most suitable substrate for production of lactic acid under anaerobic conditions by Entercoccus flavescens which, on supplementating with corn steep liquor (5% v/v) and 10 mM CaCO(3) at pH 5.5, 37 degrees C, yielded 12.6 g lactic acid/l in 36 h. Production was scaled up to a 10 l bioreactor under controlled pH and continuous CO(2) supply and gave 28 g lactic acid/l in 30 h resulting in a net 8.7-fold increase in production as compared to unoptimized conditions.

  4. Classification and analysis of corn steep liquor by UPLC/Q-TOF MS and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanjie; Zhao, Hongzhi; Dong, Linyi; Du, Jun; Wang, Yiming; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guoan

    2013-03-30

    Corn steep liquor (CSL), an important raw material with high nutritional value, serves as a nitrogen source in the fermentation industry. The CSL quality directly affects the yield and quality of fermentation products. In this work, a fingerprinting technique was used to identify the potential markers of CSL. Forty-two CSL samples from different manufacturers were profiled by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, almost all of which were amino acids and their derivatives, were considered as the potential markers. Then, o-phthalaldehyde-9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate precolumn derivatization by high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify the free amino acids in CSL. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish among the samples from different manufacturers. The results demonstrated that the fingerprinting technique combined with PCA analysis was a powerful tool for determining the CSL quality.

  5. Utilization of the buffering capacity of corn steep liquor in bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Noro, N; Sugano, Y; Shoda, M

    2004-04-01

    Acetobacter xylinum BPR2001 produces water-insoluble bacterial cellulose (BC). Using a pH sensor for the accurate control of pH, which is one of the most critical factors for efficient BC production, is difficult especially in a baffled shake-flask and an airlift reactor. The buffering capacity of corn steep liquor (CSL) was estimated by measuring beta (buffering capacity) values in advance and was used to maintain the pH within the optimal range during the production of BC. When CSL was added to either a shake-flask, a stirred-tank reactor or an airlift reactor, BC production was almost the same as that in cultivations where pH was controlled manually or by a pH sensor.

  6. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  7. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL.

  8. Utilization of corn steep liquor for biosynthesis of pullulan, an important exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nishat; Prasad, G S; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2013-03-01

    Five different agricultural wastes viz. rice bran oil cake, soya bean oil cake, cotton seed oil cake, mustard seed oil cake and corn steep liquor (CSL) were evaluated for their use as nutrient along with 15% (w/v) glucose as carbon source for biosynthesis of pullulan using Aureobasidium pullulans RBF 4A3. Among the selected agricultural wastes, CSL was found to be the best and supported production of 77.92gL(-1) pullulan under un-optimized conditions. Single point optimization technique resulted in increase in 18% pullulan (88.59gL(-1)) production. The process was successfully validated in a 7-L fermenter and a process economic analysis has suggested that use of CSL as nutrient may result in 3-fold reduction of cost of raw materials for pullulan production as compared to a process where conventional nitrogen sources were used. These observations may be helpful in development of a cost effective process for pullulan production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of culture media containing spent yeast cells of Debaryomyces hansenii and corn steep liquor for lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Beatriz; Moldes, Ana B; Domínguez, José M; Parajó, Juan C

    2004-12-01

    To develop a cost-effective fermentation medium, biomass of Debaryomyces hansenii coming from xylitol production and corn steep liquor was evaluated for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus in glucose-containing media. Glucose consumption and lactic acid generation were followed using a variety of media made with different nutrient supplementation. Under selected conditions, media containing glucose, biomass of D. hansenii and corn steep liquor as unique components led to product yields similar to those obtained in a fully supplemented medium.

  10. Effects of feeding different levels of corn steep liquor on the performance of fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A; Sharifi, A; Mirmohammadi, D; Baluch-Gharaei, H; Rezaei, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding corn steep liquor (CSL) on in vivo digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia and hydrolytic enzyme activities, blood metabolites, feed intake (FI) and growth performance in fattening lambs. The CSL is a by-product of wet milling process of maize starch industry. The crude protein (CP), rumen-degradable protein (RDP), lactic acid and metabolisable energy contents of this by-product were 420, 324, 200 g/kg dry matter (DM) and 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively. Twenty-seven male Moghani lambs were assigned randomly into three groups of nine lambs each in a completely randomised design. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing different levels (0, 50 or 100 g/kg dry matter) of CSL were offered ad libitum three times a day. Forage to concentrate ratio of the diets was 30:70. With inclusion of CSL in diet, the contents of canola meal, fish meal, wheat bran, corn grain and sugar beet pulp were decreased. The contents of DM, ash-free neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), ether extract, starch, Ca and S were numerically lower, but soluble protein, RDP and non-fibre carbohydrates were greater in the diets containing CSL in comparison with the control diet. The lambs fed with the diets containing CSL had lower [linear (L), p < 0.06] digestibility coefficients of DM and NDFom as compared to those fed with the diet free of CSL. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration increased (L, p < 0.05), but pH decreased (L, p < 0.05) with raising CSL level in diet. Carboxymethyl cellulase and filter paper-degrading activities decreased (L, p < 0.05), while proteases activity increased (L, p < 0.05) as dietary rates of CSL increased. Microcrystalline cellulase and ɑ-amylase activities were similar among the treatments. Within blood metabolites, only urea-N concentration increased (L, p < 0.05) in the lambs receiving CSL as compared to those fed with diet without CSL. Dietary inclusion of CSL resulted in linear decreases (L, p < 0.05) in the

  11. Responses to graded replacement of urea by maize steep liquor in diets for intensively fed lambs for meat production.

    PubMed

    Mahr-un-Nisa; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Phillips, Clive J C; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Urea is a common ingredient of the diets of intensively fed lambs, but is increasingly required for industrial processes. Maize steep liquor (MSL) is a by-product of maize grain degradation to produce starch that may be a suitable replacement. Fifty growing lambs were fed on equinitrogenous diets in which between 0% and 80% of the urea was replaced by MSL; their growth and metabolism were recorded over 70 days. Increasing replacement of urea by MSL increased feed intake and nutrient digestibilities, leading to increased growth rates, more efficient feed conversion, and increased nitrogen retention. Concentrations of triiodothyroxin, thyroxin, glucose, and methionine were increased by replacement of urea by liquor, and plasma urea was reduced. This study suggests that MSL is a suitable replacement for up to 80% of urea in the diet of rapidly growing lambs.

  12. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    PubMed

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  13. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M.; Ribeaux, Daylin R.; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Lima e Silva, Thayse A.; Andrade, Rosileide F. Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  14. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  15. Optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus sp. CFR 256 with corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rastogi, N K; Shamala, T R; Anil Kumar, P K; Kshama, L; Joshi, G J

    2007-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), the eco-friendly biopolymers produced by many bacteria, are gaining importance in curtailing the environmental pollution by replacing the non-biodegradable plastics derived from petroleum. The present study was carried out to economize the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by optimizing the fermentation medium using corn steep liquor (CSL), a by-product of starch processing industry, as a cheap nitrogen source, by Bacillus sp. CFR 256. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the fermentation medium using the variables such as corn steep liquor (5-25 g l(-1)), Na(2)HPO(4) 2H(2)O (2.2-6.2 g l(-1)), KH(2)PO(4) (0.5-2.5 g l(-1)), sucrose (5-55 g l(-1)) and inoculum concentration (1-25 ml l(-1)). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) experiments were carried out to study the complex interactions of the variables.The optimum conditions for maximum PHB production were (g l(-1)): CSL-25, Na(2)HPO(4) 2H(2)O-2.2, KH(2)PO(4) - 0.5, sucrose - 55 and inoculum - 10 (ml l(-1)). After 72 h of fermentation, the amount of PHA produced was 8.20 g l(-1) (51.20% of dry cell biomass). It is the first report on optimization of fermentation medium using CSL as a nitrogen source, for PHB production by Bacillus sp.

  16. High-cell-density fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 using molasses and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Hanh; Kim, Keun

    2009-12-01

    High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

  17. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  18. Effect of corn steep liquor on lettuce root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae) in hydroponic cultures.

    PubMed

    Chinta, Yufita D; Kano, Kazuki; Widiastuti, Ani; Fukahori, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shizuka; Eguchi, Yumi; Misu, Hideyuki; Odani, Hiromitsu; Zhou, Songying; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Shinohara, Makoto; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that organic fertilisers have a suppressive effect on the pathogens of plants grown under hydroponic systems. Furthermore, microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity to diseases have been observed in organic hydroponic systems. This study evaluated the effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) on controlling lettuce root rot disease [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL)] in a hydroponic system. The effect of CSL and Otsuka A (a chemical fertiliser) on the inhibition of FOL in terms of mycelial growth inhibition was tested in vivo. Addition of CSL suppressed FOL infection rates. CSL inhibited FOL infection by 26.3-42.5% from 2 days after starting incubation. In comparison, Otsuka A inhibited FOL growth by 5.5-19.4%. In addition, four of 10 bacteria isolated from the nutrient media containing CSL exhibited inhibition zones preventing FOL mycelial growth. We found that CSL suppressed FOL in lettuce via its antifungal and biostimulatory effects. We suggest that activation of beneficial microorganisms present in CSL may be used to decrease lettuce root rot disease and contribute to lettuce root growth. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11.

  20. Corn steep liquor as a nutrition adjunct for the production of Aspergillus niger lipase and hydrolysis of oils thereof.

    PubMed

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Rose, C; Gowthaman, M K; Kamini, N R

    2009-11-25

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) has been used as a nutrition adjunct for the production of an extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger, which has immense importance as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to determine the optimal medium components with four critical variables, namely, CSL, NH4H2PO4, Na2HPO4, and sesame oil, that were found to be influential for lipase production by the classical one-factor-at-a-time method. The model suggested that all of the factors chosen had a significant impact on lipase production, and the optimum values of the influential parameters were CSL, 2.0%, w/v; NH4H2PO4, 0.05%, w/v; Na2HPO4, 0.75%, w/v; and sesame oil, 2.0%, w/v, with an activity of 26.7 U/mL at 48 h and 30 degrees C, which was 2.16-fold higher than the initial activity (12 U/mL) obtained by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. Furthermore, the enzyme has good potential for the hydrolysis of vegetable oils and fish oils, and a hydrolytic ratio of 88.73% was obtained with palm oil at 48 h. The utilization of CSL and sesame oil for lipase production from A. niger makes the process green, because both are renewable substrates and economically viable at an industrial scale.

  1. Batch and repeated batch production of L (+)-lactic acid by Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 using wood hydrolyzate and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Wee, Y-J; Yun, J-S; Kim, D; Ryu, H-W

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid production was investigated for batch and repeated batch cultures of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1, using wood hydrolyzate and corn steep liquor. When wood hydrolyzate (equivalent to 50 g l(-1) glucose) supplemented with 15-60 g l(-1) corn steep liquor was used as a raw material for fermentation, up to 48.6 g l(-1) of lactic acid was produced with, volumetric productivities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 g l(-1 )h(-1). When a medium containing wood hydrolyzate and 15 g l(-1) corn steep liquor was supplemented with 1.5 g l(-1) yeast extract, we observed 1.9-fold and 1.6-fold increases in lactic acid productivity and cell growth, respectively. In this case, the nitrogen source cost for producing 1 kg lactic acid can be reduced to 23% of that for fermentation from wood hydrolyzate using 15 g l(-1) yeast extract as a single nitrogen source. In addition, lactic acid productivity could be maximized by conducting a cell-recycle repeated batch culture of E. faecalis RKY1. The maximum productivity for this process was determined to be 4.0 g l(-1 )h(-1).

  2. Sewage Sludge Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Decontamination Technique Based on the Utilization of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Extracted from Corn Steep Liquor.

    PubMed

    Vecino, Xanel; Rodríguez-López, Lorena; Cruz, Jose M; Moldes, Ana B

    2015-08-19

    A decontamination technique based on the utilization of a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been developed to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge. High concentrations of PAHs were used during experiments observing that 408.3 mg/kg of naphthalene was almost completely mobilized and biodegraded, only 1.7% of naphthalene remained in the sewage sludge, whereas anthracene and pyrene were reduced up to 51.7 and 69.4%, respectively. The biodegradation of PAHs was fitted to several kinetic models (zero- and first-order kinetic models), observing good correlation coefficient values when biodegradation was described by the first-order kinetic model. Experimental results suggest that biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor may have great potential, as an ecofriendly washing agent, for the treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with PAHs. Therefore, in situ application of natural biosurfactants may be considered to be a good remediation alternative as they are not hazardous for water and soil organisms.

  3. Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2013-11-01

    The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

  4. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  5. L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-12-01

    Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE.

  6. Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

  7. Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract/corn steep liquor/glucose medium.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mi-Young; Kim, Si-Wouk; Lee, Yong-Woon; Kim, Myong-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled batch cultures. The growth and product parameters were estimated by Gombertz, Leudeking and Piret models from experimental data, and analyzed statistically with response surfaces. The effects of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose were significant for the maximum specific growth rate, mu(max) and the maximum biomass concentration, X(ma). The interaction of corn steep liquor and glucose indicated that the positive or negative effect of glucose on mu(max) in corn steep liquor below or above 2.1% could be explained by the glucose-dependent availability of a nutrient on mu(max) Although the experiment was achieved in pH-controlled batch culture for L. casei KH-1, the growth- and non-growth-associated production rate parameters, a and b, were significant in the response surface model. The growth and lactic acid production of L. casei KH-1 were strongly affected by glucose and the importance of the media composition was demonstrated. The estimated optimal conditions of the growth and lactic acid production of L. casei KH-1 were 1.276% and 0.697% for yeast extract, 3.505% and 1.708% for corn steep liquor, and 2.390% and 2.215% for glucose, respectively.

  8. Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 791 from crude glycerol and corn steep liquor: Process optimization and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wischral, Daiana; Zhang, Jianzhi; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; De Souza, Lucas Monteiro Galotti; Pessoa, Fernando L Pellegrini; Pereira, Nei; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-07-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production from crude glycerol, a byproduct from biodiesel manufacturing, by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 791 was studied with corn steep liquor as an inexpensive nitrogen source replacing yeast extract in the fermentation medium. A stable, long-term 1,3-PDO production from glycerol was demonstrated with cells immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor operated in a repeated batch mode, which partially circumvented the 1,3-PDO inhibition problem. The strain was then engineered to overexpress Escherichia coli gldA encoding glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and dhaKLM encoding dihydroxyacetone kinase (DHAK), which increased 1,3-PDO productivity by 26.8-37.5% compared to the wild type, because of greatly increased specific growth rate (0.25-0.40h(-1) vs. 0.13-0.20h(-1) for the wild type). The engineered strain gave a high 1,3-PDO titer (26.1g/L), yield (0.55g/g) and productivity (0.99g/L·h) in fed-batch fermentation. Overexpressing GDH and DHAK was thus effective in increasing 1,3-PDO production from glycerol.

  9. A low-cost fermentation medium for thermophilic protease production by Streptomyces sp. 594 using feather meal and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    De Azeredo, L A I; De Lima, M B; Coelho, R R R; Freire, D M G

    2006-10-01

    Protease production by Streptomyces sp. 594 was obtained after submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using feather meal (FM) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. Enzyme productions were 13.4 U ml(-1) in SF and 21.5 U g(-1) in SSF; these values were approximately 86% and 39% higher, respectively, than those obtained previously when yeast extract was used in place of CSL. The proteases, which belong to the serine and metalloproteinase classes, were active at high temperatures (55 degrees C to 90 degrees C) and over a wide range of pH values (5.0 to 10.0). Thus, these thermophilic proteases have shown interesting properties for industrial purposes. As far as we are concerned, this is the first contribution toward the microbial production of thermophilic proteases by a streptomycete using a low-cost medium composed of industrial poultry (FM) and corn processing by-products (CSL).

  10. Industrial vitamin B12 production by Pseudomonas denitrificans using maltose syrup and corn steep liquor as the cost-effective fermentation substrates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2015-06-01

    The aerobic Pseudomonas denitrificans is widely used for industrial and commercial vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its higher productivity compared to the anaerobic vitamin B12-producing microorganisms. This paper aimed to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium for industrial vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans in 120,000-l fermenter. It was found that maltose syrup (a low-cost syrup from corn starch by means of enzymatic or acid hydrolysis) and corn steep liquor (CSL, a by-product of starch industry) were greatly applicable to vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans. Under the optimal fermentation medium performed by response surface methodology, 198.27 ± 4.60 mg/l of vitamin B12 yield was obtained in 120,000-l fermenter, which was close to the fermentation with the refined sucrose (198.80 mg/l) and was obviously higher than that obtained under beet molasses utilization (181.75 mg/l). Therefore, maltose syrups and CSL were the efficient and economical substrates for industrial vitamin B12 fermentation by P. denitrificans.

  11. Response of lactating dairy cows to diets containing wet corn gluten feed or a raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet.

    PubMed

    Wickersham, E E; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J; DeFrain, J M; Park, A F; Johnson, D E; Ethington, R T

    2004-11-01

    We evaluated effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and a novel product (SHSL) containing raw soybean hulls and corn steep liquor on performance and digestion in lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 46 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to control (C), WCGF (20% of diet DM), or SHSL (20% of diet DM). Diets were fed as a total mixed ration beginning after calving. The C diet contained (dry matter [DM] basis) 30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 32% corn, 9.3% whole cottonseed, 4.4% solvent soybean meal (SBM), and 3.3% expeller SBM. The WCGF replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, and 5% corn grain, while expeller SBM replaced solvent SBM to maintain diet rumen undegradable protein. The SHSL replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, 3% solvent SBM, and 2% corn. Dietary crude protein averaged 18.4%. Milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), DM intake (DMI), and ECM/DMI were similar among diets during the first 13 wk of lactation. During wk 14 through 30 postpartum, WCGF and SHSL improved milk, ECM, milk component yield, and ECM/DMI. In Experiment 2, 6 cows were used to evaluate digestibility and rumen traits. Dry matter intake and total tract digestibilities of DM, fiber, and crude protein were not different among diets. Diets did not affect ruminal liquid dilution rate, pH, or concentrations of total volatile fatty acids or ammonia, but acetate:propionate was higher for C (3.38) than for WCGF (2.79) or SHSL (2.89). The WCGF and SHSL products can serve as alternative feedstuffs in diets fed to lactating dairy cattle.

  12. Impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-condensed corn steep liquor pellet on induced subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    DeFrain, J M; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Park, A F; Ethington, R T

    2002-08-01

    We used four ruminally cannulated, multiparous Holstein cows (690 kg; 21 kg/d milk) in a 2-period crossover design to determine the impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet (SHSL) on induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating cows. Cows were fed control [30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 34% corn, 9% whole cottonseed, 5% soybean meal (SBM)] or SHSL (20% of diet DM) diets as TMR. SHSL replaced 6.2% alfalfa hay, 3.7% corn silage, 6.6% corn, and 3.3% SBM. Periods were 15 d (10 d adaptation, 2 d for prechallenge measures, and 3 d of SARA challenge). Cows were fed once daily at a common DMI dictated by the cow consuming the least. Cows were fasted 12 h before the first SARA challenge. For each of the three SARA challenges, cows were offered 75% of their daily diet at 0600 h. The remaining 25% of diet DM was replaced by ground corn, which was mixed with the orts that remained 2 h after feeding and placed into the rumen. Ruminal pH declined linearly with time after feeding, and this decrease was greater during the SARA challenges. Ruminal lactate increased linearly with repeated SARA challenges. Concentrations of total ruminal VFA increased linearly after feeding, and increases were greater when cows were challenged. No differences were observed due to SHSL inclusion. The model induced SARA, but partial replacement of alfalfa, corn silage, corn, and SBM by SHSL did not influence responses to SARA challenges.

  13. Fermentation of deproteinized cheese whey powder solutions to ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effect of supplementation with corn steep liquor and repeated-batch operation with biomass recycling by flocculation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Carina; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-09-01

    The lactose in cheese whey is an interesting substrate for the production of bulk commodities such as bio-ethanol, due to the large amounts of whey surplus generated globally. In this work, we studied the performance of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the lactose permease and intracellular beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in fermentations of deproteinized concentrated cheese whey powder solutions. Supplementation with 10 g/l of corn steep liquor significantly enhanced whey fermentation, resulting in the production of 7.4% (v/v) ethanol from 150 g/l initial lactose in shake-flask fermentations, with a corresponding productivity of 1.2 g/l/h. The flocculation capacity of the yeast strain enabled stable operation of a repeated-batch process in a 5.5-l air-lift bioreactor, with simple biomass recycling by sedimentation of the yeast flocs. During five consecutive batches, the average ethanol productivity was 0.65 g/l/h and ethanol accumulated up to 8% (v/v) with lactose-to-ethanol conversion yields over 80% of theoretical. Yeast viability (>97%) and plasmid retention (>84%) remained high throughout the operation, demonstrating the stability and robustness of the strain. In addition, the easy and inexpensive recycle of the yeast biomass for repeated utilization makes this process economically attractive for industrial implementation.

