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Sample records for cassino beach southernmost

  1. Wave Attenuation on Muddy Bottoms Offshore Cassino Beach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    hypothesized that the mud deposit offshore Cassino Beach is formed by deposition of fine sediments flushing from Patos Lagoon. Fine sediments originated in...5-8m/s) and low fresh water discharges. Figure 1a: Finite element mesh for the 2DH hydrodynamic model: dos Patos Lagoon and adjacent coastal area...Figure 2: The Patos Lagoon system flushing sediments out of the mouth (Modis image) In this proposal, support is

  2. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  3. A field study of coastal dynamics on a muddy coast offshore of Cassino beach, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, K. Todd; Vinzon, Susana B.; Calliari, Lauro J.

    2009-03-01

    Mud deposits near sandy beaches, found throughout the world, are of scientific and societal interest as they form important natural sea defenses by efficiently damping storm waves. A multi-national field experiment to study these phenomena was performed offshore Cassino beach in southern Brazil starting in 2004. This experiment aimed to investigate the formation of an offshore mud deposit, to characterize wave attenuation over potentially mobile muddy bottoms, and to evaluate the performance of models for wave transformation over heterogeneous beds through the measurement of water waves, near-bottom currents, bathymetry, and changes in bottom sediment characteristics. The main instrumentation was a set of wave sensors deployed in a transect from the shoreline across sandy and muddy deposits offshore to a depth of 25 m. Additional sensors, including current meters and optical backscatter sensors, were concentrated at stations in the middle of the mud deposit and in the surf zone to document aspects of the wave boundary layer and lutocline dynamics. This fieldwork also involved the geological and geotechnical characterization of the mud deposit using seismic equipment, echo-sounders, cores, surficial sampling and an in-situ density meter. These sediment samples were subsequently analyzed for density, grain size distribution, mineralogy, rheology and sedimentary structures. In addition, video and radar monitoring equipment were installed to measure the long-term aspects of surf zone damping by fluid mud and any associated morphodynamic responses. This paper provides a summary of environmental conditions monitored during the experiment and describes the major findings of the various investigations. Although data collection was more difficult than anticipated and dramatic wave attenuation involving the onshore transport of fluid mud into the surf zone region was not observed during the instrumented interval, the new methodologies developed and comprehensive observations

  4. Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Beaches are shoreline accumulations of loose sand, gravel or a mixture of the two, that are formed primarily by the action of waves. Beach sediment can be derived from a variety of sources including insular shelves, the adjacent land and upland sources, or other beach locations through alongshore movement of material. Beaches provide critical coastal habitat, such as nesting sites for sea turtles; they act as a buffer protecting adjacent land from storm wave attack; and they are an important cultural and recreational resource. Island beaches are the same as those on the continents, but island beach characteristics typically change over very short distances on account of rapid changes in coastline orientation, exposure to waves, and sediment source.

  5. 8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of girders and Southernmost river pier, Southernmost deck-girder span, underside of deck, looking North - Elk River Bridge, Spanning Elk River at Main Street, Elk River, Sherburne County, MN

  6. Battle Analysis - Cassino: The Second, Third, and Fourth Battles, Offensive, Deliberate Attack, Mountain (Combined), 13 February-18 May 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-23

    rnLardmert of the town of Cassino itself. The New Zealand Division would push past the souther , face of M,on,rte Cassino alonq Route 6. (See Map 7--The Town...elption of the Cassino battleground J. F. T�r . .. ii I The Second, Third, and Fourth battles of Cassino Cassino, so costly in human life and...suffering, .. . was in the end little moore than a victory of the human spirit; an elegy for the comr•icr soldier-; a rmemor8ial to the definitive horror

  7. [Indoor air quality in school facilities in Cassino (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Langiano, Elisa; Lanni, Liana; Atrei, Patrizia; Ferrara, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Capelli, Giovanni; De Vito, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality of 26 classrooms of secondary schools in the city of Cassino (Italy). Two types of school buildings were assessed: buildings specifically designed as schools, and former dwellings converted to schools. Measurements were taken in both winter and spring months, before students entered the classrooms and while the classrooms were occupied. Lower thermal comfort levels were observed during the winter months; in fact, during the winter, ideal temperature, humidity and air speed parameters were found in only a small percentage of classrooms and students were found to experience thermal discomfort as a result. Air velocity was often found to be inadequate both in winter and spring months and in both types of school buildings evaluated. Illumination levels measured during the winter months with both natural daylight and mixed illumination, were found to be below 200 lux, the minimum recommended level recommended by the ministerial decree 18.12.1975. Noise levels above the maximum level recommended by the ministerial decree 01.03.1991 were also frequently observed. The symptoms most frequently reported by students were headache, difficulties in concentrating, cough, and unusual tiredness. The various discomfort situations observed in both types of school buildings point toward a need for greater attention toward indoor air quality of schools as this can have affect students' attention, concentration, productivity and comfort.

  8. Wave Attenuation on Muddy Bottoms - A Multidisciplinary Field Study Offshore Cassino Beach, Southern Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    University of Rio de Janeiro Ocean Engineering Program / COPPE CP 68508 - Centro de Tecnologia - C203 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Phone/fax...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,Ocean Engineering Program / COPPE, CP 68508 - Centro de Tecnologia - C203,21945-970 Rio

  9. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones Inlet...

  10. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones Inlet...

  11. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones Inlet...

  12. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones Inlet...

  13. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones Inlet...

  14. Photosynthetic capacity and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Rhizophora mangle at its southernmost western Atlantic range

    Treesearch

    M.L.G. Soares; M.M.P. Tognella; E. Cuevas; E. Medina

    2015-01-01

    The southernmost presence of Rhizophora mangle in the western Atlantic coast occurs in coastal wetlands between 27 and 28ºS in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We selected mangrove communities at the estuary of Rio Tavares, Florianopolis, and Sonho Beach, Palhosa, for measurement of photosynthetic performance and intrinsic water use efficiency of R. mangle and...

  15. The 34th Infantry Division at Cassino and Anzio: the role of operational art in the Italian Campaign.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    defensive lines. The pressing strategic aims and operational objectives demanded that the division commanders achieve tactical success against...operational objectives demanded that the division commanders achieve tactical success against overwhelming odds. This monograph answers how Major...Monte Cassino.”3 Other times, the operational plan seemed so unsynchronized and lacked any confidence of success that the Allied tempo seemingly

  16. A Study of Dissipation of Wind-Waves by Mud as Cassino Beach, Brazil: Prediction and Inversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    e.g. MacPherson , 1980; Jiang and Mehta, 1996; Zhang and Ng, 2006) or plastic (e.g. Mei and Liu, 1987)—are not included in this study. 2.2.1...with a thixotropic (shear- thinning) fluid. Or. the water/mud interface may be indistinct during high energy events, e.g. due to sediment suspension ...especially via resonance (see Zhang and Ng, 2006), or decrease dissipation by restraining the motion of the bed (see MacPherson , 1980; Hsiao and

  17. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A...

  18. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A...

  19. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A...

  20. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A...

  1. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A...

  2. The Necessity for the Destruction of the Abbey of Monte Cassino

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Route 6. From the Liri Valley, the Gustav Line stretched southwest to the Tyrrhenian Sea at the port of Minturno and northeast up into the Abruzzi...stretch of beach south of Salerno provided excellent sea approaches. The defenses were predominately fieldworks, and several exits from the beach to the...did not have the resources to build up the beachhead by sea as fast as the Germans could reinforce by land. The German XIV Panzer Corps counterattacked

  3. 8. PECOS RIVER FLUME VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTHERNMOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PECOS RIVER FLUME - VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTHERN-MOST ARCH SHOWING CCC CUTWATER. VIEW TO NORTH - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Pecos River Flume, On Main Canal, .5 mile North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  4. 4. Front of isolated (southernmost) kiln. Visible through the doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Front of isolated (southernmost) kiln. Visible through the doorway are temporary supports installed in 1986. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  5. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  6. CONTEXT VIEW FROM SOUTHERNMOST HULETT, SHOWING UNLOADER AND CLEVELAND BULK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW FROM SOUTHERN-MOST HULETT, SHOWING UNLOADER AND CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS IN ASSOCIATION. LOOKING SOUTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. View of southernmost section of east facade with Shed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southernmost section of east facade with Shed in foreground. View toward north - Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Hanger No. 1, Cummins Avenue, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, CA

  8. 11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  9. Beach Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two miles of beach at Cape Canaveral eroded by construction of a port and jetties was recently restored. Such work in harbors of many cities often disrupts normal flow of sand for many miles along coasts. Brevard County, FL residents now enjoy a 400 ft. wide public beach in an area in imminent danger of destructive erosion just a year previously. Before and after aerial photos show how more than two miles of beach were rebuilt with 2.7 million cubic yards of sand helping abate the erosion problem caused by construction of jetties. NASA volunteered its remote-sensing technology and instrumented aircraft to provide low-altitude color infrared photography about every three months since 1972.

  10. Anaglyph, Landsat overlay, Southernmost Coastal Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D view of a coastal area in southernmost Oman shows how topographic information can be used to enhance satellite images, deriving a better understanding of the processes that sculpt the landscape. The coastline in the upper half of the image appears to follow the same trend as a canyon in the lower half of the image. Both features are probably coincident with a single fault that cuts the limestone bedrock. Note how in this climate limestone erodes sharply along the stream courses resulting in deep and narrow canyons. Generally the landscape is barren, but the darker areas have sparse vegetation that is supported by summer monsoon moisture. The Arabian Sea is on the right.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (100 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  11. National List of Beaches

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act), identifies waters that are subject to a state beach water quality monitoring and public notification program consistent with the National Beach Guidance and Required Performance Criteria for BEACH Act Grants.

  12. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  13. 5. NHP, Water Turbine Section, southernmost steel standpipe base with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NHP, Water Turbine Section, southern-most steel standpipe base with concrete curbing, constructed in 1908-1909, and turbine shaft entry portals in west wall of Powerhouse Section. View is to the Northeast. - Nunn Hydroelectric Plant, On Madison River, Ennis, Madison County, MT

  14. Beach slopes of Florida: Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.; Doran, Kara S.

    2015-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Gulf of Mexico from Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida for data collected at various times between 1998 and 2010. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  15. 6. Elevation view of east side of southernmost end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Elevation view of east side of southernmost end of building. When joined with photo WA-116-A-7, these photos give a virtually complete elevation view of the east side of the 1896 south section of Building 59. Note that the steep angle of view gives the illusion of a flat roof. For a more accurate depiction of the roof slope, see previous photo's including WA-116-5. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Beaches National Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes a national summary report about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season.

  17. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  18. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  19. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Dated phylogenetic studies of the southernmost American buthids (Scorpiones; Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Adilardi, Renzo S; Mattoni, Camilo I; Ramírez, Martín J; Ceccarelli, F Sara

    2017-05-01

    A dated molecular phylogeny of the southernmost American species of the family Buthidae, based on two nuclear and two mitochondrial genes, is presented. Based on this study, analyzed species of the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are neither sister to the remaining species of the genus Tityus, nor are they closely related to the New World microbuthids with decreasing neobothriotaxy. Analyzed species of the subgenus Tityus do not form a monophyletic group. Based on ancestral area estimation analyses, known geoclimatic events of the region and comparisons to the diversification processes of other epigean groups from the area, a generalized hypothesis about the patterns of historical colonization processes of the family Buthidae in southern South America is presented. Furthermore, for the first time, a Paleogene-African ingression route for the colonization of America by the family Buthidae is proposed as a plausible hypothesis.

  1. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  2. The structure, stratigraphy, tectonostratigraphy, and evolution of the southernmost part of the Appalachian Orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.W.; Atkins, R.L.; Crawford, T.J.; Crawford, R.F. III; Brooks, R.; Cook, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The southernmost part of the Appalachian Orogen is composed of three stacks of folded thrust sheets, which preserve rocks formed in a variety of environments that virtually spanned the Iapetus Ocean. All of the metamorphism, deformation, and plutonism in the southernmost Appalachians can be related to the movement of the thrust sheets and stacks. Thrusting took place continuously from Early Ordovician through Carboniferous time. An account is given of the origins, assembly, transport, and arrival of the thrust sheets and stacks.

  3. Magnetostratigraphy of continental glacial deposits in southernmost Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffing, C. Y.; Barendregt, R. W.; Clague, J. J.; Roberts, N. J.; Corbella, H.; Ercolano, B.; Rabassa, J.

    2012-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia has well preserved records of continental and alpine glaciations. It is the only region in the Southern Hemisphere outside Antarctica where large Pleistocene ice sheets developed, thus it offers a unique opportunity to enhance understanding of global climate variability. Previous research on the glacial history of Patagonia is largely based on geomorphology, with limited study of stratigraphy and relatively few absolute ages. Consequently, the number, ages, and geographic extent of individual glaciations are not well understood. Geomorphic evidence of multiple Quaternary glaciations is widespread in the region and includes moraines, erratics, drumlin fields, and outwash plains. Exposures of glacial sediments are common along the Atlantic coast, the Strait of Magellan, meltwater channels, and in gravel pits. Most of the glacial deposits are beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating have been used to determine the ages of basalt flows interlayered with till and outwash in the southern Andes to the west and in the Rio Gallegos valley near the Atlantic coast. These absolute ages suggest that glaciation in Patagonia began in the late Miocene and that the Pleistocene Patagonian ice sheet may have decreased in size with each successive advance. We conducted a paleomagnetic study of glacial sediments to further constrain the timing of continental glaciations. The sediments are stably magnetized, providing clear directional data from which polarity can be determined. Most sediments in the area are normally magnetized, but some sediments near the outer limit of glaciation, within areas covered by the Patagonian ice sheet during the Great Patagonian Glaciation (GPG), are reversely magnetized. Recent field work indicates that drift of the GPG comprises deposits of several glaciations. Our paleomagnetic results suggest that the first continental glaciation(s) in the region occurred during the Matuyama Reversed Chron (2.6 - 0.78 Ma) and

  4. Tephrochronology of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. J.; Miranda, C. G.; Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Stern, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Correlations among and identification of the source volcanoes for over 60 Late Glacial and Holocene tephras preserved in eight lacustrine sediment cores taken from small lakes near Coyhaique, Chile (46° S), were made based on the stratigraphic position of the tephra in the cores, lithostratigraphic data (tephra layer thickness and grain size), and tephra petrochemistry (glass color and morphology, phenocryst phases, and bulk-tephra trace element contents determined by ICP-MS). The cores preserve a record of explosive eruptions, since ˜17,800 calibrated years before present (cal years BP), of the volcanoes of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ). The suggested source volcanoes for 55 of these tephras include Hudson (32 events), Mentolat (10 events), and either Macá or Cay or some of the many minor monogenetic eruptive centers (MECs; 13 events) in the area. Only four of these eruptions had been previously identified in tephra outcrops in the region, indicating the value of lake cores for identifying smaller eruptions in tephrochronologic studies. The tephra records preserved in these lake cores, combined with those in marine cores, which extend these records back to 20,000 cal years BP, prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, suggest that no significant temporal change in the frequency of explosive eruptions was associated with deglaciation. Over this time period, Hudson volcano, one of the largest and longest lived volcanoes in the Southern Andes, has had >55 eruptions (four of them were very large) and has produced >45 km3 of pyroclastic material, making it also one of the most active volcanoes in the SVZ in terms of both frequency and volume of explosive eruptions.

  5. Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic faulting in southernmost Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, W.J.; Denny, F.B.; Devera, J.A.; Follmer, L.R.; Masters, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Tertiary and/or Quaternary tectonic faulting is documented in three areas of southernmost Illinois: the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC) in Pope and Massac Counties, the Ste. Genevieve Fault Zone (SGFZ) in Alexander and Union Counties, and the Commerce Fault Zone (CFZ) in Alexander County. In the FAFC, faults that strike NE and NNE displace Mounds Gravel (late Miocene to early Pleistocene) and, locally, the Metropolis terrace gravel (Pleistocene; pre-Woodfordian). No Woodfordian or younger deposits are deformed. Faults typically outline narrow, linear grabens that formed under tension with a component of strike slip. North-south to NW-trending vertical faults near the southeast end of the SGFZ displace Eocene sediments. Again, faults outline narrow grabens and show indications of strike slip. Deformed Quaternary sediments have not been observed. The CFZ, which trends northeast, displaces Mounds Gravel in Illinois and units as young as Peoria Silt (Woodfordian) in Missouri. Quaternary movement has been interpreted as right-lateral strike-slip. The CFZ coincides with a subtle gravity and magnetic lineament and seems to reflect a major feature in the basement. Surface expression in Illinois is subtle, but mafic and ultramafic intrusions, hydrothermal alteration and small faults align with the Commerce geophysical lineament. Earthquake foci in Missouri and Illinois lie on or close to the CFZ; some focal mechanisms fit the fault trend. Among these structures, only the CFZ exhibits slip that conforms to the current stress field (principal compressive stress axis E-W to ENE-WSW). Possibly, the stress field changed during Neogene time. Alternatively, high fluid pressures or local stress concentrations may have induced slip on less favorably oriented fractures. Tighter constraints are needed on timing, magnitude, and direction of Neogene displacement. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  7. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  8. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  9. Sand supply to beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  10. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  11. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  12. Beach slopes of Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joesph W.; Birchler, Justin J.; Weber, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Northeast Atlantic Ocean for Massachusetts for data collected at various times between 2000 and 2013. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  13. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  14. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  15. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  16. Employing LIDAR and Rtk GPS to Evaluate a Small Beach Nourishment in Southern Monterey Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, A. G.; Smith, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of coastal communities are considering opportunistic beach nourishment as a coastal erosion mitigation method, particularly as erosion rates are quantified with increasing accuracy and consequences of sea level rise are realized. The southernmost region of Monterey Bay is eroding at rates of 0-0.8 m/year and small scale beach nourishment has been recommended as a possible mitigation technique. However, the absence of monitored pilot studies and calibrated models has prevented stakeholders from confidently predicting the lifetime or cost-benefit of the project. During the winter of 2012 - 2013, approximately 7,500 m3 of Monterey Harbor dredge material was used to nourish a section of beach identified as a critical erosion area. To determine whether this method is feasible as A long term mitigation strategy, we have collected topographic survey data of the nourishment area and control sites. Baseline beach profile data were collected using vessel based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and real time kinematic (RTK) GPS prior to nourishment and periodically following completion of the nourishment project. Swell height and period were also monitored immediately offshore of the nourishment region. Morphologic change based on topographic survey data is combined with wave data to calibrate a beach morphology model to the Southern Monterey Bay region for use in future coastal erosion decisions as well as establish a nourishment evaluation method that could be applied to other critical erosion areas.

  17. Metamorphism and gold mineralization in the Blue Ridge, Southernmost Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowell, H.H.; Lesher, C.M.; Green, N.L.; Sha, P.; Guthrie, G.M.; Sinha, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Lode gold mineralization in the Blue Ridge of the southernmost Appalachians is hosted by metavolcanic rocks (e.g., Anna Howe mine, AL; Royal Vindicator mine, GA), metaplutonic rocks (e.g., Hog Mountain mine, AL), and metasedimentary rocks (e.g., Lowe, Tallapoosa, and Jones Vein mines, AL). Most gold occurs in synkinematic quartz ?? plagioclase ?? pyrite ?? pyrrhotite ?? chlorite veins localized along polydeformational faults that juxtapose rocks with significantly different peak metamorphic mineral assemblages. Mineralogy, chemistry, and O and H isotope studies suggest that the three types of host rocks have undergone differing amounts and types of alteration during mineralization. Limited wall-rock alteration in metavolcanic- and metasediment-hosted deposits, and relatively extensive wall-rock alteration in granitoid-hosted deposits, suggests that most deposits formed from fluids that were close to equilibrium with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Stable isotope compositions of the fluids calculated from vein minerals and vein selvages are consistent with a predominantly metasedimentary fluid source, but vary from deposit to deposit (-22 to -47??? ??D, 4-5??? ??18O, and 5-7??? ??34S at Anna Howe and Royal Vindicator; -48 to -50??? ??D, 9-13??? ??18O, and ca. 19??? ??34S at Lowe and Jones Vein; and -22 to -23??? ??D, 8-11??? ??18O, 9-10??? ??34S, and -6 ??13C at Hog Mountain). Silicate mineral thermobarometry of vein, vein selvage, and wall-rock mineral assemblages indicate that mineralization and regional metamorphism occured at greenschist to amphibolite facies (480?? ?? 75??C at Anna Howe, 535?? ?? 50??C at 6.4 ?? 1 kbars at Lowe, 530?? ?? 50??C at 6.9 ?? 1 kbars at Tallapoosa, and 460?? ?? 50??C at 5.5 ?? 1 kbars at Hog Mountain). Oxygen isotope fractionation between vein minerals and selvage minerals consistently records equilibration temperatures that are similar to or slightly lower than those estimated from silicate thermometry. Auriferous veins

  18. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  20. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  1. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    words) The cross-shore exchange of material is examined on beaches of varying morphology and hydrodynamics. On a dissipative, rip-channeled beach...cross-shore exchange of material is examined on beaches of varying morphology and hydrodynamics. On a dissipative, rip-channeled beach in Monterey...Onshore and offshore exchange occurs by various processes, depending on beach morphology , beach slope, wave conditions, and resulting current patterns

  2. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and 2012, EPA published a national summary report about the previous year's swimming season data.