  14. A new alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus as a producer of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using cassava flour

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Coelho, Sheila Lorena; Magalhães, Valter Cruz; Marbach, Phellippe Arthur Santos; Cazetta, Marcia Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD) 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production. PMID:26887234

  15. Improvement of L(+)-lactic acid production from cassava wastewater by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 103.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Bolner de Lima, Cristian J; Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Alvarez, Georgina Michelena; Contiero, Jonas

    2010-08-30

    L(+)-Lactic acid is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as well as in the synthesis of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different medium components added in cassava wastewater for the production of L(+)-lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 103. The use of cassava wastewater (50 g L(-1) of reducing sugar) with Tween 80 and corn steep liquor, at concentrations (v/v) of 1.27 mL L(-1) and 65.4 mL L(-1) respectively led to a lactic acid concentration of 41.65 g L(-1) after 48 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration produced in the reactor after 36 h of fermentation was 39.00 g L(-1) using the same medium, but the pH was controlled by addition of 10 mol L(-1) NaOH. The use of cassava wastewater for cultivation of L. rhamnosus is feasible, with a considerable production of lactic acid. Furthermore, it is an innovative proposal, as no references were found in the scientific literature on the use of this substrate for lactic acid production. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  17. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  18. Treatment of waste liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Jablin, R.

    1980-02-12

    The design is disclosed for liquor treatment system comprising an evaporator in combination with a gas cooler, the evaporator providing fractional distillation of waste liquor, thereby separating the liquor into its several components of gaseous vapors, purified water, and concentrated brine. Condensed liquor from the gas cooler or flushing liquor used to spray an industrial process gas in the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides thermal energy from its waste heat to run the evaporator. The evaporator consists of a boiler section, a condenser section, a vacuum pump, a liquor circulating pump, and nozzles for extracting the products. The gas cooler may be one or two stages. In the one-stage cooler, the hot liquor which condenses in the gas cooling process or flushing liquor from the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides energy for the evaporator through means of a heat exchanger. In the two stage gas cooler, the hot liquor in the first stage is circulated directly to the boiler section of the evaporator. The hot liquor from the second stage is circulated through a separate heat exhanger.

  19. Flow Around Steep Topography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Flow around steep topography T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, M...tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether...estimates from making accurate statistical/deterministic predictions at ᝺ km resolution around submarine topography and islands? How can we

  20. The Steep Nekhoroshev's Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M.; Chierchia, L.; Benettin, G.

    2016-03-01

    Revising Nekhoroshev's geometry of resonances, we provide a fully constructive and quantitative proof of Nekhoroshev's theorem for steep Hamiltonian systems proving, in particular, that the exponential stability exponent can be taken to be {1/(2nα_1\\cdotsα_{n-2}}) ({α_i}'s being Nekhoroshev's steepness indices and {n ≥ 3} the number of degrees of freedom). On the base of a heuristic argument, we conjecture that the new stability exponent is optimal.

  1. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  2. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  3. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  4. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  5. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  6. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  7. Robot Would Climb Steep Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brett; Ganino, Anthony; Aghazarian, Hrand; Hogg, Robert; McHerny, Michael; Garrett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes the steep terrain access robot (STAR) -- a walking robot that has been proposed for exploring steep terrain on remote planets. The STAR would be able to climb up or down on slopes as steep as vertical, and even beyond vertical to overhangs. Its system of walking mechanisms and controls would be to react forces and maintain stability. To enable the STAR to anchor itself in the terrain on steep slopes to maintain stability and react forces, it would be necessary to equip the tips of the walking legs with new ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs) and to develop sensors and control algorithms to enable robust utilization of the USDCs.

  8. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Apomixis and cassava.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Nagib M A

    2002-06-30

    Apomixis means seed formation without fertilization. In cassava (Manihot esculenta) it is an alternative to reproduction by cuttings, which normally transmits pathogens and leads to an accumulation of viral and bacterial diseases. Apomixis also assures preservation of heterosis and avoids genetic segregation. It occurs in wild relatives of cassava and has been transferred successfully from Manihot glaziovii and M. neusana. It is facultative, and occurs at a low frequency, ranging from 1-2%, and apparently is genetically different from apomixis in other crops. With selection, the frequency can reach 13%. Apomixis in cassava is frequently associated with aneuploidy but it does occur in some diploid types. It is due to the formation of aposporic sacs, which can easily be detected by clearing tissue preparations. Apomixis appears to have played an important role in speciation during the evolution of Manihot, since it leads to the maintenance and perpetuation of sterile interspecific hybridization. The use of apomixis in cassava breeding could lead to a boom in line improvement and commercial production. In addition to preserving superior genotypes, avoiding contamination of new plants, it would enable international programs to export their germplasm to destination countries. This would allow the use of superior genotypes even if apomixis occurs at a low frequency. A scheme to maximize benefits is to use diploid apomictic clones as maternal parents, which can be crossed with pollinators of polyploid interspecific hybrids, followed by selection among the progeny of new apomictic types that combine the heteroses of both interspecific hybridization and polyploidy. In addition, they acquire favored genes that have been transferred from the wild to the commercial crop.

  10. Cassava biology and physiology.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  11. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  12. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  13. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  14. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  15. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  16. Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.

  17. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  18. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  19. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor...

  20. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  1. Cassava as an energy source: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, C.

    1980-01-01

    This selected bibliography includes 250 articles on cassava as a potential energy source. Factors included are things which influence cassava growth; such as weeding, fertilizer, diseases and genetic selection, as well as the conversion of cassava to ethanol. (DP)

  2. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    PubMed Central

    Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread. PMID:26904595

  3. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  4. Ethanol fermentation of cassava starch pretreated with alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Choe, Y.K.; Kim, H.S.; Byun, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    In view of the current industrial process for the conventional ethanol fermentation, in which raw starch materials are heated at 120 degrees C for 2 h, conditions for an alternative process were set: an overall time from saccharification to ethanol fermentation of within 3-4 days, an operation temperature of below 60 degrees C, an ethanol yield of over 93%, and a ratio of raw material to fermentation volume of within 1:4. To meet these conditions, previously a steeping method of starch materials in 0.5N HCl solution at 60 degrees C for 12 h were used, followed by combined actions of ..cap alpha..-amylase and glucoamylase. The ethanol yield from uncooked cassava starch treated under the conditions described was 95% after fermentation for 3 days with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the use of a relatively higher concentration of acid for steeping is still a problem and gelatinization of starch materials is insufficient. This communication, therefore, describes effects of alkali steeping and structural change of starch granules on the ethanol fermentation. 8 references.

  5. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  6. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  8. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

  9. Breeding cassava for higher yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava is a root crop grown for food and for starch production. Breeding progress is slowed by asexual production and high levels of heterozygosity. Germplasm resources are rich and accessible to breeders through genebanks worldwide. Breeding objectives include high root yield, yield stability, dis...

  10. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  12. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  13. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  15. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  17. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  5. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  6. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  7. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  8. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  9. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  10. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  11. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by crewmembers...

  12. Tachyon inflation with steep potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, K.; Karami, K.; Hashemi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Within the framework of tachyon inflation, we consider different steep potentials and check their viability in light of the Planck 2015 data. We see that in this scenario, the inverse power-law potential V (ϕ )=V0(ϕ /ϕ0)-n with n =2 leads to the power-law inflation with the scale factor a (t )∝tq where q >1 , while with n <2 , it gives rise to the intermediate inflation with the scale factor a (t )∝exp (A tf) where A >0 and 0 2 can be compatible with the 95% CL region of Planck 2015 TT, TE, EE +lowP data. We further conclude that the exponential potential V (ϕ )=V0e-ϕ /ϕ0, the inverse cosh potential V (ϕ )=V0/cosh (ϕ /ϕ0), and the mutated exponential potential V (ϕ )=V0[1 +(n -1 )-(n -1 )(ϕ /ϕ0)n] e-ϕ /ϕ0 with n =4 , can be consistent with the 95% CL region of Planck 2015 TT, TE, EE +lowP data. Moreover, using the r -ns constraints on the model parameters, we also estimate the running of the scalar spectral index d ns/d ln k and the local non-Gaussianity parameter fNLlocal. We find that the lower and upper bounds evaluated for these observables are compatible with the Planck 2015 results.

  13. Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Consonni, S.; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G.; Berglin, N.

    1998-07-01

    The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

  14. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  15. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  16. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  17. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  18. Kraft black liquor delivery systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Empie, J.; Lien, J.

    1995-02-01

    An improved spray nozzle for black liquor injection into kraft recovery boilers has been sought which is expected to result in obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. An environmentally sound experimental spray facility capable of delivering black liquor at normal firing temperatures has been operated at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology to help achieve that goal. Previous work showed that black liquor sprays have a characteristic size distribution which is determined by the fluid mechanical forces breaking up the spray sheet issuing from the nozzle. Recent work has centered on applying vibratory assist as an independently-controlled force on the sheet breakup process in an attempt to change the drop size distribution. Results are presented which feature vibratory assist applied in the axial direction.

  19. Regeneration of Cassava Plants from Apical Meristems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Apical meristem culture offers a rapid, efficient method for vegetative propagation of plants and for eliminating systemic viral infections. Since...the first demonstration that virus-free dahlia plants could be regenerated from virus-infected plants by culturing apical meristems , this technique has...widely for human consumption. Propagation through stem cuttings encourages the spread of many virus diseases, such as cassava mosaic virus. This paper reports on procedures for regenerating cassava plants from the apical meristems .

  20. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  1. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  2. Method for Improving Separation of Carbohydrates from Wood Pulping Liquors and Wood or Biomass Hydrolysis Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Marcoccia, B S; Elliott, J

    2012-08-31

    Work with industrial partners to perform the studies needed to commercialize U.S. patent 7,699,958 for separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping liquors and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors. These include: 1) selection of the best pulp mill liquor withdrawal sites, 2) additional purification or enzyme hydrolysis required to obtain acceptable sugar feedstocks, 3) and work with partners to optimize the stream and purification methods to provide acceptable feedstocks for algal fuels and industrial chemicals production, and 4) preparation of samples large enough for testing by downstream partners.

  3. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  4. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  5. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  6. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  7. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  8. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  9. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  10. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... the Federal Register of October 22, 2010, concerning the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Klamath... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance. The first...

  11. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  12. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  13. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  14. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  15. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  16. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  17. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico Dealer Registration and... United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep records...

  18. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  19. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  20. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  1. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  2. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  3. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  4. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  5. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  6. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  7. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  8. On the relation between steep monoclinal flexure zones and steep hydraulic gradients.

    PubMed

    Yechieli, Y; Kafri, U; Wollman, S; Lyakhovsky, V; Weinberger, R

    2007-01-01

    Steep hydraulic gradients are found in association with steep monoclinal flexures. However, the physics of the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity, which is responsible for the steep gradients, has seldom been studied. We present results of hydrological and mechanical modeling aiming to study the effect of such steep hydraulic gradients demonstrated in the Judea Group Aquifer system, Israel. The hydrological configuration of steep dips and anisotropy between flows parallel and perpendicular to the bedding planes was simulated using the FEFLOW code. It exhibited a situation whereby part of the flow is oblique to the bedding planes and therefore some steepening of the hydraulic gradients occurred due to actual conductivity reduction. However, this reduction is not enough to account for the steeper gradients observed. The effect of a deep-seated reverse fault under the monocline on the permeability distribution within the structure was examined by numerical mechanical simulations. It exhibited a compressional stress distribution in the steep part of the monocline, which, due to shortening and closure of joints and voids, is presumably responsible for a significant pressure-induced permeability reduction. This process by itself in a layered structure, including interlayering of thin marl layers, could be responsible for the steep hydraulic gradients in the steep part of the monocline.

  9. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided.

  10. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  11. 30 CFR 816.107 - Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. 816.107... ACTIVITIES § 816.107 Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. (a) Surface mining activities on steep slopes... section except where mining is conducted on flat or gently rolling terrain with an occasional steep...

  12. Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Gao, Weijiue; Sun, Yonghui; Dashtban, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1.5. Interestingly, the acidification reduced the lignosulfonate/lignin content of NSSC and PHL by 13% or 20%, while dropped their oligosugars content by 75% and 38%, respectively. On a dry basis, the precipitates had more carbon, hydrogen and a high heating value of 18-22MJ/kg, but less oxygen, than spent liquors. The precipitates of PHL could be used as fuel.

  13. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    PubMed

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding.

  14. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    PubMed Central

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12–18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  15. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  16. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses.

  17. Apomixis in cassava: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Freitas, D Y H; Nassar, N M A

    2013-04-02

    Cassava is the most important staple crop in the Tropics and Subtropics. Apomixis may revolutionize its production due to various attributes. These potential advantages include production by true seed, maintaining cultivar superiority over generations without segregation, and avoiding contamination by bacteria and viruses. Historically, apomixis was initially observed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture researchers, in the 1980s, in homogenous progeny of hybrid crosses. Later, from 1980 through 2010, apomixis was extensively studied by Universidade de Brasília, in order to determine contributing mechanisms and occurrence. Apomixis genes occur naturally at low frequencies in cultivated cassava and can be transferred by crosses with wild species. Apparently, apomixis in cassava is controlled by more than one recessive gene, which act in an additive form. Aneuploidy is associated with apomixis in cassava and can provide the double dosages necessary for recessive gene action. By using molecular techniques, genetic homogeneous progeny has been demonstrated, while embryonic exams have shown nucellar multiembryos. Polyploidy was found to increase apomixis percentage. From an evolutionary viewpoint, polyploidy has contributed to production of new species, when combined with apomixis. Recently, somatic embryos have been detected in the integument, revealing a rare model of apomixis that has only been documented in cassava.

  18. Assessment of cassava toxicity in patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Girish, Banavara Narasimhamurthy; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Balakrishnan, Vallath

    2011-01-01

    There have been conflicting reports on the role of cassava ingestion in tropical pancreatitis (TCP). In this study we aimed to estimate cyanogens detoxifying enzyme rhodanese, thiocyanate and sulfur containing amino acids in cassava consumer as well as cassava non-consumer TCP patients and healthy controls and compare the same. Eighty-six TCP patients and 90 healthy controls were recruited. Serum rhodanese, thiocyanate, plasma amino acids, urinary inorganic sulfate/creatinine were measured. There was significant reduction in serum rhodanese activity in both cassava consumer- and non-consumer TCP patients as compared to controls but no significant difference between cassava consumer- and non-consumer TCP patients was observed. Serum thiocyanate was significantly lower in cassava consumer TCP patients as compared to cassava consumer controls but not significantly different from cassava non-consumer TCP patients. Plasma methionine, cysteine and urinary inorganic sulfate / creatinine ratio was significantly lower in both cassava consumer and non-consumer TCP patients as compared to controls but were comparable among cassava consumers and non-consumers. Significant reduction in rhodanese activity with concomitant decrease in sulfur containing amino acids and antioxidants such as glutathione suggests that TCP patients are at higher risk of defective detoxification of cyanogens. However there was no difference between cassava consumers and non-consumers. Low levels of sulfur amino acids may contribute to the development of pancreatitis.

  19. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    PubMed

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing.

  20. Bacterial and fungal diversity in the starter production process of Fen liquor, a traditional Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Ma, En-Bo; Yan, Liang-Zhen; Meng, Han; Du, Xiao-Wei; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-08-01

    Fermented foods and beverages are important parts of human diet. Fen liquor, a Chinese liquor is a fermented beverage that uses a traditional fermentation process. Starters are the main microbial source and also provide nutrients for microorganisms during fermentation. In this study, starters of Fen liquor were produced through a complex traditional fermentation process. To investigate the community structure and the composition of microorganisms in the starter production process, bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced using clone libraries and pyrosequencing, respectively. There was much higher diversity among the bacteria than among the fungi in the starter production process. Bacteria on the surface of the starters belonged mostly to the Lactobacillaceae family, while members of the Bacillacae family were dominant in the interior of the samples that lacked access to air and water. In the fungi population, diversity was high only in the raw material. In all other samples, nearly all of the fungal sequences were from Pichia kudriavzevii, a member of the Saccharomycetaceae family. Nearly all samples showed similar fungal community structures, indicating that there was little change in the fungal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal the whole process of the starter production of Chinese traditional liquor. The findings obtained in this study provide new insights into understanding the composition of the microbial community during the traditional Chinese liquor starter production process and information about the production process control and monitoring.

  1. Steep Spectrum Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Tracy E.

    2012-05-01

    Steep spectrum radio emission associated with galaxy clusters comes from compact central active galactic nuclei (AGN) driven radio sources in dense cool core clusters as well as from large regions of diffuse (halo and relic) emission associated with dynamically complex merging systems. These radio halos and relics are best traced at low radio frequencies where details of their morphology, location and spectral index distribution can be used to probe the underlying acceleration mechanism(s) as well as important details of large scale structure formation. Low frequency radio observations also play an important role in the study of AGN feedback into the intracluster medium and the regulation of cooling cores. While spectacular results are coming from the current generation of low frequency instruments, there will soon be a new revolution in studies of steep spectrum sources with the upcoming generation of low frequency interferometers on Earth and ultimately the moon.

  2. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  3. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  4. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  5. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  6. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Borah, Basanta K.; Resmi, Thulasi R.; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-01-01

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A. PMID:27690084

  7. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Borah, Basanta K; Resmi, Thulasi R; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-09-28

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A.

  8. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-25

    The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  9. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji. PMID:28239094

  10. Ultrasound improved ethanol fermentation from cassava chips in cassava-based ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Shrestha, Prachand; Rasmussen, Mary L; Lamsal, Buddhi P; van Leeuwen, J Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-04-01

    The effects of ultrasound and heat pretreatments on ethanol yields from cassava chips were investigated. Cassava slurries were sonicated for 10 and 30 s at the amplitudes of 80, 160, and 320 microm(pp) (peak to peak amplitude in microm) corresponding to low, medium, and high power levels, respectively. The sonicated and non-sonicated (control) samples were then subjected to simultaneous liquefaction-saccharification and ethanol fermentation. Cassava starch-to-ethanol conversion efficiencies showed that higher ethanol yields were directly related to sonication times, but not to power levels. Significantly higher ethanol yields were observed only for sonicated samples at the high power level. The ethanol yield from the sonicated sample was 2.7-fold higher than yield from the control sample. Starch-to-ethanol conversion rates from sonicated cassava chips were also significantly higher; the fermentation time could be reduced by nearly 24 h for sonicated samples to achieve the same ethanol yield as control samples. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment enhanced both the overall ethanol yield and fermentation rate. When compared to heat-treated samples, the sonicated samples produced nearly 29% more ethanol yield. Combined heat and ultrasound treatment had no significant effect on overall ethanol yields from cassava chips. Ultrasound is also preferable to heat pretreatment because of lower energy requirements, as indicated by energy balances. Integration of ultrasound application in cassava-based ethanol plants can significantly improve ethanol yields and reduce the overall production costs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  12. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  13. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  14. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  15. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must show...

  16. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  17. The Conversion of Waste Scrubbing Liquor into Fertilizer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    disposed of as a hazardous waste. However, this waste liquor can be converted into nitrate fertilizer by oxidizing the nitrite to nitrate with ozone and...necessary for converting unwanted, partially depleted scrubbing liquor into nitrate fertilizer . It is concluded that the Hydrazine Waste Water...Treatment System at Vandenberg Air Force Base can be used, with only slight modification, to both oxidize and neutralize waste liquor and thereby convert it to fertilizer .

  18. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  19. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance.

  20. 30 CFR 817.107 - Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. 817.107 Section 817.107 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... ACTIVITIES § 817.107 Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. (a) Underground mining activities on steep...

  1. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  2. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  3. Black liquor decolorization by selected white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Da Re, Verónica; Papinutti, Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Five different strains of white-rot fungi have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on plates and on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as the solid inert support. Since the high salt concentration inhibited the growth of all fungi, the black liquor was dialyzed against distilled water prior to use. A preliminary step on plates was carried out to qualitatively determine the capacity of the fungal strains for black liquor decolorization. Out of the five fungi studied, Phanerochaete sordida, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes elegans exhibited the more conspicuous decolorization halos in malt extract medium, while the decolorization by all the strains was not evident when a defined culture medium was used. Cultures on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as solid support were also tested, the liquid phase was malt extract or glucose-based medium and supplemented with different black liquor concentrations. Decolorization of black liquor was largely affected by the fungal strain, the concentration of black liquor, and the carbon source. The percentage of color removal ranged from 6.14% to 91.86% depending on the fungal strain and culture conditions. Maximal decolorization was observed in malt extract cultures after 60 cultivation days. Interestingly, decolorization in malt extract medium increased with increasing black liquor concentration. The highest decolorization value was achieved by Steccherinum sp. which reduced up to 91.86% the color of the black liquor in malt extract medium; this percentage is equivalent to 5.2 g L(-1) of decolorized black liquor, the highest value reported to date. Traditional technologies used for the treatment of black liquor are not always effective and may not to be an environmentally friendly process. Vermiculite-white-rot fungi systems are presented in this work as a promising efficient alternative for the treatment of black liquor.

  4. The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Shubo; Cui, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan; Luo, Zhiting; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-02-23

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Moreno, Isabel; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Zainuddin, Ima M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444). Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo). An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa. PMID:23049780

  6. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  7. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  8. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  9. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    .... Accept any gratuity, compensation or other thing of value from any liquor wholesaler, retailer, or... taxes collected. 7.5. Audit. As a condition of obtaining a license, the licensee must agree to the review or audit of its book and records relating to the sale of liquor on the Reservation. Said review...

  10. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  11. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  12. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  13. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer only as provided in §§ 31.61 through 31.64, § 31.65(a...

  14. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  15. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  16. 27 CFR 10.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 10.603 Section 10.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  17. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  18. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, black liquor gasification (BLG) can enable the recovery of pulping chemicals and production of syngas from the spent liquor accumulated in the pulping process. The syngas can be converted to value-added fuels, chemicals, and electricity, helping to boost the economics of the pulp mill.