  3. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina.

  5. Strike-slip faults in the southernmost Andes and the development of the Patagonian orocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. Dickson

    1993-02-01

    The Patagonian orocline is the 90° bend in the southernmost Andes between 50°S and 56°S. Paleomagnetic and structural data indicate that the orocline is, at least in part, the product of tectonic rotation. Recent field work in the Beagle Channel region of southernmost Chile provides evidence for widespread left-lateral strike-slip faulting in the internal zones of the mountain belt. Both arms of the Beagle Channel are interpreted to be left-lateral strike-slip faults based on detailed study of mesoscale strike-slip faults (Riedel shears) observed in coastal outcrops. Although much of the evidence indicates Cenozoic brittle strike-slip faulting, other fabric data, including vertical foliation zones containing horizontal quartz stretching lineations and ductile left-lateral kinematic indicators, suggest that Mesozoic ductile strike-slip or oblique-slip shearing also occurred. The implication is that the mid-Cretaceous Andean orogeny involved the transpressional inversion of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and that transpression has been the dominant deformational regime in the region for the last 120 Ma. Regional left-lateral strike-slip faults are now recognized in all lithotectonic provinces of the southernmost Andes. A statistical study of regional lineament trends using aerial photographs and satellite imagery suggests that many unstudied lineaments are also strike-slip faults. A new model is proposed that integrates the development of strike-slip faulting and the structural evolution and uplift of the southernmost Andes with the rotational development of the orocline. The Patagonian orocline appears to be the product of broad interplate shearing accommodated by strike-slip faulting, block rotation, and contraction and is probably continuing to evolve today.

  6. Beach Clean-Up near Historic Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    About 50 participants led by NASA Kennedy Space Center's Employee Resource Groups picked up about 20 bags of trash and other large debris along the center's shoreline before turtle-nesting season as a community service. Sea turtle-nesting season begins in about one month. Unlike what might be found along a public beach, all of the debris that litters Kennedy’s restricted beaches washes ashore after being discarded at sea. Of the 72 miles of beach that form the eastern boundary of Brevard County, Florida, about six of those miles line Kennedy.

  7. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  8. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised...

  9. Concepts in gravel beach dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Masselink, Gerhard

    2006-11-01

    The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.

  10. Nonlinear Magnetic Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, A.; Breizman, B.

    2000-10-01

    The ion response to the rf-field in the magnetic beach problem can be essentially nonlinear. This paper presents a self-consistent theory of the rf-wave propagation and ion motion through the ion cyclotron resonance. An important ingredient of the problem is the ion flow along the magnetic field. The flow velocity limits the time the ions spend at the resonance, which in turn limits the ion energy gain. A feature that makes the problem nonlinear is that the flow accelerates under the effect of the grad B force and rf-pressure. This acceleration can produce a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance, resulting in partial reflection of the incident wave. *Work supported by VASIMR project at NASA and by U.S. DOE Contract DE-FG03-96ER-54346.

  11. ASCANS Lunch at Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-04

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - NASA astronaut candidate Andrew Morgan looks over the beach while standing at the Beach House at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Beach House is a traditional gathering place for astronauts before they fly into space. The astronaut class of 2013 was selected by NASA after an extensive year-and-a-half search. The new group will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system. To learn more about the astronaut class of 2013, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/2013astroclass.html Photo credit: NASA/Daniel Casper

  12. Beach Resilience to Coastal Structures on a Natural Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Medellín, G.; Hofman, A.; Tereszkiewicz, P.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; López-González, J.

    2016-12-01

    Beach resilience plays an important role on reducing coastal risk associated to either natural or human induced perturbations affecting the coast. Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate beach resilience in Sisal, Yucatán. Both impermeable and permeable 14-m groins were designed to asses the impact of coastal structures on the beach morphology during a 24-hour period. The experiments were conducted in the spring of 2015 and 2016, allowing the assessment of both structures under similar forcing conditions. Intense sea breeze events (W>12 m/s) generated high-angle short-waves, driving alongshore transport in the swash zone. Wind, waves, tides, and currents were measured concurrently and are correlated with beach morphology evolution data derived from intense monitoring conducted during the structure deployment. The impermeable structure induced a significant beach accretion (>60 m3/day) in the updrift side of the structure causing a tremendous impact downdrift. On the other hand, the permeable groin induced a smaller but still significant accretion (40 m3/day), allowing sediment bypass throughout the structure. Furthermore, the beach surveying continued after structures removal in order to estimate the beach recovery capability. Field observations show that the impact of the structure on the morphology is negligible six days after structure removal for the impermeable groin and only one day for the permeable structure. The latter suggests the high beach resilience of the study area. We acknowledge field support provided by researchers and students at the LIPC-UNAM. Financial support was provided by CONACYT (Projects LN271544 and Cátedras 1146), DGAPA-UNAM (PAPIIT-IN107315) and Grupo BARI.

  13. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  14. Beach Fill and Sediment Trap at Carolina Beach, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    District Engineer at SAW was COL Wayne A. Hanson . .- Acoesslon vor fTIS CRA&t DTIC TAB Unannounced Q Ju3tifloation-’~~Lr S.% Distribution...On 15 October 1954, Hurricane Hazel affected the entire southeastern section of North Carolina and produced the maximum observed water level at...Carolina Beach of el +11.2. During Hurricane Hazel , Carolina Beach, which has natural ground elevations ranging from a maximum of el +10 along the

  15. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  16. Quantification of Beach Profile Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    expression for the local 30 equilibrium slope of a beach based on wave energy considerations. The equilibrium slope was a function of the angle of repose ...though the angle of initial yield should be approximately independent of grain size for the range of material studied. If a second bar formed immediately...the waves, whereas the time scale of beach fill adjustment is several weeks to several months and depends on season of placement, fill material , and

  17. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  18. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

  19. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  20. Solar Output Controls Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic changes in total solar irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200–240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-controlled cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to control wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly controlled by TSI. PMID:27869191

  1. Diversity and associations between coastal habitats and anurans in southernmost Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mauro C L M; Dos Santos, Maurício B; Loebmann, Daniel; Hartman, Alexandre; Tozetti, Alexandro M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the relationship between habitat and the composition of anuran species in dune and restinga habitats in southernmost Brazil. The habitats were sampled between April 2009 and March 2010 using pitfalls with drift fence. We have captured 13,508 individuals of 12 anuran species. Species richness was lower in the dunes and dominance was higher in the resting. Apparently the less complex plant cover, water availability, and wide daily thermal variation in dunes act as an environmental filter for frogs. This hypothesis is reinforced by the fact that the most abundant species (Physalaemus biligonigerus and Odonthoprynus maisuma) bury themselves in the sand, minimizing these environmental stresses. Despite being in the Pampa biome, the studied community was more similar to those of coastal restinga environment of southeast Brazil than with other of the Pampa biome. The number of recorded species is similar to those observed in other open habitats in Brazil, showing the importance of adjacent ones to the shoreline for the maintenance of the diversity of anurans in southernmost Brazil.

  2. Solar Output Controls Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic changes in total solar irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200–240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-controlled cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to control wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly controlled by TSI.

  3. AMS 14C chronology of the world's southernmost woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keiichi; Wei, Guangbiao; Uno, Hikaru; Yoneda, Minoru; Jin, Changzhu; Sun, Chengkai; Zhang, Sheng; Zhong, Bei

    2007-04-01

    The world's definite southernmost woolly mammoth record is a molar from Ji'nan (around 36°N), Shandong Province, China. AMS 14C dating of the specimen, gave a conventional 14C age of 33,150±250 BP. The period of 40-30 ka BP corresponds to the later phase of the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3a), recognized as the global interstadial of the last glacial period. However, it is known that the winter monsoon strengthened in Asia during the period 35-33 ka BP, and the age of the woolly mammoth specimen from Ji'nan corresponds to that age. The specimen suggests that this area became cold and dry in 33 ka BP, and grassland or open forest, suitable habitat for woolly mammoths, developed during this short time span. This age is similar to the age of the southernmost woolly mammoth record in Europe, therefore supporting a hypothesis by Porter and An [1995. Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature 375, 305-308] that an important component of Chinese palaeoclimates may be linked to changes in North Atlantic oceanic conditions.

  4. Solar Output Controls Periodicity in Lake Productivity and Wetness at Southernmost South America.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gilfedder, Benjamin-Silas; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Biester, Harald

    2016-11-21

    Cyclic changes in total solar irradiance (TSI) during the Holocene are known to affect global climatic conditions and cause cyclic climatic oscillations, e.g., Bond events and related changes of environmental conditions. However, the processes how changes in TSI affect climate and environment of the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southernmost South America, a key area for the global climate, are still poorly resolved. Here we show that highly sensitive proxies for aquatic productivity derived from sediments of a lake near the Chilean South Atlantic coast (53 °S) strongly match the cyclic changes in TSI throughout the Holocene. Intra-lake productivity variations show a periodicity of ~200-240 years coherent with the time series of TSI-controlled cosmogenic nuclide (10)Be production. In addition TSI dependent periodicity of Bond events (~1500 years) appear to control wetness at the LH site indicated by mineral matter erosion from the catchment to the lake assumingly through shifts of the position of the southern westerly wind belt. Thus, both intra-lake productivity and wetness at the southernmost South America are directly or indirectly controlled by TSI.

  5. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic...

  6. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  9. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for the...

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  12. Palm Beach Polo: A Socially Sporting Affair.

    PubMed

    Butwin, D

    1981-10-01

    The Palm Beach Polo and Country Club in West Palm Beach, Florida, has recently become the winter capital of international Polo, and its reputation for luxurious golf, croquet, tennis, and racquetball facilities is growing as well.

  13. ASCANS Lunch at Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-04

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - NASA astronaut candidates, from left, Anne McClain, Christina Hammock and Jessica Meir stand on the beach overlooking the Atlantic Ocean at the Beach House at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Beach House is a traditional gathering place for astronauts before they fly into space. The astronaut class of 2013 was selected by NASA after an extensive year-and-a-half search. The new group will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system. To learn more about the astronaut class of 2013, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/2013astroclass.html Photo credit: NASA/Daniel Casper

  14. The Geomorphology of Puget Sound Beaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    action to the upper foreshore effect sediment transport zones and, hence, beach habitat zonation; and (2) infrequent, strong storms (return intervals...daily rise and fall of mean water level translates the swash zone (the portion of the nearshore region where the beach face is alternately covered by...exfiltration through the beach is an important component of swash- zone fluid dynamics and foreshore (the sloping portion of the beach profile lying

  15. Beach Slopes of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Northeast Atlantic Ocean for New Jersey for data collected at various times between 2007 and 2014. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  18. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range.

    PubMed

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  19. Can beaches survive climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  20. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  1. Can beaches survive climate change?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  2. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  3. Kinematics of the Towaliga, Bartletts Ferry, and Goat Rock fault in the southernmost Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltenpohl, Mark G.

    1988-09-01

    Subhorizontal shear sense along subvertical mylonite zones marking the southeast and northwest flanks of the Pine Mountain belt in Alabama, i.e., the Towaliga, Bartletts Ferry, and Goat Rock fault zones, has been deduced from S-C composite planar fabrics, extensional shear bands, displaced broken grains, asymmetric folds, and porphyroclast systems. Quartz and feldspar elongation lineations are generally subhorizontal and closely correspond to estimated sliplines. Each of the fault zones records dominantly dextral shear; the Towaliga has an apparent minor oblique, down-to-the-north normal component, and the Goat Rock has a minor down-to-the-south normal component. The mylonite zones postdate the early to middle Paleozoic schistosity in rocks outside the shear zones and thus are considered to be late Paleozoic in age. Results imply persistence of the late Paleozoic (Alleghanian?) dextral shear system into the southernmost exposures of the Appalachian orogen.

  4. Response of coral reefs to climate change: Expansion and demise of the southernmost Pacific coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Brooke, Brendan P.; Linklater, Michelle; Kennedy, David M.; Jones, Brian G.; Buchanan, Cameron; Mleczko, Richard; Hua, Quan; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2010-08-01

    Coral reefs track sea level and are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Reefs are threatened by global warming, with many experiencing increased coral bleaching. Warmer sea surface temperatures might enable reef expansion into mid latitudes. Here we report multibeam sonar and coring that reveal an extensive relict coral reef around Lord Howe Island, which is fringed by the southernmost reef in the Pacific Ocean. The relict reef, in water depths of 25-50 m, flourished in early Holocene and covered an area more than 20 times larger than the modern reef. Radiocarbon and uranium-series dating indicates that corals grew between 9000 and 7000 years ago. The reef was subsequently drowned, and backstepped to its modern limited extent. This relict reef, with localised re-establishment of corals in the past three millennia, could become a substrate for reef expansion in response to warmer temperatures, anticipated later this century and beyond, if corals are able to recolonise its surface.

  5. Autophagy in Antarctica: combating dehydration stress in the world's southernmost insect.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L

    2013-04-01

    The midge Belgica antarctica is the only insect endemic to Antarctica and has the southernmost range of any insect. In its natural environment, B. antarctica frequently faces desiccating conditions, as environmental water is frozen for up to 9 months annually. The molecular mechanisms by which B. antarctica tolerates extreme dehydration are poorly understood, but recent work from our laboratory reports genome-wide expression changes in response to extreme dehydration (~40% water loss), the first genome-scale transcriptome reported for an Antarctic animal. Among transcripts differentially regulated during dehydration, there is coordinated upregulation of numerous genes involved in autophagy, including genes responsible for autophagosome synthesis and autophagy-associated transcription factors. Also, several genes and pathways that interact with and regulate autophagy, e.g., sestrins and proteasomal genes, are concurrently upregulated. This suggests that autophagy and related processes are key elements regulating stress tolerance in this extreme environment.

  6. Coalescence and fragmentation in the late Pleistocene archaeology of southernmost Africa.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Alex; Stewart, Brian A; Chase, Brian M

    2014-07-01

    The later Pleistocene archaeological record of southernmost Africa encompasses several Middle Stone Age industries and the transition to the Later Stone Age. Through this period various signs of complex human behaviour appear episodically, including elaborate lithic technologies, osseous technologies, ornaments, motifs and abstract designs. Here we explore the regional archaeological record using different components of lithic technological systems to track the transmission of cultural information and the extent of population interaction within and between different climatic regions. The data suggest a complex set of coalescent and fragmented relationships between populations in different climate regions through the late Pleistocene, with maximum interaction (coalescence) during MIS 4 and MIS 2, and fragmentation during MIS 5 and MIS 3. Coalescent phases correlate with increases in the frequency of ornaments and other forms of symbolic expression, leading us to suggest that population interaction was a significant driver in their appearance.

  7. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the Lassen area, southernmost Cascade Range, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Dalrymple, G.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Volcanism in the southernmost Cascade Range can be characterized on two scales. Regional volcanism is predominantly basaltic to andesitic, and hundreds of coalescing volcanoes of small volume (10[sup [minus]3] to 10[sup 1] km[sup 3]) with short lifetimes have built a broad platform. Superimposed on the regional volcanism are a few long-lived ([approximately]10[sup 6] years) much larger (>10 [sup 2] km[sup 3]) volcanic centers. Each of these larger centers consists of a basaltic-andesite to andesite composite cone and flanking silicic domes and flows. The evolution of these volcanic centers conforms to a generalized three-stage model during which a conspicuous edifice is constructed. Stages 1 and 2 comprise a dominantly andesitic composite cone; Stage 3 marks a change to dominantly silicic volcanism and is accompanied by development of a hydrothermal system in the permeable core of the andesitic composite cone. Subsequent fluvial and glacial erosion produces a caldera-like depression with a topographically high resistant rim of Stage 2 lavas surrounding the deeply eroded, hydrothermally altered core of the composite cone. Two types of basalt are recognized in the southernmost Cascades; medium-K calc-alkaline (CAB) and low-K olivine tholeiite (LKOT). CAB exhibits considerable geochemical diversity and is the parent magma for the volcanic-center lavas and the majority of the evolved regional lavas. LKOT is chemically homogeneous, and outcrops sporadically in association with extensional tectonics of the Basin and Range Province, and is related to Pleistocene encroachment of Basin-and-Range tectonics on the subduction-related volcanism of the Cascade Range.

  8. Contrasting Hydraulic Architectures of Scots Pine and Sessile Oak at Their Southernmost Distribution Limits

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Hacke, Uwe G.; Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species’ responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions. Hydraulic traits such as xylem- and leaf-specific maximum hydraulic conductivity (KS-MAX and KL-MAX), leaf-to-xylem area ratio (AL:AX) and functional xylem fraction (FX) were measured in July 2015 during a long and exceptionally dry summer. Additionally, xylem-specific native hydraulic conductivity (KS-N) and native percentage of loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured for Scots pine. Interspecific differences in these hydraulic traits as well as intraspecific variability between sites were assessed. The influence of annual, summer and growing season site climatic aridity (P/PET) on intraspecific variability was investigated. Sessile oak displayed higher values of KS-MAX, KL-MAX, AL:AX but a smaller percentage of FX than Scots pines. Scots pine did not vary in any of the measured hydraulic traits across the sites, and PLC values were low for all sites, even during one of the warmest summers in the region. In contrast, sessile oak showed significant differences in KS-MAX, KL-MAX, and FX across sites, which were significantly related to site aridity. The striking similarity in the hydraulic traits across Scots pine sites suggests that no adjustment in hydraulic architecture was needed, likely as a consequence of a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, sessile oak

  9. Contrasting Hydraulic Architectures of Scots Pine and Sessile Oak at Their Southernmost Distribution Limits.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Hacke, Uwe G; Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species' responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions. Hydraulic traits such as xylem- and leaf-specific maximum hydraulic conductivity (KS-MAX and KL-MAX), leaf-to-xylem area ratio (AL:AX) and functional xylem fraction (FX) were measured in July 2015 during a long and exceptionally dry summer. Additionally, xylem-specific native hydraulic conductivity (KS-N) and native percentage of loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured for Scots pine. Interspecific differences in these hydraulic traits as well as intraspecific variability between sites were assessed. The influence of annual, summer and growing season site climatic aridity (P/PET) on intraspecific variability was investigated. Sessile oak displayed higher values of KS-MAX, KL-MAX, AL:AX but a smaller percentage of FX than Scots pines. Scots pine did not vary in any of the measured hydraulic traits across the sites, and PLC values were low for all sites, even during one of the warmest summers in the region. In contrast, sessile oak showed significant differences in KS-MAX, KL-MAX, and FX across sites, which were significantly related to site aridity. The striking similarity in the hydraulic traits across Scots pine sites suggests that no adjustment in hydraulic architecture was needed, likely as a consequence of a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, sessile oak displayed

  10. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed.

  11. Beach Changes at Holden Beach, North Carolina, 1970-74.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). These data, which were later converted to the LEO format, assigned *sectors 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to 720, 900, and...inter- cept and above MSL sand volume have been shown on east coast beaches (Goldsmith, Farrell, and Goldsmith, 1974; Everts and Czerniak , 1977; DeWall...Pritchett, and Galvin, 1977; DeWall, 1979; Everts, DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). The seasonal cycle is evident in the above MSL sand volume change

  12. Huntington Beach activity surges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1981-02-01

    Enhanced recovery pilot projects in the Huntington Beach oil field in S. California are described. The projects include steam drive of the AA zone from an offshore platform; steam drive of 3 separate onshore areas of the TM zone; and huff and puff carbon dioxide in the A-37 zone. An alkaline pilot flood also was initiated in the lower main zone in 1978. The described are discussed, citing advantages of the methods selected in each instance.