  19. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  20. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  1. Effects of spent liquor recirculation in hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi Catalkopru, Arzu; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the recirculation of spent liquor from hydrothermal carbonization was investigated depending on the biomass type (grape pomace, orange pomace and poultry litter). The yield and fuel properties of hydrochars and spent liquor characteristics were determined for each recirculation step. By recirculation, mass and energy yields of the hydrochar increased, but their combustion characteristics changed: the ignition temperature and combustion reactivity decreased. The organic and inorganic load of liquor was increased with recirculation number, but not as much as would be expected after the first recycle. It was concluded that the load of organic and inorganic species in spent liquor decreased the leaching of some inorganics and diffusion of the degraded soluble fragments from biomass in the subsequent hydrothermal carbonization. Overall, this study showed that spent liquor recirculation makes the overall hydrothermal carbonization process environmentally friendly.

  2. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (p< 0.05) were observed in the liquor supplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  3. Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L.

    1996-02-01

    The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

  4. Robotic chair at steep and narrow stairways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazato, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    A robotic chair is developed to support mobility of elderly and disabled people living in the house where steep and narrow stairways are installed. In order to deal with such mobility problem the developed robotic chair has a compact original configuration. The robotic chair vertically moves by actuation of electric cylinders and horizontally moves by push-pull operation given by a care-giver. In order to navigate safely every action of the chair is checked by the operator. Up-and-down motions of the robotic chair on the stairway are executed through combinations of motor and cylinder actuations. Performance of the robotic chair was evaluated through two kinds of experiments. The excellent ability of the robotic chair could be confirmed through these experiments.

  5. Bed load fluctuations in a steep channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Tamara; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2014-08-01

    Bed load transport rate fluctuations have been observed over time in steep rivers and flumes with wide grain size distributions even under constant sediment feeding and water discharge. The observed bed load transport rate pulses are periodic and a consequence of grain sorting. Moreover, the presence of large, relatively immobile boulders, such as erratic stones, which are often present in mountain streams, has an impact on flow conditions. The detailed analysis of a 13 h laboratory experiment is presented in this paper. Boulders were randomly placed in a flume with a steep slope (6.7%), and water and sediment were constantly supplied to the flume. Along with the sediment transport and bulk mean flow velocity, the boulder protrusion, boulder surface, and number of hydraulic jumps, which are indicators of the channel morphology, were measured regularly during the experiment. Periodic bed load transport rate pulses are clearly visible in the data collected during this long-duration experiment, along with correlated fluctuations in the flow velocity and bed morphology. The links among the bulk velocity, the time evolution of the morphology variables, and the bed load transport rate are analyzed via correlational analysis, showing that the fluctuations are strongly related. A phase analysis of all observed variables is performed, and the average shapes of the time cycles of the fluctuations are shown. Observations indicate that the detected periodic fluctuations correspond to different bed states. Furthermore, the grain size distribution through the channel, which varies in time and space, clearly influences these bed load transport rate pulses. Finally, known bed load transport rate formulae are tested, showing that only the application of a drag shear stress allows a correct estimation of the time fluctuations.

  6. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    PubMed

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance.

  7. Tackling agriculturally relevant diseases in the staple crop cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    McCallum, Emily J; Anjanappa, Ravi B; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-08-01

    Cassava is an important staple food crop for millions of people in tropical regions across Africa, South America and Asia. Viral, bacterial and fungal diseases impact cassava yield in all three regions. The viruses causing cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease have been particularly devastating to cassava production in Africa. Improved farming practices and disease monitoring can reduce the impact of cassava diseases in the field. The availability of disease resistant cassava varieties developed through breeding or genetic engineering is key to tackling disease incidence and severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at candidate genes possibly involved in resistance to viruses and whiteflies-the two most important traits of cassava. The review also covers the analyses of main achievements in transgenic-mediated nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally, the perspectives of using genome editing and the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. During the last 30 yr, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers.

  9. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  10. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  11. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  12. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    PubMed

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.

  13. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21–24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  14. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  15. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  16. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  17. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  18. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  19. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  20. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  1. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  2. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  3. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  4. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  5. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  6. Development of Forced Patches in Steep Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve Sepulveda, A.; Yager, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Bed surface patchiness occurs in most gravel-bedded rivers. This spatial variability in grain size and sorting impacts bed load transport. Laboratory experiments have shown that patches can arise from a local sediment transport-supply imbalance, grain to grain interactions or size-selective cross-stream transport in the presence of topographically forced heterogeneous flow fields. It is still unknown if these mechanisms can explain the formation of patches in high gradient channels with large roughness elements, which create spatial and temporal variations in depth, velocity and shear stress and alter pressure gradients, centrifugal forces, boundary friction and along and cross-stream changes in fluid momentum. To understand how these forced patches (spatially persistent due to strong topographic controls) form, a set of flume experiments using staggered immobile boulders and steep slopes wasconducted through different stages of patch evolution, starting from a flat uniform bed until patch geometry was stable in time and sediment fluxes were in equilibrium. Areas, changes in elevation, stream and crosswise sediment fluxes, and grains size distributions for patches located upstream, downstream and between boulders were measured for five different discharges. Flow field properties were obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional model to explain the influence of different components of the momentum equations on patch formation and evolution. We present these flume measurements and numerical modeling results to determine how the formation of patches is influenced by immobile boulders and the relative submergence of these roughness elements.

  7. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  8. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  9. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands Dealer Registration and... United States from the Virgin Islands who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep...

  11. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands Dealer Registration and... United States from the Virgin Islands who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep...

  12. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  13. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  14. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  15. Cost analysis of cassava cellulose utilization scenarios for ethanol production on flowsheet simulation platform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Fang, Zhenhong; Deng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Bao, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Cassava cellulose accounts for one quarter of cassava residues and its utilization is important for improving the efficiency and profit in commercial scale cassava ethanol industry. In this study, three scenarios of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production were experimentally tested under same conditions and equipment. Based on the experimental results, a rigorous flowsheet simulation model was established on Aspen plus platform and the cost of cellulase enzyme and steam energy in the three cases was calculated. The results show that the simultaneous co-saccharification of cassava starch/cellulose and ethanol fermentation process (Co-SSF) provided a cost effective option of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production, while the utilization of cassava cellulose from cassava ethanol fermentation residues was not economically sound. Comparing to the current fuel ethanol selling price, the Co-SSF process may provide an important choice for enhancing cassava ethanol production efficiency and profit in commercial scale.

  16. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration.

  17. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  18. Determination of the microbial origin of geosmin in Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2012-03-07

    Geosmin is the major cause of the common earthy off-flavor in light-aroma type Chinese liquor and, thus, highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. To find out its origin, the evolving process of geosmin in light-aroma type liquor making was monitored, and microbial analysis of Daqu containing geosmin was carried out. The results showed that geosmin appeared in all the fermented sorghums at different fermentation periods. About 57% geosmin in the fermented sorghums was distilled into liquor. During the distillation process, the peak of geosmin concentration appeared when alcohol content was 50-60% vol. More importantly, high geosmin content was observed during the Daqu-making process. Furthermore, five Streptomyces strains were isolated from different types of Daqu used for the fermentation of light-aroma type liquor. All of them produced only geosmin as the main volatile metabolite but no 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). It appears that microorganisms developing in Daqu are responsible for the presence of geosmin in liquor. Because of the relatively low detection threshold estimated at 110 ng/L in 46 vol % hydroalcoholic solution, the presence of geosmin in Daqu may pose a risk for Chinese liquor producers.

  19. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  20. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  1. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Li, X Y; Chan, K Y

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge liquor. Complete nitrogen removal could be achieved within 1 hr or so. The rate of EC denitrification increased with the current intensity applied. The best current efficiency for nitrogen removal was obtained for a gap distance between the electrodes at 8 mm. Electro-chlorination was considered to be the major mechanism of EC denitrification. The formation of chlorination by-products (CBPs) appeared to be minimal with the total trihalomethanes (THM) detected at a level of 300 microg/L or lower. The power consumption for EC denitrification was around 23 kWh/kg N. Additional electro-flocculation with a pair of iron needle electrodes could enhance the flocculation and subsequent sedimentation of colloidal organics in the sludge liquor, increasing the organic removal from less than 30% to more than 70%. Therefore, the EC process including both electro-denitrification and electro-flocculation can be developed as the most cost-effective method for treatment of the saline sludge liquor.

  2. Carboxymethylation of Cassava Starch in Different Solvents and Solvent-Water Mixtures: Optimization of Reaction Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwokocha, Louis M.; Ogunmola, Gabiel B.

    The influence of reaction medium on carboxymethylation process was investigated by treating cassava starch with sodium monochloroacetate in different solvents and solvent-water mixtures under alkaline conditions. The amount of carboxyl groups introduced into the starch moiety was determined titrimetrically and used to calculate the Degree of Substitution (DS) and Reaction Efficiency (RE). The results showed that carboxymethylation is significantly affected by the nature of reaction medium at p<0.05. Carboxymethylation in different solvent-water mixtures showed that aqueous 80% n-propanol offered the best medium for carboxymethylation. Optimization of reaction conditions in aqueous 80% n-propanol showed that the best condition for carboxymethylation was at starch-liquor ratio of 1:3, NaOH/reagent molar ratio of 4.0 and reagent-starch molar ratio of 0.35. An increase in temperature was required to effect the reaction at shorter time. At 55°C the highest values of DS and RE achieved in 0.5 h would require three hours to achieve the same values of DS and RE at 45°C.

  3. Effect of corn bran and steep inclusion in finishing diets on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance.

    PubMed

    Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W

    2013-08-01

    One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P < 0.01). Total tract DM and OM digestibility were greater for heifers fed CON than the by-product diets (P < 0.01). Dry matter and NDF ruminal disappearance (%/h) of corn bran were numerically less for cattle fed the CON diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P < 0.01). However, in Exp. 3, no differences in percent N loss were detected among treatments (P = 0.16), but more N was removed in the manure from pens where steers were fed by-products (P = 0.01). Although steep did not improve diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.

  4. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  5. Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

    2013-02-27

    We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars.

  6. Experimental study of cassava sun drying

    SciTech Connect

    Njie, D.N.; Rumsey, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Sun drying experiments were performed to compare drying of cassava chips in sheet-metal trays with drying on mesh wire trays. In the sheet-metal trays, there was air flow across the top of the bed chips, while the mesh wire trays permitted air to flow through the bed. Drying rate was faster and more uniform in the trays with through-flow air circulation. Higher temperatures were reached by chips in the sheet-metal trays than those in the mesh trays because of contact heating, but the drying rate was lower because of the reduced air flow.

  7. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  8. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  9. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics.

    PubMed

    Xu, M L; Yu, Y; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, S M

    2017-01-06

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  10. Potential changes of wave steepness and occurrence of rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Wave steepness is an important characteristic of a sea state. It is also well established that wave steepness is one of the parameter responsible for generation of abnormal waves called also freak or rogue waves. The study investigates changes of wave steepness in the past and future wave climate in the North Atlantic. The fifth assessment report IPCC (2013) uses four scenarios for future greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Two of these scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 have been selected to project future wave conditions in the North Atlantic. RCP 4.5 is believed to achieve the political target of a maximum global mean temperature increase of 2° C while RPC 8.5 is close to 'business as usual' and expected to give a temperature increase of 4° C or more. The analysis includes total sea, wind sea and swell. Potential changes of wave steepness for these wave systems are shown and compared with wave steepness derived from historical data. Three historical data sets with different wave model resolutions are used. The investigations show also changes in the mean wind direction as well as in the relative direction between wind sea and swell. Consequences of wave steepness changes for statistics of surface elevation and generation of rogue waves are demonstrated. Uncertainties associated with wave steepness projections are discussed.

  11. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  13. Food safety and amino acid balance in processed cassava "Cossettes".

    PubMed

    Diasolua Ngudi, Delphin; Kuo, Yu Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2002-05-08

    Processed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots provide more than 60% of the daily energy intake for the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Insufficiently processed cassava roots in a diet deficient in sulfur amino acid have been reported to cause the irreversible paralytic disease konzo, afflicting thousands of women and children in the remote rural areas of Bandundu Province. "Cossettes" (processed cassava roots) purchased in several markets of Kinshasa were analyzed for their content of cyanogens, free amino acids, and total protein amino acids. Residual cyanogen levels were below the safe limit recommended by the codex FAO/WHO for cassava flour (10 mg kg(-1)). The amino acid score was evaluated. Lysine and leucine were the limiting amino acids. Methionine content was very low and contributed about 13% of the total sulfur amino acids. Dietary requirements for sulfur amino acids need to be adjusted for the loss caused by cyanogen detoxification.

  14. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  15. Differential response of cassava genotypes to infection by cassava mosaic geminiviruses.

    PubMed

    Kuria, Paul; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ateka, Elijah; Miano, Douglas; Onguso, Justus; Carrington, James C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2017-01-02

    Mitigation of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) focuses on the introgression of resistance imparted by the polygenic recessive (CMD1), dominant monogenic (CMD2) and CMD3 loci. The mechanism(s) of resistance they impart, however, remain unknown. Two CMD susceptible and nine CMD resistant cassava genotypes were inoculated by microparticle bombardment with infectious clones of African cassava mosaic virus Cameroon strain (ACMV-CM) and the Kenyan strain K201 of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV KE2 [K201]). Genotypes carrying the CMD1 (TMS 30572), CMD2 (TME 3, TME 204 and Oko-iyawo) and CMD3 (TMS 97/0505) resistance mechanisms showed high levels of resistance to ACMV-CM, with viral DNA undetectable by PCR beyond 7days post inoculation (dpi). In contrast, all genotypes initially developed severe CMD symptoms and accumulated high virus titers after inoculation with EACMV KE2 (K201). Resistant genotypes recovered to become asymptomatic by 65dpi with no detectable virus in newly formed leaves. Genotype TMS 97/2205 showed highest resistance to EACMV KE2 (K201) with <30% of inoculated plants developing symptoms followed by complete recovery by 35dpi. Deep sequencing of small RNAs confirmed production of 21-24 nt virus derived small RNAs (vsRNA) that mapped to cover the entire ACMV-CM and EACMV KE2 (K201) viral genomes in both polarities, with hotspots seen within gene coding regions. In resistant genotypes, total vsRNAs were most abundant at 20 and 35dpi but reduced significantly upon recovery from CMD. In contrast, CMD susceptible genotypes displayed abundant vsRNAs throughout the experimental period. The percentage of vsRNAs reads ranked by class size were 21nt (45%), 22 nt (28%) and 24 nt (18%) in all genotypes studied. The number of vsRNA reads directly correlated with virus titer and CMD symptoms.

  16. Cassava/sugar palm fiber reinforced cassava starch hybrid composites: Physical, thermal and structural properties.

    PubMed

    Edhirej, Ahmed; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid composite was prepared from cassava bagasse (CB) and sugar palm fiber (SPF) using casting technique with cassava starch (CS) as matrix and fructose as a plasticizer. Different loadings of SPF (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w of dry starch) were added to the CS/CB composite film containing 6% CB. The addition of SPF significantly influenced the physical properties. It increased the thickness while decreasing the density, water content, water solubility and water absorption. However, no significant effect was noticed on the thermal properties of the hybrid composite film. The incorporation of SPF increased the relative crystallinity up to 47%, compared to 32% of the CS film. SEM micrographs indicated that the filler was incorporated in the matrix. The film with a higher concentration of SPF (CS-CB/SPF8) showed a more heterogeneous surface. It could be concluded that the incorporation of SPF led to changes in cassava starch film properties, potentially affecting the film performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical composition and flavor of ecuadorian cocoa liquor.

    PubMed

    Luna, Fabienne; Crouzillat, Dominique; Cirou, Loïc; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-06-05

    The contribution of the chemical composition to the flavor of cocoa liquor from an Ecuadorian selfed population of clone EET 95 was investigated. Polyphenols, purine alkaloids, organic acids, and sugars were quantified, and the key sensory characteristics of cocoa were scored by a trained panel. Despite the short bean fermentation (2 days) commonly used for Arriba cocoa, acetic acid content was closely correlated to liquor pH, demonstrating its essential role in cocoa liquor acidification. Polyphenols were positively correlated to astringency, bitterness, and the green note and negatively correlated to the fruity character. Alkaloid and polyphenol levels fluctuated significantly within the selfed progeny and tended to be lower than those of the heterozygous clone EET 95 (inbreeding effect). These results support the idea that polyphenols might be essential to the overall perception of cocoa liquor characteristics and indicate that the composition and the sensory quality of cocoa liquor are the result of both a genotypic contribution and the conditions of fermentation and roasting.

  18. Ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor: Final report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work. 21 refs., 32 figs.

  19. Cassava Mosaic and Brown Streak Diseases: Current Perspectives and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Rey, Chrissie; Vanderschuren, Hervé Vanderschuren

    2017-06-23

    Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector. New biotechnologies offer a wide range of opportunities to reduce virus-associated yield losses in cassava for farmers and can additionally enable the exploitation of this valuable crop for industrial purposes. This review explores established and new technologies for genetic manipulation to achieve desired traits such as virus resistance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    PubMed

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M

    2002-01-01

    Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks.

  2. Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

    2011-03-01

    In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo.

  3. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  5. Channel erosion in steep gradient, gravel-paved streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lepp, L.R.; Koger, C.J.; Wheeler, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    Discharges were measured in steep gradient (> 5 percent) gravel-paved streams from 1988 to 1991 in order to empirically determine erosional thresholds based on sediment size, related to critical velocity, tractive force, and unit stream power. Results suggest that the empirical relationship between sediment size and unit stream power provides an accurate and simple methodology for determining the minimum erosion threshold discharge for steep gradient streams common in western Washington and other similar mountain terrains.

  6. Cassava derivatives in ice cream formulations: effects on physicochemical, physical and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    de Souza Fernandes, Daiana; Leonel, Magali; Del Bem, Marilia Sbragia; Mischan, Martha Maria; Garcia, Émerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effects of derivatives of cassava, maltodextrin and bagasse, on the physicochemical, physical and sensory properties of ice creams were investigated. The content of cassava maltodextrin increased significantly the content of carbohydrate and total soluble solids and decreased lipids content. The effect of cassava bagasse was more pronounced than the maltodextrin on physical and sensory parameters. Increased percentage of cassava bagasse in formulation led to decrease of overrun, melting and luminosity, but increased hardness and unfreezable water. Sensory attributes were mainly influenced by cassava bagasse inclusion. The results suggested the potential use of cassava derivatives in ice cream formulations. Ice creams with low percentage of cassava bagasse (1.5) and intermediate values of cassava maltodextrin (3.65%) had good nutritional, technological and sensorial acceptance.

  7. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  8. Digestibility and metabolizable energy values of processed cassava chips for growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lokaewmanee, Kanda; Kanto, Uthai; Juttupornpong, Sukanya; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2011-02-01

    Determinations of digestibility of dry matter (DM), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) in cassava chips with different levels of crude fiber (CF) were measured in growing pigs (20 kg) and finishing pigs (60 kg). The treatments were (1) cassava starch (0% CF), (2) peeled cassava chips (2.5% CF), (3) non-peeled washed cassava chips (3.9% CF), and (4) non-peeled and non-washed cassava chips (5.2% CF). In the growing pigs, peeled cassava chips, non-peeled washed cassava chips, and non-peeled and non-washed cassava chips had DM digestibility of 87.51%, 78.63%, and 73.89%, respectively. Their DE was 3.69, 3.49, and 3.32 Mcal/kg DM, respectively (DE of cassava starch is 3.90 Mcal/kg DM). ME was 3.54, 3.35, and 3.19 Mcal/kg DM, respectively (ME of cassava starch is 3.74 Mcal/kg DM). On the other hand, in the finishing pigs, the digestibility of DM was 89.13%, 80.63%, and 76.13%, respectively. Their DE was 3.72, 3.53, and 3.43 Mcal/kg DM, respectively (DE of cassava starch is 3.91 Mcal/kg DM). ME was 3.57, 3.38, and 3.29 Mcal/kg DM, respectively (ME of cassava starch is 3.75 Mcal/kg DM). These values increased with decreasing CF content, and the peeled cassava chips had the highest values (P < 0.01). These suggest that the digestibility values of DM, DE, and ME of cassava chips is inversely related to the CF content in cassava chips. It is recommended that cassava chips be peeled for better nutrition for growing and finishing pigs.

  9. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 1. Swelling.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Kevin; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Two industrial kraft liquors were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale pressurized single particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C and at pressures between 1 and 20 bar. The dimensions of the chars produced were measured and the specific swollen volume was calculated. Swelling decreased roughly logarithmically over the pressure range 1-20 r. An expression is developed to predict the specific swollen volume at elevated pressure when the volume at 1 bar is known. The bulk density of the char increased with pressure, indicating that liquors will be entrained less easily at higher pressures.

  10. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  11. Cassava haplotype map highlights fixation of deleterious mutations during clonal propagation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food crop in Africa and South America whose fitness may be severely reduced by ubiquitous deleterious variation. To evaluate these deleterious mutations in cassava genome, we constructed a cassava haplotype map by deep sequencing of 241 diver...

  12. Chromatic signatures of broadband optical spectra for liquor discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    Methods based upon chromatic analysis are described for quantifying broadband optical absorption spectra in discriminating between different types of liquors. The absorption spectra are quantified by three chromaticity coordinates, which can be represented by two points, one on each of two chromatic diagrams. Various types of liquors may then be distinguished on such chromatic maps and groups of similar samples conveniently identified. Examples of the deployment of the approach are given for distinguishing between and classifying various types, brands and mixtures of alcoholic beverages and for identifying an authentic brand. The method provides a high level of traceability and is not restricted to a particular type of optical spectrum.