  13. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  14. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  15. Classification of beach response to extreme storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burvingt, Olivier; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul; Scott, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storms are responsible for rapid changes to coastlines worldwide. During the 2013/14 winter, the west coast of Europe experienced a sequence of large, storm-induced wave events, representing the most energetic period of waves in the last 60 years. The southwest coast of England underwent significant geomorphological change during that period, but exhibited a range of spatially variable and complex morphological responses, despite being subjected to the same storm sequence. Here, we use the 2013/14 storm response along the southwest coast of England as a natural field laboratory and explain this variability in storm response through the introduction and evaluation of a new classification of how sandy and gravel beaches respond to extreme storms. Cluster analysis was conducted using an unique data set of pre- and post-storm airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 157 beach sites based on the net volumetric change (dQnet) and a novel parameter, the longshore variation index (LVI) which quantifies the alongshore morphological variability in beach response. Four main beach response types were identified: (1) fully exposed beaches that experienced large and alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 100 m3·m- 1); (2) semi-exposed beaches that experienced medium alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 50 m3·m- 1); (3) sheltered short beaches that experienced limited net sediment change and alongshore variability in beach response; and (4) sheltered long beaches that experienced considerable alongshore variability in beach response and large gross sediment change, but limited net sediment change. The key factors in determining the type of beach response are: exposure to the storm waves, angle of storm wave approach and the degree to which the beach is embayed. These factors are universally applicable on many exposed coastlines worldwide, so the response classification presented here is expected to be widely applicable.

  16. The variable routes of rafting: stranding dynamics of floating bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) on beaches in the SE Pacific.

    PubMed

    López, Boris A; Macaya, Erasmo C; Tala, Fadia; Tellier, Florence; Thiel, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability, and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S). We determined the biomass and demography of stranded individuals on 33 beaches for three subsequent years (2013, 2014, 2015) to examine whether rafting is restricted to certain districts and seasons (winter or summer). Stranded kelps were found on all beaches. Most kelps had only one stipe (one individual), although we also frequently found coalesced holdfasts with mature males and females, which would facilitate successful rafting dispersal, gamete release, and reproduction upon arrival. High biomasses of stranded kelps occurred in the northern-central (30°S-33°S) and southernmost districts (37°S-42°S), and lower biomasses in the northernmost (28°S-30°S) and southern-central districts (33°S-37°S). The highest percentages and sizes of epibionts (Lepas spp.), indicative of prolonged floating periods, were found on stranded kelps in the northernmost and southernmost districts. Based on these results, we conclude that rafting dispersal can vary regionally, being more common in the northernmost and southernmost districts, depending on intrinsic (seaweed biology) and extrinsic factors (shore morphology and oceanography) that affect local supply of kelps and regional hydrodynamics.

  17. Crustal structure of the southernmost Ryukyu forearc region from large offset seismic data and gravity modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Yeh; Liu, Char-Shine; Hsieh, Yu-Huan

    2017-04-01

    The southernmost section of the Ryukyu subduction zone, where the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Eurasia Plate (EP), is both tectonically complex and seismically active. Extremely low gravity anomalies have been reported in this section of the Ryukyu forearc region. Several crustal velocity models have been proposed in previous studies and have revealed that the thickness of the forearc crust is about 20 km with crustal velocities between 5.5 km s-1 and 7 km s-1. In the Hoping Basin, the most western end of the Ryukyu forearc region, thick sedimentary layers with seismic velocities between 3 km s-1 and 5.5 km s-1 have been mentioned. In this study, we present a re-processed multichannel seismic reflection profile and its crustal density model along a large-offset (using a 6-km long streamer) seismic profile MGL0906-22N which runs in NNW-SSE direction across the complex area in the forearc region of the southernmost Ryukyu subduction zone. Two sedimentary sequences are observed in the Hoping Basin, the deeper one, called the Suao strata, is tilted western ward. The upper one, called the Hoping strata, is younger than Suao strata and is mostly flat. The interval velocities of the sedimentary layer derived from velocity analyses of the reflection data increase from 1500 m s-1 at the seafloor to 5000 m s-1 near the bottom of the sedimentary layer. The two-dimensional crustal density model along this profile converted from published crustal velocity model reveals that the density values of the sedimentary layer in the Hoping Basin are mostly smaller than 2.54 g cm-3, and the total thickness of the sedimentary layer is about 6 km, which is similar to that observed in the MCS profile. By analyzing the density model, we suggest that seafloor topography and thick sedimentary layer contribute mostly significantly to the very low gravity anomaly over the Hoping Basin. By combining the seismic velocity analyses and gravity modelling, we will be able to

  18. Beach Observations using Quadcopter Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han

    2017-04-01

    Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of

  19. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... past to apply for BEACH Act grants to implement effective and comprehensive coastal recreation water... recreation water monitoring and public notification programs (``development grants''). This notice...

  20. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  1. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...

  2. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon... individual submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January...

  3. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  4. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25, 2013. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life of participants and spectators...

  5. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  6. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  7. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  8. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Carinina ochracea (Palaeonemertea: Tubulanidae) Reaches Its Southernmost Distribution: New Morphological and Molecular Data.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Machordom, Annie

    2015-12-01

    New data for Carinina ochracea Sundberg et al., 2009 are provided for the Iberian Peninsula, establishing the southernmost limit of its known distribution. This species was previously known from only two localities: the type locality in Tjärnö (Sweden) and Pouldohan (Brittany, France). The material examined here was obtained during a faunal survey in the Villaviciosa Estuary (Asturias, northern Iberian Peninsula). The identity of the new specimen was confirmed both by DNA barcoding and anatomical examination. The molecular divergence of all available sequences of this species for four molecular markers, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S, 18S and 28S rDNA, is discussed. For COI, four polymorphic sites were found, indicating: 1) a nuclear pseudogene; 2) heteroplasmy; or 3) gene duplication of a region of the mitochondrial genome. Two previously overlooked morphological characters were found: the presence of a colour ring and a postfixation staining band (pigmented band), which is histologically characterized. This species is the 12th palaeonemertean and the 75th nemertean reported from Iberian waters.

  8. Yeast and yeast-like diversity in the southernmost glacier of Europe (Calderone Glacier, Apennines, Italy).

    PubMed

    Branda, Eva; Turchetti, Benedetta; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Pecci, Massimo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Buzzini, Pietro

    2010-06-01

    The present study reports the characterization of psychrophilic yeast and yeast-like diversity in cold habitats (superficial and deep sediments, ice cores and meltwaters) of the Calderone Glacier (Italy), which is the southernmost glacier in Europe. After incubation at 4 and 20 degrees C, sediments contained about 10(2)-10(3) CFU of yeasts g(-1). The number of viable yeast cells in ice and meltwaters was several orders of magnitude lower. The concomitant presence of viable bacteria and filamentous fungi has also been observed. In all, 257 yeast strains were isolated and identified by 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacers (1 and 2) sequencing as belonging to 28 ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species of 11 genera (Candida, Cystofilobasidium, Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Erythrobasidium, Guehomyces, Mastigobasidium, Mrakia, Mrakiella, Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces). Among them, the species Cryptococcus gastricus accounted for almost 40% of the total isolates. In addition, 12 strains were identified as belonging to the yeast-like species Aureobasidium pullulans and Exophiala dermatitidis, whereas 15 strains, presumably belonging to new species, yet to be described, were also isolated. Results herein reported indicate that the Calderone Glacier, although currently considered a vanishing ice body due to the ongoing global-warming phenomenon, still harbors viable psychrophilic yeast populations. Differences of yeast and yeast-like diversity between the glacier under study and other worldwide cold habitats are also discussed.

  9. Genetic evidence of recent population contraction in the southernmost population of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Qi, Dunwu; Wang, Hongjia; Wei, Fuwen

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation have been implicated in the endangerment and extinction of many species. Here we assess genetic variation and demographic history in the southernmost population of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) that continues to be threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, using noninvasive genetic sampling, mitochondrial control region sequence and 12 microsatellite loci. Compared to other giant panda populations, this population has medium-level genetic diversity based on the measure of both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Mitochondrial DNA-based demographic analyses revealed that no historical population expansion or contraction has occurred, indicating a relatively stable population size. However, a Bayesian-coalescent method based on the observed allele distribution and allele frequencies of microsatellite clearly did detect, quantify and date a recent decrease in population size. Overall, the results indicate that a population contraction in the order of 95-96% has taken place over the last 910-999 years and is most likely due to anthropogenic habitat loss. These findings highlight the need for a greater focus on habitat protection and restoration for the long-term survival of this giant panda population.

  10. Notification: Review of Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act) Grants for Beach Monitoring and Public Notification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY15-0056, July 14, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin research on Office of Water grants for beach monitoring and public notification under the BEACH Act.

  11. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination.

  12. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  13. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  14. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  15. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  16. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  17. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  18. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  19. The million-year evolution of the glacial trimline in the southernmost Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, David E.; Hein, Andrew S.; Woodward, John; Marrero, Shasta M.; Rodés, Ángel; Dunning, Stuart A.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Winter, Kate; Westoby, Matthew J.

    2017-07-01

    An elevated erosional trimline in the heart of West Antarctica in the Ellsworth Mountains tells of thicker ice in the past and represents an important yet ambiguous stage in the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Here we analyse the geomorphology of massifs in the southernmost Heritage Range where the surfaces associated with the trimline are overlain by surficial deposits that have the potential to be dated through cosmogenic nuclide analysis. Analysis of 100 rock samples reveals that some clasts have been exposed on glacially moulded surfaces for 1.4 Ma and perhaps more than 3.5 Ma, while others reflect fluctuations in thickness during Quaternary glacial cycles. Modelling the age of the glacially moulded bedrock surface based on cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al and 21Ne concentrations from a depth-profile indicates a minimum exposure age of 2.1-2.6 Ma. We conclude that the glacially eroded surfaces adjacent to the trimline predate the Last Glacial Maximum and indeed the Quaternary. Since erosion was by warm-based ice near an ice-sheet upper margin, we suggest it first occurred during the early glaciations of Antarctica before the stepped cooling of the mid-Miocene at ∼14 Ma. This was a time when the interior Antarctic continent had summers warm enough for tundra vegetation to grow and for mountain glaciers to consist of ice at the pressure melting point. During these milder conditions, and subsequently, erosion of glacial troughs is likely to have lowered the ice-sheet surface in relation to the mountains. This means that the range of orbitally induced cyclic fluctuations in ice thickness have progressively been confined to lower elevations.

  20. Extensive MIS 3 glaciation in southernmost Patagonia revealed by cosmogenic nuclide dating of outwash sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Hein, Andrew S.; Rodés, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    The timing and extent of former glacial advances can demonstrate leads and lags during periods of climatic change and their forcing, but this requires robust glacial chronologies. In parts of southernmost Patagonia, dating pre-global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) ice limits has proven difficult due to post-deposition processes affecting the build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in moraine boulders. Here we provide ages for the Río Cullen and San Sebastián glacial limits of the former Bahía Inútil-San Sebastián (BI-SSb) ice lobe on Tierra del Fuego (53-54°S), previously hypothesised to represent advances during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12 and 10, respectively. Our approach uses cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating, but targets glacial outwash associated with these limits and uses depth-profiles and surface cobble samples, thereby accounting for surface deflation and inheritance. The data reveal that the limits formed more recently than previously thought, giving ages of 45.6 ka (+139.9/-14.3) for the Río Cullen, and 30.1 ka (+45.6/-23.1) for the San Sebastián limits. These dates indicate extensive glaciation in southern Patagonia during MIS 3, prior to the well-constrained, but much less extensive MIS 2 (gLGM) limit. This suggests the pattern of ice advances in the region was different to northern Patagonia, with the terrestrial limits relating to the last glacial cycle, rather than progressively less extensive glaciations over hundreds of thousands of years. However, the dates are consistent with MIS 3 glaciation elsewhere in the southern mid-latitudes, and the combination of cooler summers and warmer winters with increased precipitation, may have caused extensive glaciation prior to the gLGM.

  1. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  2. K-Ar geochronology of the late cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental, southernmost Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosdal, Richard M.; Farrar, Edward; Clark, Alan H.

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-four K-Ar radiometric ages are presented for late Cenozoic continental volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental of southernmost Perú (lat. 16° 57'-17° 36'S). Rhyodacitic ignimbrite eruptions began in this transect during the Late Oligocene and continued episodically through the Miocene. The development of andesitic-dacitic strato volcanoes was initiated in the Pliocene and continues to the present. The earliest ignimbrite flows (25.3-22.7 Ma) are intercalated in the upper, coarsely-elastic member of the Moquegua Formation and demonstrate that this sedimentary unit accumulated in a trough, parallel to Andean tectonic trends, largely in the Oligocene. More voluminous ash-flow eruptions prevailed in the Early Miocene (22.8-17.6 Ma) and formed the extensively preserved Huaylillas Formation. This episode was coeval with a major phase of Andean uplift, and the pyroclastics overlie an erosional surface of regional extent incised into a Paleogene volcano-plutonic arc terrain. An age span of 14.2-8.9 Ma (mid-Late Miocene) is indicated for the younger Chuntacala Formation, which again comprises felsic ignimbrite flows, largely restricted to valleys incised into the pre-Huaylillas Formation lithologies, and, at lower altitudes, an extensive aggradational elastic facies. The youngest areally extensive ignimbrites, constituting the Sencca Formation, were extruded during the Late Miocene. In the earliest Pliocene, the ignimbrites were succeeded by more voluminous calcalkaline, intermediate flows which generated numerous large and small stratovolcanoes; these range in age from 5.3 to 1.6 Ma. Present-day, or Holocene, volcanism is restricted to several large stratovolcanoes which had begun their development during the Pleistocene (by 0.7 Ma). The late Oligocene/Early Miocene (ca. 22-23 Ma) reactivation of the volcanic arc coincided with a comparable increase in magmatic activity throughout much of the Cordilleras Occidental and Oriental of the Central Andes.

  3. Nature and provenance of the Beishan Complex, southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Li, Jinyi; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The ages and origins of metasedimentary rocks, which were previously mapped as Precambrian, are critical in rebuilding the orogenic process and better understanding the Phanerozoic continental growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan Complex was widely distributed in the southern Beishan Orogenic Collage, southernmost CAOB, and their ages and tectonic affinities are still in controversy. The Beishan Complex was previously proposed as fragments drifted from the Tarim Craton, Neoproterozoic Block or Phanerozoic accretionary complex. In this study, we employ detrital zircon age spectra to constrain ages and provenances of metasedimentary sequences of the Beishan Complex in the Chuanshanxun area. The metasedimentary rocks here are dominated by zircons with Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age ( 1160-2070 Ma), and yield two peak ages at 1454 and 1760 Ma. One sample yielded a middle Permian peak age (269 Ma), which suggests that the metasedimentary sequences were deposited in the late Paleozoic. The granitoid and dioritic dykes, intruding into the metasedimentary sequences, exhibit zircon U-Pb ages of 268 and 261 Ma, respectively, which constrain the minimum deposit age of the metasedimentary sequences. Zircon U-Pb ages of amphibolite (274 and 216 Ma) indicate that they might be affected by multi-stage metamorphic events. The Beishan Complex was not a fragment drifted from the Tarim Block or Dunhuang Block, and none of cratons or blocks surrounding Beishan Orogenic Collage was the sole material source of the Beishan Complex due to obviously different age spectra. Instead, 1.4 Ga marginal accretionary zones of the Columbia supercontinent might have existed in the southern CAOB, and may provide the main source materials for the sedimentary sequences in the Beishan Complex.

  4. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  5. Volcanic arc emplacement onto the southernmost Appalachian Laurentian shelf: Characteristics and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tull, J.F.; Barineau, C.I.; Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the southernmost Appalachians, the Hillabee Greenstone, an Ordovician volcanic arc fragment, lies directly atop the outermost Laurentian Devonian-earliest Mississippian(?) shelf sequence at the structural top of the greenschist facies Talladega belt, the frontal metamorphic allochthon along this orogenic segment. The Hillabee Greenstone was emplaced between latest Devonian and middle Mississippian time. It and the uppermost Laurentian section were later repeated together within a series of map-scale imbricate slices of a postmetamorphic, dextral, transpressional, Alleghanian thrust duplex system that placed the high-grade eastern Blue Ridge allochthon atop the Talladega belt. Geochemical and geochronologic (U-Pb zircon) studies indicate that the Hillabee Greenstone's interstratified tholeiitic metabasalt and calc-alkaline metadacite/rhyolite formed within an extensional setting on continental crust ca. 460-470 Ma. Palinspastic reconstructions of the southern Appalachian Ordovician margin place the Hillabee Greenstone outboard of the present position of the Pine Mountain terrane and suggest links to Ordovician plutonism in the overlying eastern Blue Ridge, and possibly to widespread K-bentonite deposits within Ordovician platform units. The tectonic evolution of the Hillabee Greenstone exhibits many unusual and intriguing features, including: (1) premetamorphic emplacement along a basal cryptic thrust, which is remarkably concordant to both hanging wall and footwall sequences across its entire extent (>230 km), (2) formation, transport, and emplacement of the arc fragment accompanied by minimal deformation of the Hillabee Greenstone and underlying outer-margin shelf rocks, (3) emplacement temporally coincident with the adjacent collision of the younger, tectonically independent Ouachita volcanic arc with southeastern Laurentia. These features highlight strong contrasts in the Ordovician-Taconian evolution of the southern and northern parts of the Appalachian

  6. The study of active submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Tsai, C.; Lee, C.

    2004-12-01

    The study area is located in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough (SPOT), which is a back-arc basin formed by extension of Eurasian plate. Previous research indicated two extensional stages in SPOT area. Many normal-fault structures were come into existence during both extensional processes. The SPOT is presently in an activity tectonic episode. Therefore, the area becomes a frequent earthquake and abundant magmatism. The purpose of this study is to discuss which relationship between tectonics, submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in SPOT area. The investigations are continued from 1998 to 2004, we have found at least twelve active hydrothermal vents in study area. Compare the locations hydrothermal vents with fault systems, we find both of them have highly correlated. We can distinguish them into two shapes, pyramidal shape and non-pyramidal shape. According to plumes height, we are able to divide these vents into two groups near east longitude 122.5° . East of this longitude, the hydrothermal plumes are more powerful and west of it are the weaker. This is closely related to the present extensional axis (N80° E) of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. This can be explained the reason of why the more powerful vents coming out of the east group. The east group is associated with the present back-arc spreading system. West of 122.5° , the spreading system are in a primary stage. The andesitic volcanic island, the Turtle Island, is a result of N60° E extensional tectonism with a lot of faults. Besides the pyramidal shape, this can be proved indirectly. The vents located in the west side were occurred from previous extensional faults and are weaker than the eastern. Therefore, we suggest that if last the extension keeps going on, the hydrothermal vents located at the west side of the longitude 122.5° will be intensified.

  7. The observed relationship between wave conditions and beach response, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how sandy beaches respond to storms is critical for effective sediment management and developing successful erosion mitigation efforts. However, only limited progress has been made in relating observed beach changes to wave conditions, with one of the major limiting factors being the lack of temporally dense beach topography and nearshore wave data in most studies. This study uses temporally dense beach topographic and offshore wave data to directly link beach response and wave forcing with generally good results. Ocean Beach is an open coast high-energy sandy beach located in San Francisco, CA, USA. From April 2004 through the end of 2008, 60 three-dimensional topographic beach surveys were conducted on approximately a monthly basis, with more frequent “short-term surveys during the winters of 2005-06 and 2006-07. Shoreline position data from the short-term surveys show good correlation with offshore wave height, period, and direction averaged over several days prior to the survey (mean R*=0.54 for entire beach). There is, however, considerable alongshore variation in model performance, with R- values ranging from 0.81 to 0.19 for individual sections of the beach. After wave height, the direction of wave approach was the most important factor in determining the response of the shoreline, followed by wave period. Our results indicate that an empirical predictive model of beach response to wave conditions at Ocean Beach is possible with frequent beach mapping and wave data, and that such a model could be useful to coastal managers. 

  8. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  9. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  10. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  11. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  12. Indicators of microbial beach water quality: preliminary findings from Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Chen, Kwan Soo; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall.

  13. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  14. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  15. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of high-speed...

  16. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear... Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, issued to FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (PBNP), located in Manitowoc...

  17. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value different beaches for salt water recreation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...