  13. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  14. Environmentally safe treatment of black liquor with Comamonas sp. B-9 under high-alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Chen, Yuehui; Shi, Yan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-02-01

    The strain Comamonas sp. B-9 was isolated from steeping fluid of erosive bamboo slips derived from Kingdom Wu during the Three-Kingdoms Dynasty of ancient China (A.D. 220-280). It could be used to treat black liquor (BL) with high-alkaline pH and with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 18,000-25,000 mg L(-1) , without the addition of other carbon and nitrogen sources. The results revealed that Comamonas sp. B-9 was capable of reducing the COD, color, and lignin content of BL by up to 56.8, 35.3, and 43.5%, respectively. High levels of laccase, manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and xylanase enzymatic activities were also observed, and these enzymes could play an important role in the biotreatment of BL. Further, GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in BL after biotreatment with Comamonas sp. B-9 were diminished, while 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde were produced as metabolites. The presented results indicate that Comamonas sp. B-9 has potential application for the treatment of wastewaters from pulp and paper processing with high COD load under high-alkaline conditions.

  15. Rubisco small subunit gene family in cassava.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T W; Mak, Y M; Ho, K K

    1999-01-01

    Cassava leaves of two different cultivars, Brazil and Buloh, were used to isolate mRNA. The mRNA isolated was successfully used in the construction of cDNA libraries for each of the cultivars. The cDNA libraries were screened for members of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene family and positive clones were sequenced. A total of seven different SSU genes, of which five were from cultivar Brazil and two were from cultivar Buloh, were isolated. Comparison results show that even though all the sequences are highly similar, they can be classified into three subfamilies. Homology between members of the same subfamily is higher than homology between members from the same cultivar.

  16. Continuous ethanol production from cassava through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by self-flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHFY0321.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Moon, Se-Kwon; Chung, Bong-Woo

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a fermentor consisting of four linked stirred towers that can be used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and for the accumulation of cell mass was applied to the continuous production of ethanol using cassava as the starchy material. For the continuous process with SSF, the pretreated cassava liquor and saccharification enzyme at total sugar concentrations of 175 g/L and 195 g/L were continuously fed to the fermentor with dilution rates of 0.014, 0.021, 0.031, 0.042, and 0.05 h(-1). Considering the maximum saccharification time, the highest volumetric productivity and ethanol yield were observed at a dilution rate of 0.042 h(-1). At dilution rates in the range of 0.014 h(-1) to 0.042 h(-1), high production rates were observed, and the yeast in the first to fourth fermentor showed long-term stability for 2 months with good performance. Under the optimal culture conditions with a feed sugar concentration of 195 g/L and dilution rate of 0.042 h(-1), the ethanol volumetric productivity and ethanol yield were 3.58 g/L x h and 86.2%, respectively. The cell concentrations in the first to fourth stirred tower fermentors were 74.3, 71.5, 71.2, and 70.1 g dry cell/L, respectively. The self-flocculating yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHFY0321, developed by our group showed excellent fermentation results under continuous ethanol production.

  17. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  18. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    PubMed

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance.

  19. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY... certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance... purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian Country. The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe...

  20. Effect of Cassava on motor co-ordination and neurotransmitter level in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Mohan, V; Namasivayam, A

    1999-01-01

    The root of Cassava, a tropical plant, is consumed in the tropics and has been attributed as the cause for various tropical neuropathies. This study aims to discover the neurotoxic effects of chronic cassava consumption of Indian origin and the effect of malnutrition. The assessment is based on the motor co-ordination and brain neurotransmitters in rats. Cassava consumption reduced the motor co-ordination, but the changes in neurotransmitter levels due to cassava consumption (except for 5HT in corpus striatum) was identical with malnutrition-induced changes, indicating that the toxicity of chronic cassava consumption (of Indian origin) is mainly due to the associated protein calorie malnutrition (PCM).

  1. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  2. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  5. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  6. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  7. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  8. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  9. Cleaning cassava genotypes infected with cassava frogskin disease via in vitro shoot tip culture.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M J S; Oliveira, E J; Souza, A S; Pereira, J S; Diamantino, M S A S; Oliveira, S A S

    2017-05-31

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for eliminating cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) from in vitro shoot tip culture by associating thermotherapy and tetracycline. Cuttings from different accessions (BGM0232, BGM0315, BGM0464, BGM584, BGM0841, and BGM1342), infected with CFSD according to visual inspection of the disease symptoms, were used for cleaning. To verify the absence of other diseases, the plants were indexed for Cassava common mosaic virus - CsCMV (by ELISA) and Cassava vein mosaic virus - CsVMV (by polymerase chain reaction, PCR), proving that the accessions were free of these viruses, except for BGM0315 and BGM0464, which were infected with CsVMV. Subsequently, the cuttings were submitted to different tetracycline concentrations for 3 min, and then subjected to thermotherapy under different temperatures (35°, 38°, 40°, 45°, and 55°C). Shoots of 2 cm were harvested, and their surfaces were sterilized in a laminar flow chamber. Subsequently, the shoot tips of different sizes were removed (0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) for inoculation in a culture medium with tetracycline at the same concentrations in which the cuttings were dipped. After 60 days of cultivation, the explants were transferred to a multiplication medium without antibiotics. Thirty days after the transfer, the viability of the regenerated plants was evaluated, which were then acclimatized for 70 days in a greenhouse and transferred to the field. After 7 months, a visual analysis of the symptomatic roots and a PCR analysis were held to prove the elimination of CFSD and CsVMV from the accessions infected with these viruses (BGM0315 and BGM0464), respectively. Most of the treatments resulted in 100% cleaning of CFSD-infected plants. From accessions that were also infected with CsVMV, only 2% of the plants remained infected, also demonstrating the cleaning efficiency of this protocol for this disease.

  10. Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.

    PubMed

    Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2012-10-01

    Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms.

  11. Differential interaction between cassava mosaic geminiviruses and geminivirus satellites.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2010-07-01

    Geminiviruses are often associated with subviral agents called DNA satellites that require proteins encoded by the helper virus for their replication, movement and encapsidation. Hitherto, most of the single-stranded DNA satellites reported to be associated with members of the family Geminiviridae have been associated with monopartite begomoviruses. Cassava mosaic disease is known to be caused by viruses belonging to nine different begomovirus species in the African continent and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to these species, several strains have been recognized that exhibit contrasting phenotypes and infection dynamics. It is established that Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus can trans-replicate betasatellites and can cross host barriers. To extend these studies further, we carried out an exhaustive investigation of the ability of geminiviruses, selected to represent all cassava-infecting geminivirus species, to trans-replicate betasatellites (DNA-beta) and to interact with alphasatellites (nanovirus-like components; previously called DNA-1). Each of the cassava-infecting geminiviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with the DNA satellites, not only in the capacity to interact with these molecules but also in the modulation of symptom phenotypes by the satellites. These observations could be extrapolated to field situations in order to hypothesize about the possibility of acquisition of such DNA satellites currently associated with other begomoviruses. These results call for more detailed analyses of these subviral components and an investigation of their possible interaction with the cassava mosaic disease complex.

  12. Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

  13. Naturally inflating on steep potentials through electromagnetic dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2010-02-15

    In models of natural inflation, the inflaton is an axionlike particle. Unfortunately, axion potentials in UV-complete theories appear to be too steep to drive inflation. We show that, even for a steep potential, natural inflation can occur if the coupling between axion and gauge fields is taken into account. Because of this coupling, quanta of the gauge field are produced by the rolling of the axion. If the coupling is large enough, such a dissipative effect slows down the axion, leading to inflation even for a steep potential. The spectrum of perturbations is quasiscale invariant, but in the simplest construction its amplitude is larger than 10{sup -5}. We discuss a possible way out of this problem.

  14. Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E. M.; Kirchner, J. W.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-07-01

    Steep, rough channels occupy a large fraction of the total channel length in mountainous regions. Most sediment mobilized on hillslopes must pass through these streams before reaching lower-gradient channels. Steep channels have wide grain size distributions that are composed of finer, more mobile sediment and large, rarely mobile grains. The large grains can bear a significant portion of the total shear stress and thereby reduce the stress available to move the finer sediment. Conventional bed load transport equations often overpredict the sediment flux in steep channels by several orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that sediment transport equations overpredict the sediment flux because they do not (1) account for the stress borne by rarely mobile grains, (2) differentiate between highly and rarely mobile sediment, and (3) account for the limited availability of mobile sediment. Here we modify a conventional bed load transport equation to include these three effects. We use measurements of the flow, bed properties, and sediment flux in a small, steep flume to test this equation. We supply gravel at a constant rate through fields of regularly spaced immobile spheres and measure the bed coverage by gravel and sphere protrusion (the percent of the sphere that protrudes above the gravel deposit). For a given sphere spacing, the proportion of the bed covered by gravel increases and the sphere protrusion decreases with greater sediment supply. Thus bed coverage and immobile grain protrusion may serve as proxies for sediment availability in steep, rough streams. Unlike most transport equations that we tested, our modified bed load equation predicts sediment fluxes to within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Our results demonstrate that accurately predicting bed load transport in steep, rough streams may require accounting for the effects of local sediment availability (coverage by mobile sediment) and drag due to rarely mobile particles.

  15. [Evaluation of the cellulase cost during the cassava cellulose ethanol fermentation process].

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhenhong; Deng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose takes nearly 10% (W/W) dry weight of cassava tubers. In this study, the cellulase cost of different ethanol fermentation from cassava cellulose was evaluated. The processes include the direct saccharification and fermentation of original cassava cellulose residues, the direct saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava cellulose residues, and the simultaneous co-saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch and cassava cellulose. The results show that the cassava cellulose utilization in the first two processes were low with the enzyme cost of 13 602 and 11 659 RMB Yuan per tone of ethanol, respectively. In the third process, the final ethanol concentration increased from 101.5 g/L to 107.0 g/L when cassava cellulose and cassava starch were saccharified simultaneously. Comparing to the first two processes, the third one demonstrated the lowest enzyme cost at 3 589 RMB Yuan per ton of ethanol, which was less than the ethanol price and no additional equipment and operation cost input were added. The conclusion provided a practical way of cassava cellulose utilization in cassava ethanol industry.

  16. Overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase confers cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fuping; Liang, Xiao; Lu, Hui; Li, Qian; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Kaimian; Liu, Guanghua; Yan, Wei; Song, Jiming; Duan, Chunfang; Zhang, Linhui

    2017-01-05

    To explore the role of protective enzymes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resistance to mites, transgenic cassava lines overproducing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) were used to evaluate and molecularly confirm cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated that, compared with the control cultivar TMS60444 (wild type, WT), the survival, reproduction, development and activities of SOD and CAT in T. cinnabarinus feeding on transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and CAT in transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 damaged by T. cinnabarinus significantly increased. These findings were similar to the results in the mite-resistant cassava cultivars. Besides, field evaluation indicated that the transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 were slightly damaged as the highly mite-resistant control C1115, while the highly mite-susceptible WT was severely damaged by T. cinnabarinus. Laboratory and field evaluation demonstrated that transgenic cassava lines were resistant to T. cinnabarinus, which directly confirmed that the increase in SOD and CAT activities was positively related to cassava resistance to T. cinnabarinus. These results will help in understanding the antioxidant defense responses in the cassava-mite interaction and molecular breeding of mite-resistant cassava for effective pest control.

  17. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  18. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  19. Calculation of the liquor system pliability using the mathematical simulation method.

    PubMed

    Koshurnikov, D S; Petraikin, A V; Martynov, A K; Sergienko, V I

    2011-10-01

    Liquor circulation is a directed flow of the liquor from sites of its secretion to sites of resorption. This slow flow is modulated by pulsation caused by heart work. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging is a method for noninvasive measurements of the linear velocity of these pulses in the cerebral aqueduct. A mathematical model reproducing pulsed flow of the liquor in the cerebral aqueduct is proposed and the procedure of evaluation of these parameters is presented. The pliability liquor system can be calculated from the values of liquor flow linear velocity in the cerebral aqueduct, measured by noninvasive method.

  20. Distribution transformer performance when subjected to steep front impulses

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, L.M.; Shaw, J.H. . Thomas A. Edison Technical Center); McConnell, B.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The experimental method and the results of subjecting arrester protected pole type distribution transformers to the combined stresses caused by the conducted steep front impulse and rated 60 Hz voltages are described. Comparisons are drawn between these results and those of similar experiments on unenergized distribution transformers. It is concluded that tank mounted direct connected arresters provide a high degree of protection to these transformers, tank mounted externally gapped or crossarm mounted arresters may not provide sufficient protection; internal transformer insulation system failures caused by the steep front impulse do not necessarily result in immediate catastrophic failures of the transformers.

  1. Transcriptional Response of Virus-Infected Cassava and Identification of Putative Sources of Resistance for Cassava Brown Streak Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

  2. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  3. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-01-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2–3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors. PMID:27922117

  4. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse (14)C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G S; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-06

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon ((14)C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in "the golden triangular region" in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ(14)C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  5. Gene expression atlas for the food security crop cassava.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark C; Mutka, Andrew M; Hummel, Aaron W; Berry, Jeffrey; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Vijayaraghavan, Anupama; Taylor, Nigel J; Voytas, Daniel F; Chitwood, Daniel H; Bart, Rebecca S

    2017-03-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) feeds c. 800 million people world-wide. Although this crop displays high productivity under drought and poor soil conditions, it is susceptible to disease, postharvest deterioration and the roots contain low nutritional content. Here, we provide molecular identities for 11 cassava tissue/organ types through RNA-sequencing and develop an open access, web-based interface for further interrogation of the data. Through this dataset, we consider the physiology of cassava. Specifically, we focus on identification of the transcriptional signatures that define the massive, underground storage roots used as a food source and the favored target tissue for transgene integration and genome editing, friable embryogenic callus (FEC). Further, we identify promoters able to drive strong expression in multiple tissue/organs. The information gained from this study is of value for both conventional and biotechnological improvement programs. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Cassava dreg as replacement of corn in goat kid diets.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Lucíola Vilarim; Guim, Adriana; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos; de Freitas, Marciela Thais Dino

    2017-09-30

    The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

  7. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Zehong; Ma, Fangfang; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Allen, Doug K; Brutnell, Thomas P; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Li, Pinghua

    2015-02-12

    To examine the interactions of starch and sugar metabolism on photosynthesis in cassava, a heat-girdling treatment was applied to petioles of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the beginning of the light cycle, inhibited photosynthesis, and affected intracellular sugar levels. RNA-seq analysis of heat-treated and control plants revealed significantly decreased expression of genes related to photosynthesis, as well as N-metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, expression of genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondria electron transport components, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes were induced. These studies reveal a dynamic transcriptional response to perturbation of sink demand in a single leaf, and provide useful information for understanding the regulations of cassava under sink or source limitation.

  8. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Zehong; Ma, Fangfang; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Allen, Doug K.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Li, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    To examine the interactions of starch and sugar metabolism on photosynthesis in cassava, a heat-girdling treatment was applied to petioles of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the beginning of the light cycle, inhibited photosynthesis, and affected intracellular sugar levels. RNA-seq analysis of heat-treated and control plants revealed significantly decreased expression of genes related to photosynthesis, as well as N-metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, expression of genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondria electron transport components, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes were induced. These studies reveal a dynamic transcriptional response to perturbation of sink demand in a single leaf, and provide useful information for understanding the regulations of cassava under sink or source limitation. PMID:25672661

  9. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Collares, Renata M; Miklasevicius, Luiza V S; Bassaco, Mariana M; Salau, Nina P G; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bisognin, Dilson A; Terra, Lisiane M

    2012-07-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, α-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction. A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process: after its addition to the reaction media, a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed. At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  10. Felling and bunching small timber on steep slopes.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata; John A. Sturos; Helmuth M. Steinhilb

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the results of a field test of the unique Menzi Muck machine for felling and bunching small trees on steep slopes. Includes the analysis of a detailed time study to determine the productivity, costs, and economic feasibility of this unusual machine.

  11. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  12. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  13. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  14. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  15. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  16. Improved numerical modelling of morphodynamics of rivers with steep banks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The flow and sediment transport processes near steep streambanks, which are commonly found in meandering, braided, and anastomosing stream systems, exhibit complex patterns. The interactions between bed and bank morphologic adjustment, and their governing processes are still not well understood. Inc...

  17. 30 CFR 816.107 - Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. 816.107 Section 816.107 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.107 Backfilling and...

  18. 30 CFR 817.107 - Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Steep slopes. 817.107 Section 817.107 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.107 Backfilling an...

  19. It's time to look at yarding problems on steep slopes.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Ruth

    1960-01-01

    In many parts of the Pacific Northwest, logging operations are moving into rugged terrain as access roads probe deeper into the back country. Because of this trend, it's time to look more carefully at steep slopes and decide on the best possible management practices consistent with maximum protection against erosion.

  20. Measurement of steep edges and undercuts in confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, T; Jordan, M; Schneider, T; Poesch, A; Reithmeier, E

    2016-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is widely used to measure the surface topography of specimen with a precision in the micrometer range. The measurement uncertainty and quality of the acquired data of confocal microscopy depends on various effects, such as optical aberrations, vibrations of the measurement setup and variations in the surface reflectivity. In this article, the influence of steep edges and undercuts on measurement results is examined. Steep edges on the specimen's surface lead to a reduced detector signal which influences the measurement accuracy and undercuts cause surface regions, which cannot be captured in a measurement. The article describes a method to overcome the negative effects of steep edges and undercuts by capturing several measurements of the surface with different angles between the surface and the optical axis of the objective. An algorithm is introduced which stitches different angle measurements together without knowledge of the exact position and orientation of the rotation axis. Thus, the measurement uncertainty due to steep edges and undercuts can be avoided without expensive high-precision rotation stages and time consuming adjustment of the measurement setup.

  1. [Cassava evaluation as a non conventional resource for food industry].

    PubMed

    Pardio Sedas, V T; Waliszewski Kubiak, K N

    1994-03-01

    Mean results of the chemical composition of cassava cultivated in the different regions of Mexico are presented and the most important ingredient is starch which permits that this natural resource is employed as a no-conventional ingredient in food industry, for dextrins, glucose and fructose syrups production. Cassava starch is used for baby foods, salsa and mayonnaise manufacture. Because of its physico-chemical properties, modified starches are employed in bakery for pies, refills and frozen foodstuffs production and have been considered as stabilizers, yielding a final product which is maintained fresh and of excellent texture.

  2. Cassava fermentation and associated changes in physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, S N; Mathew, G

    1998-02-01

    Fermentation of cassava is an important processing technique followed in different parts of the world. Although fermentation is known to bring about vast changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of the tubers, attempts have seldom been made to consolidate and critically analyze the available information. Glaring inconsistencies and contradictions noticeable in some of the results reflect the differences and variations in the artisanal processes followed in the preparation of these products. It also stresses the need for a systematic study of not only the quoted products, but also a number of other fermented cassava products that have not been well documented.

  3. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  4. Apomixis in different ploidy levels of cassava.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Chaib, Adalgisa; Elsayed, Ahmed Y

    2011-11-01

    Two polyploid hybrids between cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivar 307-2 and its wild relatives M. glaziovii and M. anomala, were studied to examine the relationship between ploidy level and the production of seeds without fertilization. A clearing method was applied to assess ovule sizes as an indication of multiembryony. The diploid cultivar 307-2 had regular 18 bivalents at meiotic metaphase 1 while the polyploid types showed chromosome configurations varying from 3 to 4 quadrivalents and 28 to 30 bivalents. A total of 14% of studied ovules of the polyploid hybrid involving M. glaziovii were multiebryonic, while the percentage of multiembryony was as low as 2% in the polyploid hybrid M. anomala×M. esculenta. Diploid hybrid types did not show any multi embryony. Adventitious embryos were found and documented for the first time in polyploid hybrids M. esculenta×M. glaziovii. The association of multiple embryo formation with ovary size and pollination showed that apomictic embryos form independently from fertilization. Simple iodized carmine stain for measuring pollen viability proved as efficient as the sophisticated Alexander method.

  5. Nocturnal winds over steep terrain: Turbulence structure and modeling challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of steep terrain poses several challenges to numerical modeling of turbulent surface-atmospheric exchanges, ranging from difficulties associated with the numerical grid (e.g., insufficient resolution and overstretching) to violating key assumptions (e.g., horizontal terrain) necessary for traditional parameterizations to hold. We present observations of the turbulence structure in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland to highlight specific modeling challenges arising from deviating from the horizontal-terrain assumption. Under clear-sky conditions, we observe two distinct flow regimes with mean winds directed down the slope: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', for which an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) is observed and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. These distinct flow regimes exhibit very different vertical turbulence structures. For example, the katabatic jet strongly modulates momentum and buoyancy fluxes and can vary in sign when compared to the downslope wind regime or traditional horizontal, stable boundary layer flows. Hence, improved numerical forecasting models should seek the capabilities to accurately reproduce these varied regimes. Additional modeling challenges posed by steep-slope flows are that turbulent fluxes rarely exhibit a constant-flux-type surface layer, in violation to another key assumption for most turbulence parameterizations (e.g., Monin-Obukhov similarity based wall models and turbulence closure models). Finally, we show that the traditional (horizontal terrain) concept of atmospheric stability can become unclear for flows over steep terrain, which can further complicate stability-based numerical modeling. Hence, we additionally propose key areas for future research toward improving modeling capabilities over steep terrain.

  6. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD.