  18. Morphology and composition of beach-cast Posidonia oceanica litter on beaches with different exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Simone; De Falco, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter is commonly found along sandy shores in the Mediterranean region, forming structures called banquettes, which are often removed in order to allow the beach to be used for tourism. This paper evaluates the relationship between the morphology and composition of banquettes and beach exposure to dominant waves. A Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System was used to evaluate the variability of banquettes and beach morphology over a period of 1 year. Banquette samples, collected at two different levels of the beach profile (i.e. foreshore and backshore), were used to evaluate the contribution of leaves, rhizomes and sediments to the total weight. Banquettes showed a higher volume, thickness and cross-shore length on exposed beaches, whereas narrower litter deposits were found on the sheltered beach. On exposed beaches, banquettes were deposited in beach zones characterized by changes in elevation. These changes in elevation were mainly due to the deposition and erosion of sediments and secondly to the deposition and or erosion of leaf litter. On sheltered beaches, the variability in beach morphology was low and was restricted to areas where the banquettes were located. The leaf/sediment ratio changed along the cross-shore profile. On the backshore, banquettes were a mixture of sediments and leaves, whereas leaves were the main component on the foreshore, independently of the beach exposure. The processes which control the morphodynamics in the swash zone could explain the variability of banquette composition along the cross-shore profile. Finally, this study highlighted that Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter plays an important role in the geomorphology of the beachface and its removal can have a harmful impact on the beaches.

  19. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  20. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations in southernmost Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounos, Brian; Clague, John J.; Osborn, Gerald; Davis, P. Thompson; Ponce, Federico; Goehring, Brent; Maurer, Malyssa; Rabassa, Jorge; Coronato, Andrea; Marr, Rob

    2013-10-01

    Some researchers propose that summer insolation controls long-term changes in glacier extent during the Holocene. If this hypothesis is correct, the record of glacier fluctuations at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere should differ from that in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the chronology of Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere is well established, much uncertainty remains in the ages of Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere, especially South America. Here we report on latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations at the southern end of the Andes north and west of Ushuaia, Argentina. Surface exposure ages (10Be) from glaciated bedrock beyond cirque moraines indicate that alpine areas were free of ice by ca 16.9 ka. One, and in some cases two, closely spaced moraines extend up to 2 km beyond Little Ice Age moraines within many of the cirques in the region. The mean age of five 10Be ages from two pre-Little Ice Age moraines is 14.27-12.67 ka, whereas a minimum limiting radiocarbon age for a smaller, recessional moraine in one cirque is 12.38-12.01 ka. Our ages imply that, following glacier retreat beginning about 18.52-17.17 ka, cirque glaciers first advanced during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (14.5-12.9 ka) and may have later advanced or stabilized in the Younger Dryas Chronozone (12.9-11.7 ka). Based on the distribution of thick, geochemically distinct, and well-dated Hudson tephra, no Holocene moraines appear to be older than 7.96-7.34 ka. At some sites, there is evidence for one or more advances of glaciers sometime between 7.96-7.34 ka and 5.29-5.05 ka to limits only tens of meters beyond Little Ice Age maximum positions. Taken together, the data: 1) do not support the summer insolation hypothesis to explain Holocene glacier fluctuations in southernmost Patagonia; 2) confirm paleobotanical evidence for a warm, dry early Holocene; and 3) suggest that some glaciers in the region reached extents comparable to

  1. Unravelling the Late Pleistocene habitat of the southernmost woolly mammoths in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alix, A.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Martín Suárez, E.

    2012-01-01

    The southernmost record of woolly mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) in Europe has been found in Late Pleistocene sediments from 'El Padul' peat-bog, in the Granada Basin (southern Spain). In this paper we discuss a plausible habitat based on stable isotopic analyses of these specimens, dated ˜40-30 cal ky BP, probably corresponding with the beginning of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) and the end of Heinrich Stadial 3 (HS3). Woolly mammoth remains preserve an accurate isotopic register of past climatic conditions because they needed to ingest large amount of resources daily (water and fresh food), whose isotopic signature, influenced by the environmental conditions, was recorded in their tissues. The δ18O w values of the past meteoric waters (-5.4‰ to -6.7‰ vs V-SMOW), calculated from the isotopic composition of teeth enamel, suggest moderate temperatures in comparison with those of similar age recovered in central and northern Europe. Due to its geographic position in southern Europe, our samples recorded the highest δ 18O w values of past meteoric waters deduced from mammoth remains in Europe. The difference between these values and those of δ 18O w of current mean annual precipitation are minimal, contrasting with those of higher latitudes during the end of the last glaciation (˜50 to ˜20 cal ky BP). The isotopic values of nitrogen (10.1‰ to 13.2‰ vs AIR) and carbon (-20.7 to -21.8‰ vs V-PDB) of collagen show a dry habitat, which occasionally could have been extreme. Taken as a whole, the isotopic results suggest that the studied specimens lived in a very dry steppic area, with moderately cold conditions, contrasting with the wet environment of 'El Padul' peat-bog, and its colder temperatures, due to the influence of glacial conditions of the Sierra Nevada, the highest peninsular mountain range. The described habitat may be sited in a more westerly position than the 'El Padul' peat-bog, and it was warmer and drier than those of contemporaneous European

  2. Recognition and characterisation of high-grade ignimbrites from the Neoproterozoic rhyolitic volcanism in southernmost Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Machado, Adriane; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May; Pierosan, Ronaldo

    2013-11-01

    Neoproterozoic magmatism in southern Brazil is associated with translithospheric shear belts and strike-slip basins in a post-collisional setting related to the last stages of the Brasilian-Pan African Orogenic Cycle. It evolved from an association of high-K calc-alkaline, leucocratic-peraluminous and continental tholeiitic magmas, to an association with shoshonitic magmas and, eventually, to an association with magmas of the sodic mildly alkaline series. This magmatism varies from metaluminous to peralkaline and exhibits alkaline sodic affinity. A large volcanism is related to this alkaline sodic magmatism and is named the Acampamento Velho Formation. This unit was coeval with subaerial siliciclastic sedimentation in post-collisional basins preserved in the region. The Acampamento Velho Formation consists of pyroclastic and effusive volcanic deposits, which are mainly silicic, emplaced under subaerial conditions. The best exposures of this volcanism occur on the Ramada and Taquarembó plateaus, located southwest of Rio Grande do Sul in southernmost Brazil. The pyroclastic flow deposits are composed mainly of juvenile fragments such as pumices, shards and crystal fragments. Welding is very effective in these units. High-grade ignimbrites occur at the base and intermediate portions of the deposits and rheoignimbrites are observed at the top. The pre-eruptive temperature calculations, which were obtained at the saturation of zircon, revealed values between 870 °C and 978 °C for Taquarembó Plateau and 850 °C-946 °C for Ramada Plateau. The calculated viscosity values vary from 6.946 to 8.453 log η (Pas) for the rheoignimbrites and 7.818 to 10.588 log η (Pas) for the ignimbrites. Zr contents increase toward the top of the pyroclastic sequence, which indicates an increase in peralkalinity and determines the reduction in viscosity for clasts at the upper portions of the flows. The patterns of the structures of the ignimbrites and rheoignimbrites in the Taquaremb

  3. Paleoseismology study of Luyeh fault, the west branch of southern-most Longitudinal Valley fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, C.; Chen, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Longitudinal Valley fault (LVF) is the active suture between Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate. This study we focus on the southern-most segment of LVF, where it branches into two parallel imbricated faults, the Luyeh fault (LYF) in the west and Lichi fault (LCF) in the east. A trench for paleoseismologic research has been excavated across a 3 m high monoclino-scarp near the north end of the LYF. All the layers in the trench are folded and are west dipping with a tendency of steepening downward. Based on the onlapping structures, dip angle change, and fault cutting relation, we resolve 3 paleoearthquake events. The timing of these events which are in about 4300 yr BP (E3), 2200 yr BP (E2), and after 2200 yr BP (E1) are constrained by 14C dating of the sedimentary layers. The vertical uplift restored from the unconformities are 2.24-2.47 m (E3), 1.02-1.36 m (E2), and 2.92-3.07 m (E1) respectively. Long-term uplift rate is about 1.5 mm/yr and the slip rate is about 4.5 mm/yr calculated by fault dip angle 20°. Two boreholes in the south of the trench were drilled. The mud deposits dated as 13060-12840 cal yr BP in MB-01 core has sheared, these shear zone can be correlated to the surface lineament (F1) extend to the trench site. This suggests the fault has activated after 13000 yr BP. The shear zone in 186.0-187.0 m of MB-02 core can be extrapolated to the scarp in the surface. This branch (F2) should be less or no more active because it doesn’t have any imprint on the terrace surface in the north. The unusual thick mud deposit in MB-01 core is dated as 18510-17690 cal yr BP in 69.6 m depth. This means a sudden depositional environment change from fluvial to lacustrine environment before this age. We infer the F2 branch was active and uplifted the terrace at that time. Therefore it can serve as a barrier that dammed the downstream side of the stream and formed a lake. The recurrence time deduced from E3 and E2 is about 2100 yr. If this is almost the same

  4. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  5. Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements for Mexico Beach Inlet, Mexico Beach, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    COESAM/PDFC-89/02 FEASIBILITY REPORT ON NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS 6.4 FOR MEXICO BEACH INLET MEXICO BEACH, FLORIDA %1 4Y 2 1 US Army Corps AMRH18 of...OVY ACCESSION NO. S. RIECIPIENS CATALOG MUICR COESA4/PDFC-89/02 & Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements Feasibility Report for Mexico Beach...Inlet March 1989 Mexico Beach, Florida S. PERFORMING Ono. REPORT NUNSCR 7. AtjTHOR(s) 11- CONTRACT Oft GRANT NUMB5ER(.) Halter W. Burdin Kenneth P

  6. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball.

  7. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  8. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  9. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth.

  11. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  12. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  13. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  14. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  15. Edging along a Warming Coast: A Range Extension for a Common Sandy Beach Crab

    PubMed Central

    Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Jones, Alan R.; Murray, Anna; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the position of range edges is the first step in developing an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in play as species’ ranges shift in response to climate change. Here, we study the leading (poleward) range edge of Ocypode cordimanus, a ghost crab that is common along the central to northern east coast of Australia. Our study establishes the poleward range edge of adults of this species to be at Merimbula (36.90°S, 149.93°E), 270 km (along the coast) south of the previous southernmost museum record. We also establish that dispersal of pelagic larvae results in recruitment to beaches 248 km (along the coast; 0.9° of latitude) beyond the adult range edge we have documented here. Although we cannot conclusively demonstrate that the leading range edge for this species has moved polewards in response to climate change, this range edge does fall within a “hotspot” of ocean warming, where surface isotherms are moving southwards along the coast at 20–50 km.decade-1; coastal air temperatures in the region are also warming. If these patterns persist, future range extensions could be anticipated. On the basis of their ecology, allied with their occupancy of ocean beaches, which are home to taxa that are particularly amenable to climate-change studies, we propose that ghost crabs like O. cordimanus represent ideal model organisms with which to study ecological and evolutionary processes associated with climate change. The fact that “hotspots” of ocean warming on four other continents correspond with poleward range edges of ghost crab species suggests that results of hypothesis tests could be generalized, yielding excellent opportunities to rapidly progress knowledge in this field. PMID:26524471

  16. Edging along a Warming Coast: A Range Extension for a Common Sandy Beach Crab.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Jones, Alan R; Murray, Anna; Huijbers, Chantal M; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M

    2015-01-01

    Determining the position of range edges is the first step in developing an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in play as species' ranges shift in response to climate change. Here, we study the leading (poleward) range edge of Ocypode cordimanus, a ghost crab that is common along the central to northern east coast of Australia. Our study establishes the poleward range edge of adults of this species to be at Merimbula (36.90°S, 149.93°E), 270 km (along the coast) south of the previous southernmost museum record. We also establish that dispersal of pelagic larvae results in recruitment to beaches 248 km (along the coast; 0.9° of latitude) beyond the adult range edge we have documented here. Although we cannot conclusively demonstrate that the leading range edge for this species has moved polewards in response to climate change, this range edge does fall within a "hotspot" of ocean warming, where surface isotherms are moving southwards along the coast at 20-50 km.decade-1; coastal air temperatures in the region are also warming. If these patterns persist, future range extensions could be anticipated. On the basis of their ecology, allied with their occupancy of ocean beaches, which are home to taxa that are particularly amenable to climate-change studies, we propose that ghost crabs like O. cordimanus represent ideal model organisms with which to study ecological and evolutionary processes associated with climate change. The fact that "hotspots" of ocean warming on four other continents correspond with poleward range edges of ghost crab species suggests that results of hypothesis tests could be generalized, yielding excellent opportunities to rapidly progress knowledge in this field.

  17. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-08-15

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  18. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  19. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

  20. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  1. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  2. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  3. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  4. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  5. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  6. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  7. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  8. Measuring and factors influencing mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in three southernmost provinces, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adulyasas, Lilla

    2017-08-01

    Technology becomes an important role in teaching and learning mathematics nowadays. Integrating technology in the classroom helps students have better understanding in many of mathematics concepts. One of the major framework for assessing the knowledge of integrating technology with the pedagogy and content in the classroom is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study aimed to measure mathematics teachers' TPACK in three southernmost provinces, Thailand and to study on factors influencing their TPACK. A quantitative study was carried out with 210 secondary level mathematics teachers in the three southernmost provinces, Thailand which were random by two stage sampling technique. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to identify the level of mathematics teachers' TPACK and the factors influencing their TPACK. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for analysing data. Findings reveal that the mean score of mathematics teachers' TPACK is 3.33 which is in the medium level and the three factors which have positive correlation at .05 level of significant with the level of TPACK are teaching experience factor, individual specialization factor and personal & organization factor. However, there are only two factors influencing mathematics teachers' TPACK. The two factors are individual specialization factor and personal & organization factors. These give better understanding on mathematics teachers' knowledge in integrating technology with the pedagogy and content which will be the important information for improving mathematics teachers' TPACK.

  9. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional ultrapotassic syenites and granites from southernmost Brazil: the Piquiri Syenite Massif.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Lauro V S; Plá-Cid, Jorge; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Stabel, Larissa Z

    2008-06-01

    The Piquiri Syenite Massif, southernmost Brazil, is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. The massif is about 12 km in diameter and is composed of syenites, granites, monzonitic rocks and lamprophyres. Diopside-phlogopite, diopside-biotite-augite-calcic-amphibole, are the main ferro-magnesian paragenesis in the syenitic rocks. Syenitic and granitic rocks are co-magmatic and related to an ultrapotassic, silica-saturated magmatism. Their trace element patterns indicate a probable mantle source modified by previous, subduction-related metasomatism. The ultrapotassic granites of this massif were produced by fractional crystallization of syenitic magmas, and may be considered as a particular group of hypersolvus and subsolvus A-type granites. Based upon textural, structural and geochemical data most of the syenitic rocks, particularly the fine-grained types, are considered as crystallized liquids, in spite of the abundance of cumulatic layers, schlieren, and compositional banding. Most of the studied samples are metaluminous, with K2O/Na2O ratios higher than 2. The ultrapotassic syenitic and lamprophyric rocks in the Piquiri massif are interpreted to have been produced from enriched mantle sources, OIB-type, like most of the post-collisional shoshonitic, sodic alkaline and high-K tholeiitic magmatism in southernmost Brazil. The source of the ultrapotassic and lamprophyric magmas is probably the same veined mantle, with abundant phlogopite + apatite + amphibole that reflects a previous subduction-related metasomatism.

  10. An Early Cretaceous volcanic arc/marginal basin transition zone, Peninsula hardy, southernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Barton, Michael; Hanson, Richard E.; Fleming, Thomas H.

    1994-10-01

    The Hardy Formation represents a latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcanic arc that was located along the Pacific margin of southern South America. It was separated from the continent by a marginal basin floored by portions of an ophiolite sequence (the Rocas Verdes ophiolites). The transition between the arc and marginal basin occurs on Peninsula Hardy, southernmost Chile, where there is a lateral facies transition from arc deposits of the Hardy Formation into proximal marginal basin fill of the Yahgan Formation. Interfingering of arc and marginal basin sequences demonstrates that subduction-related arc magmatism was concurrent with marginal basin formation. The lateral facies transition is reflected in the geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Hardy and Yahgan formations. Basalts, andesites and dacites of the arc sequence follow a calc-alkaline differentiation trend whereas basalts from the marginal basin follow a tholeiitic differentiation trend. Estimates of temperature and oxygen fugacity for crystallization of the arc andesites are similar to values reported for other calc-alkaline andesites. It is suggested that water activity influenced the early or late crystallization of Ti-magnetite and this controlled the style of differentiation of the magmas erupted on Peninsula Hardy. Magmas with high water contents evolved along the calc-alkaline differentiation trend whereas those with low water contents evolved along the tholeiitic differentiation trend. Some rhyolites are differentiated from the calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, but most appear to be the products of crustal anatexis on the basis of trace-element evidence. The arc basalts and some marginal basin basalts show relative enrichment in LILE, relative depletion in HFSE, and enrichment in LREE. Other marginal basin basalts are LREE depleted and show small relative depletions in HFSE. Basalts with both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic affinities can also be recognized in the Rocas Verdes ophiolites

  11. Millennial-scale ocean current intensity changes off southernmost Chile and implications for Drake Passage throughflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, F.; Arz, H. W.; Kilian, R.; Baeza Urrea, O.; Caniupan, M.; Kissel, C.; Lange, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an essential role in the thermohaline circulation and global climate. Today a large volume of ACC water passes through the Drake Passage, a major geographic constrain for the circumpolar flow. Satellite tracked surface drifters have shown that Subantarctic Surface water of the ACC is transported northeastward across the Southeast Pacific from ~53°S/100°W towards the Chilean coast at ~40°S/75°W where surface waters bifurcate and flow northward into the Peru Chile Current (PCC) finally reaching the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and southwards into the Cape Horn Current (CHC). The CHC thus transports a significant amount of northern ACC water towards the Drake Passage and reaches surface current velocities of up to 35 cm/s within a narrow belt of ~100-150 km width off the coast. Also at deeper water levels, an accelerated southward flow occurs along the continental slope off southernmost South America that likewise substantially contributes to the Drake Passage throughflow. Here we report on high resolution geochemical and grain-size records from core MD07-3128 (53°S; 1032 m water depth) which has been retrieved from the upper continental slope off the Pacific entrance of the Magellan Strait beneath the CHC. Magnetic grain-sizes and grain-size distributions of the terrigenous fraction reveal large amplitude changes between the Holocene and the last glacial, as well as millennial-scale variability (most pronounced during Marine Isotope Stage). Magnetic grain-sizes, silt/clay ratios, fine sand contents, sortable silt contents, and sortable silt mean grain-sizes are substantially higher during the Holocene suggesting strongly enhanced current activity. The high absolute values imply flow speeds larger than 25 cm/s as currently observed in the CHC surface current. Furthermore, winnowing processes through bottom current activity and changes in the availability of terrigenous material (ice-sheet extension and related supply of

  12. Late Holocene Lacustrine Records of Climate and Vegetation Change From Southernmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, C. M.; Dunbar, R. B.; Francois, J.; Moreno, P. I.; Villa Martínez, R.

    2006-12-01

    The westerly wind field is one of the most prominent atmospheric circulation features in the Southern Hemisphere and has a major impact on the climate of southern South America as well as Southern Ocean hydrography. Southernmost South America is well-located to investigate past changes in the westerly winds because regional precipitation variability is controlled by the location and intensity of the wind field and it is the only landmass to extend within the core of the westerlies. Here we present late Holocene lacustrine records of climate change related to the westerlies from southern Patagonia, Chile. We focus on Lago Guanaco, a small hydrologically closed-basin lake in Southern Patagonia, and use stable isotope and pollen data from this site and three additional lakes in order to reconstruct changes in moisture balance related to the westerlies. Lago Guanaco (51°S, 72°W) is located close to the Nothofagus forest-Patagonian Steppe transition in the eastern region of Parque Nacional Torres del Paine. The location and composition of this important biological discontinuity is highly sensitive to the W-E precipitation gradient throughout Patagonia. The 4.75 m sediment core we obtained from the center of the lake has high concentrations of organic mater in addition to ostracodes and bivalves, which are relatively rare in Chilean Patagonia. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates on organic and carbonate fractions indicate that the record spans the last ~14,400 cal yr BP and modern dates from core tops suggest little influence by old carbon sources. Changes in moisture balance and forest density/proximity are reflected in downcore variations in δ18Obivalve and δ18Oostracode, the Nothofagus/Poaceae paleovegetation index, and the C/N ratio of bulk decalcified organic matter. Combined, these variables document changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water, which largely reflect the isotopic composition of precipitation and the influence of evaporation, as well as shifts

  13. Beach changes from sediment delivered by streams to pocket beaches during a major flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2013-10-01

    The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, beach form, and volume is evaluated on pocket beaches with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three beaches on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. Beach profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. Beach profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent beaches to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the beach by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift beaches to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the beaches to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence beach change throughout the

  14. Haeundae Beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height ( H s ) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  15. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  16. Episodes of reef growth at Lord Howe Island, the southernmost reef in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Dickson, M. E.; Brooke, B. P.; Kennedy, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Lord Howe Island lies at the present latitudinal limit to reef growth in the Pacific and preserves evidence of episodes of reef development over the Late Quaternary. A modern fringing reef flanks the western shore of Lord Howe Island, enclosing a Holocene lagoon, and Late Quaternary eolianites veneer the island. Coral-bearing beach and shallow-water calcarenites record a sea level around 2-3 m above present during the Last Interglacial. No reefs or subaerial carbonate deposits occur on, or around, Balls Pyramid, 25 km to the south. The results of chronostratigraphic studies of the modern Lord Howe Island reef and lagoon indicate prolific coral production during the mid-Holocene, but less extensive coral cover during the late Holocene. Whereas the prolific mid-Holocene reefs might appear to reflect warmer sea-surface temperatures, the pattern of dates and reef growth history are similar to those throughout the Great Barrier Reef and across much of the Indo-Pacific and are more likely correlated with availability of suitable substrate. Little direct evidence of a Last Interglacial reef is now preserved, and the only evidence for older periods of reef establishment comes from clasts of coral in a well-cemented limestone unit below a coral that has been dated to the Last Interglacial age in a core at the jetty. However, a massive reef structure occurs near the centre of the wide shelf around Lord Howe Island, veneered with Holocene coralline algae. Its base is 40-50 m deep and it rises to water depths of less than 30 m. This fossil reef is several times more extensive than either Holocene or Last Interglacial reefs appear to have been. Holocene give-up reef growth is inferred during the postglacial transgression, but an alternative interpretation is that this is a much older landform, indicating reefs that were much more extensive than modern reefs at this marginal site.

  17. Association of land use and beach closure in the United ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Swimming in natural waters (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers) is one of most popular recreational activities in the United States. However, exposure to pathogens (e.g., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, adenovirus, norovirus) in recreational waters can lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes. To protect public health and reduce the number of outbreaks associated with recreational waters, the BEACH Act was passed in 2000, which required beach regulators to develop a formal plan to assess beach water quality and to notify the public if recreational waters are unsafe. High levels of microorganisms in water often follow extreme weather events. Besides extreme weather events, the proximity of certain land uses to beaches may also have great influence on beach water quality. Microbial contaminants that lead to beach closures and human illness come mainly from land, either from discrete point sources or from diffuse non-point sources. It is expected that land use will have considerable influence on beach microbial water quality. However, to date, studies on impacts of land use on beach microbial contamination are rare, and few researchers are aware of the relationship between land use and beach closures.In this study, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011. The results show that the number of beach clos

  18. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  19. The role of beach morphodynamic state on infragravity swash on beaches: field observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Silva, Paula; González, Mauricio; Medina, Raul

    2017-04-01

    The runup generated by waves can be defined as the maximum height above sea water level on the coastline and is an important criterion for costal structures/nourishment design and erosion/flooding risk analysis. Given the complexity of nonlinear processes involved in the runup generation, its prediction is commonly made by means of empirical formulations that relate wave and beach parameters. The most accepted parametrization presented till the moment was proposed by Stockdon et al. (2006), in which the runup exceeded by 2 percent of the waves (R2) is described in terms of setup (η - the steady superelevation of the mean water level caused by breaking waves) and incident and infragravity swash (Sinc and Sig- time-varying fluctuations around the setup caused by non-breaking waves). Such formulation has been widely accepted and its efficiency was appraised in many works. Nevertheless, although empirical parametrization of infragravity swash using incident wave's parameters shows reasonable skill, the correlation can still present considerable scatter. The amount of infragravity energy on swash is directly related to the morphodynamic beach state, in a way that beach profiles classified as reflective (low wave energy, coarse sediment and higher beach slope) tend to show lower Sig values than dissipative ones (high wave energy, fine sediment and lower beach slope). However, since Stockdon's formula for predicting infragravity swash consider only wave parameters, its use implies that beaches receiving the same wave energy but with different grain size and beach slope would present the same Sig values. This work assumed the hypothesis that the scatter verified on the predictions of the infragravity swash is mainly related to the lack of information about the beach state in Stockdon formula. Based on that, a field campaign was designed and carried out in Somo-El Puntal beach, north Spain, with the aim of generating data to be analyzed in terms of infragravity swash. An

  20. Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer

  1. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  2. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  3. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  4. Fault History and Architecture of the Southernmost San Andreas Fault and Brawley Seismic Zone: New Constraints from CHIRP Data Acquired in the Salton Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D.; Seitz, G.; Williams, P.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Salton Trough is the boundary between spreading-center dominated extension in the Gulf of California and dextral strike-slip deformation along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. The Salton Trough provides an ideal opportunity to image this transition in modes of deformation. The critical portion of this system, namely the intersection of the SAF and the Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ) in the southern Salton Sea has not been imaged by geophysical methods. To address this problem, we conducted a pilot, high-resolution seismic CHIRP survey in the Salton Sea offshore Bombay Beach. CHIRP imaging, together with onshore field mapping and paleoseismic investigations, has the potential to define the interaction between the SAF and the BSZ, as well as delineate fault architecture and strain partitioning in the central Salton Trough. Preliminary onshore examination of Lake Cahuilla sediments reveal lake-level changes and earthquake event chronology for the last ~1,000 years, and suggest a relatively long period of seismic quiescence for the southern SAF preceded by several events with shorter recurrence intervals. Fault excavations have revealed several lake episodes separated by terrestrial horizons that include distinct features such as mud-cracks. New CHIRP data show potential correlation of faulted offshore stratigraphy with paleoseismic deformation documented at an excavation site 15 km to the north adjacent to Salt Creek. Profiles image a well-defined fault trending obliquely to the strike of the onshore SAF, and the observed trend is sub-parallel to the BSZ. Offset stratigraphy across the fault imaged in CHIRP profiles increases with depth, with a maximum vertical offset of ~6-8 m. Relief of ~.5 m exists across the post-1905 surface and most likely represents deposition mantling an older scarp. Assuming high amplitude reflectors observed in CHIRP data correlate with lowered lake levels associated with weathering and/or desiccation horizons, then we can correlate the

  5. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Minal; Cheng, Ruth; Kamath, Hattiyangadi; Yarmush, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently.

  6. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Minal; Cheng, Ruth; Kamath, Hattiyangadi; Yarmush, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. PMID:28790863

  7. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    PubMed

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m(-2) per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m(-2) per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  9. Beach slopes of Florida: Miami to Jupiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Atlantic Ocean from Miami to Jupiter, Florida for data collected at various times between 1999 and 2009. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  10. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    PubMed

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim

  11. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  12. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and…

  15. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  16. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and…

  17. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  18. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  19. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  20. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  1. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  2. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Fuegian Andes (southernmost South America) in the framework of the Scotia Arc development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Carbonell, Pablo J.; Dimieri, Luis V.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    The major structural and tectonic features of the Fuegian Andes provide an outstanding onshore geological framework that aids in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Scotia Arc, mainly known from offshore studies. The orogenic history of the Fuegian Andes (Late Cretaceous-Miocene) is thus compared and integrated with the tectonic history of the Scotia Sea. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene structures in the Fuegian Andes suggest a N-directed contraction consistent with an oroclinal bending of the southernmost South America-Antarctic Peninsula continental bridge. This N-directed contraction in the Fuegian Andes continued during the spreading of the West Scotia Ridge, between 40-50 and 10 Ma ago. The onset of major strike-slip faulting in Tierra del Fuego is considered here to be not older than the late Miocene, consistent with the recent history of the North Scotia Ridge; thus forming part of a tectonic regime superposed to the prior contraction in the Fuegian Andes.

  3. Evidence of a giant helmeted frog (Australobatrachia, Calyptocephalellidae) from Eocene levels of the Magallanes Basin, southernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Rodrigo A.; Jimenez-Huidobro, Paulina; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.

    2014-11-01

    The fossil record of frogs from South America has improved dramatically in recent years. Here we describe a distal fragment of a large-sized humerus recovered from the middle-to-upper Eocene of southernmost Chile. The large distally located ventral condyle, and the presence of two epicondyles (radial and ulnar) confirm its identity as an anuran humerus. Comparisons with humeri from extant and fossil South American neobatrachians suggest a phylogentic affinity to calyptocephalellids (Australobatrachia). If correct, the new fossil represents the first occurrence of this family in high latitudes of South America and the first amphibian recovered from the Magallanes (=Austral) Basin. The humerus also represents evidence for one of the largest frogs known to date from anywhere in the world. Such exceptional body size may reflect an unusually hot and damp palaeoenvironment.

  4. First and southernmost records of Hirsutella (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Pandora (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) species infecting Dermaptera and Psocodea.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A V; Humber, R A; Lastra, C C López

    2008-02-01

    We present the first and southernmost records of the fungi Hirsutella strigosa Petch, H. citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and Pandora nouryi (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) infecting Doru lineare (Eschscholtz) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), Ectopsocus californicus (Banks) (Psocodea: Ectopsocidae), and Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae), respectively. This is the first report of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi infecting Psocoptera, and it is also the first report of P. nouryi from any host outside of the Aphididae. The three fungal species were morphologically described from their host insects and from microscopic preparations. Attempts to obtain pure fungal isolates were unsuccessful but slides and photographs of these fungi were preserved and deposited in mycological collections as herbarium material.

  5. Petrographic (thin section) notes on selected samples from hornblende-rich metamorphic terranes in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks that are commonly hornblende-rich, and probably largely of 'oceanic' affinity, are widespread in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, California. These metamorphic rocks are largely amphibolite, mafic and felsic gneiss, granofels, and hypersthene granulite The mineral assemblages suggest that these rocks are at least in part of granulite grade, represent relatively deep crustal levels, and may be exposed parts of the root zone of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Access to the largest area of these rocks is relatively limited and for this reason petrographic data (textures and mineral content based on thin section study) are summarized here. Directions to readily accessible localities are presented, however, where the major metamorphic rock types can be examined and sampled.

  6. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Treesearch

    M. M. P. Tognella; M. L. G. Soares; E. Cuevas; E. Medina

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass...

  7. Beach Changes at Long Beach Island, New Jersey, 1962-73.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    34’ Figure 1. Profile line locations at Long Beach Island, New Jersey (after DeWa11, Prtchett, and Galvin, 1977; Everts and Czerniak , 1977). 10 thirds on...Wildlife Refuge is heavily structured with 110 groins, 83 of which have been built or rebuilt during the period 1962-73 (Everts and Czerniak , 1977...term changes (Everts and Czerniak , 1977). A major storm event affecting the beaches after the termination of the BEP measure- ment program was

  8. Nowcasting and Forecasting Beach Bacteria Concentration Using EPA's Virtual Beach Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, W. E.; Ge, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads to erroneous decisions due to the great variability in bacterial concentrations. Beaches are closed when they could be open and vice versa, their true status unknown until the next day. Studies show that mathematical models based on multi-variable linear regression (MLR) principles can produce better estimates, or nowcasts, using real-time explanatory variables, such as turbidity, cloud cover, and rainfall. To make such models generally available, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a program called Virtual Beach (VB). VB is public-domain software for developing site-specific predictive models. It features capabilities that make it possible with reasonable effort to develop, and compare the performance of, static and dynamic MLR models. The results of tests on 2006 Huntington Beach, Lake Erie beach data are presented. In addition to nowcasting, the work begins to address the question, can weather and water forecasts be used to forecast beach conditions in advance? A preliminary affirmative answer is provided based on an analysis of the Huntington Beach data, with weather forecasts for nearby Cleveland-Hopkins international airport, and NOAA lake condition forecasts. We encourage those engaged in beach monitoring and management to request VB, applying the nowcast and forecast models developed with it to their locations of interest. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for presentation, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  9. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  10. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  11. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2016-07-12

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  12. An Empirical Approach to Beach Nourishment Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kana, Timothy W.; Kaczkowski, Haiqing Liu; Traynum, Steven B.

    This chapter presents an empirical approach to beach nourishment formulation that is applicable to a wide range of sites with and without quality historical surveys. It outlines some analytical methods used by the authors in over 35 nourishment projects which help lead to a rational design. The empirical approach depends on site-specific knowledge of regional geomorphology and littoral profile geometry, some measure of decadal-scale shoreline change, and at least one detailed condition survey of the beach zone. The basic quantities of interest are unit volumes (i.e. the volume of sand contained in a unit length of beach between the foredune or backshore point of interest and some reference offshore contour) as a simple objective indicator of beach health which can be directly compared with volumetric erosion rates and nourishment fill densities. The focus of the chapter is on initial project planning--establishing a frame of reference and applicable boundaries, and developing conceptual geomorphic models of the site; and on project formulation--defining a healthy profile volume, calculating sand deficits and volume erosion rates, and formulating nourishment requirements for a defined design life. Example applications are presented for the general case and a site on the USA East Coast.

  13. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that…

  14. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that…

  15. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  16. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  17. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  18. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean have undergone increasing pressure over the last century. The intensifying coastal development and the increasing tourist impact have led to an intense transformation of the coastlines and adjacent marine areas. The beach and the coastal dune play an important role in protecting the coastline. Thus, the study of its geomorphological evolution and of its anthropic modification is fundamental in order to adopt the best management practices. In this regard, the LIFE Project (LIFE13NAT/IT/001013) SOSS DUNES (Safeguard and management Of South-western Sardinian Dunes) aims to safeguard the dune habitats and the beach system in a site belonging to the Natura 2000 network, an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. This project is focused on a microtidal wave-dominated embayment located in south western Sardinia (Italy, Mediterranean Sea) called Porto Pino beach comprised in the SCI (Site of Community Importance) "Promontory, dunes and wetland of Porto Pino (ITB040025)". This research aims to investigate the geomorphological processes, the evolution and the main human impacts on Porto Pino beach as an useful tool for both conservation and coastal management. The coastal area of Porto Pino is represented by sandy shorelines extending for a total length of 5 km characterized by a wide primary and secondary dune systems, a backshore wetland lagoon and marsh area arranged parallel to the coastline. This littoral area can be ideally divided into three parts: the first, about 600 m long, in the north-west part characterized by the highest human pressure due to touristic activity on the foredunes and deposition of beach wrack; the second part in the south-east, about 1100 m long, characterized by a complex dune system (primary and secondary foredunes); and the third southernmost part included in a military area, about 3300 m long, characterized by transgressive dune system with low human

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Jarlan, L.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Rotela, C. H.; Lafaye, M.

    2008-10-01

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  20. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  2. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  3. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1).

  4. India-Asia collision was at 24°N and 50 Ma: palaeomagnetic proof from southernmost Asia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jun; Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Coe, Rob; Li, Yalin; Finn, David

    2012-01-01

    How and when India collided with Asia is crucial for global climate and continental dynamics. We present new palaeomagnetic data showing that the Xigaze forearc basin of southern Tibet was located at 24.2±5.9°N during 54–57 Ma, providing a direct constraint on the position of the southernmost margin of Asia at this crucial stage. Our study suggests 1) the age and locus of the initial India-Asia collision are at ~50 Ma and ~24°N, respectively; 2) Tibet resisted India's northward push during the first ~16 Ma of initial impact from the collision and experienced little latitudinal displacement; and 3) Sometime a little after 34 Ma, Greater India was consumed and thicker Indian Craton subsequently made contact with Asia, resulting in ~6° northward drift of Asia. Our model has implications for the process by which the high proto-Tibetan plateau formed and for the two slowdowns of India's convergence rate with Asia. PMID:23226592

  5. India-Asia collision was at 24°N and 50 Ma: palaeomagnetic proof from southernmost Asia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Coe, Rob; Li, Yalin; Finn, David

    2012-01-01

    How and when India collided with Asia is crucial for global climate and continental dynamics. We present new palaeomagnetic data showing that the Xigaze forearc basin of southern Tibet was located at 24.2 ± 5.9°N during 54-57 Ma, providing a direct constraint on the position of the southernmost margin of Asia at this crucial stage. Our study suggests 1) the age and locus of the initial India-Asia collision are at ~50 Ma and ~24°N, respectively; 2) Tibet resisted India's northward push during the first ~16 Ma of initial impact from the collision and experienced little latitudinal displacement; and 3) Sometime a little after 34 Ma, Greater India was consumed and thicker Indian Craton subsequently made contact with Asia, resulting in ~6° northward drift of Asia. Our model has implications for the process by which the high proto-Tibetan plateau formed and for the two slowdowns of India's convergence rate with Asia.

  6. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  8. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  9. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  10. The petrogenesis of felsic calc-alkaline magmas from the southernmost Cascades, California: origin by partial melting of basaltic lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, L.E.; Clynne, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The majority offelsic rocks from composite centers in teh southernmost Cascades have geochemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios that suggest derivation by partial melting of lower crust that is compositionally similar to cale-alkaline basalts observed in the region. Only a few felsic rocks have ???18O and Pb isotopic compositions that indicate interaction with the upper crust. Mineralogical and geochemical differences among the felsic magmas results primarily from melting under variable f(H2O) and lower temperature conditions leaves an amphibole-rich residuum, and produced magmas that have amphibole ?? biotite phenocrysts, relatively high silica contents, and pronounced middle rare earch element depletions. These conclusions are consistent with published thermal models that suggest that reasonable volumes of basaltic magma emplaced beneath large composite centers in the southernmost Cascades can serve as the eat source for melting of the lower crust. Melting of the lower crust under varible f(H2O contents of these basaltic magmas.

  11. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  13. Hornblende-rich, high grade metamorphic terranes in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, California, and implications for crustal depths and batholith roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald Clarence

    1983-01-01

    The southernmost Sierra Nevaaa widely exposes hornblende-rich, gneissic to granoblastic, amphibolite- to granulite-grade, metamorphic rocks and associated magmatic rocks, all of mid-Cretaceous age. Locally, red garnet, in part in euhedral crystals as large as 10 cm, as well as strongly pleochroic hyperstnene, characterize these rocks. These hornblende-rich rocks dominate the north slopes of the southern tail of the Sierra Nevada, but are also present as inclusion masses of various sizes in the dominantly granitic terrane to She northeast. The mafic, hornblende-rich rocks reflect a deeper crustal level than the dominantly granitic terrane to the northeast based on: 1) 'index' minerals (presence of hypersthene, coarse garnet, and brown hornblende; 2) textures (considerable ambivalence of whether individual samples are metamorphic or magmatic, 3) metamorphic grade (at least local granulite facies); and 4) the presence of migmatite, and the eviaence of local melting and mobilization. These rocks may be exposures of the upper part of the root zone and metamorphic substrate of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Xenoliths of gneiss, amphibolite, and granulite from sub-batholithic levels, that have been transported upward and preserved in volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada, are similar to some exposed rocks of the southernmost Sierra Nevada. Hypersthene-bearing granulite and tonalite, as well as distinctive granofels of mid-Cretaceous age, are exposed in the western part of the Santa Lucia Range (some 300 km to the northwest across the San Andreas fault). These rocks have much in common with some of the metamorphic and magmatic rocks in the southernmost Sierra Nevada, suggesting that the two areas record similar metamorphic conditions and crustal depth. Mid-Cretaceous hypersthene granulite is rare, which makes correlation of the Santa Lucia Range and the southernmost Sierra Nevada seem attractive. Nevertheless, possibly significant petrographic anm rock distribution

  14. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  16. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  17. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  18. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific under the belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  19. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris.

  20. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  1. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Kayleigh J.; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals’ behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students (n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions. PMID:28546642

  2. 75 FR 23588 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Riviera Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Riviera Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations..., at Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The deviation is necessary to allow timely bridge...

  3. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  4. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  5. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  6. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  7. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL

  8. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  9. River runoff and regional climate of a small glaciated catchment area in the Andes in southernmost Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Moritz, M.; Kilian, R.