  7. Two Novel DNAs That Enhance Symptoms and Overcome CMD2 Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease

    PubMed Central

    De León, Leandro; Doyle, Catherine D.; Sseruwagi, Peter; Plata, German; Legg, James P.; Thompson, Graham; Tohme, Joe; Aveling, Theresa; Ascencio-Ibáñez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Like all members of the geminivirus family, CMBs have small, circular single-stranded DNA genomes. We report here the discovery of two novel DNA sequences, designated SEGS-1 and SEGS-2 (for sequences enhancing geminivirus symptoms), that enhance symptoms and break resistance to CMD. The SEGS are characterized by GC-rich regions and the absence of long open reading frames. Both SEGS enhanced CMD symptoms in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) when coinoculated with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), or East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG). SEGS-1 also overcame resistance of a cassava landrace carrying the CMD2 resistance locus when coinoculated with EACMV-UG. Episomal forms of both SEGS were detected in CMB-infected cassava but not in healthy cassava. SEGS-2 episomes were also found in virions and whiteflies. SEGS-1 has no homology to geminiviruses or their associated satellites, but the cassava genome contains a sequence that is 99% identical to full-length SEGS-1. The cassava genome also includes three sequences with 84 to 89% identity to SEGS-2 that together encompass all of SEGS-2 except for a 52-bp region, which includes the episomal junction and a 26-bp sequence related to alphasatellite replication origins. These results suggest that SEGS-1 is derived from the cassava genome and facilitates CMB infection as an integrated copy and/or an episome, while SEGS-2 was originally from the cassava genome but now is encapsidated into virions and transmitted as an episome by whiteflies. IMPORTANCE Cassava is a major crop in the developing world, with its production in Africa being second only to maize. CMD is one of the most important diseases of cassava and a serious constraint to production across Africa. CMD2 is a major CMD resistance locus that has been deployed in many cassava

  8. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  9. Overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase confers cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuping; Liang, Xiao; Lu, Hui; Li, Qian; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Li, kaimian; Liu, Guanghua; Yan, Wei; Song, Jiming; Duan, Chunfang; Zhang, Linhui

    2017-01-01

    To explore the role of protective enzymes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resistance to mites, transgenic cassava lines overproducing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) were used to evaluate and molecularly confirm cassava resistance to Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated that, compared with the control cultivar TMS60444 (wild type, WT), the survival, reproduction, development and activities of SOD and CAT in T. cinnabarinus feeding on transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and CAT in transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 damaged by T. cinnabarinus significantly increased. These findings were similar to the results in the mite-resistant cassava cultivars. Besides, field evaluation indicated that the transgenic cassava lines SC2, SC4, and SC11 were slightly damaged as the highly mite-resistant control C1115, while the highly mite-susceptible WT was severely damaged by T. cinnabarinus. Laboratory and field evaluation demonstrated that transgenic cassava lines were resistant to T. cinnabarinus, which directly confirmed that the increase in SOD and CAT activities was positively related to cassava resistance to T. cinnabarinus. These results will help in understanding the antioxidant defense responses in the cassava–mite interaction and molecular breeding of mite-resistant cassava for effective pest control. PMID:28054665

  10. The impact of cyanoglycoside rich fraction isolated from Cassava (Manihot esculenta) on alcohol induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Boby, R G; Indira, M

    2003-09-15

    The effects of feeding a cassava (Manihot esculenta) rich diet on alcohol induced peroxidative damages were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups and maintained for 60 days as follows. (1) CONTROL GROUP: cassava free diet, (2) alcohol group: cassava free diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day), (3) cassava group: cassava diet and (4) alcohol+cassava group: cassava diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day). Results revealed that alcohol induced significant lipid peroxidation, since the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were elevated in the liver. The activities of free radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reductase were reduced and glutathione content was decreased in the liver. But the co-administration of a cassava rich diet increased the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes and glutathione content. The level of lipid peroxides in the liver was also decreased on co-administration of cassava. But the oxidative damage caused by cassava was potentiated by alcohol administration. These studies suggested that consumption of alcohol along with cassava offered some protection against the alcohol induced oxidative stress. So we isolated the cyanoglycoside rich fraction from cassava and its impact on rats administered alcohol was also investigated. The results revealed that alcohol induced oxidative stress was potentiated by the co-administration of cyanoglycoside rich fraction. These studies suggested that the fiber and antioxidant vitamins present in the cassava may be playing a protective role against the alcohol induced oxidative stress.

  11. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from paper industry.

    PubMed

    Zaied, M; Bellakhal, N

    2009-04-30

    The procedure of electrocoagulation is an effective, fast and economic technique for treatment of black liquor resulting from paper industry. The effect of electrolysis time, current density, type of electrode material and initial pH were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 7, t=50 min and J=14 mA cm(-2)), the treatment of black liquor by electrocoagulation has led to a removal capacity of 98% of COD, 92% of polyphenols and 99% of color intensity with a good repeatability (R.S.D.<3%) making it possible to highlight the industrial interest of this electrochemical process.

  12. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed.

  13. Determination of opiate alkaloids in process liquors using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Francis, Paul S; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-02-19

    This paper describes the determination of opiate alkaloids (morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine) in industrial process liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-absorption detection at 214 nm. A study of cyclodextrin type and concentration revealed that the addition of 30 mM hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to the electrolyte solution (100mM Tris adjusted to pH 2.8) was suitable to resolve the four analytes of interest. Typical analysis time was 12 min and the limit of detection for each alkaloid was 2.5 x 10(-6) M. The results for the proposed methodology were in good agreement with those of a conventional HPLC procedure. Under the same conditions, short-end injection was used to reduce the effective separation length from 41.5 to 8.5 cm, which allowed the determination of morphine and thebaine in process liquors within 2.5 min.

  14. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pandi, M; Shashirekha, V; Swamy, Mahadeswara

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of chromium from retan chrome liquor by Spirulina fusiformis was investigated under laboratory as well as field conditions. At the optimal conditions, metal ion uptake increased with initial metal ion concentration up to 300mg/l. The effect on various physico-chemical parameters like total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides, sulphates, phenols, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical studies related to biomass, chlorophyll-a and protein were also carried out. The present study indicates that S. fusiformis is very effective in removal of chromium (93-99%) besides removing other toxicants from retan chrome liquor. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and FTIR studies indicate the interaction/complexation between Cr and alga. The mechanism involved in bioaccumulation of chromium is also discussed. The process when upgraded can be applied for detoxification of tannery effluents.

  15. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  16. The study on the reaction of rutile in Bayer liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Shiwen; Li Dianfeng; Yang Yihong; Fu Gaofeng; Zhang Xin; Li Yan

    1996-10-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a harmful impurity in the digestion of producing alumina. TiO{sub 2} in bauxite usually exists in the forms of rutile, anatase and brookite. In this paper, the authors studied the reaction of rutile in sodium aluminate liquor, examined the effects of OH{sup {minus}} ion concentration, adding amount of CaO and temperature on the reaction, achieved the kinetics equation and calculated the activation energy of the reaction.

  17. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  18. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  19. Determination of oxalate in black liquor by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; DeMartini, Nikolai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2008-05-30

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of oxalate content in black liquor (alkaline aqueous solution of inorganic chemicals and dissolved wood species from the alkaline pulping of wood). The method described in this paper is based on the reaction between oxalic and manganese dioxide in an acidic medium, in which oxalic acid is converted to carbon dioxide that is measured with a GC using a thermal conductivity detector. The challenge in developing this method was ensuring complete conversion of oxalic acid while minimizing the contribution of side reactions between carbohydrates, lignin and manganese dioxide to the carbon dioxide measured. It was found that a complete conversion of oxalate to carbon dioxide can be achieved within 3 min at a temperature of 70 degrees C; a MnO(2):C(oxalate) (concentration of H(2)C(2)O(4)+HC(2)O(4)(-)+C(2)O(4)(2-)) mole ratio of 60 and H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.005-0.01 mol/L in the headspace vial. The method can detect concentrations as low as 0.39 microg of oxalate. The standard deviation was found to be 7% while recovery experiments with black liquor showed recoveries of 93-108% which were deemed acceptable for analysis of oxalate in an industrial sample such as black liquor.

  20. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  1. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

  2. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  3. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  4. Prediction of Sediment Transport in Steep Boulder-bed Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E.; Kirchner, J. W.; Dietrich, W. E.; Furbish, D. J.

    2002-12-01

    Most sediment in mountainous terrain must first travel through steep, rough channels before reaching lower-gradient streams. Predicting flow and sediment transport rates through steep channels is problematic. Conventional transport equations, developed for lower-gradient reaches, typically over-predict sediment flux in these streams by several orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that current transport equations do not apply in steep, rough channels because 1) they do not account for the stress borne by large, relatively immobile grains, 2) they do not differentiate between seasonally and rarely mobile sediment 3) they assume an unlimited sediment supply. We have developed and tested a transport equation that incorporates the effects of large roughness elements and variable sediment supply. Measurements of the spacing, diameter, and protrusion of immobile grains, combined with channel slope, water discharge, and mobile grain size, are used to predict transport rates in steep channels. We partition the total shear stress between that borne by the exposed immobile grains and that borne by the finer, more mobile bed. We then modify a traditional bedload transport equation to use only the stress on the mobile fraction, rather than the total stress. To account for the limited supply of mobile sediment, we scale the predicted transport rate by the proportion of the bed occupied by the mobile fraction. We tested this theory in a 15 cm wide flume set at a gradient of ten percent. For each run, 3.7 mm gravel was fed at a constant rate through a bed of regularly spaced immobile spheres (30 mm diameter). To evaluate our model over a range of conditions, we varied the sphere spacing and sediment supply between experimental runs. The proportion of the bed occupied by the mobile fraction increased with sediment supply. Thus, bed coverage by mobile sediment may serve as a proxy for sediment supply in steep, rough streams. Sediment transport rates predicted by our modified bedload

  5. Properties of Cassava Starch Modified by Amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya, Pitcha; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun

    2016-06-01

    Amylomaltase (α-1,4-glucanotransferase, AM; EC 2.4.1.25) from Corynebacterium glutamicum expressed in Escherichia coli was used to prepare the enzyme-modified cassava starch for food application. About 5% to 15% (w/v) of cassava starch slurries were incubated with 1, 3, or 5 units of amylomaltase/g starch. Apparent amylose, amylopectin chain length distribution, thermal properties, freeze-thaw stability, thermo-reversibility, and gel strength of the obtained modified starches were measured. The apparent amylose content and retrogradation enthalpy were lower, whereas the retrogradation temperatures, freeze-thaw stability, and thermo-reversibility were higher than those of the native cassava starch. However, when amylomaltase content was increased to 20 units of amylomaltase/g starch and for 24 h, the modified starch showed an improvement in the thermo-reversibility property. When used in panna cotta, the gel strength of the sample using the 20 units/24 h modified cassava starch was similar to that of using gelatin. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  7. The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Anderson, Paul; Gichuki, Simon; Miano, Douglas; Bua, Anton; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M

    2012-01-01

    The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya. VIRCA is structured to include all aspects of the intellectual property, technology, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a GM crop development and delivery process. VIRCA's goal is to improve cassava for resistance to the viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology, and to field test, obtain regulatory approval for and deliver these products to small landholder farmers. During Phase I of the project, proof of concept was achieved by production and testing of virus resistant plants under greenhouse and confined field trials in East Africa. In VIRCA Phase II, two farmer-preferred varieties will be modified for resistance to CBSD and CMD, and lead events identified after molecular and field screening. In addition to delivery of royalty-free improved planting materials for farmers, VIRCA capacity building activities are enhancing indigenous capability for crop biotechnology in East Africa.

  8. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  9. Phenotypic diversity of starch granules in cassava germplasm.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L M; Brito, A C; Carmo, C D; Oliveira, P H G A; Oliveira, E J

    2017-04-13

    Demand for the development of cassava varieties with different native starches has guided the search for these characteristics in the germplasm of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of cassava accessions for root and starch granule characteristics to guide the future industrial application of this species. Starches from 56 accessions were evaluated for the number of granules in 1 g of starch (NTG), area (AG, μm(2)), length (LG, μm), width (WG, μm), starch granule roundness (Round), dry matter content in the roots (DMC, %), pulp color (PulCo), and cyanogenic compounds (HCN). Images captured by light microscopy were used to determine the average phenotypic values, and these were further analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) considering mixed data (quantitative and qualitative). Significant differences between the cassava accessions for all traits measured revealed wide variability in starch granule characteristics. Four diversity groups with better fitness for the classification of cassava accessions based on PulCo were identified, in comparison with HCN. Accessions with differential starch characteristics were identified, and crossings for the generation of segregating populations in order to obtain table and industry varieties have been proposed.

  10. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-08-19

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  11. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

  12. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-10-10

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology.

  13. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The heat-girdling technique, which is known to inhibit photoassimilate translocation, was performed on the petiole of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the ...

  14. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  15. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  16. Polymorphism of starch pathway genes in cassava.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L M; Brito, A C; Carmo, C D; Oliveira, E J

    2016-12-02

    The distribution and frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help to understand changes associated with characteristics of interest. We aimed to evaluate nucleotide diversity in six genes involved in starch biosynthesis in cassava using a panel of 96 unrelated accessions. The genes were sequenced, aligned, and used to obtain values for nucleotide diversity (π), segregating sites (θ), Tajima's D test, and neighbor-joining (NJ) clustering. On average, one SNP per 147 and 171 bp was identified in exon and intron regions, respectively. Thirteen heterozygous loci were found. Three of seven SNPs in the exon region resulted in non-synonymous replacement or four synonymous substitutions. However, no associations were noted between SNPs and root dry-matter content. The parameter π ranged from 0.0001 (granule bound starch synthase I) to 0.0033 (α-amylase), averaging 0.0011, while θ ranged from 0.00014 (starch branching enzyme) to 0.00584 (starch synthase I), averaging 0.002353. The θ diversity value was typically double that of the π. Results of the D test did not suggest any evidence of deviance of neutrality in these genes. Among the evaluated accession, 82/96 were clustered using the NJ method but without a clear separation of the root dry-matter content, root pulp coloration, and classification of the cyanogenic compound content. High variation in genes of the starch biosynthetic pathway can be used to identify associations with the functional properties of starch for the use of polymorphisms for selection purposes.

  17. Flight dynamics of rotorcraft in steep high-g turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.

    1982-01-01

    An analyticl procedure developed to permit a systematic examination of rotorcraft flight dynamics in steep high-g turns is presented. The procedure is used in a numerical investigation of a tilt-rotor aircraft and three single-rotor helicopters that have different types of main rotor systems. The results indicate (1) that strong coupling in longitudinal and lateral-directional motions exists for these rotorcraft in high-g turns; (2) that for single-rotor helicopters, the direction of turn has a significant influence on flight dynamics; and (3) that a stability and control augmentation system that is designed on the basis of standard small-disturbance equations of motion from steady straight and level flight and that otherwise performs satisfactorily in operations near 1 g, becomes significantly degraded in steep turning flight.

  18. Damage mechanisms and influence of gradation for steep riprap

    SciTech Connect

    Rohan, K.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Lefebvre, G. ); Dascal, O. )

    1994-03-01

    Model tests in a laboratory flume were performed to verify certain hypotheses put forward to explain steep riprap behavior observed in the field at several embankment dam sites. The laboratory study has focused on riprap degradation under wave attack, and on the influence of fine blocks incorporated into riprap. Unlike flatter riprap, steep riprap is characterized by a low rate of damage until a point of acceleration, after which damage progresses rapidly. At that stage, damage is characterized by sliding and crumbling, which results in an upward propagation of damage toward the crest. The inclusion of a portion of small blocks into the riprap significantly reduces the stability of seep riprap. This detrimental effect is gradually reduced as the riprap slope becomes flatter.

  19. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  20. Enrichment of nutrient quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with microbial proteins.

    PubMed

    Antai, S P

    1990-10-01

    The effect of fermentation on the nutrient quality of cassava was investigated. Chemical analysis revealed a general increase in ash, fibre and crude protein content of the fermented cassava mash, while the carbohydrate content showed a substantial decrease. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation resulted in a slight protein enrichment of the fermentated cassava mash. When active yeast cells were inoculated into the cassava mash before fermentation, the yeast cells grew and generated additional cell mass which was reflected in a higher content of crude protein in the fermented cassava mash. Results obtained also revealed that 3.3% concentration of yeast cell inoculum added to cassava mash before commencement of fermentation was optimum for maximal crude protein formation.

  1. Cassava brown streak disease: a threat to food security in Africa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Legg, James P; Kanju, Edward; Fauquet, Claude M

    2015-05-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has emerged as the most important viral disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Africa and is a major threat to food security. CBSD is caused by two distinct species of ipomoviruses, Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus, belonging to the family Potyviridae. Previously, CBSD was reported only from the coastal lowlands of East Africa, but recently it has begun to spread as an epidemic throughout the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. This new spread represents a major threat to the cassava-growing regions of West Africa. CBSD-resistant cassava cultivars are being developed through breeding, and transgenic RNA interference-derived field resistance to CBSD has also been demonstrated. This review aims to provide a summary of the most important studies on the aetiology, epidemiology and control of CBSD and to highlight key research areas that need prioritization. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Emplacement and composition of steep-sided domes on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Anderson, Steven W.; Crown, David A.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    2000-11-01

    Steep-sided domes on Venus have surface characteristics that can provide information on their emplacement, including relatively smooth upper surfaces, radial and polygonal fracture patterns, and pits. These characteristics indicate that domes have surface crusts which are relatively unbroken, have mobile interiors after emplacement, and preserve fractures from only late in their history in response to endogenous growth or sagging of the dome surface. We have calculated the time necessary to form a 12-cm-thick crust for basalt and rhyolite under current terrestrial and Venusian ambient conditions. A 12-cm-thick crust will form in all cases in <10 hours. Although Venusian lava flows should develop a brittle carapace during emplacement, only late-stage brittle fractures are preserved at steep-sided domes. We favor an emplacement model where early-formed surface crusts are entrained or continually annealed as they deform to accommodate dome growth. Entrainment and annealing of fractures are not mutually exclusive processes and thus may both be at work during steep-sided dome emplacement. Our results are most consistent with basaltic compositions, as rhyolitic lavas would quickly form thick crusts which would break into large blocks that would be difficult to entrain or anneal. However, if Venus has undergone large temperature excursions in the past (producing ambient conditions of 800-1000 K [e.g., Bullock and Grinspoon, 1996, 1998]), rhyolitic lavas would be unable to form crusts at high surface temperatures and could produce domes with surface characteristics consistent with those of Venusian steep-sided domes.

  3. On the existence of smooth Cauchy steep time functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-06-01

    A simple proof (based on results in Chruściel et al 2015 Ann. Henri Poincaré arXiv:1301.2909) is given that every globally hyperbolic spacetime admits a smooth Cauchy steep time function. This result is useful in order to show that globally hyperbolic spacetimes can be isometrically embedded in Minkowski spacetimes and that they split as a product. The proof is based on a recent result on the differentiability of Geroch’s volume functions.

  4. Katabatic flow observations over a steep alpine slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldroyd, Holly; Pardyjak, Eric; Calaf, Marc; Giometto, Marco; Huwald, Hendrik; parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Katabatic flows, or downslope drainage flows, are thermally driven winds generated over sloping terrain when the surface is colder than the adjacent air and synoptic forcing is weak. This near-surface temperature inversion generates a buoyancy field such that denser, cooler air near the surface tends to sink down the slope and form the katabatic flow. Often these flows can be exploited for wind energy, and they are important in predicting pollution transport in mountainous regions and the formation of large cold air pools in valleys and basins. Mean characteristics of katabatic flows over gentle slopes are well documented. However, small-scale observations of turbulence inside the katabatic jet are less common, especially over very steep slopes in highly complex topography. Summertime measurements over a steep slope (36.5°) in a narrow alpine valley (Val Ferret, Switzerland) were taken with the aim of better understanding the near-surface turbulent fluxes that govern the local slope flows. Here, a weak katabatic jet with a height less than 1 m characterizes the mean flow. High-resolution, near-surface temperature measurements suggest a shallow internal boundary layer within the katabatic layer. Additionally, the turbulent heat flux varies significantly over the 6 m measurement layer. Hence, Monin-Obukhov Similarity theory (MOST) may be invalid for steep slopes. Turbulent statistics such as velocity and temperature variances, fluxes of momentum and heat, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and turbulent Prandtl number are compared to those obtained in large eddy simulations (LES) of idealized steep sloping terrain.

  5. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    PubMed

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-05-21

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  6. Sidewall spacer optimization for steep switching junctionless transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manish; Kranti, Abhinav

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we analyze the impact of a high permittivity (high-κ) sidewall spacer and gate dielectric on the occurrence of sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (S-swing) in symmetrical junctionless (JL) double gate (DG) transistors. It is shown that steep S-swing values (≤10 mV/decade) can be achieved in JL devices with a combination of a high permittivity (high-κ) gate dielectric and a narrow low permittivity (low-κ) sidewall spacer. Implementation of a wider high-κ spacer will diminish the degree of impact ionization by the influence of the fringing component of the gate electric field, and will not be useful for steep off-to-on current transition. A wider spacer with low-κ and a narrow spacer with high-κ permittivity will be useful to limit the latching effect that can occur at lower temperatures (250 K). For high temperature operation, the decrease in the impact ionization rate can be compensated by designing a JL transistor with a thicker silicon film. The work demonstrates opportunities to enhance impact ionization at sub bandgap voltages, and proposes optimal guidelines for selecting a sidewall spacer to facilitate steep switching in JL transistors.

  7. Formation mechanism of steep wave front in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M. Kasuya, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kobayashi, T.; Arakawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, T.; Yagi, M.