    2003-04-01

    The river runoff from a small partly glaciated catchment area in southernmost Patagonian Andes in Chile is measured to analyse the influence of regional precipitation and climate dependent glacier ablation on runoff. The first data from March to September 2002 were compared to climate data recorded at an automatic weather station in the area. The poster presents the first detailed hydrometeorological investigation from this part of the Andes. The investigation area is located at 53°S in southernmost South America exactly east of the main divide of the mountain range of the Andes at 72.5°W. The catchment area of about 15 km2 comprises parts of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap reaching up to 1500 m asl, and the outlet glacier Glaciar Lengua which ends at a proglacial lake at 100 m asl. The Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap is the major ice mass between the Southern Patagonian Ice field in the north and the Strait of Magallan to the South. Climate in the area is characterised by whole-year round cool and super-humid conditions with a mean annual air temperature of 5,6°C at sea level and an annual precipitation sum of approximately 7,000 mm. The Río Lengua itself meets approximately 3.5 km downstreams from the proglacial lake into the fjord system of Canal Garjado which is a branch of Seno Skyring. A continuous hourly record of water levels in the river was obtained from two digital water depth sensors. Runoff was calibrated against river level by measuring runoff at different times with the tracer method of salt dilution and with velocity measurements employing a hydrometric vane. Mean runoff was computed to about 3 m3/s with peak flows exceeding 10 m3/s. Ablation on the glacier was estimated using the degree-day method with a degree-day factor that has been calibrated previously using data from a temporal energy balance weather station on Glacíar Lengua. The correlation between runoff and air temperature and precipitation returned significant correlation coefficients of rt

  10. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Formoso, Anahí E.; Martin, Gabriel M.; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E.; Sauthier, Daniel E. Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32°S and ~49°S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic “space” currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future. PMID:26203650

  11. High Macroalgal Cover and Low Coral Recruitment Undermines the Potential Resilience of the World's Southernmost Coral Reef Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, Andrew S.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Cvitanovic, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32′S, 159°04′E), the worlds' southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m−2), however, were 5–200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha−1), and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands' reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances. PMID:21991366

  12. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation.

    PubMed

    Formoso, Anahí E; Martin, Gabriel M; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E; Sauthier, Daniel E Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F J

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32 °S and ~49 °S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic "space" currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future.

  13. Petrology and chemistry of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the southernmost segment of the Western Cordillera of Colombia (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadea, P.; Espinosa, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents new data on the petrology and chemistry of the igneous rocks composing the Mesozoic basement of southernmost Western Cordillera of Colombia along the Ricaurte-Altaquer section. The studied sequence includes variably metamorphosed submarine lavas, breccias, tuffs and dykes of basalt to andesite composition, and minor, shallow quartz microdiorite intrusives. A Campanian age is recorded by radiolarian faunas from chert strata capping the lavas. Two different tholeiitic suites and a younger calc-alkaline suite, represented by hornblende andesite, are distinguished. One tholeiitic suite, represented by plagioclase and pyroxene phyric lavas, evolves from basalt to basaltic andesite. It is characterized by the occurrence of diopsidic pyroxene as early crystallising phase, by depletion in high-field strength elements, particularly Nb and by relative enrichment in light REE and Th. The second tholeiitic suite, which includes aphyric or poorly phyric lavas of basalt to dacite composition, differs from the first group in having moderately low {FeO tot}/{MgO} ratio and lower P 2O 5 content for a given SiO 2, and higher {Ti}/{Zr}and{Y}/{Zr} ratios. The pyroxene chemistry of the two suites also differs. The primary geochemical characteristics of the two suites suggest a similarity with tholeiitic suites generated in island-arc environment. The hornblende andesite has mineralogical and chemical characteristics of calc-alkaline lavas erupted in an oceanic setting in an evolved island-arc. Petrologic and geochemical evidence suggests that the volcanic rocks from the Ricaurte-Altraquer section are similar to the island-arc tholeiite volcanics from the upper Macuchi Formation of northern Ecuador and can be correlated partly with this unit. Conversely, they are petrochemically dissimilar from the typical Diabase Group volcanic rocks, characterized by transitional MORB lavas, extensively present to the north in the Western Cordillera of Colombia.

  14. Glacial History of Southernmost South America and Implications for Movement of the Westerlies and Antarctic Frontal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Fogwill, C. J.; Hulton, N. R.; Sugden, D. E.; Peter, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    The ~1 Myr glacial geologic record in southern South American is one of the few available terrestrial paleoclimate proxies at orbital and suborbital time scales in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Presently, southernmost Patagonia lies about 3\\deg north of the Antarctic frontal zone and within the middle latitude westerlies and the climate is controlled by the surrounding maritime conditions. Thus, the long-term glacial record provides insight into the history of climatic boundaries over the middle and high latitude southern ocean, including the upwind SE Pacific Ocean, tectonic-glacial evolution of the Andes, and global climate. To date, cosmogenic nuclide and 14C dating have focused on glacial fluctuations between 51 and 53\\deg S (Torres del Paine to northern Tierra del Fuego) during the last glacial cycle, including the late glacial period. At least 4 advances occurred between ca. 25 and 17 ka, with the maximum expansion of ice ca. 25-24 ka. Major deglaciation commenced after ca. 17.5 ka, which was interrupted by a major glacial-climate event ca. 14-12 ka. Modelling experiments suggest that the ice mass needed to form the glacial maximum moraines required about a 6\\deg cooling and a slight drying relative to the present. Such a fundamental temperature reduction, despite high summer isolation, strongly suggests northward movement of the westerlies and the polar front on millennial timescales. The Patagonian record also indicates that on orbital timescales equatorward movement of climate boundaries and glacial growth was in phase with major Northern Hemisphere ice volume change, despite high local summer insolation. At suborbital timescales, the picture is more complex. While major facets of the last glacial maximum appear to be in phase between the hemispheres, at least some late glacial events may be in step with Antarctic climate change. Present and future research will further constrain the timing of glacial events over the last 1 Myr and

  15. 75 FR 70351 - Termination of Environmental Review Process Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Termination of environmental... the Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, Virginia, is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  17. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  18. The health effects of swimming at Sydney beaches. The Sydney Beach Users Study Advisory Group.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, S J; Rubin, G L; Curry, G K; Kleinbaum, D G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine the health risks of swimming at ocean beaches in Sydney, Australia. METHODS. From people attending 12 Sydney beaches in the period from December 5, 1989 to February 26, 1990, we recruited a cohort of 8413 adults who agreed to participate in this study. Of these, 4424 were excluded either because they had been swimming in the previous 5 days or because they reported a current illness. Of the remainder, 2839 successfully completed a follow-up telephone interview conducted within 10 days after recruitment. We recorded reported respiratory, gastrointestinal, eye, and ear symptoms and fever that occurred within the 10 days between initial interview on the beach and the follow-up interview. RESULTS. A total of 683 participants (24.0%) reported experiencing symptoms in the 10 days following initial interview. Of these, 435 (63.7%) reported respiratory symptoms. Swimmers were almost twice as likely as nonswimmers to report symptoms. There was a linear relationship between water pollution and all reported symptoms with the exception of gastrointestinal complaints. CONCLUSIONS. Swimmers at Sydney ocean beaches are more likely to report respiratory, ear, and eye symptoms than beachgoers who do not swim. The incidence of these symptoms increases slightly with increasing levels of pollution. PMID:8259798

  19. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements. DATES...

  20. Campus Planning Study for Daytona Beach Junior College, Daytona Beach, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    Major considerations and findings are presented in regard to the updating of a long range campus plan for the development of buildings, parking areas, drives and sidewalks at Daytona Beach Junior College. Following a consideration of the background and program of the college, a site analysis is presented. Plans and recommendations are offered…

  1. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  2. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  3. Parametric Wave Transformation Models on Natural Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apotsos, A. A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Guza, R. T.

    2006-12-01

    Seven parametric models for wave height transformation across the surf zone [e.g., Thornton and Guza, 1983] are tested with observations collected between the shoreline and about 5-m water depth during 2 experiments on a barred beach near Duck, NC, and between the shoreline and about 3.5-m water depth during 2 experiments on unbarred beaches near La Jolla, CA. Offshore wave heights ranged from about 0.1 to 3.0 m. Beach profiles were surveyed approximately every other day. The models predict the observations well. Root-mean-square errors between observed and simulated wave heights are small in water depths h > 2 m (average rms errors < 10%), and increase with decreasing depth for h < 2 m (average rms errors > 20%). The lowest rms errors (i.e., the most accurate predictions) are achieved by tuning a free parameter, γ, in each model. To tune the models accurately to the data considered here, observations are required at 3 to 5 locations, and must span the surf zone. No tuned or untuned model provides the best predictions for all data records in any one experiment. The best fit γ's for each model-experiment pair are represented well with an empirical hyperbolic tangent curve based on the inverse Iribarren number. In 3 of the 4 data sets, estimating γ for each model using an average curve based on the predictions and observations from all 4 experiments typically improves model-data agreement relative to using a constant or previously determined empirical γ. The best fit γ's at the 4th experiment (conducted off La Jolla, CA) are roughly 20% smaller than the γ's for the other 3 experiments, and thus using the experiment-averaged curve increases prediction errors. Possible causes for the smaller γ's at the 4th experiment will be discussed. Funded by ONR and NSF.

  4. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  5. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  6. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  7. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation…

  8. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  9. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  10. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  11. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  12. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  13. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  14. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point...

  15. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  16. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  17. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  18. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  19. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  20. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  1. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  2. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  3. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  4. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  5. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Stelzer, Erin A; Fuller, Lori M; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Johnson, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp. , Salmonella spp , Campylobacter jejuni/coli , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and 108-145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  6. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  7. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation…

  8. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  9. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  10. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  11. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  12. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  13. Beach safety education for primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Childhood drowning remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The Australian Water Safety Council has set as one of its highest priorities the reduction of drowning deaths in children aged 0-14 years. However, concerns have recently been raised that many students completing primary school still lack the ability to recognize potential aquatic risks, cope with emergencies or assist someone else in danger. In this study, 107 primary school children aged 11-12 completed a one day training programme led by surf lifesaving instructors. Pre, post and eight week follow-up measures showed statistically significant improvements in recognition of the red 'beach closed' flag, aquatic safety signs, how to identify a rip current and choosing the safest place to swim at a beach that included a rip current in the picture. Following training students were more willing to provide first aid assistance to family members and friends in an emergency situation. Findings reinforce the value of school-based training that provides a general foundation for aquatic safety, with the caveat that current programmes must be evaluated to ensure their content has a robust prevention focus.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  15. Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected.

  16. The relationship between sandy beach nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy beaches (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation.

  17. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  18. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  19. 75 FR 70305 - NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... COMMISSION NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Consideration... Accession No. ML091250564. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Terry A. Beltz, Senior Project Manager, Plant... of an amendment to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27 issued to NextEra Energy Point...

  20. Beach dynamics and nest distribution of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) at Grande Riviere Beach, Trinidad & Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lum, Lori Lee

    2005-05-01

    Grande Riviere Beach in Trinidad and Tobago is an important nesting site in the Caribbean for the Critically Endangered leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Community members were concerned that beach erosion and seasonal river flooding were destroying many of the nests deposited annually and thought that a hatchery was a possible solution. Over the 2001 turtle nesting season, the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of nests using the Global Positioning System recorded to reference points, and beach dynamics using permanent bench mark profile stations, to determine areas of high risk and more stable areas for nesting. A total of 1449 leatherback nests were positioned. It was evident that at the start of the season in March, the majority of leatherback nests were deposited at the eastern section of the beach. After May, there was a continuing westward shift in nest distribution as the season progressed until August and beach erosion in the eastern section became predominant. The backshore remained relatively stable along the entire beach throughout the nesting season, and erosion was predominant in the foreshore at the eastern section of the beach, from the middle to the end of the season. Similar trends in accretion and erosion were observed in 2000. River flooding did not occur during the study period or in the previous year. With both high risk and more stable regions for turtle nesting available at Grande Riviere Beach, there was no compelling evidence to justify the need for a hatchery.

  1. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The

  2. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is

  3. Orogenesis at the southern tip of the Americas: the structural evolution of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex, southernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. Dickson

    1995-04-01

    New, detailed lithologic and structural data are presented from three separately mapped areas along the southern boundary of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex of southernmost Chile. Cordillera Darwin is a unique uplift because it exposes the highest grade rocks in the Andes south of Peru and averages 1 km higher in elevation than adjacent areas. The structural data indicate that Cordillera Darwin experienced mid-Late Cretaceous trans-pressional deformation with a partitioned strike-slip component localized along the Beagle Channel that forms the southern boundary to the range. Foliation, lineation and fold axis trends indicate NE-SW-directed contraction and NW-SE strike-slip shearing (present directions) during progressive {D1}/{D2} Andean deformation. D2 deformation is marked by outcrop-to 10 km-scale south-southwest-vergent folds. Late Cretaceous-Tertiary brittle-ductile and brittle left-lateral strike-slip faults and shear zones crosscut all {D1}/{D2} structures. Although limited structural evidence for extensional tectonics was documented in this study, apparent normal offsets across both arms of the Beagle Channel and previously documented field evidence for extension from other areas in Cordillera Darwin suggest that transtensional displacements also may have occurred in southern Cordillera Darwin during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary. Cordillera Darwin's position within the evolving Patagonian Orocline adjacent to an evolving Mesozoic-Cenozoic left-lateral transform boundary between the South American and Antarctic plates, and later the South American and Scotia plates, necessitates consideration of the possible effects of regional counterclockwise rotation on development of structures. Regional counterclockwise rotation of Cordillera Darwin may have controlled the temporal and spatial transition of deformational regimes within Cordillera Darwin. Exhumation of the metamorphic core of Cordillera Darwin during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary is

  4. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina-a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas with higher habitat

  5. Genetic structure in the southernmost populations of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and its conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Oklander, Luciana Inés; Miño, Carolina Isabel; Fernández, Gabriela; Caputo, Mariela; Corach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Black-and-gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya, are arboreal primates, inhabitants of Neotropical forests, highly susceptible to the yellow fever virus, considered early 'sentinels' of outbreaks, and thus, of major epidemiological importance. Currently, anthropogenic habitat loss and modifications threatens their survival. Habitat modification can prevent, reduce or change dispersal behavior, which, in turn, may influence patterns of gene flow. We explored past and contemporary levels of genetic diversity, elucidated genetic structure and identified its possible drivers, in ten populations (n = 138) located in the southernmost distribution range of the species in South America, in Argentina and Paraguay. Overall, genetic variability was moderate (ten microsatellites: 3.16 ± 0.18 alleles per locus, allelic richness of 2.93 ± 0.81, 0.443±0.025 unbiased expected heterozygosity; 22 haplotypes of 491-bp mitochondrial Control Region, haplotypic diversity of 0.930 ± 0.11, and nucleotide diversity of0.01± 0.007). Significant evidence of inbreeding was found in a population that was, later, decimated by yellow fever. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.13; θST = 018), hierarchical analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering methods revealed significant genetic structure, grouping individuals into four clusters. Shared haplotypes and lack of mitochondrial differentiation (non-significant θST) among some populations seem to support the hypothesis of historical dispersal via riparian forests. Current resistance analyses revealed a significant role of landscape features in modeling contemporary gene flow: continuous forest and riparian forests could promote genetic exchange, whereas disturbed forests or crop/grassland fields may restrict it. Estimates of effective population size allow anticipating that the studied populations will lose 75% of heterozygosity in less than 50 generations. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic modifications on native

  6. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina—a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas with higher habitat

  7. Predicting the variation in Echinogammarus marinus at its southernmost limits under global warming scenarios: can the sex-ratio make a difference?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Alexandra; Leite, Nuno; Marques, João Carlos; Ford, Alex T; Martins, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental parameters that constrain the distribution of a species at its latitudinal extremes is critical for predicting how ecosystems react to climate change. Our first aim was to predict the variation in the amphipod populations of Echinogammarus marinus from the southernmost limit of its distribution under global warming scenarios. Our second aim was to test whether sex-ratio fluctuations - a mechanism frequently displayed by amphipods - respond to the variations in populations under altered climate conditions. To achieve these aims, scenarios were run with a validated model of E. marinus populations. Simulations were divided into: phase I - simulation of the effect of climate change on amphipod populations, and phase II - simulation of the effect of climate change on populations with male and female proportions. In both phases, temperature (T), salinity (S) and temperature and salinity (T-S) were tested. Results showed that E. marinus populations are highly sensitive to increases in temperature (>2 °C), which has adverse effects on amphipod recruitment and growth. Results from the climate change scenarios coupled with the sex-ratio fluctuations depended largely on the degree of female bias within population. Temperature increase of 2 °C had less impact on female-biased populations, particularly when conjugated with increases in salinity. Male-biased populations were highly sensitive to any variation in temperature and/or salinity; these populations exhibited a long-term decline in density. Simulations in which temperature increased more than 4 °C led to a continuous decline in the E. marinus population. According to this work, E. marinus populations at their southernmost limit are vulnerable to global warming. We anticipate that in Europe, temperature increases of 2 °C will incite a withdrawal of the population of 5°N from the amphipod species located at southernmost geographical borders. This effect is discussed in relation to the

  8. Triassic deformation of Permian Early Triassic arc-related sediments in the Beishan (NW China): Last pulse of the accretionary orogenesis in the southernmost Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Glen, Richard; Han, Chunming; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ji'en; Wan, Bo; Ao, Songjian; Song, Dongfang

    2015-11-01

    The Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) in the southernmost Altaids provides evidence of the final stage of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the BOC is controversial. From field mapping, and structural analysis of mesoscale, superposed folds in Early Triassic sediments in the Hongyanjing Basin in the central BOC, we define at least two phases of deformation, which we can bracket in age as end-Permian to Early-Late Triassic. The sandstones in the basin are poorly sorted with angular clasts, which indicates immaturity characteristic of proximal and rapid deposition. Geochemical data indicate that the Hongyanjing Basin probably developed in an arc-related setting near an active continental margin or mature island arc. Combined with published regional geological data, we interpret the Hongyanjing Basin as a Permian-Early Triassic inter-arc basin between the Carboniferous Mazongshan arc to the north and the Ordovician to Permian Huaniushan-Dundunshan arc to the south. In addition, the age distribution of our sediments shows that the active continental margin or continental arc on which the Hongyanjing arc-related basin sat was somehow independently distributed in the Paleo-Asian Ocean without any major contribution of provenance from the Tarim Craton and Dunhuang Block to the south and Southern Mongolia accretionary system to the north. Deformation of the superposed folds began in the end-Permian, continued in the Early Triassic, and ended before the middle Late Triassic (219 Ma). Therefore the accretionary orogenesis in the Beishan part of the southernmost Altaids was still ongoing in the early to middle Triassic, and it finished in the Late Triassic, which might have been the last pulse of the accretionary orogenesis in the southernmost Altaids. We correlate this terminal event with tectonic developments in the Kunlun and Qinling orogens in the Tethyan domain.

  9. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R.; Freas, K.E.; Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  10. 77 FR 42652 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... 334 to establish a new restricted area in the waters surrounding the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both...

  11. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the highest...

  12. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  13. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  14. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  15. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new...

  16. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  17. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  18. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and the...

  19. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and the...

  20. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and the...

  1. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and the...

  2. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and the...

  3. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  4. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  5. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship,...

  6. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1,...

  7. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  8. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  9. SUPERDUCK Beach Sediment Sample Experiment: Beach Profile Change and Foreshore Sediment Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    and peak period measured at 0.8 km seaward of foreshore study area in 8-m water depth at gage 191 (after Byrnes (1989)) . - . II Figure 4. Foreshore...Most major morphologic beach changes occur as a result of high-energy storm events and elevated water levels. High energy conditions during tropical...morphologic zones. Fluctuations in water level due to changing meteorological conditions prevented reoccupation of the precise sampling positions from

  10. Sea level change and beach process — A case study in south Zhejiang beach -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baocan, Wang; Qingxiang, Jin; Zhisheng, Lao

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes changes in sea level off the coast of China in history and at present. The evidence concerning low sea level during the last glacial phase, Holocene marine transgression which was discovered from sea bottom in East China Sea and China's bordering seas, and their adjacent coastal areas, where, by drilling, relic sediment, peat deposite, and mollusc shell fossils have been obtained, and their dates are deduced through measurement of radiocarbon (C14), identified that low sea level about 15000 years ago stood in the depth of 150 m below the present level in East China Sea, and that the subsequent transgression carried the sea up to the present sea level 6000 years ago, when the present China's coast and other continent's coasts were outlined. Due to a number of factors, the sea level oscillates seasonally in the border sea of China. Averagely speaking, the annual range of the seasonal changes in sea level is about 35 m off the south Zhejiang coast, where the highest value of 20 cm occurs in September, and the lowest of-15 cm occurs in March. The reason may be mainly due to the seasonal variations of climate and river run-off, as well as the Taiwan Warm Current. Similar seasonal oscillations in sea level also occur in Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and the South China Sea. The beach process of south Zhejiang is strongly affected by the seasonal oscillations in sea level. The width of beach is 4 to 6 km, the slope is approximately in 1 : 1000. If the sea level rises or falls 1 cm, the beach submergence or emergence is led to be about 10 m in width. As a result, the relative equilibrium of beach will be changed by the seasonal oscillations in sea level.

  11. BFM: Beach Fill Module. Report 1. Beach Morphology Analysis Package (BMAP), User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    e.g., 1250 = 12.:50) 22-24 Number of coordinate pirs m the suvey 25-29 Minimum eva •ion in the surwey (e.g., -258 = -25.8 units) 41-80 Fnt four...tunder the Disk Operating System (DOS) running on a peronal computer (C). 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PAGES Beaches Coastal morphology Equilibrium

  12. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  14. Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction: "the" beach towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Koscinski, J. S.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Thornton, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment, an alongshore array of 6-m high towers instrumented with ultrasonic 3D anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors were deployed at five sandy beaches near the high-tide line in Monterey Bay, CA, in May-June 2016. A cross-shore array of towers was also deployed from within the active surfzone to the toe of the dune at one beach. In addition, waves and ocean temperature were obtained along the 10m isobath for each beach. The dissipative surfzone was O(80m) wide. The wave energy varies among the beaches owing to sheltering and refraction by the Monterey Canyon and headlands. The tides are semi-diurnal mixed, meso-tidal with a maximum tidal range of 2m. This results in a variable beach width from the tower to the tidal line. Footprint analysis for estimating the source region for the turbulent momentum fluxes, suggests that the observations represent three scenarios described as primarily ocean, mixed beach and ocean, and primarily beach. The direct-estimate of the atmospheric stability by the sonic anemometer suggest that all of the beaches are mostly unstable except for a few occurrences in the evening during low wind conditions. The onshore neutral drag coefficient (Cd) estimated at 10m heights is 3-5 times larger than open ocean estimates. Minimal variability was found in Cd based on the footprint analysis. Beach-specific spatial variability in Cd was found related to atmospheric stability and wave energy.

  15. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel.

  16. Geophysical features influence the accumulation of beach debris on Caribbean islands.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, Alexandra M; Lavers, Jennifer L; Stuckenbrock, Silke; Sharp, Paul B; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-08-15

    Anthropogenic beach debris was recorded during beach surveys of 24 Caribbean islands during April 2014-April 2016. Beach debris was classified according to material type (e.g., polystyrene) and item use (e.g., fishing). Geophysical features (substrate type, beach direction, and human accessibility) of sample sites were recorded in order to investigate their relationship with debris density. Results suggest the density of macro debris (items >5mm) is highest on uninhabited, sandy beaches facing a leeward direction. Higher debris quantities on inaccessible beaches may be due to less frequent beach clean ups. Frequently accessed beaches exhibited lower macro, but higher micro debris (items 1-5mm) densities, possibly due to removal of macro debris during frequent beach clean ups. This suggests that while geophysical features have some influence on anthropogenic debris densities, high debris densities are occurring on all islands within the Caribbean region regardless of substrate, beach direction, or human accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  18. Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbors, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    In southern California, the combined ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach account for 33% of the nation containerized imports. This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the large backlog of waiting cargo ships being slowly unloaded. The left image was acquired July 4, 2014 during normal operations: 14 ships are being unloaded, while 7 wait their turns near the facilities. The right image was acquired on March 8, 2015: 19 ships are moored at unloading docks, while 47 ships wait their turns. The images cover an area of 16.7 x 18.6 km, and are located at 33.7 degrees north, 118.2 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19249

  19. A CA model for beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia. R.; De Pino, Mariafrancesca; Di Gregorio, Salvatore; Gullace, Francesco; Gullı, Daniel; Lupiano, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    CAs coastal dynamics is a very complex system, computer simulation is a valid approach to plan real action. During SIGIEC Project a new Macroscopic Cellular Automata was designed i.e. RUSICA for morphodynamics studies of the beaches. MCA methodology, used for investigating natural macroscopic systems, is an alternative approach to PDE. Through local interactions of their constituent parts MCA operating on different specification levels to be compared to experimental data. Simulation allowed to study the dynamics and modified orography with artificial solutions for erosion contrast as at Porto Cesareo (Apulia Italy). Results of simulations of different scenarios of stormy sea in that area here are given together with evidence of effect of artificial barrier built in order to contrast the coastal erosion progress.

  20. Bores and Swash on Natural Beaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-R128 832 BO5E S AND SWS1 ON NATURAL BEACHES(U) SYDNEY UNIV 2 ( AUSTRALIA ) COASTAL STUDIES UNIT M BRADSHAWI JUL 82 CSU-TR-82/4 N88814-88-G-888i...SYDNEY UNI 7 ( AUSTRALIA ) COASTAL STUDIES UNIT M BRADSHAW JUL 82 CSU-TR-82/4 NSM94-80-O-888i UNCLASSIFIED FiG 8/3 N EhLmhhhhi L2 U02 a i1.0 INS la Wa 4...Developments in Sedimentology , No 5, Elsemeir, New York. *~ Isaacson, E., 1950, "Water waves on a sloping bottom". ComAr on Pure and Applied Maths., Vol 3, pp, 1

  1. Shallow water dynamics on linear shear flows and plane beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnestad, Maria; Kalisch, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    Long waves in shallow water propagating over a background shear flow towards a sloping beach are being investigated. The classical shallow-water equations are extended to incorporate both a background shear flow and a linear beach profile, resulting in a non-reducible hyperbolic system. Nevertheless, it is shown how several changes of variables based on the hodograph transform may be used to transform the system into a linear equation which may be solved exactly using the method of separation of variables. This method can be used to investigate the run-up of a long wave on a planar beach including the development of the waterline.

  2. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    PubMed

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 10(3) μg g(-1) usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g(-1), was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g(-1) and 8 μg g(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Renewable Energy Development in Hermosa Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Hermosa Beach, California, with the support of the AGU's TEX program, is exploring the potential for renewable energy generation inside the City, as part of the implementation of the City's 2015 Municipal Carbon Neutral Plan. Task 1: Estimate the technical potential of existing and future technologies Given the City's characteristics, this task will identify feasible technologies: wind, solar, tidal/wave, wastewater biogas, landfill biogas, microscale anaerobic digestion (AD), and complementary energy storage. Some options may be open to the City acting alone, but others will require working with municipal partners and private entities that provide services to Hermosa Beach (e.g., wastewater treatment). Energy storage is a means to integrate intermittent renewable energy output. Task 2: Review transaction types and pathways In this task, feasible technologies will be further examined in terms of municipal ordinances and contractual paths: (a) power purchase agreements (PPAs) with developers, under which the City would purchase energy or storage services directly; (b) leases with developers, under which the City would rent sites (e.g., municipal rooftops) to developers; (c) ordinances related to permitting, under which the City would reduce regulatory barriers to entry for developers; (d) pilot projects, under which the City would engage with developers to test new technologies such as wind/wave/microscale AD (pursuant to PPAs and/or leases); and (e) existing projects, under which the City would work with current wastewater and landfill contractors to understand (i) current plans to develop renewable energy, and (ii) opportunities for the City to work with such contractors to promote renewable energy. Task 3: Estimate costs by technology Finally, the last task will gather existing information about the costs, both current and projected, of the feasible technologies, including (i) overnight construction cost (capital); (ii) integration costs (e

  5. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  6. Bibliography of Publications of the Coastal Engineering Research Center and the Beach Erosion Board,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    recession rates. MR 80-3 ................ ........ . ..... ...................... .... A087 796 EVERTS, C.H., DeWALL, A.E., and CZERNIAK , M.T., "Beach...AOIO 752 EVERTS, C.H., DeWALL, A.E., and CZERNIAK , M.T., "Behavior of Beach Fill at Atlantic...C.H., and CZERNIAK , M.T., "Spatial and Temporal Changes in New Jersey Beaches," Feb. 1978. Keywords: Beach Evaluation Pro gram-CERC, Long Beach Island

  7. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  8. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  9. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches.

    PubMed

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T; McDermott, Colleen M; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water.

  10. Multiple accretion at the eastern margin of the Rio de la Plata craton: the prolonged Brasiliano orogeny in southernmost Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, K.; Gerdes, A.; Lahaye, Y.; Hartmann, L. A.; Remus, M. V. D.; Läufer, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eoplalaeozoic Brasiliano orogeny at the eastern margin of the Rio de la Plata craton in southernmost Brazil and Uruguay comprises a complex tectonic history over 300 million years. The southern Brazilian Shield consists of a number of tectono-stratigraphic units and terranes. The São Gabriel block in the west is characterized by c.760-690 Ma supracrustal rocks and calc-alkaline orthogneisses including relics of older, c. 880 Ma old igneous rocks. Both igneous and metasedimentary rocks have positive ɛ Nd(t) values and Neoproterozoic TDM model ages; they formed in magmatic arc settings with only minor input of older crustal sources. A trondhjemite from the São Gabriel block intruding dioritc and tonalitic gneisses during the late stages of deformation (D3) yield an U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of 701 ± 10 Ma giving the approximate minimum age of the São Gabriel accretionary event. The Encantadas block further east, containing the supracrustal Porongos belt and the Pelotas batholith, is in contrast characterized by reworking of Neoarchean to Palaeoproterozoic crust. The 789 ± 7 Ma zircon age of a metarhyolite intercalated with the metasedimentary succession of the Porongos belt provides a time marker for the basin formation. Zircons of a sample from tonalitic gneisses, constituting the Palaeoproterozoic basement of the Porongos belt, form a cluster at 2,234 ± 28 Ma, interpreted as the tonalite crystallization age. Zircon rims show ages of 2,100-2,000 Ma interpreted as related to a Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event. The Porongos basin formed on thinned continental crust in an extensional or transtensional regime between c. 800-700 Ma. The absence of input from Neoproterozoic juvenile sources into the Porongos basin strongly indicates that the Encantadas and São Gabriel blocks were separated terranes that became juxtaposed next to each other during the Brasiliano accretional events. The tectonic evolution comprises two episodes of magmatic

  11. RadNet Air Data From Virginia Beach, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Virginia Beach, VA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Mohd-Lokman

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel. PMID:27819020

  13. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  14. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  15. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  17. 18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  18. Reading Ombrone river delta evolution through beach ridges morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammi, Irene; Piccardi, Marco; Pranzini, Enzo; Rossi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the evolution of the Ombrone River delta (Southern Tuscany, Italy) in the last five centuries, when fluvial sediment input was huge also as a consequence of the deforestation performed on the watershed. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between river input and beach ridges morphology and to explain the different distribution of wetlands and sand deposits on the two sides of the delta. Visible, NIR and TIR satellite images were processed to retrieve soil wetness associated to sand ridges and interdune silty deposits. High resolution LiDAR data were analysed using vegetation filter and GIS enhancement algorithms in order to highlight small morphological variations, especially in areas closer to the river where agriculture has almost deleted these morphologies. A topographic survey and a very high resolution 3D model obtained from a set of images acquired by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were carried out in selected sites, both to calibrate satellite LiDAR 3D data, and to map low relief areas. Historical maps, aerial photography and written documents were analysed for dating ancient shorelines associated to specific beach ridges. Thus allowing the reconstruction of erosive and accretive phases of the delta. Seventy beach ridges were identified on the two wings of the delta. On the longer down-drift side (Northern wing) beach ridges are more spaced at the apex and gradually converge to the extremity, where the Bruna River runs and delimits the sub aerial depositional area of the Ombrone River. On the shorter up-drift lobe (Southern wing), beach ridges are closer, but run almost parallel each other. In this case, a rocky headland called Collelungo promontory closes and cuts the beach ridges sequence but shallow water depth allows sediment by pass. One kilometre to the south a more pronounced promontory encloses a small pocket beach (Cala di Forno) and identifies the limit of the subaerial depositionary area. Beach ridges

  19. Impacts of Lake Level Regulation on Beaches and Boating Facilities--Lakes Erie and Ontario and Connecting Waterways. Recreation Beaches Inventory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-18

    feet, the crews were in- structed to take additional measurements. At very long beaches, such as at Presque Isle State Park, in Pennsylvania , the...REGULATION ON BEACHES AND BOATING FACILITIES- LAKES ERIE AND) ONTARIO AND CONNECTING WATERWAYS -I RECREATION BEACHES INVENTORY 3 December 18, 1979 Contract...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Impacts of Lake Level Regulation on Beaches and Boating Facilities--Lake Erie and

  20. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postacchini, Matteo; Soldini, Luciano; Lorenzoni, Carlo; Mancinelli, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic) is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  1. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  2. Beachrock morphology and genesis on a paraglacial beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. A. G.; Green, A. N.; Wiles, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    Beachrock is present in deep, stable sections of a mixed sand and gravel beach at Whitepark Bay (55o14‧N) on the paraglacial coast of Northern Ireland. The beachrock was revealed following progressive and extreme beach erosion during two particularly stormy winters (2013/14 and 2014/15). It occurs as large (up to 1 m diameter, 0.2 m thick), rounded, disc-shaped concretions in which original beach bedding structures are preserved. Both sand and gravel beach facies are cemented. The cements are similar to those of tropical beachrocks and comprise an initial thin micrite rim, and subsequent grain rims of aragonitic needles. The cementation is attributed to saturation of beach groundwater with calcium carbonate sourced from adjacent Cretaceous chalk outcrop in cliffs behind the beach and dunes. The micrite rims suggest microbial activity in the initial cementation, possibly by scavenging from chalk and skeletal carbonate grains. Subsequent aragonite rims were formed through degassing of CO2 aided by tidal water level fluctuations. Despite similar cementation processes to low latitude beachrocks, only isolated concretions occur rather than extensive shore-parallel outcrops. Conditions necessary for cementation (and ultimately preservation) in this cold temperate and paraglacial setting include long-term beach stability, a carbonate source (in this case, adjacent chalk cliffs and stream sapping) and tidal water level fluctuations. Bacterial activity may initiate calcite precipitation. Following extreme storms and with progressive shoreline retreat prompted by rising sea levels, increased reporting of cold-water beachrocks is to be expected as formerly stable sections of beaches are exposed to wave action.

  3. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  4. Sediment Transport and erosion modeling at Heaundae Beach in Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study

  5. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  6. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  7. Measuring and Modeling Temporal Changes in Beach and Swash Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadman, H. M.; Gallagher, E. L.; McNinch, J.; Reniers, A.; Köktąs, M.

    2016-02-01

    Although many beaches appear to consist of uniform sands, upon closer inspection, over an order of magnitude of grain size range can exist on a beach. Recent studies have shown that not only does grain size vary on the surface of beaches, it is also correlated with morphology. In addition, grain size patterns change both at the surface and with depth as the morphology evolves. A comprehensive computer model (Xbeach) has been used with a multi grain size module to predict transport of different grain sizes, their sorting and separation, and to determine the importance of grain size variation on the beach, particularly in the swash zone. Grain size is both observed and modeled to be greatest in the high-energy swash zone. In this shallow area, breaking waves effectively suspend and transport finer sediments, moving them on- and offshore. This leaves coarser material in the swash, which can act as armor, reducing erosion, altering the morphology, and potentially changing the hydrodynamics. During tidal- and storm-induced sea level fluctuations, the swash (as a sorting engine) moves up and down the beach profile, reworking the sediments and potentially creating stratigraphic layers of sorted coarse material. In March and April of 2014, an experiment was performed at the US Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility. Over a week, 36 stratigraphic cores were collected along a cross-shore profile from the dune to the lowest extent of the swash. Grain size stratigraphy in the beach and its variations with location and in time are being examined. These data, together with observations from two large trenches, and another coring and remote sensing experiment set for early Oct 2015, are being used to examine layering in the beach owing to storms, rising and falling tides, and wave-by-wave transport mechanisms. These data will be used to drive model predictions to assess the importance of spatial and temporal grain size variation, differential grain transport, and

  8. Sandy beaches: state of the art of nematode ecology.

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize existing knowledge of the ecology of sandy-beach nematodes, in relation to spatial distribution, food webs, pollution and climate change. We attempt to discuss spatial scale patterns (macro-, meso- and microscale) according to their degree of importance in structuring sandy-beach nematode assemblages. This review will provide a substantial background on current knowledge of sandy-beach nematodes, and can be used as a starting point to delineate further investigations in this field. Over decades, sandy beaches have been the scene of studies focusing on community and population ecology, both related to morphodynamic models. The combination of physical factors (e.g. grain size, tidal exposure) and biological interactions (e.g. trophic relationships) is responsible for the spatial distribution of nematodes. In other words, the physical factors are more important in structuring nematodes communities over large scale of distribution while biological interactions are largely important in finer-scale distributions. It has been accepted that biological interactions are assumed to be of minor importance because physical factors overshadow the biological interactions in sandy beach sediments; however, the most recent results from in-situ and ex-situ experimental investigations on behavior and biological factors on a microscale have shown promise for understanding the mechanisms underlying larger-scale patterns and processes. Besides nematodes are very promising organisms used to understand the effects of pollution and climate changes although these subjects are less studied in sandy beaches than distribution patterns.

  9. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  10. Visual assessment of bayed beach stability with computer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fontoura Klein, Antonio Henrique; Vargas, Ariel; Raabe, André Luís. Alice; Hsu, John R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The parabolic bay shape model is the only morphological model that has the mechanism for the evaluating beach stability and predicting shoreline changes arising from structures built on a curved beach. However, application of this parabolic model has been largely in manual form, by tracing the calculated bay shape on a map or aerial photograph after hand calculation. To overcome this drawback, a software package called model for equilibrium planform of bay beaches (MEPBAY) written in Object Pascal language is proposed to facilitate the model application. MEPBAY calculates the idealized shoreline planform of a headland-bay beach in static equilibrium based on the parabolic model. It then presents the results graphically on a screen display overlaying the image of the existing beach. It thus allows the stability of a headland-bay beach to be assessed visually by comparing the existing shoreline periphery with the static equilibrium planform. The software offers a friendly environment from simple input to instant visualization of the results. MEPBAY not only helps students understand the morphological process, but also provides engineers with a valuable tool for practical applications on shoreline protection and coastal management.

  11. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  12. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  13. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-28

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  14. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  15. A study of benthic oxygen consumption on exposed sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, A. H.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of interstitial and macrofaunal oxygen consumption, as well as bacterial, protozoan and meiofaunal densities, were made on one moderately exposed and one very exposed beach in the vicinity of Port Elizabeth (33°58' S, 25°39' E). Measurements were made at 3-monthly intervals at three tidal levels and various depths in the substratum from July 1977 to April 1979. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is only partly related to the distribution of meio- and microorganisms. The mean interstitial oxygen uptake is 422·4 ml O 2m -2 day -1 and 324·0 ml O 2m -2 day -1 on the moderately exposed and very exposed beach respectively. Macrofaunal oxygen consumption ranges from 14·4 to 480·0 ml O 2m -2 day -1 on these beaches respectively. Of the total oxygen consumption on the moderately exposed beach, macrofauna accounts for 3% and the remainder (meiofauna, protozoa and bacteria) for 97%. On the very exposed beach the relative proportions are 55 and 45% for macrofauna and the remainder respectively. Estimates of the oxygen consumption of the meiofauna and protozoa on each beach are made on the basis of published respiration data.

  16. Feasibility Study for Utilizing Dredged Material from Norfolk Harbor Deepening for Beach Fill: Fort Story at Cape Henry, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Local Environment .................................. 27 Computations ....................................... 33 Preliminary Overview...Characteristics on Fort Story Beaches ..... 72 ’U81| C. Computations of Waves from Chesapeake Bay....... 78 ,1 01 D. Design of Beach Fill at Fort Story...6. Basic results in beach-fill computations ........... 7 7. General characteristics of five potential sand stockpile sites

  17. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  18. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  19. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  20. Users' perception as a tool to improve urban beach planning and management.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users' preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an "ideal" recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance (r=0.82, r=0.78, r=0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users' evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users' preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users' perception is considered.