    2015-03-15

    Bifurcation from a streamer to a solitary drift wave is obtained in three dimensional simulation of resistive drift waves in cylindrical plasmas. The solitary drift wave is observed in the regime where the collisional transport is important as well as fluctuation induced transport. The solitary drift wave forms a steep wave front in the azimuthal direction. The phase of higher harmonic modes are locked to that of the fundamental mode, so that the steep wave front is sustained for a long time compared to the typical time scale of the drift wave oscillation. The phase entrainment between the fundamental and second harmonic modes is studied, and the azimuthal structure of the stationary solution is found to be characterized by a parameter which is determined by the deviation of the fluctuations from the Boltzmann relation. There are two solutions of the azimuthal structures, which have steep wave front facing forward and backward in the wave propagation direction, respectively. The selection criterion of these solutions is derived theoretically from the stability of the phase entrainment. The simulation result and experimental observations are found to be consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  8. Steep waves in free-surface flow past narrow topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Stephen L.; Binder, Benjamin J.; Mattner, Trent W.; Denier, James P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we compute steep forced solitary wave solutions for the problem of free-surface flow over a localised topographic disturbance in an otherwise flat horizontal channel bottom. A single forced solitary wave and a double-crested forced solitary wave solution are shown to exist, both of which approach the Stokes limiting configuration of an included angle of 12 0° and a stagnation point at the wave crests. The solution space for the topographically forced problem is compared to that found in Wade et al. ["On the free-surface flow of very steep forced solitary waves," J. Fluid Mech. 739, 1-21 (2014)], who considered forcing due to a localised distribution of pressure applied to the free surface. The main feature that differentiates the two types of forcing is an additional solution that exists in the pressure-forced problem, a steep wave with a cusp at a single wave crest. Our numerical results suggest that this cusped-wave solution does not exist in the topographically forced problem.

  9. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  10. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  11. Correlation of Chemical Compositions of Cassava Varieties to Their Resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Osipitan, Adebola A.; Sangowusi, Victoria T.; Lawal, Omoniyi I.; Popoola, Kehinde O.

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0–10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index <0.8 and were classified as resistant to larger grain borer damage, while others with selection index >0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

  12. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index <0.8 and were classified as resistant to larger grain borer damage, while others with selection index >0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas.

  13. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  14. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  16. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  17. Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; Williams, F.

    1996-10-01

    Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

  18. Process for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Petaenen, P.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquors consisting essentially of the steps of: (a) evaporating water from the liquor in a concentrator vessel to increase the solids concentration by heating under pressure greater than atmospheric to a temperature above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; (b) feeding the liquor from the concentrator vessel to an expansion vessel where the pressure and temperature are lowered but still maintained above the atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor to further increase the solids concentration of the liquor; (c) feeding the liquor from the expansion vessel to a second expansion vessel and mixing the liquor therein with ashes fed into said second expansion vessel under pressure and further expansion evaporating the mixture while still maintaining the mixture above atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; and (d) feeding the mixture into a soda-ash furnace while maintaining the raised pressure and temperature in the second expansion vessel.

  19. Constituents and secondary metabolite natural products in fresh and deteriorated cassava roots.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R; Blagbrough, Ian S

    2010-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fresh roots and roots suffering from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) has been carried out. The first isolation and identification of galactosyl diacylglycerides from fresh cassava roots is reported, as well as beta-carotene, linamarin, and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside. The hydroxycoumarin scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin were identified from cassava roots during PPD, as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin. There is no isoscopoletin in cassava roots during PPD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    PubMed Central

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber. PMID:25937983

  1. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s.

  2. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Using a High-Density Oligomicroarray under Drought Stress in Various Genotypes of Cassava: An Important Tropical Crop

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Morosawa, Taeko; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishitani, Manabu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Despite its global importance, the development of cassava microarray tools has not been well established. Here, we describe the development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide Agilent microarray representing ∼20 000 cassava genes and how it can be applied to expression profiling under drought stress using three cassava genotypes (MTAI16, MECU72 and MPER417-003). Our results identified about 1300 drought stress up-regulated genes in cassava and indicated that cassava has similar mechanisms for drought stress response and tolerance as other plant species. These results demonstrate that our microarray is a useful tool for analysing the cassava transcriptome and that it is applicable for various cassava genotypes. PMID:22619309

  4. Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Abarshi, M M; Mohammed, I U; Jeremiah, S C; Legg, J P; Kumar, P Lava; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

    2012-01-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were developed for the detection of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in single and mixed infections with cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in a tropical crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta). CMBs contain ssDNA as their genome (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) while CBSVs are made up of positive sense ssRNA (genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae), and they cause the economically important cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases, respectively, in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic methodologies have long been available for CMBs but they are limited for CBSVs especially in mixed infections. In this study, the two CBSVs, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) occurring singly or in mixed infection with CMBs, African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic virus were detected in a single RT-PCR using both previously described and newly designed virus-specific primers. These protocols were highly efficient for detecting CBSVs compared to the existing methods and have great potential to minimize sample handling and contamination. As well as improving the diagnosis of cassava viruses, the development of multiplex RT-PCR protocols have revealed the common occurrence of mixed infections by CBSV and CBSUV in cassava fields of Tanzania and Kenya, which was contrary to the common belief until recently that these two viruses have existed separately. These protocols have implications for diagnosis and epidemiological studies on cassava virus diseases in Eastern Africa.

  5. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  6. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-20

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  7. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  8. Geographic association of liquor licenses and gunshot wounds in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Marie; Kucybala, Karolina; Behrens, Jess; Schwulst, Steven; Esposito, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The association between alcohol and interpersonal violence is well established. Up to 80% of homicide perpetrators and victims are known to have used alcohol before the incident. However, the association between proximity to a liquor-selling establishment and gun violence is more controversial. Scene address data from the Illinois State Trauma Registry from 1999 to 2009 were used to geocode all gunshot wounds (GSWs) presenting to trauma centers in Chicago during the study period. These data were linked to publicly available US Census Demographic Data and City of Chicago Liquor Board data. A combination of ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression was performed to identify "risk regions" throughout the study area. Logistic regression analysis was then performed to assess the independent effect of proximity to an establishment with a liquor license (LL) on trauma center admissions for GSWs. A total of 11,744 GSWs were geocoded. No association between LLs and GSWs was identified for the city overall (odds ratio [OR] .97, 95% confidence interval [CI] .96 to .99). However, 5 distinct regions of influence between LLs and GSWs were found. In regions with the highest association, likelihood of a GSW near a packaged LL was extraordinarily high (OR 518.08, 95% CI 10.23 to 1,000), and tavern LLs were also very significant (OR 21.51, 95% CI 1.81 to 255.53). We found that proximity to an establishment with an LL was a strong independent predictor of GSW incidence for many areas of the city, even after controlling for neighborhood characteristics. However, this association was not demonstrable for the entire city, and, in fact, marked regional variation was apparent. These data may contribute to our understanding of the interplay between alcohol and violent injury disparities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  10. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2003-10-20

    This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below

  12. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is ultrafiltered to favorably affect the properties of the KBL permeate. The major property to be changed is viscosity. If the high molecular weight lignin is removed by ultrafiltration, the KBL permeate should show a significant drop in viscosity. An objective of the work reported was to examine how much KBL viscosity is lowered relative to membrane and membrane pore size used in the ultrafiltration. Another objective was an initial evaluation of ultrafiltration equipment and membranes. Operating characteristics were determined for selected equipment and membranes. Decreases in KBL permeate viscosity were indeed seen. (LEW)

  13. Facilitating normal physiology in the presence of meconium stained liquor.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Julika

    2015-06-01

    There is sufficient evidence to support the practice of optimal cord clamping in normal labour and birth. In this paper, the physiology of meconium stained liquor (MSL), meconium aspiration syndrome and the practice of optimal cord clamping in babies born through MSL, is discussed. Guidelines suggest not stimulating babies born through MSL, at birth, to avoid aspiration. However, the obvious stimulation resulting from early clamping and cutting the cord, leaves a baby with no choice but to inhale, but this appears to be overlooked in practice. Midwives in their role as supporters of normal physiology are in a position to question this routine intervention in the absence of any evidence to support it.

  14. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  15. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  16. Assessing the potential of biofortified cassava for improving indices of vitamin A status: Update on human studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava usually contains essentially no beta-carotene (BC). However, cassava is being bred to increase its BC content. Our objective was to test how effective biofortified cassava is at increasing serum BC and vitamin A (VA) concentrations in healthy adult women. Ten American women participated in ...

  17. Why mosaic? Gene expression profiling of African cassava mosaic virus-infected cassava reveals the effect of chlorophyll degradation on symptom development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Yang, Jun; Bi, Huiping; Zhang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease, caused by cassava begomoviruses, is the most serious disease for cassava in Africa. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. We employed high throughput digital gene expression profiling based on the Illumina Solexa sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptional response of cassava to African cassava mosaic virus infection. We found that 3,210 genes were differentially expressed in virus-infected cassava leaves. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that genes implicated in photosynthesis were most affected, consistent with the chlorotic symptoms observed in infected leaves. The upregulation of chlorophyll degradation genes, including the genes encoding chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase, and downregulation of genes encoding the major apoproteins in light-harvesting complex II were confirmed by qRT-PCR. These findings, together with the reduction of chlorophyll b content and fewer grana stacks in the infected leaf cells, reveal that the degradation of chlorophyll plays an important role in African cassava mosaic virus symptom development. This study will provide a road map for future investigations into viral pathogenesis. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David C.; Akylas, T. R.

    2002-02-01

    The stability of steep gravity capillary solitary waves in deep water is numerically investigated using the full nonlinear water-wave equations with surface tension. Out of the two solution branches that bifurcate at the minimum gravity capillary phase speed, solitary waves of depression are found to be stable both in the small-amplitude limit when they are in the form of wavepackets and at finite steepness when they consist of a single trough, consistent with observations. The elevation-wave solution branch, on the other hand, is unstable close to the bifurcation point but becomes stable at finite steepness as a limit point is passed and the wave profile features two well-separated troughs. Motivated by the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), we also consider the forced problem of a localized pressure distribution applied to the free surface of a stream with speed below the minimum gravity capillary phase speed. We find that the finite-amplitude forced solitary-wave solution branch computed by Vanden-Broeck & Dias (1992) is unstable but the branch corresponding to Rayleigh’s linearized solution is stable, in agreement also with a weakly nonlinear analysis based on a forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The significance of viscous effects is assessed using the approach proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1997): while for free elevation waves the instability predicted on the basis of potential-flow theory is relatively weak compared with viscous damping, the opposite turns out to be the case in the forced problem when the forcing is strong. In this régime, which is relevant to the experiments of Longuet-Higgins & Zhang (1997), the effects of instability can easily dominate viscous effects, and the results of the stability analysis are used to propose a theoretical explanation for the persistent unsteadiness of the forced wave profiles observed in the experiments.

  19. Transient river response, captured by channel steepness and its concavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacker, Veerle; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Govers, Gerard; Molina, Armando; Campforts, Benjamin; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain rivers draining tropical regions are known to be great conveyor belts carrying efficiently more than half of the global sediment flux to the oceans. Many tropical mountain areas are located in tectonically active belts where the hillslope and stream channel morphology are rapidly evolving in response to changes in base level. Here, we report basin-wide denudation rates for an east-west transect through the tropical Andes. Hillslope and channel morphology vary systematically from east to west, reflecting the transition from high relief, strongly dissected topography in the escarpment zones into relatively low relief topography in the inter-Andean valley. The spatial pattern of differential denudation rates reflects the transient adjustment of the landscape to rapid river incision following tectonic uplift and river diversion. In the inter-Andean valley, upstream of the wave of incision, slopes and river channels display a relatively smooth, concave-up morphology and denudation rates (time scale of 104-105 a) are consistently low (3 to 200 mm/ka). In contrast, slopes and river channels of rejuvenated basins draining the eastern cordillera are steep to very steep; and the studied drainage basins show a wide range of denudation rate values (60 to 400 mm/ka) that increase systematically with increasing basin mean slope gradient, channel steepness, and channel convexity. Drainage basins that are characterised by strong convexities in their river longitudinal profiles systematically have higher denudation rates. As such, this is one of the first studies that provides field-based evidence of a correlation between channel concavity and basin mean denudation rates, consistent with process-based fluvial incision models.

  20. Flow during the evening transition over steep alpine slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Oldroyd, H. J.; Calaf Bracons, M.; Daniels, M. H.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.

    2011-12-01

    In steep alpine environments, surface heating and cooling plays an important role on the wind circulation, turbulence and flow patterns. These circulations undergo a strong diurnal cycle, with upslope winds during the day and drainage winds at night. Little is known about the transition between these two wind regimes over very steep slopes due to the difficulties involved with making field measurements. In both summers 2010 and 2011, we conducted a field campaign on a steep, west-facing slope of the Swiss Alps (Val Ferret, Valais) to study the evening transition of slope flows. Two eddy-covariance towers and two weather stations were installed on an experimental transect with slopes ranging from 20° to 45°. Large-scale valley circulations were observed with tethered balloon profiling and a wind lidar. The results show that topographic shading controls the daytime slope flow destruction and initiation of the evening transition. Following the movement of a 'shading front', the incoming shortwave radiation decreases by several hundreds of W/m2 in just a few minutes. The associated reduction in skin temperatures is substantial, and reductions on the order of 10°C in less than 10 min can be observed. This is followed by an early-evening calm period with light wind speeds and very small turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Finally, growing from the surface upwards, a shallow, local katabatic flow (skin flow) forms. Additionally, an analysis of the TKE budget close to the surface shows that the buoyancy flux overpowers the shear production in the last hours before the local sunset, while at night shear production dominates the TKE budget.

  1. Seismic Monitoring of Bedload Transport in a Steep Mountain Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, D. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.; Turowski, J. M.; Wyss, C. R.; Badoux, A.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting river channel evolution relies on an understanding of when and at what rate coarse sediment moves in a channel. Unfortunately, our predictive abilities are limited by the logistical challenges and potential dangers inherent in current techniques for monitoring sediment transport during flood events, especially in steep, highly active landscapes. However, the use of seismic signals near rivers shows promise as a safe, low-cost method for studying sediment transport in these settings. Seismic signals near rivers are partially generated by both water turbulence and bedload sediment particles impacting the river bed during transport. Here, we attempt to isolate the seismic signatures of discharge and bedload transport in a steep mountain channel by examining high-frequency broadband seismic data from the well-studied Erlenbach stream (local slope of ~10%) in the Swiss Prealps. The extensive monitoring infrastructure and long history of sediment transport data at this field site allow us to independently constrain discharge, precipitation, and bedload transport during flood events over a two month field campaign. We perform a general linear least squares inversion of the seismic data, exploiting times with isolated rain or discharge events, to identify the spectral signals of water turbulence, rain, and bedload sediment transport. We find that the signal generated by rain exhibits a roughly broadband spectrum, while discharge and sediment transport exhibit power primarily in lower frequency bands. Our preliminary results indicate that with only precipitation and discharge data, it is possible to isolate the seismic signal of bedload transport in steep fluvial environments. Seismic studies may therefore have the potential to revolutionize our ability to monitor and understand these environments.

  2. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  3. Complete genome sequencing of two causative viruses of cassava mosaic disease in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oteng-Frimpong, R; Levy, Y; Torkpo, S K; Danquah, E Y; Offei, S K; Gafni, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMV), caused by one or a combination of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is ranked among the most important constraints to profitable and efficient production of cassava. Effective control measures require in-depth knowledge of the viral causative agent. Using rolling-circle amplification and unique enzymes, the full genome of two species of cassava mosaic geminivirus isolated from infected cassava plants in Ghana were cloned into pCambia 1300 and pET-28b. The sequences of the genome were determined on an ABI sequencer and a pairwise comparison was performed with other cassava-infecting geminiviruses from different countries. It was revealed that cassava grown in Ghana is attacked by two species of geminivirus in either single or mixed infections. These are the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV)-like, with high sequence similarity of 94% and 80%, respectively, between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of each virus, and 66% and 41% similarity of the common region (CR) (for A and B accordingly). The DNA-A of ACMV and EACMV-like contained 2781 and 2800 nucleotides, respectively, while their DNA-B components had 2725 and 2734 nucleotides, respectively. ACMV DNA-A was over 97% similar to those of other ACMVs from the continent. In contrast, EACMV-like DNA-A was over 98% similar to the isolates from Cameroon and other West African countries, and less than 88% similar to other EACMV species. Thus ACMV and EACMV-like were named African cassava mosaic virus-Ghana and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus-Ghana. Computer analysis revealed that their genome arrangement follows the typical old world bipartite begomovirus genome. The association of these two species and their interaction might account for the severe symptoms observed on infected plants in the field and in the greenhouse.

  4. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  5. Wave Reflection on a Two-Slope Steep Beach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Wave reflection of sea-swell (0.05–0.20 Hz) energy on a two-slope (1/7.6 nearshore and 1/19 offshore) steep beach with no...offshore components to determine reflection. The long data set captured a wide range of wave conditions at various tidal stages. Observations show low...amplitude long period waves produced energy reflection coefficients up to 80%, with most in the 30–50% range. There was a measured increase in the

  6. The discovery of diffuse steep spectrum sources in Abell 2256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Intema, H. T.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Clarke, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Hierarchical galaxy formation models indicate that during their lifetime galaxy clusters undergo several mergers. An example of such a merging cluster is Abell 2256. Here we report on the discovery of three diffuse radio sources in the periphery of Abell 2256, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Aims: The aim of the observations was to search for diffuse ultra-steep spectrum radio sources within the galaxy cluster Abell 2256. Methods: We have carried out GMRT 325 MHz radio continuum observations of Abell 2256. V, R and I band images of the cluster were taken with the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). Results: We have discovered three diffuse elongated radio sources located about 1 Mpc from the cluster center. Two are located to the west of the cluster center, and one to the southeast. The sources have a measured physical extent of 170, 140 and 240 kpc, respectively. The two western sources are also visible in deep low-resolution 115-165 MHz Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) images, although they are blended into a single source. For the combined emission of the blended source we find an extreme spectral index (α) of -2.05 ± 0.14 between 140 and 351 MHz. The extremely steep spectral index suggests these two sources are most likely the result of adiabatic compression of fossil radio plasma due to merger shocks. For the source to the southeast, we find that {α < -1.45} between 1369 and 325 MHz. We did not find any clear optical counterparts to the radio sources in the WHT images. Conclusions: The discovery of the steep spectrum sources implies the existence of a population of faint diffuse radio sources in (merging) clusters with such steep spectra that they have gone unnoticed in higher frequency (⪆1 GHz) observations. Simply considering the timescales related to the AGN activity, synchrotron losses, and the presence of shocks, we find that most massive clusters should possess similar sources. An exciting possibility

  7. Global dynamics for steep nonlinearities in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, Tomáš; Harker, Shaun; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Oka, Hiroe

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to obtaining mathematically rigorous results on the global dynamics of ordinary differential equations. We study switching models of regulatory networks. To each switching network we associate a Morse graph, a computable object that describes a Morse decomposition of the dynamics. In this paper we show that all smooth perturbations of the switching system share the same Morse graph and we compute explicit bounds on the size of the allowable perturbation. This shows that computationally tractable switching systems can be used to characterize dynamics of smooth systems with steep nonlinearities.

  8. Katabatic flows over steep alpine slopes covered with short vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Katul, G. G.; Pardyjak, E.; Huwald, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Katabatic flows are high density air flows traversing down a slope under the action of a gravitational force. These flows can be exploited for wind energy and are gaining importance in predicting scalar transport (e.g. pollutants, water vapor, CO2 drainage) within mountainous regions and in forming large cold air pools in valleys and basins. Summertime measurements over a steep slope in a narrow alpine valley (Val Ferret, Switzerland) were collected so as to explore the components of the mean longitudinal momentum balance leading to the formation of the katabatic jet. During clear-sky nights with weak synoptic forcing, observations show a strong, near-surface temperature gradient and a subsequent, weak katabatic jet with a peak velocity at less than 1 m from the surface. Two distinct log-linear layers, both in mean velocity and in temperature, characterize the katabatic jet layer (up to ~6 m) where fluxes of heat and momentum vary with height. This departure from the so-called constant-stress region typifies difficulties in modeling and predicting flows over steep topography. To circumvent some of these difficulties, a one-dimensional model for the vertical flux gradient that couples momentum and thermal balances was used to predict the mean velocity and turbulent flux profiles for katabatic flows over steep, vegetated slopes. The model predicts realistic profiles of heat and momentum fluxes in comparison with the field measurements. For example, in the case of the modeled momentum flux, the sign of the flux changes at the height of peak velocity and the higher gradient near the surface is well reproduced. It is conjectured that unsteadiness in synoptic scale conditions can be partly accommodated via a dynamic mean horizontal pressure gradient at a point. Order of magnitude calculations suggest that this term can be larger than the so-called thermal wind term when the katabatic flow is sufficiently shallow, as is the case on steep slopes. This model may serve as a

  9. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  10. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E.C.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21–24 nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21 nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5′-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  11. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-02-28

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples.

  12. Antioxidant phenolic compounds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo; Hu, Lifei; Mei, Wenli; Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Luo, Ying; Wei, Xiaoyi; Dai, Haofu

    2011-12-07

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), ficusol (8), balanophonin (9) and ethamivan (10), which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference) > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound) > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  13. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  14. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption..., sale, manufacture and distribution of liquor within Lands Under the Jurisdiction of the Federated... Rancheria (``Reservation''), in order to permit alcohol sales by tribally owned and operated enterprises and...

  15. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... previously regulated the introduction, possession, sale and consumption of liquor under Ordinance 14...-Sparks Indian Colony will continue to be a ``dry'' reservation where the possession or consumption of... Council, but even where a License is issued, the Tribal Council can prohibit or limit liquor...

  16. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... herein defined. (d) Beer. Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction... other substance, patented or not, containing distilled or rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine... liquor or beer. (h) Malt Liquor. Includes beer, strong beer, ale, stout and porter. (i) Package. Any...

  17. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  18. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of..., Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by the Supreme Court in Rice v....

  19. Removal of straw lignin from spent pulping liquor using synthetic cationic and biobased flocculants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous alkaline delignification of wheat straw produces hemicellulose for bioenergy and other applications. After removal of the hemicellulose, spent pulping liquor (SPL) remains. The spent pulping liquor is approximately 28% water, 40% ash, 3% hemicellulose, 25% lignin, 5% protein, and less than...

  20. Bacterial decolorization of black liquor in axenic and mixed condition and characterization of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar

    2011-06-01

    The pulping byproducts (black liquor) cause serious environmental problem due to its high pollution load. In order to search the degradability of black liquor, the potential bacterial strains Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023) were applied in axenic and mixed condition. Results revealed that the mixed bacterial culture are more effective than axenic condition and can reduce 82% COD, 79% AOX, 79% color and 60% lignin after 144 h of incubation period. Additionally, the optimum activity of lignin degrading enzyme was noted at 96 h and characterized as manganese peroxidase (MnP) by SDS–PAGE analysis. Further, the HPLC analysis of control and bacterial degraded sample has shown the reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds of black liquor. The comparative GC-MS analysis of control and degraded black liquor revealed that along with lignin fragment some chlorophenolic compounds 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were detected in black liquor degraded by axenic culture whereas these chlorophenolic compounds were completely absent in black liquor degraded by mixed bacterial culture. These chlorophenol inhibit the oxidative degradation which seems a major reason behind the low degradability of axenic degradation compared to mixed culture. The innovation of this aerobic treatment of alkaline black liquor opens additional possibilities for the better treatment of black liquor along with its metabolic product.

  1. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  2. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  3. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  4. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  5. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  6. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  7. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  8. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  9. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  10. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  11. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  12. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-15

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... storeroom operations. Where the proprietor, in connection with his plant, conducts wholesale liquor dealer operations, or operates a taxpaid storeroom, on, contiguous to, adjacent to, or in the immediate vicinity of...

  14. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  15. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  16. Fourier transform infrared quantification of sugars in pretreated biomass liquors.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M P; Mitri, R K; Eddy, F P; Nguyen, Q A; Gedvilas, L M; Webb, J D

    2000-01-01

    The process of converting renewable lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol requires a number of steps, and pretreatment is one of the most important. Pretreatment usually involves a hydrolysis of the easily hydrolyzed hemi-cellulosic component of biomass using some form of thermal/chemical/mechanical action that results in a product that can be further hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes (the cellulosic portion). The sugars produced can then be fermented to ethanol by fermentative microorganisms. If the pretreatment step is not severe enough, the resultant residue is not as easily hydrolyzed by the cellulase enzyme. More severe pretreatment conditions result in the production of degradation products that are toxic to the fermentative microorganism. In this article, we report the quantitative analysis of glucose, mannose, xylose, and acetic acid using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on liquors from dilute-acid-pretreated soft-wood and hard-wood slurries. Comparison of FTIR and high-performance liquid chromatography quantitative analyses of these liquors are reported. Recent developments in infrared probe technology has enabled the rapid quantification of these sugars by FTIR spectroscopy in the batch reactor during optimization of the pretreatment conditions, or interfaced to the computer controlling a continuous reactor for on-line monitoring and control.

  17. Dietary fiber analysis of cassava using gravimetric methods.

    PubMed

    Rivera, C J; Gerardi, A G; Infante, R B; Carrasco, H J; Rodríguez, O

    1993-03-01

    We report the application of a method which combines digestion with pancreatin and neutral detergent treatment in the analytical study of dietary fiber from cassava. The use of pancreatin previous to the detergent extraction enabled rapid filtration, thus giving more reproducible results for neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose, lignin and pectin were also determined. The values obtained for NDF (4.65%) and pectin (1.17%) are very important, considering their role in the digestive process.

  18. Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava’s evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava’s origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants. PMID:10318928

  19. The Role of a Steepness Parameter in the Exponential Stability of a Model Problem. Numerical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovic, N.

    2011-06-01

    The Nekhoroshev theorem considers quasi integrable Hamiltonians providing stability of actions in exponentially long times. One of the hypothesis required by the theorem is a mathematical condition called steepness. Nekhoroshev conjectured that different steepness properties should imply numerically observable differences in the stability times. After a recent study on this problem (Guzzo et al. 2011, Todorovic et al. 2011) we show some additional numerical results on the change of resonances and the diffusion laws produced by the increasing effect of steepness. The experiments are performed on a 4-dimensional steep symplectic map designed in a way that a parameter smoothly regulates the steepness properties in the model.

  20. Computing nonhydrostatic shallow-water flow over steep terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood and dambreak hazards are not limited to moderate terrain, yet most shallow-water models assume that flow occurs over gentle slopes. Shallow-water flow over rugged or steep terrain often generates significant nonhydrostatic pressures, violating the assumption of hydrostatic pressure made in most shallow-water codes. In this paper, we adapt a previously published nonhydrostatic granular flow model to simulate shallow-water flow, and we solve conservation equations using a finite volume approach and an Harten, Lax, Van Leer, and Einfeldt approximate Riemann solver that is modified for a sloping bed and transient wetting and drying conditions. To simulate bed friction, we use the law of the wall. We test the model by comparison with an analytical solution and with results of experiments in flumes that have steep (31??) or shallow (0.3??) slopes. The law of the wall provides an accurate prediction of the effect of bed roughness on mean flow velocity over two orders of magnitude of bed roughness. Our nonhydrostatic, law-of-the-wall flow simulation accurately reproduces flume measurements of front propagation speed, flow depth, and bed-shear stress for conditions of large bed roughness. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  1. Designing steep, sharp patterns on uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Perkinson, Joy C.; Aziz, Michael J.; Brenner, Michael P.; Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally test a method to fabricate patterns of steep, sharp features on surfaces, by exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces. We show via theory, simulation, and experiment that the steepest parts of the surface evolve as one-dimensional curves that move in the normal direction at constant velocity. The curves are a special solution to the nonlinear equations that arises spontaneously whenever the initial patterning on the surface contains slopes larger than a critical value; mathematically they are traveling waves (shocks) that have the special property of being undercompressive. We derive the evolution equation for the curves by considering long-wavelength perturbations to the one-dimensional traveling wave, using the unusual boundary conditions required for an undercompressive shock, and we show this equation accurately describes the evolution of shapes on surfaces, both in simulations and in experiments. Because evolving a collection of one-dimensional curves is fast, this equation gives a computationally efficient and intuitive method for solving the inverse problem of finding the initial surface so the evolution leads to a desired target pattern. We illustrate this method by solving for the initial surface that will produce a lattice of diamonds connected by steep, sharp ridges, and we experimentally demonstrate the evolution of the initial surface into the target pattern. PMID:27698147

  2. Global theory to understand toroidal drift waves in steep gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua-sheng; Li, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Toroidal drift waves with unconventional mode structures and non-ground eigenstates, which differ from a typical ballooning structure mode, are found to be important recently by large scale global gyrokinetic simulations and especially become dominant at strong gradient edge plasmas [cf. H. S. Xie and Y. Xiao, Phys. Plasmas 22, 090703 (2015)]. The global stability and mode structures of drift wave in this steep edge density and temperature gradients are examined by both direct numerical solutions of a model two-dimensional eigen equation and analytical theory employing WKB-ballooning approach. Theory agrees with numerical solutions quite well. Our results indicate that (i) non-ground eigenstates and unconventional mode structures generally exist and can be roughly described by two parameters "quantum number" l and ballooning angle ϑk , (ii) local model can overestimate the growth rate largely, say, >50 % , and (iii) the narrow steep equilibrium profile leads to twisting (triangle-like) radial mode structures. With velocity space integral, semi-local theory predicts that the critical jump gradient of the most unstable ion temperature gradient mode from ground state l = 0 to non-ground state l = 1 is LT-1R ˜50 . These features can have important consequences to turbulent transport.

  3. Enhanced stochastic fluctuations to measure steep adhesive energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ahmad; Potter, Daniel; Sulchek, Todd A

    2016-12-13

    Free-energy landscapes govern the behavior of all interactions in the presence of thermal fluctuations in the fields of physical chemistry, materials sciences, and the biological sciences. From the energy landscape, critical information about an interaction, such as the reaction kinetic rates, bond lifetimes, and the presence of intermediate states, can be determined. Despite the importance of energy landscapes to understanding reaction mechanisms, most experiments do not directly measure energy landscapes, particularly for interactions with steep force gradients that lead to premature jump to contact of the probe and insufficient sampling of transition regions. Here we present an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach for measuring energy landscapes that increases sampling of strongly adhesive interactions by using white-noise excitation to enhance the cantilever's thermal fluctuations. The enhanced fluctuations enable the recording of subtle deviations from a harmonic potential to accurately reconstruct interfacial energy landscapes with steep gradients. Comparing the measured energy landscape with adhesive force measurements reveals the existence of an optimal excitation voltage that enables the cantilever fluctuations to fully sample the shape and depth of the energy surface.

  4. Enhanced stochastic fluctuations to measure steep adhesive energy landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Ahmad; Potter, Daniel; Sulchek, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Free-energy landscapes govern the behavior of all interactions in the presence of thermal fluctuations in the fields of physical chemistry, materials sciences, and the biological sciences. From the energy landscape, critical information about an interaction, such as the reaction kinetic rates, bond lifetimes, and the presence of intermediate states, can be determined. Despite the importance of energy landscapes to understanding reaction mechanisms, most experiments do not directly measure energy landscapes, particularly for interactions with steep force gradients that lead to premature jump to contact of the probe and insufficient sampling of transition regions. Here we present an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach for measuring energy landscapes that increases sampling of strongly adhesive interactions by using white-noise excitation to enhance the cantilever’s thermal fluctuations. The enhanced fluctuations enable the recording of subtle deviations from a harmonic potential to accurately reconstruct interfacial energy landscapes with steep gradients. Comparing the measured energy landscape with adhesive force measurements reveals the existence of an optimal excitation voltage that enables the cantilever fluctuations to fully sample the shape and depth of the energy surface. PMID:27911778

  5. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  6. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  7. Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

    2014-02-10

    Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement.

  8. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-02-02

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

    2014-09-01

    Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava.

  10. Acid whey powder modification of gari from cassava

    SciTech Connect

    Okezie, B.O.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6.2 to 3.4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75.8 vs. 9.91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29.45. Supplementing gari with relatively inexpensive whey concentrates appears to be a means of overcoming protein energy malnutrition in children.

  11. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  12. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  13. Combination of cassava flour cyanide and urinary thiocyanate measurements of school children in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Paula Cardoso, A; Ernesto, Mario; Nicala, Domingos; Mirione, Estevao; Chavane, Leonardo; N'zwalo, Hipolito; Chikumba, Sergio; Cliff, Julie; Paulo Mabota, A; Rezaul Haque, M; Howard Bradbury, J

    2004-05-01

    The maximum daily cassava flour intake of children may be calculated from determination of the total cyanide content of cassava flour and urinary thiocyanate levels of school children in samples collected at the same time and place. Four sites, two with and two without recent konzo cases, were chosen for study. In two sites with recent konzo cases, 84% and 93% of school children consumed cassava the previous day, and the calculated maximum daily consumption of cassava was over 700 g. In two sites without recent konzo cases, about 50% of school children consumed cassava the previous day and the calculated daily consumption of cassava flour was less than 150 g. By measurements of cyanide in flour and urinary thiocyanate we are therefore able to distinguish between communities whose diet is almost totally reliant on cassava, and who are therefore susceptible to konzo, and those who have a broader diet and are free from konzo. In another calculation it is shown that 4-23% of the essential S-containing amino acids in the cassava flour consumed by children is used up to detoxify and flour cyanide to thiocyanate. This depletion of methionine and cystine may leads to protein deficiency and may contribute to onset of konzo.

  14. The contribution of moulds and yeasts to the fermentation of 'agbelima' cassava dough.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Frisvad, J C; Sefa-Dedeh, S; Jakobsen, M

    1997-09-01

    Agbelima, a fermented cassava meal widely consumed in Ghana, Togo and Benin, is produced by fermenting grated cassava with one of several types of traditional cassava dough inoculum. During fermentation a smooth textured sour dough is produced, the toxicity of cassava is reduced and there is a build up of volatile aroma compounds. Four types of inocula were included in the present investigation. In one type moulds were found to form a dominant part of the microbiota, the species present being Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. nodulum, Geotrichum candidum and a basidiomycete. All these moulds were found to possess cellulase activity which was responsible for the hydrolysis of cassava tuber cellulose during fermentation leading to a breakdown of the coarse texture of cassava dough. The yeasts Candida krusei, C. tropicalis and Zygosaccharomyces spp. were present in high numbers in the four types of inocula including the moudly inoculum. The yeasts C. tropicalis and some strains of Zygosaccharomyces, all of which possessed cellulase activity, were also found to contribute to the modification of cassava texture during fermentation. All yeasts and moulds exhibited linamarase activity and were therefore capable of breaking down the cyanogenic glucosides present in cassava.

  15. Genome-Wide Discovery and Information Resource Development of DNA Polymorphisms in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

  16. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  17. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    PubMed

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  18. Genome Sequence of Phytomonas françai, a Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Latex Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E.; Jaskowska, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the genome sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) latex parasite Phytomonas françai. P. françai infection is linked with the yield-loss disease “chochamento de raizes” (empty roots) in the Unha variety of cassava, a disease characterized by poor root development and chlorosis of the leaves. PMID:28082482

  19. It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption.

    PubMed

    Bradizza, Clara M; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Falco, Diana L

    2006-09-01

    Young adult men and women (N=53) who regularly consume malt liquor (i.e., 40 oz/week) participated in 10 semi-structured focus groups. Group transcripts were analyzed using a multilevel process that focused on recurring themes across multiple groups. Commonly identified themes encompassed positive and negative qualities of malt liquor as well as contexts in which malt liquor was consumed. Some of the themes were corroborated by quantitative data on drinking behavior and other variables. The focus groups were designed to explore the unique characteristics of malt liquor (low price, high alcohol content, large volume packaging) that enhance consumption patterns and increase risk for excessive alcohol use. The combination of qualitative and quantitative data provides a unique and useful perspective for identifying issues for future research on malt liquor consumption.

  20. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine R; Largo, Thomas W; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D

    2015-11-12

    Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.

  1. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  2. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  3. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor.

  4. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  5. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  6. Cassava peel as a replacement for corn in the diet of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, Viviany Lúcia Fernandes dos; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Oliveira, Kelly de; Agostino, Bruna Calvo; Olivo, Paula Martins; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn with cassava peel in the diets of dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were used. The experimental treatments consisted of four replacement levels of corn with cassava peel (0, 33, 66, and 100 %). The replacement of corn with cassava peel linearly decreased the intake and digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, but did not alter the intake of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein. In addition, there was a linear decrease in milk production. The milk components (g/kg) of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were not altered. Although cassava peel decreased intake, digestibility, and milk production, the replacement of corn with cassava peel may be advantageous in locations close to the starch industry.

  7. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  8. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine cellar...

  10. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  11. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  12. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  13. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  15. Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2013-03-01

    The capacity of laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila to promote the oxidative polymerisation of Kraft lignin (KL) was evaluated in several conditions of pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and treatment time. Moreover, different black liquors from the Kraft cooking of Eucalyptus globulus and mixture of Pinus pinaster/E. globulus were evaluated in order to determine the effect of the KL source on the polymerisation reaction. Furthermore, one of these black liquors was fractionated by sequential organic solvent fractionation and the polymerisation of the corresponding fractions was tested. Polymerisation products were analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Structural oxidation and a notably molecular weight increase were attained, reaching a polymer of 69-fold its initial molecular weight depending on the raw lignin. Moreover, optimum values of reaction conditions were obtained: pH 7.3, 70°C, 2UmL(-1) and 2h.

  16. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development

    PubMed Central

    Perera, P. I. P.; Ordoñez, C. A.; Dedicova, B.; Ortega, P. E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu2+ and Fe2+) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  17. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of high-steep slope stability and optimal high-steep slope design by 3D physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Mei-feng; Ren, Fen-hua; Tan, Wen-hui

    2015-01-01

    High-steep slope stability and its optimal excavation design in Shuichang open pit iron mine were analyzed based on a large 3D physical simulation technique. An optimal excavation scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle was successfully implemented at the northwest wall between Nos. 4 and 5 exploration lines of Shuichang Iron Mine, taking into account the 3D scale effect. The physico-mechanical properties of rock materials were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on sample cores from exploration drilling directly from the iron mine. A porous rock-like composite material was formed for the model, and the mechanical parameters of the material were assessed experimentally; specifically, the effect of water on the sample was quantitatively determined. We adopted an experimental setup using stiff modular applied static loading to carry out a visual excavation of the slope at a random depth. The setup was equipped with acoustic emission (AE) sensors, and the experiments were monitored by crack optical acquirement, ground penetrating radar, and close-field photogrammetry to investigate the mechanisms of rock-mass destabilization in the high-steep slope. For the complex study area, the model results indicated a clear correlation between the model's destabilization resulting from slope excavation and the collected monitoring information. During the model simulation, the overall angle of the slope increased by 1-6 degrees in different sections. Dramatically, the modeled excavation scheme saved over 80 million tons of rock from extraction, generating enormous economic and ecological benefits.

  19. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    PubMed

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  20. Steep extinction towards GRB 140506A reconciled from host galaxy observations: Evidence that steep reddening laws are local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Krühler, T.; Christensen, L.; Watson, D.; Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Perley, D. A.; Rhodin, H.; Selsing, J.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Møller, P.; Goldoni, P.; Xu, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.

    2017-05-01

    We present the spectroscopic and photometric late-time follow-up of the host galaxy of the long-duration Swift γ-ray burst GRB 140506A at z = 0.889. The optical and near-infrared afterglow of this GRB had a peculiar spectral energy distribution (SED) with a strong flux-drop at 8000 Å (4000 Å rest-frame) suggesting an unusually steep extinction curve. By analysing the contribution and physical properties of the host galaxy, we here aim at providing additional information on the properties and origin of this steep, non-standard extinction. We find that the strong flux-drop in the GRB afterglow spectrum at <8000 Å and rise at <4000 Å (observers frame) is well explained by the combination of a steep extinction curve along the GRB line of sight and contamination by the host galaxy light at short wavelengths so that the scenario with an extreme 2175 Å extinction bump can be excluded. We localise the GRB to be at a projected distance of approximately 4 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy. Based on emission-line diagnostics of the four detected nebular lines, Hα, Hβ, [O ii] and [O iii], we find the host to be a modestly star forming (SFR = 1.34 ± 0.04 M⊙ yr-1) and relatively metal poor (Z=0.35+0.15-0.11 Z⊙) galaxy with a large dust content, characterised by a measured visual attenuation of AV = 1.74 ± 0.41 mag. We compare the host to other GRB hosts at similar redshifts and find that it is unexceptional in all its physical properties. We model the extinction curve of the host-corrected afterglow and show that the standard dust properties causing the reddening seen in the Local Group are inadequate in describing the steep drop. We thus conclude that the steep extinction curve seen in the afterglow towards the GRB is of exotic origin and issightline-dependent only, further confirming that this type of reddening is present only at very local scales and that it is solely a consequence of the circumburst environment. Based on observations carried out under

  1. Preferential Transport of Coarse Sediment in Steep Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Wildfires can change a source-limited system to a transport-limited system especially in steep mountainous terrain where the erosion threshold has been lowered by a wildfire. Such a situation occurred in the Buffalo and Spring Creek watersheds after the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire, when 1 to 3 m of sediment was deposited in two relatively steep main channels (channel slope equal to 0.02 and 0.04 respectively) after an intense rainstorm of about 110 mm/hour. The bed material was a mixture of coarse grain sizes in both channels. The median size class in Buffalo Creek was 2-4 mm and in Spring Creek it was 4-8 mm. Bedload transport samples were collected in the field using a US BLH-84 sampler for discharge ranging from 0.0036 to 5.2 m3/s. The particle-size distributions for the bedload samples were analyzed to investigate sediment mobility. For each size class, a ratio was calculated equal to the percent of sediment transported divided by the percent of sediment available for transport. The percent available for transport was determined by recalculating the particle-size distribution of the bed material by excluding those sizes that did not move. The average ratio for the median-size class was 1.00 (13 samples) for Buffalo Creek and 0.94 (12 samples) for Spring Creek. In the Buffalo Creek channel, the average ratio for sizes larger than the median size (greater than 2-4 mm) was less than 1.00. Whereas in the Spring Creek channel, the data indicate a preferential transport of sizes larger than the median size with the ratio ranging from 0.86 to 2.22 and averaging 1.42 for the 8-16 mm size class and from 0.37 to 3.86 and averaging 1.28 for the 16-32 mm size class. Possible causes for the difference between Buffalo and Spring Creeks are: 1) the smaller value of the relative roughness (particle diameter/flow depth) in Buffalo Creek, 2) the less steep bed slope in Buffalo Creek, and 3) the difference in the sediment-size distribution

  2. Parameterization of the sediment transport in steep channels with boulders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Tamara; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton

    2015-04-01

    The presence of large relatively immobile boulders in steep mountain rivers is generally not taken into account in the development of equations to predict the bedload, leading to overestimates of the bedload rate by several times when applied to mountain rivers. Sediment transport in steep channels with boulders is herein investigated using 41 laboratory experiments carried out on a steep (longitudinal inclination of 6.7 to 13%), 8 m long (7 m usable) and 0.25 m wide, tilting flume. The experiments were made for varying flume slopes and boulder configurations (combination of boulder dimensionless distance and diameter), and for several sediment supply conditions. 35 experiments are made with boulders and six experiments without boulders. Boulders are herein defined as elements that although not transported by the flow, may move several times their diameter during experiments, mainly due to the scour holes formed around them. Water and poorly sorted sediments are constantly supplied at the flume inlet. Bedload at the channel downstream section, bulk flow velocities and morphological parameters are measured regularly during the experiments. The poorly sorted sediments (d50=9.3 mm, d65=11.9 mm, d30=7.1 mm, d84=16.6 mm, and d90=19.0 mm) are constantly fed into the system by a calibrated sediment feeder situated upstream, and recirculated during the experiments. The experiments show that the sediment transport capacity clearly decreases with the dimensionless boulder distance and is better estimated in terms of critical discharge for incipient motion of mobile sediments than in terms of critical bed shear stress. The channel longitudinal slope shows the strongest impact on the transport capacity, namely in what concerns the critical discharge for beginning of motion. In addition, it is also shown that the sediment transport decreases with boulder density. A sediment transport formula based on excess discharge relative to a critical value, which depends not only on the

  3. Effect of dietary fiber and starch on fecal composition in preschool children consuming maize, amaranth, or cassava flours.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, B R; Rivera, K; Morales, E; Graham, G G

    1991-07-01

    Metabolic balance studies were carried out in young children fed diets based on maize, amaranth, or cassava flours and in corresponding casein controls. Dietary fiber intakes were 22.2, 20.5, and 9.0 g/day for the maize, amaranth, and cassava groups, respectively. Fecal energy losses at least doubled in all test diets when compared with the corresponding controls and could generally be accounted for by recovered fiber in the feces. Fecal starch was also a significant contributor to fecal energy in the cassava group. All cassava fiber was recovered in the feces, whereas only 48.4 and 16.3% were recovered from ingested maize and amaranth. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid (DAPA), an indicator of bacterial mass, was highest in the cassava group. Expired breath hydrogen was highest for those consuming maize or cassava. Resistant starch may have been responsible for the high DAPA and breath hydrogen values in the cassava group.