  1. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  2. Characterization of microplastic and mesoplastic debris in sediments from Kamilo Beach and Kahuku Beach, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Young, Alan M; Elliott, James A

    2016-12-15

    Sediment samples were collected from two Hawai'ian beaches, Kahuku Beach on O'ahu and Kamilo Beach on the Big Island of Hawai'i. A total of 48,988 large microplastic and small mesoplastic (0.5-8mm) particles were handpicked from the samples and sorted into four size classes (0.5-1mm, 1-2mm, 2-4mm, 4-8mm) and nine color categories. For all sizes combined the most common plastic fragment color was white/transparent (71.8%) followed by blue (8.5%), green (7.5%), black/grey (7.3%), red/pink (2.6%), yellow (1.2%), orange (0.6%), brown (0.3%) and purple (0.2%). Color frequency distribution based on both numbers and mass of particles was not significantly different among the various size classes nor between the two beaches. White and black/grey resin pellets accounted for 11.3% of the particles collected from Kahuku Beach and 4.2% of the particles from Kamilo Beach. Plastic type based on Raman Spectrometer analysis of a small representative subsample indicated that most of the fragments were polyethylene and a few were polypropylene.

  3. Camera Installation on a Beach AT-11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-02-21

    Researchers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory conducted an extensive investigation into the composition of clouds and their effect on aircraft icing. The researcher in this photograph is installing cameras on a Beach AT-11 Kansan in order to photograph water droplets during flights through clouds. The twin engine AT-11 was the primary training aircraft for World War II bomber crews. The NACA acquired this aircraft in January 1946, shortly after the end of the war. The NACA Lewis’ icing research during the war focused on the resolution of icing problems for specific military aircraft. In 1947 the laboratory broadened its program and began systematically measuring and categorizing clouds and water droplets. The three main thrusts of the Lewis icing flight research were the development of better instrumentation, the accumulation of data on ice buildup during flight, and the measurement of droplet sizes in clouds. The NACA researchers developed several types of measurement devices for the icing flights, including modified cameras. The National Research Council of Canada experimented with high-speed cameras with a large magnification lens to photograph the droplets suspended in the air. In 1951 NACA Lewis developed and flight tested their own camera with a magnification of 32. The camera, mounted to an external strut, could be used every five seconds as the aircraft reached speeds up to 150 miles per hour. The initial flight tests through cumulus clouds demonstrated that droplet size distribution could be studied.

  4. Did life begin on the beach?

    PubMed

    Bywater, Robert P; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian

    2005-08-01

    Water is one of the prerequisites of life. Further requirements are the existence of a system of interacting organic molecules capable of capturing and converting the supply of external energy and elaborating the replicating function that is needed for propagation. None of this would be possible without the existence of some means of concentrating, selecting, and then containing these mutually interacting substances in proximity to one another, i.e., a primitive cell. Starting from this hypothesis we propose a model for the development of life on Earth. Our model embodies the following new features: (1) rapid cycles of catalysis and transport of material, (2) desegregation (separation by tidal action and degradation by catalysis) as well as segregation (by chromatography on tidal beaches), (3) cross-catalysis instead of auto-catalysis, as well as (4) compartmentalization, although the latter idea is of course not new. But our "lipid first" model, in contrast to earlier "peptide first" or "RNA first" models, provides for the compartments needed to act as a cradle for the subsequent development of information- rich molecules like peptides and RNA. If anything, the earliest information-rich molecules were probably membrane-spanning peptides/proteins.

  5. New estimated Holocene denudation rates for non-glaciated areas in the southernmost Patagonian Andes (53°S), Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Sonja; Kilian, Rolf; Baeza, Oscar; Arz, Helge

    2010-05-01

    Cenozoic denudation rates are sparsely known for the southernmost Patagonian Andes. One of the scientific approaches is to calculate long-term denudation rates based on fission track analyses. Though, these average rates comprise a long period with distinct climate conditions and very different extend of glaciation. These integrated denudation rates include extensive surface areas with different morphological, glacial and vegetational properties. In contrast, our approach is restricted to relative short Holocene periods and small catchment areas, for which the denudation and its controlling surface characteristics could be defined more precisely. Thus a more precise evaluation of the influencing parameters like climate, morphology and vegetation cover was possible. We concentrated on three restricted and nearly closed areas of denudation and accumulation. In those catchments we determined the sediment masses of lakes, based on sediment drilling, echosounding and computer based interpolation of the siliciclastic sediment masses. These masses were transferred to the denudation areas which have been characterised and measured by remote sensing. The westernmost Tamar Lake is located on the Tamar Island in the western part of the Magellan Strait, where the annual precipitation is about 4,000 mm. The catchment area has a dense vegetation cover. The lake surrounding slopes reach an elevation of 400 m a.s.l and they are up to 60° steep. The calculated denudation rate for this catchment is about 2.56 mm/ka, which represents a minimum value, because the postglacial weathering horizon is only partly removed into the lake. The highest elevated lake Muy Profundo (500 m a.s.l.) possesses a denudation area with a nearly vegetation-free zone up to 750 m a.s.l. within the Patagonian Batholith. The catchment area of this lake is characterised by a roche moutonnée landform with steep slopes and active fracture zones. The precipitation varies between 5,000 and 8,000 mm/a. The

  6. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  7. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  8. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  9. Ground-water resources of the Riviera Beach area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The so-called ' shallow aquifer ' composed chiefly of sand, shells, sandstone, and limestone, is the principal source of freshwater in the Riviera Beach area, Fla. The major water-bearing zone consists of cemented layers of sand and shells, about 100 ft thick, in the lower part of the aquifer. The quality of the water in the shallow aquifer is generally suitable for public supply except locally along C-17 Canal where the dissolved solids concentration exceeds 500 milligrams per liter. The configuration of the water table is greatly influenced by Lake Worth, C-17 Canal, West Palm Beach water catchment area, rainfall, and municipal pumpage. The major threat to development of water supplies, and possibly to the continuation of a current withdrawal rate of over 5 mgd, is seawater (Lake Worth), but the combined effects of increased pumpage, reduced recharge resulting from increased land development, and below normal rainfall, have caused seawater to advance inland in the aquifer. Additional supplies could be developed to the west. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  11. Living on the edge: the role of geography and environment in structuring genetic variation in the southernmost populations of a tropical oak.

    PubMed

    Ortego, J; Bonal, R; Muñoz, A; Espelta, J M

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the factors determining genetic diversity and structure in peripheral populations is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biogeography, yet little empirical information is available for tropical species. In this study, we combine information from nuclear microsatellite markers and niche modelling to analyse the factors structuring genetic variation across the southernmost populations of the tropical oak Quercus segoviensis. First, we tested the hypothesis that genetic variability decreases with population isolation and increases with local habitat suitability and stability since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Second, we employed a recently developed multiple matrix regression with randomisation (MMRR) approach to study the factors associated with genetic divergence among the studied populations and test the relative contribution of environmental and geographic isolation to contemporary patterns of genetic differentiation. We found that genetic diversity was negatively correlated with average genetic differentiation with other populations, indicating that isolation and limited gene flow have contributed to erode genetic variability in some populations. Considering the relatively small size of the study area (<120 km), analyses of genetic structure indicate a remarkable inter-population genetic differentiation. Environmental dissimilarity and differences in current and past climate niche suitability and their additive effects were not associated with genetic differentiation after controlling for geographic distance, indicating that local climate does not contribute to explain spatial patterns of genetic structure. Overall, our data indicate that geographic isolation, but not current or past climate, is the main factor determining contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and structure within the southernmost peripheral populations of this tropical oak. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Detection of the B"-GWGR variant in the southernmost region of Brazil: unveiling the complexity of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype B epidemic.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Medeiros, Rúbia Marília de; Leite, Thaysse Cristina Neiva Ferreira; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Gräf, Tiago; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2013-09-01

    Typical human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) sequences present a GPGR signature at the tip of the variable region 3 (V3) loop; however, unusual motifs harbouring a GWGR signature have also been isolated. Although epidemiological studies have detected this variant in approximately 17-50% of the total infections in Brazil, the prevalence of B"-GWGR in the southernmost region of Brazil is not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate the C2-V3 molecular diversity of the HIV-1B epidemic in southernmost Brazil. HIV-1 seropositive patients were ana-lysed at two distinct time points in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS98 and RS08) and at one time point in the state of Santa Catarina (SC08). Phylogenetic analysis classified 46 individuals in the RS98 group as HIV-1B and their molecular signatures were as follows: 26% B"-GWGR, 54% B-GPGR and 20% other motifs. In the RS08 group, HIV-1B was present in 32 samples: 22% B"-GWGR, 59% B-GPGR and 19% other motifs. In the SC08 group, 32 HIV-1B samples were found: 28% B"-GWGR, 59% B-GPGR and 13% other motifs. No association could be established between the HIV-1B V3 signatures and exposure categories in the HIV-1B epidemic in RS. However, B-GPGR seemed to be related to heterosexual individuals in the SC08 group. Our results suggest that the established B"-GWGR epidemics in both cities have similar patterns, which is likely due to their geographical proximity and cultural relationship.

  13. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  14. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011, respectively, as well as the land use change between 2011 and 2006. The results show that the number of beach closures is negatively associated with the percentages of forest, barren land, grassland and wetland, while positively associated with the percentage of urban area. The results from multi-level models also indicate the negative association with forest area but positive association with urban area and agriculture. The examination of the change of land use and the number of beach closures between 2011 and 2006 indicates that the increase in the number of beach closures is positively associated with the increase in urban (β=1.612, p<0.05) and agricultural area including pasture (β=0.098, p<0.05), but negatively associated with the increase in forest area (β= -1.789, p<0.05). The study suggests that urbanization and agriculture development near beaches have adverse effects on beach microbial water quality, while afforestation may protect beach water quality and reduce the number of beach closures. To compare differences in beach closures across the US u

  15. Alongshore variability in nearshore-beach-dune interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Timothy; Donker, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    At straight, sandy coasts, wave- and wind-induced processes often lead to the development of an alongshore-variable morphology in the nearshore, beach and dune systems on spatial scales from tens of metres to a few kilometres. Although our understanding of this morphological patterning is quite mature for the different sub-systems, we are only starting to understand how these patterns affect each other across the entire nearshore-beach-dune system. The morphological patterns emerging in subtidal bars often exhibit landward-protruding shallower areas at regular intervals alongshore, known as horns. The alongshore depth variation in these so-called crescentic bars is thought to affect the morphodynamics of the more landward intertidal beach by acting as an alongshore-variable filter for the wave field, both during erosional storm events and the accretionary recovery periods in between storms. Recent studies have revealed that persistent (years - decades) foredune accretion and embryo dune development primarily border wider beach areas, especially along fetch-limited narrow (<200 m) beaches. In addition, embryo dunes along wider parts of the beach are less prone to erosion during 'moderate' storms. Although the alongshore variability thus clearly spans the entire nearshore-beach-dune system, this is not reflected in our current understanding of the underlying processes, especially those of beach-dune recovery. In a 15-year data set of planview time-exposure images from Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, we observed that the horns of crescentic bars regularly separate from the bar and subsequently migrate onshore towards the beach as a spatially coherent structure, termed Shoreward Propagating Accretionary Waves, or SPAWs. We hypothesize that the onshore welding of these SPAWs results in alongshore variations in intertidal beach width that, in turn, provide alongshore variations in the magnitude of wind-induced transport and dune development. To test this hypothesis, we

  16. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of

  17. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  18. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  19. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  20. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  1. Seasonal Berm Behavior on a Coastal Lagoon Pocket Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, L.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal lagoon beaches are typically characterized by a seasonal berm that separates the lagoon mouth from the open ocean during summer months and is temporarily breached and eroded offshore as a result of higher wave energy during winter months. Seasonal morphodynamic changes on a coastal lagoon pocket beach in Santa Cruz, California were monitored from August 2010 to April 2011. Monthly total station GPS surveys were conducted on Younger Lagoon Reserve beach in conjunction with monthly grain size analyses. A time series comparison of beach profiles extracted from shore-normal transects reveals that the berm fronting the lagoon mouth did not erode with increasing wave energy during the winter months as expected, but either stayed fixed while the foreshore steepened or migrated horizontally across shore. Berm height is likely maintained by wave overtopping of the berm crest at the lagoon mouth during high tides or storm events. Foreshore steepening occurs in conjunction with an increase in coarse sediment fraction and is consistent with increasing wave energy and turbulent swash interaction. Cross-shore sediment transport in the foreshore fronting the lagoon mouth is likely enhanced by infiltration and exfiltration of water on the shoreface due to the position of the water table with respect to the maximum swash runup. Coastal lagoon beach berm behavior and the subsequent extent of lagoon-ocean mixing has important implications for coastal water quality and lagoon ecosystem dynamics.

  2. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  3. Natural Reworking of Tsunami Evidence in Chandipur Beach, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2010-12-01

    In a particular tide- or wave- dominated environment the flow energy is best understood by the size of the sand grains deposited at the respective bar or beach or the depositional platform. Though the flow energy is generally fluctuating in this kind of dynamic environment, the overall set up can represent a particular domain of energy regime. A particular range of grain size is supposed to be deposited laterally and vertically as well. A specific trend of variation in grain size is also expected and can be estimated from both the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic interplay or in combination. Hence, whenever any stratum with an extra ordinary grain size is observed, that usually stimulates to think about some sudden and extraordinary energy regime, indicate a catastrophic event. In the year 2005, on Chandipur beach (Orissa, India) such a stratum found with an unusual grain size, which was much coarser than the usual grains¬ extended along the beach and outer flank of the main bar, exhibited many unusual features in its morphology and mineralogy indicated a possible deposit due to the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. In the contrary, the same deposit is exhibiting the definite reworking due to the normal beach process in 2008. It’s a definite signature of gap of information in a dynamic environment and a challenge for the palaeo-tsunami researchers. Key words: Tsunami deposit; Beach dynamics; Natural reworking

  4. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  5. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  6. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  7. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  8. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  9. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  10. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.

    2003-03-01

    The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( Ω) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.

  12. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  14. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  15. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms controlling the complete accretionary beach state sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarbier, Benjamin; Castelle, Bruno; Ruessink, Gerben; Marieu, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Accretionary downstate beach sequence is a key element of observed nearshore morphological variability along sandy coasts. We present and analyze the first numerical simulation of such a sequence using a process-based morphodynamic model that solves the coupling between waves, depth-integrated currents, and sediment transport. The simulation evolves from an alongshore uniform barred beach (storm profile) to an almost featureless shore-welded terrace (summer profile) through the highly alongshore variable detached crescentic bar and transverse bar/rip system states. A global analysis of the full sequence allows determining the varying contributions of the different hydro-sedimentary processes. Sediment transport driven by orbital velocity skewness is critical to the overall onshore sandbar migration, while gravitational downslope sediment transport acts as a damping term inhibiting further channel growth enforced by rip flow circulation. Accurate morphological diffusivity and inclusion of orbital velocity skewness opens new perspectives in terms of morphodynamic modeling of real beaches.

  18. Engineering with Nature: Nearshore Berm Placements at Fort Myers Beach and Perdido Key, Florida, USA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    1 ENGINEERING WITH NATURE: NEARSHORE BERM PLACEMENTS AT FORT MYERS BEACH AND PERDIDO KEY, FLORIDA, USA KATHERINE E. BRUTSCHÉ1, PING WANG2...placed at Fort Myers Beach and Perdido Key Florida, USA, as part of Regional Sediment Management practices. At Fort Myers Beach , a bar-like berm was...the potential for mobilization. The morphologic and sedimentologic evolution of both study areas was documented based on beach profile surveys and

  19. Morphosedimentary evolution of carbonate sandy beaches at decadal scale : case study in Reunion Island , Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics

  20. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  1. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  3. Sports injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman

    2012-09-01

    Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.

  4. Detailed Project Report. Small Beach Erosion Control Project. Broadkill Beach, Delaware.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-01

    approximately 60 feet wide in 1967 at the high water line, fronting a dune which was about 30 feet wide at the base and having a top elevation between 10 and...12 feet above mean low water . 2 .41 000 0 o𔃻r 4.3 -H 0 -4 4J 4)0 141-AQ0A 41I go1 0 4 0 4 > 0 aH2 $ 0 CJ 41 E9o0. : 0 14 Z 0 u4. w~ 0 140J 44 4- w...Value$ $ 1,221,000 2,866,000 ftExcluding beach area. >4’ 5 11. The water entering Delaware Bay from Delaware River is polluted, but the degree of

  5. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  6. [Microbiological quality of seaside sands: a beach in Latium].

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Cataldo, Claudia; Di Girolamo, Irene

    2002-01-01

    This study is focused on the microbiological quality of a sandy beach in the coastal area around Rome, Italy. The microbiological surveys were carried out on the sands collected both on the beach and on the waterline. A low-concentration of faecal bacteria (streptococci outnumbered Escherichia coli) and a constant rate of staphylococci were detected over the sampling period. Significant statistical correlations were calculated between yeasts and moulds, Escherichia coli and streptococci, streptococci and sulfite-reducing clostridium spores. This survey's data could be a baseline for future studies.

  7. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  8. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  9. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based mea- surements-1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ≃15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ≃15cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells com- prising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  10. Hurricane Sandy caused extreme erosion of New York beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-09-01

    Beaches on Fire Island, New York, lost more than half of their sand as a result of Hurricane Sandy, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Fire Island is one of the barrier islands along the south shore of Long Island, N. Y. The finding, released 27 August, involved field surveys conducted before and after the storm. In addition, the researchers used lidar and aerial photography to evaluate changes to the beaches and shoreline and determined the volume and distribution of overwash deposits that were carried to the island's interior following the storm.

  11. Beach slopes of North Carolina: Salvo to Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Atlantic Ocean from Salvo to Duck, North Carolina for data collected at various times between 1996 and 2012. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  12. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any additional costs including travel time and/or fees to access the beach. This trade-off can be used to infer how people value different beach characteristics; especially when beaches are free to the public, beach value estimates rely heavily on accurate travel times. A current case study focused on public access on Cape Cod, MA will be used to demonstrate how travel costs can be used to determine the service area of different beaches, and model expected use of those beaches based on demographics. We will describe several of the transportation networks and route services available and compare a few based on their ability to meet our specific requirements of scale and seasonal travel time accuracy. We are currently developing a recreational demand model, based on visitation data and beach characteristics, that will allow decision makers to predict the benefits of different levels of water quality improvement. An important part of that model is the time required for potential recreation participants to get to different beaches. This presentation will describe different ways to estimate travel times and the advantages/disadvantages for our particular application. It will go on to outline how freely a

  13. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  14. 77 FR 40541 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... temporary safety zone for a portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This proposed...

  15. 76 FR 37009 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July Fireworks... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of South Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach Fourth of July... temporary Sec. 165.T11-423 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-423 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July...

  16. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  17. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  18. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  19. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate. ...

  20. 77 FR 30445 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. DATES: Comments and related material must be...

  1. 33 CFR 165.T05-0741 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. 165.T05-0741 Section 165.T05-0741 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T05-0741 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. (a... Carolina Beach, North Carolina (34°03′21″ N, 077°53′58″ W). (b) Regulations. The general safety zone...

  2. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate. ...

  3. 78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will... Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high- speed power boats will be participating in the races, and it is...

  4. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point Fermin Light at 33...

  5. 76 FR 36014 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Beach International Airport, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). ] SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify the Palm Beach International Airport Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace above Palm Beach County Park Airport (LNA...

  6. 78 FR 64178 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the S.R. 74 Bridge across the AICW, at mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC...

  7. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...

  8. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which will...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons desiring...

  10. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International... modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and increase...

  11. 77 FR 27624 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA.... Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, mile 4.9, over Cerritos Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons desiring...

  13. 77 FR 64904 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Carolina Beach..., at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement within...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons desiring...

  15. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach... Beach, NY. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is a trapezoidal area on the coastal Atlantic waters of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter (11/4...

  16. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  17. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point Fermin Light at 33...

  18. 76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Isles Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach... held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Approximately 50 offshore power...

  19. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... Beach. The special local regulations will establish the following two areas: A race area, where all...

  20. 77 FR 64411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation.... 74 Bridge across the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC. The... Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW) mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC has a vertical clearance of 20 feet, above...