  4. The radio-optical correlation in steep-spectrum quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, Stephen; Rawlings, Steve; Lacy, Mark; Maddox, Stephen J.; Baker, Joanne C.; Clements, Dave; Lilje, Per B.

    1998-03-01

    Using complete samples of steep-spectrum quasars, we present evidence for a correlation between radio and optical luminosity which is not caused by selection effects, nor caused by an orientation dependence (such as relativistic beaming), nor a by-product of cosmic evolution. We argue that this rules out models of jet formation in which there are no parameters in common with the production of the optical continuum. This is arguably the most direct evidence to date for a close link between accretion onto a black hole and the fuelling of relativistic jets. The correlation also provides a natural explanation for the presence of aligned optical/radio structures in only the most radio-luminous high-redshift galaxies.

  5. What controls channel form in steep mountain streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, M. C.; Lamb, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Steep mountain streams have channel morphologies that transition from alternate bar to step-pool to cascade with increasing bed slope, which affect stream habitat, flow resistance, and sediment transport. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that alternate bars form under large channel width-to-depth ratios, step-pools form in near supercritical flow or when channel width is narrow compared to bed grain size, and cascade morphology is related to debris flows. However, the connection between these process variables and bed slope—the apparent dominant variable for natural stream types—is unclear. Combining field data and theory, we find that certain bed slopes have unique channel morphologies because the process variables covary systematically with bed slope. Multiple stable states are predicted for other ranges in bed slope, suggesting that a competition of underlying processes leads to the emergence of the most stable channel form.

  6. Active Flows on Steep Slopes in Ganges Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-31

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers a steep west-facing slope in southwestern Ganges Chasma, north of the larger canyons of Valles Marineris. The spot was targeted both for the bedrock exposures and to look for active slope processes. We see two distinct flow deposits: lobate flows that are relatively bright, sometimes with dark fringes, and very thin brownish lines that resemble recurring slope lineae (or 'RSL'). Both flows emanate from rocky alcoves. The RSL are superimposed on the lobate deposits (perhaps rocky debris flows), so they are younger and more active. The possible role of water in forming the debris flows and RSL are the subjects of continuing debate among scientists. We will acquire more images here to see if the candidate RSL are active. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21651

  7. De-icers derived from corn steep water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Yun; Montgomery, Rex

    2003-12-01

    Corn steep water (CSW) and other byproducts derived from fermentations and sugar productions are presently forming the base of compositions for de-icing and anti-icing materials. Since the de-icing and anti-icing values are in part a colligative property, increase in the molar concentration of ionic species has been frequently necessary to decrease further the freezing point of this byproducts stream. In the present study this has been achieved by the generation of biodegradable organic acid salts in situ, without the use of chloride or other inorganic salts, by the alkaline degradation of reducing sugars added to corn steep water, which alone is not an efficient de-icer. Reducing sugars, such as glucose, react with alkali metal hydroxides to produce principally hydroxy carboxylic acids that react with the alkali metal hydroxide to form a mixture of organic acid salts. The ionic strength of the resulting solution is increased since each sugar molecule produces nearly two acid molecules upon degradation. The ionic strength necessary to achieve the desired freezing point depression is determined by the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used, with the necessary counter anions being derived from the degradation of the reducing sugar. The amount of the sugar used is that required to result in a near to neutral final solution. The well-known anti-corrosive property of CSW is used in the de-icer preparations, either by conducting the alkaline degradation of the sugar in this medium, or by using water for the degradation of the sugar followed by dilution of the resulting solution with CSW to adjust the viscosity of the final solution to meet the requirements for spraying. The monovalent metal hydroxides are more efficient in producing de-icer solutions than the divalent metal hydroxides.

  8. Geomorphic response detection and quantification in a steep forested torrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezak, Nejc; Grigillo, Dejan; Urbančič, Tilen; Mikoš, Matjaž; Petrovič, Dušan; Rusjan, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Extreme events such as flash floods and debris flows are frequent phenomena that occur in steep torrential catchments; these kinds of events can cause notable geomorphic changes. Repeated terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys were performed in a steep forested catchment of the Kuzlovec torrent (drainage area 0.7 km2) in central Slovenia, where a 200-m long section of the torrent was scanned in 2013, 2014, and 2015. The main aim of this study was to perform the geomorphic response detection in the torrent due to hydro-meteorological events of different magnitudes. After applying several pre-processing steps, digital terrain models (DTMs) with a cell resolution of 5 cm were produced. The geomorphic change detection was performed using the DTM of Difference approach (DoD). Several above-average flow events occurred in the period from 2013 to 2015 (some of them can be regarded as floods). The 2014 August extreme flash flood that was initiated by the rainfall event with a return period exceeding 100 years, where maximum 1-minute rainfall intensities were up to 288 mm/h, led to erosion rates of an order of magnitude higher than average annual erosion rates. Moreover, the analysis of the geomorphic changes shows that the August 2014 flash flood caused intense sediment transport processes that resulted in the changes at the location of the main stream channel thalweg and reduced channel roughness. The unit stream power for the scanned section of the torrent was assessed to be approximately 500 W/m2 during this extreme event. This is above the thresholds that were suggested to differentiate between the situations where significant geomorphic changes can occur and the situations where geomorphic changes are not notable.

  9. An important erosion process on steep burnt hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Nyman, Petter; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Steep forested hillslopes often display a high degree of armouring where diffusive erosion processes preferentially remove the fine fraction of the surface soil. High infiltration capacities, hydraulic resistance to overland flow and physical anchoring by cover plants and litter mean that even the most extreme rainfall events usually do not erode the armouring substantially. We argue that fire (wild or planned) is essential to the mobilization and transport of the armouring by increasing the rates of overland flow and decreasing trapping opportunities. We present evidence of the types of erosion that lead to the stripping of the surface armouring using post-event surveys and high-rate overland flow experiments. The type of erosion depends on the relative abundance of non-cohesive surface material to overland flow, but we found that a particular type of transport dominates that has no representation in current erosion models: On steep slopes overland flow can lead to incipient motion of individual stones that transfer their momentum to other stones leading to a rapid mobilization of the whole non-cohesive, armoured surface layer. Once in motion, the layer quickly separates out into a granular flow front and liquefied body, akin to debris flows in channels. Depending on the size of the event, these hillslope debris flows (HDF) either get trapped or enter into the channel, stripping the hillslope of most armouring on their way. They provide channels with the material and shear stress needed to erode into the channel bed, increasing the risk of channel debris flows. We present a simple physical model of HDF initiation, movement, and possible re-mobilization on hillslopes that was derived from debris flow theory. Understanding this process, its frequency, and magnitude are important for assessing the role of fire in landscape evolution and risk to humans through debris flow impacts.

  10. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Teamed Robots for Exploration and Science in Steep Areas (TRESSA) is a system of three autonomous mobile robots that cooperate with each other to enable scientific exploration of steep terrain (slope angles up to 90 ). Originally intended for use in exploring steep slopes on Mars that are not accessible to lone wheeled robots (Mars Exploration Rovers), TRESSA and systems like TRESSA could also be used on Earth for performing rescues on steep slopes and for exploring steep slopes that are too remote or too dangerous to be explored by humans. TRESSA is modeled on safe human climbing of steep slopes, two key features of which are teamwork and safety tethers. Two of the autonomous robots, denoted Anchorbots, remain at the top of a slope; the third robot, denoted the Cliffbot, traverses the slope. The Cliffbot drives over the cliff edge supported by tethers, which are payed out from the Anchorbots (see figure). The Anchorbots autonomously control the tension in the tethers to counter the gravitational force on the Cliffbot. The tethers are payed out and reeled in as needed, keeping the body of the Cliffbot oriented approximately parallel to the local terrain surface and preventing wheel slip by controlling the speed of descent or ascent, thereby enabling the Cliffbot to drive freely up, down, or across the slope. Due to the interactive nature of the three-robot system, the robots must be very tightly coupled. To provide for this tight coupling, the TRESSA software architecture is built on a combination of (1) the multi-robot layered behavior-coordination architecture reported in "An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots" (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 65, and (2) the real-time control architecture reported in "Robot Electronics Architecture" (NPO-41784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2008), page 28. The combination architecture makes it possible to keep the three robots synchronized and coordinated, to use data

  11. Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Xu, Yanhua

    2011-02-15

    Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration under different operation modes were investigated experimentally in this study. These operation modes were direct nanofiltration, diafiltration, dilute-diafiltration and interval washing-nanofiltration. The four different operation modes were evaluated and compared in terms of glyphosate recovery and NaCl removal. Diafiltration and dilute-diafiltration performed better than direct nanofiltration. The glyphosate loss was between 11.5% and 18.8% when the dilution factor varied from 0.4 to 0.8. Interval washing-nanofiltration alleviated the concentration polarization and membrane fouling to a certain extent. Dilute-diafiltration may be the best operation mode in terms of glyphosate recovery, salt removal and cost.

  12. Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process.

  13. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  14. The corrosion of titanium in alkaline peroxide bleach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental program to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of potential corrosion inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of titanium has been developed. Corrosion rates less than 0.25 mm/y were observed in laboratory bleach liquor at pH 12 to which 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added. At pH 13, with 10 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the corrosion rates were unacceptably high in both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and laboratory bleach liquor solutions (>8.38 mm/y). The preliminary results of inhibitor studies indicated that the addition of 3.7 g/l sodium silicate or 0.01 g/l calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) effectively inhibited the corrosion of titanium exposed to 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in NaOH solutions of pH 12. It was also found that in simulated paper mill chemistries, i.e., basic solutions containing 3.7 g/l sodium silicate and 0.6 g/l EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), corrosion rates increased markedly with the addition of 5 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. However, subsequent additions of peroxide resulted in corrosion rates which were even lower than those found in NaOH. This is believed to be due to the formation of a black scale on the surface of the sample. The addition of magnesium sulfate (MgSO{sub 4}) in the 0.1--0.5 g/l range also was shown to inhibit corrosion in the NaOH solution, but only after prior exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  15. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor.

  16. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  18. Optimization of a corn steep medium for production of ethanol from synthesis gas fermentation by Clostridium ragsdalei.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Jyotisna; Tanner, Ralph S

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation of biomass derived synthesis gas to ethanol is a sustainable approach that can provide more usable energy and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. The effects of various medium components on ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei utilizing syngas components (CO:CO(2)) were investigated, and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used as an inexpensive nutrient source for ethanol production by C. ragsdalei. Elimination of Mg(2+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) decreased ethanol production from 38 to 3.7, 23 and 5.93 mM, respectively. Eliminating Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) or increasing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) concentrations had no effect on ethanol production. However, increased Na(+) concentration (171 mM) inhibited growth and ethanol production. Yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and trace metals were necessary for growth of C. ragsdalei. CSL alone did not support growth and ethanol production. Nutrients limiting in CSL were trace metals, NH(4) (+) and reducing agent (Cys: cysteine sulfide). Supplementation of trace metals, NH(4) (+) and CyS to CSL (20 g l(-1), wet weight basis) yielded better growth and similar ethanol production as compared to control medium. Using 10 g l(-1), the nutritional limitation led to reduced ethanol production. Higher concentrations of CSL (50 and 100 g l(-1)) were inhibitory for cell growth and ethanol production. The CSL could replace yeast extract, vitamins and minerals (excluding NH(4) (+)). The optimized CSL medium produced 120 and 50 mM of ethanol and acetate, respectively. The CSL could provide as an inexpensive source of most of the nutrients required for the syngas fermentation, and thus could improve the economics of ethanol production from biomass derived synthesis gas by C. ragsdalei.

  19. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  20. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors. PMID:25857434

  1. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  2. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  3. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  4. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality.

  5. One-pot quantitative hydrolysis of lignocelluloses mediated by black liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuolin; Sun, Meg M; Su, Chungao; Zhao, Hongmei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhu, Zuodong; Shi, Xianlei; Gu, Kangfu

    2013-01-01

    Black liquor from the kraft process facilitates quantitative biomass hydrolysis converting cellulose and hemicellulose into organic acids such as lactic acid (~50%), and lignin into small molecular aromatics, without gasification and black tar formation. Oxygen transfer between lignin and carbohydrates may be the mechanism. With this method, three tons of lignocellulosic biomass can potentially produce up to one ton of lactic acid, and one ton of small molecular aromatics. This novel usage of black liquor is environmentally viable because it is accompanied by significant emission reduction of particulates, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, most organic sulfur compounds and sulfites of black liquor were converted into sulfates.

  6. A novel method for the determination of black liquor viscosity by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates a novel method for the determination of viscosity in the concentrated black liquors from pulp mill recovery process. The method is based on the kinetic release of methanol (a vapor tracer) to the headspace in a sample closed vial by a multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic technique. Both theoretical and empirical models were proposed for establishing the correlation with the reference method. The results showed that the correlation using either of the models is excellent for the tested black liquor samples (at 110°C). The presented method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for black liquor viscosity related research and applications.

  7. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  8. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  9. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  10. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of malt liquor sales restrictions adopted in 2005 in three liquor stores in a large Midwestern U.S. city. We hypothesized that the restrictions would be associated with crime reductions in adjacent neighborhoods. Using Poisson regression modeling, we compared crime rates two years prior to, and two years following policy adoption. Findings were mixed; malt liquor restrictions were associated with reductions in disorderly conduct citations, but increases in larceny/theft, beyond citywide trends. Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  11. Cassava traits and end-user preference: Relating traits to consumer liking, sensory perception, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Tomlins, Keith; Fliedel, Geneviève; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Westby, Andrew; Hershey, Clair; Dufour, Dominique

    2016-08-05

    Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria. Socio-economic factors such as gender may also be critical. This review leads to questions in relation to the adaptation of cassava breeding to meet consumer needs and preference in order to maximize income, health and food security.

  12. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder.

  13. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop.

  14. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Soluble Starch Synthase Genes in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes. PMID:23888108

  15. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  16. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in Cassava's byproducts].

    PubMed

    Tao, Hai-Teng; Zhang, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Lüi, Fei-Jie; Tai, Jian-Xiang; Li, Kai-Mian

    2009-07-01

    Cassava is a main cultivated tropical crop in China, its rich starch roots are often used to produce fuel ethanol in recent years, so it's a kind of hot biomass energy crops. But cassava's byproducts such as leaves, stems and peels are regarded as waste, and are not fully utilized. Cassava's byproducts contain many nutrients, and can be used to process high value food products. The contents of mineral elements and heavy metals in cassava's byproducts were studied by ICP-MS. The results showed that cassava's byproducts contained many elements necessary to human health, the sequence of macroelements was K>Ca>P> Mg>S>Mn>Zn>Na>Fe>B>Cu, particularly, the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and B ranged from 10 to 800 microg x g(-1) (DW), while the contents of microelements including Mo, Co, Se and Ge ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 microg x g(-1) (DW), which are important to human health. Besides macroelements and microelements, the contents of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb and Hg) were also important to identify the quality of farm products, and the results showed that cassava's byproducts contained little heavy metals except Pb (2.19 microg x g(-1) (DW) in stalk peels). All the data showed that cassava's byproducts accorded with the national hygiene standards.

  17. Ionic-liquid pretreatment of cassava residues for the cogeneration of fermentative hydrogen and methane.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jiabei; Lin, Richen; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Li; Cen, Kefa

    2017-03-01

    An ionic liquid of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to effectively pretreat cassava residues for the efficient enzymatical hydrolysis and cogeneration of fermentative hydrogen and methane. The reducing sugar yield of enzymolysed cassava residues with NMMO pretreatment improved from 36 to 42g/100g cassava residues. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the formation of deep grooves (∼4μm wide) and numerous pores in the cassava residues pretreated with NMMO. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the crystallinity coefficient of NMMO-pretreated cassava residues decreased from 40 to 34. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that crystal cellulose I was partially transformed to amorphous cellulose II in the NMMO-pretreated cassava residues. This transformation resulted in a reduced crystallinity index from 0.85 to 0.77. Hydrogen yield from the enzymolysed cassava residues pretreated with NMMO increased from 92.3 to 126mL/gTVS, and the sequential methane yield correspondingly increased from 79.4 to 101.6mL/g TVS.

  18. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, O. Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J.

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding. PMID:28753668

  19. Variations of five eIF4E genes across cassava accessions exhibiting tolerant and susceptible responses to cassava brown streak disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiuchun; Mandel, M. Alejandra; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yuliang; Ferguson, Morag; Amuge, Teddy; Rounsley, Steve; Liu, Zhixin

    2017-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important tropical subsistence crop that is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in East Africa. The disease is caused by Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Both have a (+)-sense single-stranded RNA genome with a 5’ covalently-linked viral protein, which functionally resembles the cap structure of mRNA, binds to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its analogues, and then enable the translation of viral genomic RNA in host cells. To characterize cassava eIF4Es and their potential role in CBSD tolerance and susceptibility, we cloned five eIF4E transcripts from cassava (accession TMS60444). Sequence analysis indicated that the cassava eIF4E family of proteins consisted of one eIF4E, two eIF(iso)4E, and two divergent copies of novel cap-binding proteins (nCBPs). Our data demonstrated experimentally the coding of these five genes as annotated in the published cassava genome and provided additional evidence for refined annotations. Illumina resequencing data of the five eIF4E genes were analyzed from 14 cassava lines tolerant or susceptible to CBSD. Abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and biallelic variations were observed in the eIF4E genes; however, most of the SNPs were located in the introns and non-coding regions of the exons. Association studies of non-synonymous SNPs revealed no significant association between any SNP of the five eIF4E genes and the tolerance or susceptibility to CBSD. However, two SNPs in two genes were weakly associated with the CBSD responses but had no direct causal-effect relationship. SNPs in an intergenic region upstream of eIF4E_me showed a surprising strong association with CBSD responses. Digital expression profile analysis showed differential expression of different eIF4E genes but no significant difference in gene expression was found between susceptible and tolerant cassava accessions despite the

  20. Variations of five eIF4E genes across cassava accessions exhibiting tolerant and susceptible responses to cassava brown streak disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiuchun; Mandel, M Alejandra; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yuliang; Ferguson, Morag; Amuge, Teddy; Rounsley, Steve; Liu, Zhixin; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2017-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important tropical subsistence crop that is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in East Africa. The disease is caused by Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Both have a (+)-sense single-stranded RNA genome with a 5' covalently-linked viral protein, which functionally resembles the cap structure of mRNA, binds to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its analogues, and then enable the translation of viral genomic RNA in host cells. To characterize cassava eIF4Es and their potential role in CBSD tolerance and susceptibility, we cloned five eIF4E transcripts from cassava (accession TMS60444). Sequence analysis indicated that the cassava eIF4E family of proteins consisted of one eIF4E, two eIF(iso)4E, and two divergent copies of novel cap-binding proteins (nCBPs). Our data demonstrated experimentally the coding of these five genes as annotated in the published cassava genome and provided additional evidence for refined annotations. Illumina resequencing data of the five eIF4E genes were analyzed from 14 cassava lines tolerant or susceptible to CBSD. Abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and biallelic variations were observed in the eIF4E genes; however, most of the SNPs were located in the introns and non-coding regions of the exons. Association studies of non-synonymous SNPs revealed no significant association between any SNP of the five eIF4E genes and the tolerance or susceptibility to CBSD. However, two SNPs in two genes were weakly associated with the CBSD responses but had no direct causal-effect relationship. SNPs in an intergenic region upstream of eIF4E_me showed a surprising strong association with CBSD responses. Digital expression profile analysis showed differential expression of different eIF4E genes but no significant difference in gene expression was found between susceptible and tolerant cassava accessions despite the